1 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Carrier Ethernet Transport
in Metro and Core Networks
Tutorial by
Claus G. Gruber and Achim Autenrieth
Nokia Siemens Networks
13th International Telecommunications Network Strategy and Planning
Symposium - „Convergence in Progress” Networks 2008
September 28 – October 2, 2008
Budapest, Hungary
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 2 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
About Us
Dr.-Ing. Claus G. Gruber
Claus Gruber is senior consultant and project manager at Nokia Siemens Networks, Munich,
Germany. Division: Research Technology and Platforms, Network Technology, Network Control and
Transport (RTP NT NCT). His main area of research focuses on next generation packet network
architectures including Carrier Grade Ethernet and IP/MPLS over WDM. He is mainly interested in
networking concepts, total cost of ownership, multilayer traffic engineering and resilience, control
plane, and network management and configuration of ubiquitous communication technologies.
Prior to his work at Nokia Siemens Networks he was a member of the research and teaching staff at
Technische Universität München (TUM), Germany, where he received his Dr.-Ing. and Dipl.-Ing.
degree in electrical engineering and information technology.
Claus published about 30 articles in journals and conference proceedings and submitted about 20
invention reports in the area of routing, resilience, network planning, optimization and management
that are currently under review at EU and US patent offices.
Dr.-Ing. Achim Autenrieth
Achim Autenrieth is Head of IP Transport R&D Management Innovation (IPT RD Innovation) at Nokia
Siemens Networks, Munich, Germany. Focus areas of his work are multilayer transport networks
(OTN/DWDM, SDH/SONET, Ethernet/MPLS-TP, IP/MPLS), control plane protocols (ASON/GMPLS),
network architecture evaluation, multilayer resilience and multilayer network design, routing and
grooming.
Prior to his current responsibility he was working as project manager and senior research scientist in
internal innovation projects and funded research projects at Siemens AG, Corporate Technology and
Siemens AG, Fixed Networks.
Achim studied Electrical Engineering and Information Technology at the Technische Universität
München (TUM) and received his Dipl.-Ing. and Dr.-Ing. degree in 1996 and 2003, respectively. From
1996 to 2003 he was member of the research and teaching staff at the Institute of Communication
Networks at TUM.
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 3 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
General Information
• Schedule
• 9:00 – 10:30 Tutorial Part I
• 10:30 – 11:00 Coffee Break
• 11:00 – 12:30 Tutorial Part II
• To ensure proper knowledge transfer to the audience, some basic behavior
rules should be strictly obeyed during the tutorial
• Q&A
• After each main section
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 4 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 5 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Networks get run over by a huge traffic growth -
Technology innovation is a must on the way forward
• The fastest and most cost
efficient access technologies
are not sufficient on their own
• Huge traffic volumes have to
be transported throughout
the network
• Data super highways and an
optimized end-to-end
transport are needed to
connect 5bn people
5 billion people
connected
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 6 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Challenges and Opportunities
100x traffic
growth
User service
experience
Add value
beyond bit-pipe
Reinventing the
connected world
Environmental
Performance
Internet for
the next billion
5 Bn people
connected
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 7 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Tomorrow's communication world
5 Bn People
connected
Main growth in mobile
subscriptions from new
growth markets
Majority can be always
online via mobile
high-speed Internet
access technologies
Wireline Broadband will
facilitate usage of
applications like TV
and/or video streaming.
4 Bn mobile
users
2 Bn fixed
broadband users
Source: Nokia Siemens Networks estimations based external forecasts (Ovum, Strategy Analytics)
xDSL
FTTx
cable
2015 2005 2010
0.2 Bn
0.4 Bn
0.6 Bn
0.8 Bn
fixed
WiMAX
* Broadband subscriptions are typically shared by 2-3 people
5 Bn
4 Bn
3 Bn
2 Bn
2 Bn
2015 2005 2010
Voice and
high-speed
Internet enabled
(EDGE, HSPA, ... ,
LTE, WiMAX)
Voice and
low-speed Internet enabled
Mobile Users Worldwide
Fixed Broadband Subscriptions* Worldwide
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 8 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Broadband services drive transport network
evolution
Cost of data transport
must go down
• Optical Metro
• Rural connectivity
• Photonic core
Operators invest
into the whole network
Enable next generation of
connectivity
Transport investment
worldwide
Consumers
Quality of life
for citizens
Business
Growth and
efficiency
Government
Productivity
S
o
u
r
c
e
:

C
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

S
c
o
r
e
c
a
r
d
• Higher network efficiency
¬One technology
• Leased Line OPEX
¬Profitable self built
Revenues
Traffic
Voice
Dominant
Data
Dominant
2007 2011
CAGR
7,7%
Broadband enabled network
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 9 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
• In the year 2012, there will be more than
500 million Broadband subscribers worldwide
• Most subscribers will use a DSL connection
• Fiber access subscription is expected to grow in
line with IPTV subscription
2006
2008
2010
2012
100
200
300
400
500
600
Million
subscriptions
(world)
Fiber to the building/home
subscription
DSL Subscriptions
IPTV/VoD Subscriptions
Cablemodem Subscriptions
Total Broadband Subscriptions
Demand for fixed broadband will increase
over the next years
Source: internal research based on several analyst forecasts
Total Broadband Access Market World
[bn €]
1,1
0,9 0,9
0,8
2,9
2,8
2,9
3
3,1
1,0 1,5
1,8
2,1
2,3
1
5,0
5,3
6,2
5,9
5,6
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
5.0%
6.4%
• DSL is the dominant broadband market and will
remain
• Driven by high bandwidth demand, fiber based
access revenue will double in the next 10 years
• Narrowband revenue will decrease
Source: internal research based on several analyst forecasts
total
Fiber access
DSLAM
Narrowband
5 billion people
connected
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 10 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
“100x traffic growth within 5 years” means
a growing need for scalable networks
Growing #
of customers
Business
New services at
lower cost
Growing #
of services
Consumer
Consumer
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 11 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Multimedia services drive bandwidth requirements
Triple Play
services require
bandwidth from
25 to 100 Mbit/s
per user!
