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Research and theory in cognitive science have shown that there may be several kinds of knowledge. four major categories of knowledge based on a taxonomy of learning outcomes (Anderson et al., 2001): 1. FACTUAL, 2. CONCEPTUAL, 3. PROCEDURAL, AND 4. METACOGNITIVE. The first two types—factual and conceptual— constitute knowledge of ‘‘what’’, and the last two types—procedural and metacognitive—constitute knowledge of ‘‘how to’’. Similarly, factual and procedural knowledge constitute low level knowledge whereas conceptual and metacognitive constitute high level knowledge. 1. Factual knowledge Factual knowledge consists of ‘‘the basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems in it’’. It includes knowledge of terminology and specific facts. For example, within an adventure game, students may learn that China is in Asia, or from the instructions of a game, students may learn that ‘‘start-up disk’’ refers to a 3.5-inch square disk that fits in a disk drive.
Subtype Factual Knowledge -discrete, isolated content elements Knowledge of terminology Knowledge of specific details and elements Examples Technical vocabulary Ten biggest cities in the world
2. Conceptual knowledge Conceptual knowledge consists of ‘‘the interrelations among the basic elements within a larger structure than enable them to function together’’ (Anderson et al., 2001, p. 29). It includes knowledge of categories, principles, and models. For example, students may learn principles such as ‘‘add s to make a noun plural’’ from a word game, or students may form a mental model of how a word process or works.
Knowledge of classifications and categories Forms of business ownership Newton's laws of motion The quantum theory, the structure of Congress
Conceptual Knowledge Knowledge of principles and -interrelationships among the basic generalizations elements within a larger structure Knowledge of theories, models, and structures
3. Procedural knowledge Procedural knowledge consists of knowing ‘‘how to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods’’ (Anderson et al., 2001, p. 29). It includes knowing procedures, techniques, and methods as well as the criteria for using them. For example, students may learn how to add signed numbers within a math game, or may learn the steps for logging onto a computer system.
Skills used in painting with watercolors, Knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithm for finding the greatest common algorithms divisor of two numbers Scientific method, using recursion as a problem-solving technique in computer science Criteria used to determine when to apply a procedure involving Newton's second law of motion
Procedural Knowledge -knowledge of how to do something Knowledge of subject-specific and criteria for using skills, techniques and methods algorithms, techniques, and methods Knowledge of criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures
4. Metacognitive knowledge Metacognitive knowledge consists of ‘‘knowledge of cognition in general as well as awareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition’’ (Anderson et al., 2001, p. 29). It includes knowing strategies for how to accomplish tasks, knowing about the demands of various tasks, and knowing one’s capabilities for accomplishing various tasks. For example, students learn general heuristics for how to operate computer programs or gain skill in ascertaining the difficulty of learning various computer games.
Knowledge of outlining in order to capture the structure of the presented information, knowledge of the use of heuristics Knowledge of the types of tests administered by instructors, knowledge of the cognitive demands of different tasks Knowledge that writing essays is a personal strength, awareness of one's own level of knowledge and skills
Strategic knowledge Metacognitive Knowledge -knowledge about cognition in general and awareness of one's own cognition
Knowledge about cognitive tasks
SIX TYPES OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES
Research and theory in cognitive science have shown that human cognition can be analyzed into cognitive processes. six categories of cognitive processes based on a taxonomy of learning outcomes 1. 2. 3. 4. REMEMBER, UNDERSTAND, APPLY, ANALYZE, EVALUATE, and CREATE.
The first category—remember—corresponds to tests of retention, whereas the other five categories correspond to tests of transfer. Thus, an important feature of the taxonomy is that it provides a means of assessing the cognitive processes underlying transfer. 1. Remember Remember refers to ‘‘retrieving relevant knowledge from long term memory’’ . It includes recognizing (such as identifying a piece of information that corresponds to knowledge in long-term memory) and recalling (such as finding relevant knowledge in long-term memory). Category Cognitive Processes and Action Verbs
Recognizing- comparing knowledge from longterm memory with presented information. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: identify, recognize, select, label, arrange, order, repeat, copy, duplicate, match, associate.
Remember retrieve relevant knowledge from long-term memory
True-false; Multiple choice; Matching items from two lists
Recalling - retrieving knowledge from long-term Questions vary depending on the extent memory when presented with a question. of providing hints and being placed Sample learning outcome verbs may include: recall, within a larger context locate, retrieve, list, name, reproduce, state, describe, cite, recite, define, quote.
2. Understand Understand refers to ‘‘constructing meaning from instructional messages’’. It includes interpreting (such being able to express presented information in another form), exemplifying (such as being able to give an example of a concept or principle), classifying (such as determining that something belongs to a category), summarizing (such as abstracting a general theme or major point), inferring (such as drawing a logical conclusion from presented material), comparing (such as detecting similarities and differences between two or more things), and explaining (such as describing a cause-and-effect model of a system).