Source: Internet research, 2006
IPTV: 20-30 Mbps
(multiroom HDTV, VoD)
Internet: 5-10 Mbps
VoIP: 0.1 Mbps
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 12 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Video and TV services as main driver
„ Video Services will drive
exponential growth in residential
wireline traffic, ... with most growth
from IPTV”
2010
0
10 ExaByte
20 ExaByte
30 ExaByte
40 ExaByte
50 ExaByte
60 ExaByte
70 ExaByte
2008
230% 230%
2009
530% 530%
2007
100%
100%
100%
100%
2011
1600%
220%
1500%
1600%
220%
1500%
1100%
820%
200%
1100%
820%
200%
TV Services
(unicast&broadcast)
P2P Video*
Streaming Video Clips
US residential
Wireline Video related Traffic
Source:
Heavy Reading, June 2007, Internet TV, OTT Video & Future of IPTV
* excluding P2P video and
music exchange which
dominate currently the Internet
traffic
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 13 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Increasing bandwidth demands require a
simplified and more efficient infrastructure
Technology goes highest
scalability and flexibility
Operators go Ethernet
S
o
u
r
c
e
:

C
o
n
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
;

L
i
g
h
t
r
e
a
d
i
n
g
2
0
0
7
Up to 100Gbit/s channels
in the core
Flexible Gigabit services &
multi-Gigabit wavelength
switching
Ethernet switching @ all
transport technologies
Microwave Radio, NG SDH,
DWDM, Carrier Ethernet
Level 3:
“Ethernet is becoming a
preferred enabler for leading
applications, e.g. Internet,
Content delivery, utility
services, IP video, …”
FT, Telefonica:
“IP does not scale enough,
Ethernet is an alternative”
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 14 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
The broadband telecommunication environment
is enabled by next generation connectivity
Megabit applications -
Gigabit services
Broadband access
everywhere
Reliable and secure
traffic control
Flexible bandwidths
from access to core
Optimized connectivity
in fixed and mobile environment
Solutions to balance networks
and ensure Quality of Service
Carrier Ethernet Transport
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 15 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 16 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
What is “Carrier Ethernet Transport” ?
In a sentence
• Ethernet with Carrier Grade qualities
for Transport Networks
But seriously…
• Taking the simple, well known and widely deployed
Ethernet service and extending it to the metro and
core of public networks thus maintaining the
simplicity, flexibility and cost effectiveness of the
protocol and components on an end-to-end basis
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 17 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Carrier Ethernet Transport technology
is defined by six key attributes
End to End Ethernet
• Seamless Ethernet across portfolio of
IP Transport/Nokia Siemens Network
• Differentiated service creation
Resiliency
• Connection Oriented Ethernet
• 50ms protection
• Resilient IP (ResIP)
certification
Simple Management
• Automation of network
• Point and click provisioning
• Standard Operation and
Maintenance
Optimized Deployment
• Scalable architecture with
end to end portfolio
• Technology agnostic multi-
layer optimization
Flexible Solutions
• Integrated Solution for
Mobile Backhaul, Business
and residential services
• Shared best practices
Scalability
• Standardized platforms
• Prove worldwide
deployment
• Over 20,000 service and
support personnel
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 18 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Connection
Oriented
Packet Based Service
Transparent
Deterministic Controlled
Carrier Ethernet Transport – Defined
¬Architecture Goals and Building Blocks
Enable IP Services over a Converged Carrier Class Transport Architecture
Add Scalability, Resiliency, and Manageability to Ethernet
Multi-Service
Convergence
Static
Managed
Isolated
Secure
Predictable
Protected
Guaranteed
SLA
Point-and-Click Provisioning
Carrier Grade OAM High Reliability
Hard QoS Stratum Quality Sync
Integrated TDM High Scalability
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 19 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Unified Architecture for Cost-Effective
Transport of High-Speed Packet Services
Carrier Ethernet Transport – Defined
¬Fundamental Requirements
Connection
Oriented
• Provisioned
• Deterministic
• Predictable
L3 Service
Transparency
Guaranteed
SLA’s
Carrier Class
Resiliency
Multi-Layer
Service
Management
• L2 Client
Encapsulation
• Secure
Transport
• L3 Proxy
• Provisioned
• Strict QoS
• Connection
Admission
Control
• NE Quality
• SW Stability
• Network
Protection
• End-to-End
• Pt-and-Click
• Control Plane
• Robust OAM
• Reporting
Ethernet
Economics
• Scalable
• Multi-Service
• Single UNI
• Synchronous
• Cost-Effective
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 20 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 21 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
• Network Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 22 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Going Back to Where It Began
• We have to go back to 1984
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 23 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Network Hierarchy Concept
The OSI Reference Model
Layer
Layer
Layer n-1
n
n+1
Provides services to higher layers
with standardized interfaces
Uses services of lower layers
with standardized interfaces
The concept of layers
• It is a simple and efficient way of communication
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 24 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Network Hierarchy Concept
The OSI Reference Model
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The OSI reference model provides:
• Standardized interfaces
(compatibility, interoperability and competition)
• Simplifies network technology development
considerably
(just trust and use the functionality of the lower layer)
Why seven layers?
• Is an often discussed question
(e.g. “Three layer approach of Future Internet projects)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 25 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Network Hierarchy Concept
The OSI Reference Model
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Binary transmission on a physical link
Electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specification
Access to media
Defines the data format and how the access to the media is controlled
(includes bit-error correction)
Data delivery
Provides routes between two host systems (might be at different locations)
(includes network discovery and routing decision)
End-to-end connection
Ensures data transport reliability, information flow
(includes maintaining of virtual circuits between hosts)
Interapplication communication
Maintains sessions between applications
Data presentation
Presents data in the right format to the application layer
(includes encryption, reformating, restructuring of data)
Network service part of applications
Provides network services to applications
(e.g. protocols to applications such as snmp)
What we call application
e.g. email client such as Thunderbird
Real
Application
8
The User
9
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 26 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Network Hierarchy Concept
Data Encapsulation
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Header Header Header Header Header Header
Header Header Header Header Header
Header Header Header Header
Header Header Header
Header Header
Header
Data Header
Data Header
Data Header
Data Header
Data Header
Data Header
Data Header
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 27 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Network Hierarchy Concept
Communication
G
F
E
D
C
B1
A1 1
2
3
4
5
6
7 G
F
E
D
C
B2
A2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
C
B1
A1 1
2
3
B2
A2
Only instances
of the same layer
can talk to each other!
Intermediate
System (IS)
End System 2 End System 1
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 28 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Sample OSI Layer Protocols and Services
SDH, OTH,
optical frames
Bits Bits
1
Physical
SDH, OTH
optical frames
SDH, OTH
optical frames
Frames
Packets
Frames
2
Data Link
IP
3
Network
TCP / UDP
4
Transport
5
Session
Services e.g.:
MIDI, HTML, GIF
JPG, ASCII
Services e.g.:
MIDI, HTML, GIF
JPG, ASCII
6
Presentation
End System
Services e.g.:
FTP, HTTP,
Telnet
Services e.g.:
FTP, HTTP,
Telnet
OSI Layer
7
Application
Ethernet
(IEEE 802.1),
LLC, MAC, ATM
Ethernet
(IEEE 802.1),
LLC, MAC, ATM
Ethernet
& IEEE 802.3,
LLC, MAC, ATM
Packets
Packets
IP IP
Datagram
Datagram
Transit System
Messages / Data
TCP / UDP
Services e.g.:
MIDI, HTML, GIF
JPG, ASCII
Services e.g.:
MIDI, HTML, GIF
JPG, ASCII
End System
Services e.g.:
FTP, HTTP,
Telnet
Services e.g.:
FTP, HTTP,
Telnet
Transceiver
Repeater
Hub, Cable
Bridge
Switch
Router
Gateway
Gateway
Gateway
Equipment
Gateway
e.g. Security
(Firewall, Proxy)
e.g. Security
(Firewall, Proxy)
S
e
r
v
i
c
e
s
P
r
o
t
o
c
o
l
s
Information unit Information unit
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 29 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Network Hierarchy
According to OSI Reference Model
NSN Location
Munich
NSN Location
Espoo
Routers are used to connect networks
Switches are used to connect hosts
Backbone Network A
Backbone Network B
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 30 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Fixed Transport Network Structure
Optical
Transport
Fixed
Services
Access
IP
Edge
Core Aggregation
Routing
Applications
CES
CLS
IP/MPLS
Core
Residential
Layer 2 VPN,
Ethernet /TDM
Leased
Line
Business
Layer 1
Optical/
Wavelength
Leased Line
OTN/DWDM
Metro
OTN/DW
DM Core
HSI: High Speed Internet CIS: Customer IP service CES: Customer Ethernet Service COS: Customer Optical Service
MSAN: Multiservice access node (PON, DSLAM) CLS: Customer Legacy Services
Business
Voice,
Video,
HSI
MSAN
L3 VPN
Server
VoIP, VoD, IPTV,…
IMS IMS
L2 switch
BRAS
COS
CIS
CIS
L2
Transport
Carrier Ethernet /
SDH/SONET
Carrier Ethernet /
SDH/SONET
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 31 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
• Ethernet Standards
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 32 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
The original Ethernet
by Bob Metcalf
Bob Metcalf, 1973
The original format for Ethernet was developed in Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre (PARC), California in 1972
and called Alto Aloha. Using Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) it had a
transmission rate of 2.94Mb/s and could support 256 devices over cable stretching for 1km. The two inventors
were Robert Metcalf and David Boggs
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 33 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Advantages of Packet and Ethernet Networks
• Packet
• Almost 100% of traffic generated by applications is packet based
• Multiplex gain
• Control plane often deployed in combination with packet services (restoration)
• Advantages of Ethernet
• Widely deployed
• The standard for LAN equipment (10M, 100M, 1G, 10G, 100G)) available in
almost every computing device
– Chipsets are very cheap and high numbers
• Plug and play
– Very simple technology to operate
• Combines data link layer and switching layer
• Drawbacks of Ethernet:
• MAC addressing scheme
• Different protocols (STP, RSTP, MSTP)
• Limited traffic-engineering and slow failure recovery
• Operation Administration and Maintenance
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 34 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
IEEE 802 Standards
• IEEE 802.1 – Architecture, management, switching
• 802.1D MAC layer bridges
• 802.1Q Virtual LANs
• 802.1p Quality-of-Service & Multicast support
• 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
• 802.1s/w Multiple STP / Rapid STP
• IEEE 802.3 – CSMA/CD (Ethernet) standards
• 802.3u Fast Ethernet (100Base-TX, 100Base-FX)
• 802.3x Full-duplex Ethernet over LAN
• 802.3z Gigabit Ethernet over fiber (1000Base-X)
• 802.3ab Gigabit Ethernet over copper (1000Base-T)
• 802.3ad Aggregation of multiple link segments (LAG)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 35 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Ethernet Basics
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Interfaces
Older Ethernet Implementations:
10 Base 5 “yellow cable” / 10 Base 2 “cheapernet”
R
Typical Implementation:
Busses / Segments
Disadvantage:
Collisions
multiply when data load
Increases
Current Implementations with electrical Interfaces:
10 Base T
100 Base T “Fast Ethernet”
1000 Base T “Gigabit Ethernet”
100 Base FX “Fast Ethernet”
Current Implementations with optical Interfaces:
1000 Base SX “Gigabit Ethernet”
1000 Base LX
10 Gigabit-Ethernet
In optical Ethernets,
Collision detection is not possible
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
Application
Physical
Typical Implementation:
Point-to-Point
Advantage:
Collisions can be minimized
with a switch
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 36 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Ethernet Basics
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frames and MAC Addressing
Destination
MAC
Source
MAC
Type
Field
Check
sum
Data of Layers 3 to 7
6 Bytes 6 Bytes 2 By 4 Bytes
The Type Field: specifies, which Layer 3 Protocol is contained
The Checksum (CRC) secures both addresses, type field and data
Minimum length 64 bytes, maximum length 1518 bytes
up to 1500 Bytes
Ethernet Frame
MAC-Address: (Media Access Control)
Address on Layer 2 most commonly used on Ethernet, 6 Bytes long,
linked to Hardware, worldwide unique
MAC-Broadcast addresses all stations on a LAN (Address = ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff)
MAC-Multicast addresses all stations with a particular property
e.g. all switches supporting a particular protocol
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
Application
Physical
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 37 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
1
10
100
1 000
10 000
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Ethernet’s timeline
2002: IEEE 802.3ae
10GBase-SR,-LR, ER,
LX4,-SW, LW, EW
1999: IEEE 802.3ab 1000Base-T
1998: IEEE 802.3z 1000Base-SX, -LX, -CX
1997: IEEE 802.3u 100Base-T2
1995: IEEE 802.3u 100Base-T4,-Tx,-FX
1990: IEEE 802.3i 10Base-T
1987: IEEE 802.3d FOIRL
1993: IEEE 802.3j 10Base-FL,-FB,-FP
1973: Ethernet is invented
3 Mbit/s, “thick coax”
1979: DIX is formed
10Mbit/s,”thick coax”
1983: IEEE 802.3 10 Base 5
1985: IEEE 802.3b 10 Broad 36
1987: IEEE 802.33 1Base5
1985: IEEE 802.3 10 Base 2,
Bit rate (Mbit/s)
Year
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 38 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Ethernet Basics
Ethernet Switching (1)
A B C D E F
1 2 3 4 5 6
F C
Address
Port 6 Port 5 Port 4 Port 3 Port 2 Port 1
MAC-
Table
A = C
C ?