Interpreting - moving from one form of Construct or selecting given information representation to another. in a different form (e.g. transforming a Sample learning outcome verbs may include: verbal representation of a system into a represent, interpret, clarify, paraphrase, reproduce, use-case diagram) change, modify, convert, transform, translate, restate, rewrite, quantify. Exemplifying - finding a specific example of a concept or principle. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: give example, illustrate. Asking the student to give a constructed or selected example
Classifying - placing something in category. Asking a student to pair an instance with Sample learning outcome verbs may include: group, a concept, principle, or category categorize, classify.
Understand construct meaning from oral, written, and graphic communication
Summarizing - synthesizing general points. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: summarize, generalize, synthesize, assemble, combine, compile, integrate, consolidate. Inferring - drawing a logical conclusion from the presented information. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: extrapolate, interpolate, predict, conclude, infer, deduce. Comparing - detecting correspondences between two or more entities. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: compare, contrast, map, match, correlate.
Asking a student to produce a theme or summary when presented with an information Completion tasks - complete a series; Analogy tasks - complete an analogy; Oddity tasks - determining which of several items does not belong to a list Mapping - showing correspondence between respective parts of two entities
Explaining - constructing a cause-and-effect model Reasoning - offering a reason for a given of a system. event; Troubleshooting - diagnosing the Sample learning outcome verbs may include: problem in a malfunctioning system; sequence, explain, diagnose, troubleshoot, repair, Redesigning - making changes in a redesign, predict, prescribe. system to accomplish some goal; Predicting - determining what effect a change in one part of a system will have on another part of a system
3. Apply Apply refers to ‘‘carrying out a procedure in a given situation’’. It includes executing (such as carrying out a procedure in a familiar task) and implementing (such as carrying out a procedure in an unfamiliar task).
Executing (carrying out a procedure with a familiar Applying a well-known procedure to a task) - associated with the use of skills and familiar problem algorithms, applies procedural knowledge. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: carry out, calculate, compute, operate, process, execute, follow, perform, use, utilize, practice. Implementing (using a procedure with an Determining the procedure necessary for unfamiliar task) - associated with the use of solving an unfamiliar problem techniques and methods, applies conceptual knowledge. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: adapt, implement, demonstrate, determine, conduct.
Apply – carry out or use a procedure in a given situation
4. Analyze Analyze refers to ‘‘breaking material into constituent parts and determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose’’. It includes differentiating (such as distinguishing important from unimportant parts), organizing (such as determining how parts fit or function within a whole structure),
and attributing (such as determining the point of view underlying presented material).
irrelevant parts or important from unimportant material are most important or relevant. Anal=[‘ parts of presented material. =yze – break Sample learning outcome verbs may include: select, material into its discriminate, distinguish, differentiate, focus on, point out. constituent Organizing - determining how elements fit within a Providing an outline, table, matrix, or parts and hierarchical diagram determine how structure. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: the parts relate analyze, break down, organize, outline, sketch, to one another draw, diagram, chart, tabulate, parse, separate, subdivide. and to an Attributing- determining a point of view, intent, overall Constructing or selecting a description of purpose. the author's point of view or intentions structure or Sample learning outcome verbs may when presented with some written or oral purpose include: attribute, ascribe, depict, describe, infer, material deduce. Differentiating - distinguishing relevant from Determining which parts in a given
5. Evaluate Evaluate refers to ‘‘making judgments based on criteria and standards’. It includes checking (such as determining the consistency or effectiveness of a procedure or product) and critiquing (such as judging the appropriateness of a procedure or product).
Checking - detecting inconsistencies or fallacies Detecting inconsistencies or logical flaws within a process or product (internal inconsistency). in presented information Sample learning outcome verbs may include: detect, monitor, coordinate, test. Critiquing - detecting inconsistencies between a Evaluating a proposed solution or product and external criteria (external hypothesis; judging which of several inconsistency). methods provides a better solution to a Sample learning outcome verbs may include: grade, problem score, judge, reason, appraise, assess, defend, estimate, argue, rank, rate, support, review, critique, justify, recommend, prove, disprove, refute, qualify, criticize, verify, evaluate, discuss.
Evaluate – make judgments based on criteria and standards
6. Create Create refers to ‘‘putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole’’ . It includes generating (such as generating alternative hypotheses), planning (such as devising a plan for accomplishing some task), and producing (such as inventing a product).
Create – put elements together to form a structure or reorganize elements into a new structure
Generating - coming up with alternative hypotheses based on criteria. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: generate, hypothesize, theorize, research, experiment, explore.
Producing alternatives or hypotheses generating alternative methods for achieving a particular result; Consequences tasks - listing all possible consequences of a certain event; Uses tasks - listing all possible uses for an object
Planning - devising a procedure for accomplishing some task. Developing a solution method, describing Sample learning outcome verbs may include: solution plans, or selecting solution plans design, devise, solve, propose, formulate, plan, for a given problem. prepare, systematize, improve, innovate, refine. Producing - inventing a product. Sample learning outcome verbs may include: write, Developing a novel product that satisfies construct, produce, compose, invent, create, a description program, build.
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