A
MAC-Learning
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 39 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Ethernet Basics
Ethernet Switching (2)
A B C D E F
1 2 3 4 5 6
F C
Address
Port 6 Port 5 Port 4 Port 3 Port 2 Port 1
MAC-
Table
A = C
D ?
A
F = D
Flooding
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 40 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
In Ethernet networks loops are strictly forbidden because otherwise broadcast storms would
bring down the network performance. With Spanning tree protocol loops are avoided in an
Ethernet network: All links that would built up a loop are blocked by the Switches. So STP can
be used for protection: If the working link fails, the protection link (i.e. a blocked link) is activated.
Path 1 (working)
Ethernet Basics
802.1d – Spanning Tree (1)
active links
blocked links
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 41 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
If the working link fails, the protection link (i.e. a blocked link) is activated. RSTP (Rapid
spanning tree protocoll) improves the switching time from several seconds to approximately
one second.
Path 2 (unblocked)
Path 1 (broken)
Ethernet Basics
802.1d – Spanning Tree (2)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 42 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
802.1w – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
1s ~60s Worst Case
RSTP STP Timing
• Spanning Tree was designed for Enterprise. Recovery Time is not
acceptable for Carrier Grade.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol is identical to STP, except:
•STP – Learns the backup route after failure
•RSTP – Learns the backup route before failure
• The convergence time is significantly shortened:
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 43 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
802.1s – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
• MSTP enables the use of
different paths for different
VLANs (or groups of VLANs)
• Traffic can be organized to use
all possible links, optimising
traffic distribution
• If a link fails, only the MSTIs
(MSTP Instances – individual
trees) using that link are
affected
• MSTP only works together with
RSTP
• Up to 32+1 instances per node
VLAN 10
VLAN 20
Advantages
• Efficient VLAN Paths
(e.g. SW 1 => SW 4)
• Load-sharing
SW 3
SW 2
SW 4
SW 1
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 44 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
C
F
I
16 bit
TAG Protocol Identifier TPID
0x8100
1 bit 12 bit 3 bit
Priority
VLAN ID
IEEE 802.3 Frame without VLAN Tag Header
Destination
address
Source
address
Type /
Length
Data
CRC
IEEE 802.3 with 802.1Q 4-Byte VLAN Tag Header
TCI
Tag Control Identifier
TPID
TAG Protocol Identifier
2 bytes 2 bytes
Destination
address
Source
address
Tag
Type/
8100
Data
CRC
4 bytes
Ethernet Basics
802.1Q – VLAN support
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 45 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
802.1Q Highlights
Customer separation by VLAN
Physical view
Logical view
S S
S
R
R
VLAN Functionality Highlights
· Up to 4096 VLAN
· Priority 802.1p associated with VLAN
· VLAN-based priority take precedence
· Allows Spanning Tree per VLAN
· Allows overlapping VLANs
VLAN Advantages
· Better security
· Solve the broadcast problem
· Solve the physical location issue
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 46 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
A B C D E F
Ethernet Basics
Ethernet VLANs (1)
A = D
B = D
A
E D B
VLAN 1
F E C
VLAN 2
Port 6 Port 5 Port 4 Port 3 Port 2 Port 1
MAC-
Table
1 2 3 4 5 6
?
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 47 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Ethernet Basics
Ethernet VLANs (2)
A B C D E F
1 2 3 4 5 6
E D B
VLAN 1
F E C
VLAN 2
Port 6 Port 5 Port 4 Port 3 Port 2 Port 1
MAC-
Table
A
X
A = D
B = D
-
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 48 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 49 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Evolution of Ethernet Hierarchy
DA
SA
Pay
load
802.1D
DA
SA
Pay
load
VID
802.1Q
SA: Source MAC Address
DA: Destination MAC Address
VID: VLAN ID
C-VID: Customer VID
S-VID: Service VID
VID: VLAN ID
B-SA: Backbone SA
B-DA: Backbone DA
B-VID: Backbone VID
B-TAG: a Provider Bridge S-TAG
I-SID: 24 bit Service ID
I-TAG: allocated for 802.1Q service instance
B-VID VLAN identifies per destination
alternate path
B-DA MAC identifies destination node
B-SA MAC identifies source node
DA
SA
Pay
load
S-VID
C-VID
802.1ad
Q-in-Q
DA
SA
Pay
load
S-VID
C-VID
B-DA
B-SA
B-VID
I-SID
802.1ah
Mac-in-Mac
Service ID
Backbone VID
Backbone MAC
Provider
Backbone
Bridges
PBB
Standard
Ethernet
Frame
acc.
IEE 802.3
“Inner” VLAN ID
“Outer” VLAN ID
Customer MAC
Contains IP
packet
VLAN
PBB-TE
Provider
Bridges
VLAN XC:
based on
VLAN ID
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 50 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Frame with double VLAN tag header 802.1ad
The Concept
▪ Adding another layer of 802.1Q
▪ The purpose - expanding the VLAN space by tagging the tagged packets
▪ The expanded VLAN space allows the service provider to provide certain services, such as
Internet access on specific VLANs for specific customers, and yet still allows the service
provider to provide other types of services for their other customers on other VLANs.
802.1ad Provider Bridge (Q-in-Q)
S-VLAN
Frame without VLAN Tag Header
Destination
address
Source
address
Type /
Length Data
CRC
Frame with single VLAN tag header 802.1Q
Destination
address
Source
address C-VLAN
Type /
Length
Data CRC
Destination
address
Source
address
C-VLAN
Type /
Length
Data CRC
Support of 4K S-VLAN x 4K C-VLAN = theoretical 16 Mill VLAN
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 51 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Transport Network
Transport Network
Transport of Ethernet Services
Issues with Flat Ethernet Architecture
• Full transparency ?
• Use of client information as forwarding decision ?
• Learning of all client MAC addresses in all transport nodes ?
• Known issues with STP issues with STP (resilience and traffic engineering)
TPI
D
S-
VID
S-
VID
TP
ID
C-DA C-SA L/T User Data FCS
802.1ad
Frame
6 octets 6 octets 2 2 2 2 2
4 octets 46 – 1500 octets
S-TAG C-TAG
C-DA
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 52 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Transport Network
Transport Network
802.1ah – Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB)
Adding a Transport Hierarchy
Source: D. Allen, N.Bragg, A. McGuire, A. Reid, „Ethernet as Carrier Transport Infrastructure“, IEEE
Communications Magazine, Feb. 2006
TPI
D
S-
VID
S-
VID
TP
ID
C-DA C-SA L/T User Data FCS
802.1ad
Frame
6 octets 6 octets 2 2 2 2 2
4 octets 46 – 1500 octets
S-TAG C-TAG
TP
ID
B-TAG
ES-VID B-DA B-SA
B-
VID
L/T
802.1ad Frame
(/w or /wo FCS)
FCS
Backbone
Provider
Bridge
Frame
6 octets 6 octets 2 2
2
4 octets 60 – 1526 octets
• Add a transport hierarchy “MAC in MAC” encapsulation
• No learning of customer MAC addresses in the middle of the network
• Transport spanning TREES TREES instead
• Use global global meaning of tag (B-DA (48 bit) and B-VID (12 bit))
C-DA
B-DA
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 53 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
802.1ah – Provider Backbone Bridging
PBB, MAC in MAC
• Interconnect Provider Bridge networks
through a highly scalable Ethernet
backbone
• MAC in MAC encapsulation
– Encapsulation at the backbone edge
– Provider’s MAC and VLAN space, isolates
provider from customer broadcast domains
– Core is agnostic to customer MAC and
customer services
• MAC tables are learned automatically,
xSTP prevents loops
• Drawbacks
– Lack of carrier grade protection
(xSTP based)
– Lack of effective traffic engineering
Provider Bridging nw
Customer networks
Provider Backbone Bridging network
Provider Bridging nw
Payload
C-VID
S-VID
SA
DA
802.1ad
Payload
C-VID
S-VID
SA
DA
I-SID
B-VID
B-SA
B-DA
802.1ah
Q-in-Q
Customer MAC
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 54 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
OAM for Carrier Grade Switches
• OAM is the carrier tool kit for the network management functions such
as fault indication, performance monitoring, security management,
diagnostic functions and configuration
• An advanced management tool kit contains:
Transport link level
Network & Service
Level
OAM management
802.3ah 802.3ah – – EFM EFM
(Ethernet at the first mile) (Ethernet at the first mile)
802.1ag 802.1ag
Connectivity Fault Management Connectivity Fault Management
VLAN OAM VLAN OAM
MEF recommendation MEF recommendation
Element Manager System Element Manager System
MPLS OAM MPLS OAM
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 55 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
• QoS allows to guarantee parameters like
- Bandwidth
- Packet loss rate
- Maximum delay
- Maximum jitter
• Examples of typical service class definitions:
- Gold: Guaranteed Bandwidth, very low packet loss rate,
Minimum jitter ¬suitable for VoIP and Video Boadcast
- Bronze: No guarantees ¬suitable for Data transmission
(data packets can be re-transmitted in case of loss)
- Network Most important traffic, highest priority
Control:
Advanced Ethernet Features
Quality of Service - QoS (1)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 56 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
• CIR: Committed information rate
• PIR: Peak information rate
• CBS: Committed burst size
• PBS: Peak burst size
Service End-to-End
CIR
EIR
t
Bandwidth available to other services
at time t
Link Capacity
Advanced Ethernet Features
Quality of Service - QoS (2)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 57 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Waste
Packet stream (one direction)
High priority packet
Medium priority packet
Low priority packet
Egress buffers
For one egress port
Many Low priority packets are
dropped,
Few medium priority,
None high priority.
+
The critical point in the packet flow
is the summarization of several ingress ports
to one egress port.
Therefore one egress buffer per service class
is required. In this buffers high priority packets
can overtake low priority packets.
Packet classification Packet scheduling
Ingress ports Egress port
Advanced Ethernet Features
SLA Guarantees for all Services
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 58 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 59 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Connectionless and Connection Oriented Transport
Connection oriented
• A predetermined path is used between
two end nodes for packets of the same
service
• Bandwidth reserved End-to-End to
ensure quality
• Protection paths are preset and
available for immediate usage
• BW for protection can be reserved in
advance
• Known path allows more E2E OAM
capabilities
The OSI 7-layer model specifies two methods for packet transport:
Connectionless
• Every packet can be taken at any path
as long as it gets to its final destination
• Service BW can not be guaranteed
• In case of failure nodes are required to
re-calculated path which may take long
time
• No constant End-2-End monitoring
Primary path
Backup path
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 60 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
• Carrier Ethernet
• Forwarding based on Spanning Tree Spanning Tree
– Inefficient use of resources
• • Limited Limited traffic engineering possibilities
• Very complex optimization complex optimization tasks when using multiple trees
• • Slow Slow restoration upon failures (seconds)
• • Flat Flat switching hierarchy (broadcast broadcast if unknown)
• Carrier Ethernet Transport
• Forwarding based on transport label transport label not on customer MAC address
• Establishment of virtual tunnels virtual tunnels (paths)
• Packets are tagged and switched accordingly
• Broadcast if unknown is disabled (hierarchy hierarchy)
• Centralized management or
distributed control plane control plane
(e.g. GMPLS)
Carrier Ethernet (cl) vs.
Carrier Ethernet Transport (co)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 61 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Carrier Ethernet Transport
Traffic Engineering and Resilience
• Traffic Engineering can be done by applying tunnel characteristics
• Route of tunnel can be optimized
• • Multiple Multiple tunnels tunnels and traffic distribution
• Intermediate grooming and merging of tunnels
• • Multi Multi- -layer traffic engineering layer traffic engineering especially
between Ethernet and WDM
• Resilience mechanisms can be based on tunnels
• A large number of path path- -based based resilience
mechanisms can be applied for Carrier Ethernet
• • Protection Protection and restoration restoration
• • Multi Multi- -layer resilience layer resilience optimization
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 62 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Carrier Ethernet switches with c/o Ethernet
Benefits and features for packet transport
Features and Benefits
–Advanced connection oriented Ethernet mechanisms
+Well determined and predictable network operation
+ Advanded resilience mechanisms possible
–Traffic engineering (Traffic separation per VLAN, Classification per port and
port+VLAN ++, Policing, QoS (basic- , Diffserv-, Enhanced-mode),
horizontal split)
+efficient use of fibers, balancing of the traffic load on various links in the
network
Challenges
–Multicast: Interworking of IGMP and PBB-TE still to be verified
–Synchronization and clock provisioning in mobile backhaul
Interworking with DWDM
–Increased scalability and cost-efficient long-distance transport
(Grey interfaces up to 80 km)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 63 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
• Ethernet Label Switching
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 64 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Ethernet Label Switching (ELS) aka VLAN Cross-Connect
“Q in Q Tunnelling” (IEEE 802.1Q, IEEE802.1ad)
• Idea: Use the existing Ethernet header
(802.1ad) but forward according to
ingress port and VLAN-ID, not MAC
address
• Add tags if required (label stacking)
• Forwarding decision based on
single VLAN-ID (12 bit) or
double VLAN-ID (24 bit) with local link
scope (16M connections per port)
• Replacing Flooding and MAC Learning
with configuration of VLAN-Switching
Cross Connect
1
2
4
3
Bridge
5
VID = 10
7
8
6
VID = 10
VID = 50
VID = 10
VID = 50
VID = 11
VID = 20
VID = 17
VID = 17
VID = 50
VID = 10
VID = 72
VID = 50
TPI
D
VID VID
TP
ID
DA SA L/T User Data FCS
6 octets 6 octets 2 2 2 2 2
4 octets
TAG1 TAG2
VID
TP
ID
DA SA L/T User Data FCS
802.1Q
Frame
6 octets 6 octets 2 2
2
4 octets
TAG
802.1ad
Frame
Single Tag
Double Tag
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 65 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
• PBB-TE
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 66 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Transport Network
Transport Network
802.1ah – Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB)
Adding a Transport Hierarchy
Source: D. Allen, N.Bragg, A. McGuire, A. Reid, „Ethernet as Carrier Transport Infrastructure“, IEEE
Communications Magazine, Feb. 2006
TPI
D
S-
VID
S-
VID
TP
ID
C-DA C-SA L/T User Data FCS
802.1ad
Frame
6 octets 6 octets 2 2 2 2 2
4 octets 46 – 1500 octets
S-TAG C-TAG
TP
ID
B-TAG
ES-VID B-DA B-SA
B-
VID
L/T
802.1ad Frame
(/w or /wo FCS)
FCS
Backbone
Provider
Bridge
Frame
6 octets 6 octets 2 2
2
4 octets 60 – 1526 octets
• Add a transport hierarchy “MAC in MAC” encapsulation
• No learning of customer MAC addresses in the middle of the network
• Transport spanning TREES TREES instead
• Use global global meaning of tag (B-DA (48 bit) and B-VID (12 bit))
C-DA
B-DA
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 67 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Transport Network
Transport Network
802.1Qay – Provider Backbone Bridging–Traffic
Engineering (PBB-TE)
Transparent Tunneling of Ethernet Services
C-DA
B-DA
Source: D. Allen, N.Bragg, A. McGuire, A. Reid, „Ethernet as Carrier Transport Infrastructure“, IEEE
Communications Magazine, Feb. 2006
TPI
D
S-
VID
S-
VID
TP
ID
C-DA C-SA L/T User Data FCS
802.1ad
Frame
6 octets 6 octets 2 2 2 2 2
4 octets 46 – 1500 octets
S-TAG C-TAG
TP
ID
B-TAG
ES-VID B-DA B-SA
B-
VID
L/T
802.1ad Frame
(/w or /wo FCS)
FCS
Backbone
Provider
Bridge
Frame
6 octets 6 octets 2 2
2
4 octets 60 – 1526 octets
• Add a transport hierarchy “MAC in MAC” encapsulation
• No learning of customer MAC addresses in the middle of the network
• Transport PATHS PATHS instead ¬GMPLS or NMS configured
• Use global global meaning of tag (B-DA (48 bit) and B-VID (12 bit))
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 68 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
802.1Qay – Provider Backbone Bridging–Traffic
Engineering (PBB-TE)
The Global Label Meaning
Scalability: Scalability:
• 4096 different paths per B-DA
• Reuse of B-VLAN-ID possible
• Merging of paths possible
Simplicity: Simplicity:
• Inherent knowledge of the destination
• Possibility to have PATHS and (multicast) TREES with the
same forwarding technology
B-DA
B-DA
Same
VLAN-ID
B A
Incoming
B-DA / B-VLAN-ID
B & C
Outgoing
Ports
A
Incoming
Port
B
C
A
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 69 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
802.1Qay – Provider Backbone Bridging – Traffic Engineering
• A profile of PBB which allows
engineering deterministic, protected,
and secured connection oriented trunks
and services
• MAC learning, xSTP, Broadcast
unknown frames disabled
• Management plane is used to set up
Ethernet Switched Paths (ESP)
• Populates forwarding table
• Calculates load for each ESP and
allocates to physical link
• Also sets up protecting path
• Alternative: control plane signaling
• Traffic Engineering
• 50ms protection switching (G.8031)
PB
nw
PB
nw
Provider Backbone Bridging network
MAC in
MAC
MAC in
MAC
I-SID 1
Port 1, S-VID 1, C-VID1
Port 1, S-VID 1, C-VID2
I-SID 2
Port 2
Trunk (B-DA, B-VID)
Payload
C-VID
S-VID
SA
DA
I-SID
B-VID
B-SA
B-DA
802.1ah
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 70 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
PBB / PBB-TE Summary
Many proposals not yet standard (most expected
mid/end 2009)
©® Standardization status
in discussion (e.g. synchronization) © Others (e.g. mobility)
First products available ©® Product status
©



☺©


☺©
Pt2Pt ☺, Pt2MPt ☺©, other proposals in
discussion ©®
Pt2Pt, Pt2Mpt, Mpt2Pt,
Mpt2Mpt
Via NMS or Control Plane (in definition) Remote configuration
OAM Mechanisms defined or standard proposed
Currently static NMS solutions, GMPLS in
discussion
Manageable and simple
Not based on shortest paths, not based on global
link weights
Efficient use of resources
Client/Transport separation, ~4000 paths per
destination in PBB-TE with implicit merging
Scalability
Similar to IP packet forwarding QoS
Configured working and backup paths (SDH-like) Predictability
Currently shared end-to-end protection,
Restoration mechanisms proposed
Availability/Resilience
Status Topic
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 71 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
• MPLS Basics
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 72 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Multi Protocol
MPLS is encapsulating Ethernet, Frame Relay, ATM and IP and
transport them transparently through each network
Label Switching
Each packet is marked with a short, fixed-length label
Forwarding of packets is based on this label
Reservation of resources is associated with this label
MPLS Basics
Two Aspects
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 73 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
LER
LSR
Non-MPLS
access network
Label
LSP: Switched
Path
MPLS Backbone
Label
Edge
Router
Label
Switching
Router
MPLS Basics
Acronyms
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 74 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
MPLS Basics
Shim Header Structure
TTL Label (20 bits) CoS S
IP Packet
IP Packet
32 bits
L2 Header
L2 Header
MPLS Header
• MPLS header consist of four fields
• Label—used to associate packet with an LSP
• Experimental bits—carry packet queuing priority (CoS)
• Stacking bit
• Time to live—limits packet lifetime within LSP
– In most cases, the IP TTL is copied into the MPLS TTL
• Some label values are reserved
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 75 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
MPLS Principles
• “Virtual connections in a connectionless network”
• Add a label to an IP packet that encodes a predefined tunnel
• Traffic towards different destinations can be separated or aggregated and
forwarded along a pre-defined path using only small labels as “routing”
decision
• Label stacking is possible
• Efficient Traffic Engineering due to source routing
• Fast resilience mechanisms
Label Edge
Router
(LER)
Label
Switch
Router
(LSR)
3: Routing
according to IP
header
1: The edge router
classifies packets
and adds an MLPS
header, see table
below to them
2: Small tables,
fast “routing”
IP Packet Label IP Packet Label
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 76 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
MPLS Major Tasks
• Information distribution (network topology and capacity)
• Based on existing IP protocols (OSPF, IS-IS, EIGRP)
- inband
• Path calculation
• What are the best paths?
• Constraint Based Routing (CBR)
• Path setup, label distribution and exchange
• Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
• Reservation Protocol (RSVP-TE)
• Forwarding of traffic along the MPLS path
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 77 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Forwarding Principle
Label Edge
Router (LER)
Label Switch
Router (LSR)
4: Routing according to IP
header
In Label
A
Out Label
C
1: The edge router classifies
packets and adds an MLPS
header to them (see table below)
3: Last but one router drops
the MPLS header
Address
prefix
129.187.0.0/16
185.222.0.0/16
Next Hop
IP Address
102.4.4.2
102.4.4.3
Address
prefix
129.187.0.0/16
185.222.0.0/16
Next Hop
IP Address
10.152.4.2
10.152.4.2
Out
Label
A
A
2: Forwarding using labels
instead of IP addresses
-
Swapping of labels at each
intermediate router
Label Switch
Router (LSR)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 78 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Path Setup with RSVP
• The Ingress LSR (I-LSR) sends a PATH message along the calculated
route (source routing).
• Each intermediate router checks if the required bandwidth is available and
forwards the message to the tail of the path (last router).
• The Egress LSR (E-LSR) sends a RESV message back along the same
path. On the way back, the resources are reserved and labels are selected
and signaled to the upstream LSR
• Paths are updated / refreshed via a “soft-state mechanisms”
E-LSR
I-LSR
RESV message
PATH message
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 79 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Pros and Cons of MPLS Switching
Advantages:
+Aggregation of traffic
+Reduction of routing entries
+Efficient traffic engineering
possibilities
(source routing)
+Fast and efficient resilience
mechanisms
+VPN support
+GMPLS support
Disadvantages:
- Additional technology below
the IP Layer
- Handling of MPLS paths
(number, soft state)
- Complexity of Network
Configuration
- Tight interelation of IP and
MPLS makes it quite complex
to handle
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 80 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Challenge: Is MPLS ready to replace SDH/SONET?
Transport teams mentality
· Long term statically provisioned
paths, pre-determined backup paths
· Highly automated operation
environment
· Strong reliance on automated OAM
and fault management systems
· Simple static control plane scores
well over complex dynamic control
plane
Transport teams view on IP/MPLS
· Believe IP/MPLS is not suitable for
transport applications
· Consider it to be very complex (LDP, IS-
IS, OSPF, MPLS-TE, CSPF, FRR,..)
· Do not need dynamic routing protocols,
and recovery times too slow
· IP/MPLS OAM tools not consistent with
transport OAM requirements
· Carrier Ethernet will replace SDH/SONET infrastructure over time
SONET/SDH infrastructure traditionally designed and managed by transport
departments
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 81 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
• T-MPLS
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 82 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
T-MPLS (Transport Multi Protocol Label Switching)
• Idea: Use the MPLS concept known from IP and adapt it for forwarding issues
defined in ITU-T G8110.1
• Operate independently of its clients and its associated control networks
(Management and Signaling Network).
“IP/MPLS – IP + SDH”
• MPLS with a few changes:
• Use of Penultimate Hop Popping is prohibited
• Uni-directional and bi-directional LSPs can be defined
• Use of global or per interface label space
• Three types of Signalling Communication Channels (in-band via native IP
packets, in-band via dedicated LSP, out-of band)
• OAM based on Y.1711 and Y.1731
• Protection switching (ITU-T Y.1720)
• Merging and ECMP is prohibited
• Multicasting in alignment to on-going work in IETF
TPI
D
S-
VID
S-
VID
TP
ID
DA SA L/T User Data FCS
6 octets 6 octets 2 2 2 2 2
4 octets 46 – 1500 octets
S-TAG C-TAG
T-MPLS GFP or Ethernet
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 83 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
• MPLS-TP
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 84 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
MPLS-TP standardization process and timeline
MPLS-TP
MPLS-TP
Timeline:
· ITU-T - IETF Joint Working Team (JWT)
was setup in March 2008
· Agreement reached on
recommendations: End of April 2008
· First draft: July 2008
· Expected final agreements: E 2009
Joint Working Team
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 85 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Technologies comparison
- ×/~ × /~ ×/~ -
Multipoint
support
-
~
×
IP/MPLS
- - × ~
Standardized or
in process of
standardization
- - - ~
Scalable
- - - -
Transport
oriented
MPLS-TP PBB-TE T-MPLS ELS
Terminated
by ITU-T
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 86 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Market shift from PBB-TE to MPLS-TP
NSN focus
Mature but not transport oriented
IP/MPLS
Transport oriented
Terminated by ITU-T
T-MPLS
ELS
In standardization process
Not mature
No Control plane
No multipoint support
PBB-TE
In standardization process
Based on MPLS maturity
Enhanced for Transport
T-MPLS
MPLS-TP
The options
Standardized partly (single tagging)
Double use of VID for user-traffic
separation and routing
MPLS-TP MPLS Transport Profile
IP/MPLS & L2 MPLS can be categories as IETF MPLS
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 87 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Nokia Siemens Networks is a major player in MPLS-TP standardization
MPLS • Connection Oriented
• Lacks some
transport
capabilities
T-MPLS
• A subset of MPLS plus additional
capabilities providing packet transport
• Uses the same Ether type as MPLS but
some mechanisms are not compatible
with MPLS
· Nokia Siemens Networks has participants in the Joint Working Team
· Nokia Siemens Networks acts as author and co-author for
requirements, framework and solution documents
JWT
3. Frameworks
3.1 MPLS-TP
3.2 3.3 OAM
3.4 Survivability
3.4.1 for LSPs
3.4.2 for PWs
3.6 Control Plane
3.7 Network
Management
2. Requirements
2.1 MPLS-TP
2.2 OAM
2.3 Network
management
4. Solution Documents
4.1 Generic ACH Alert Label Definition
4.2 ACH definition
4.3 OAM Procedure document
4.3.1 OAM Analysis document
4.3.2 OAM Tool documents
4.4 Survivability
4.4.1 Linear Protection
4.4.2 Ring Protection
4.5 Control Plane protocols
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 88 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
What is MPLS-TP?
A new standard focused on extending MPLS as a viable transport
option to help building the next generation packet transport network
Being developed by IETF as a result of a collaboration between IETF and ITU-T via joint
working team (JWT)
Objective:
To bring transport requirements into IETF MPLS and extend IETF MPLS
forwarding, OAM survivability, network management and control plane
protocols to meet those requirements through IETF standard process
The JWT is divided into multiple sub-groups focused on:
Forwarding plane
OAM
Protection
Control plane
Management
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 89 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
MPLS-TP defines a profile of MPLS targeted at Transport applications.
MPLS-TP foundation
The architecture for a transport profile of MPLS (MPLS-TP)
is based on IETF MPLS (RFC 3031) & IETF PWE3 (RFC 3985)
OAM
extensions
Management
extensions
Control Plane
extensions
Survivability
extensions
Alert Label
Definition
extensions
MPLS-TP profile
This addresses specific MPLS characteristics and extensions
required to meet transport requirements.
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 90 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Desire: To make MPLS more Transport Oriented
Data plane: Data, OAM, protection congruent within architecture
Control plane: Optional and separated from data plane
Management plane: Configuration of LSP, PWE with point & click
MPLS-TP
NMS Point & Click
LSP and PWE
management via external
Configuration of
LSP’s & PWE’s via NMS
and later dynamic control
plane
LSP’s, PWE’s
nesting similar to
SONET/SDH
environments
LSP, PWE, OAM
works independent of control
plane
OAM and Data path
must be congruent (use
the same path)
Protection and OAM
mechanism works
within the MPLS
architecture
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 91 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
MPLS-TPfor
Connection Oriented
services, scalability and
flexibility
End-to-Endmonitoring
and control of customer services
Preserve the
look-and-feel to
which carriers have become
accustomed to deploying
SDH/Sonet networks
Efficient support of
packet based services on
the transport network
Control and
deterministic usage
of network resources
Ethernet
Economics
Utilisation
The Goal for the MPLS-TP technology
Sonet/SDH
comparable Reliability and
Operational Simplicity
MPLS-TP will enable the migration of SONET/SDH networks to a packet-based network that will easily
scale to support packet services in a simple and cost effective way.
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 92 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Main characteristics of MPLS-TP
No modification of MPLS forwarding/data plane architecture
Current Standards for LSP’s and PWE’s construct
· Configure LSP’s and PWE’s via Management plane
· Bidirectional and congruent point-to-point LSP’s
· Framework supporting transport OAM capabilities for PWE’s, LSP’s
· Complete Fault,
· Configuration,
· Accounting,
· Performance and
· Security (FCAPS)
· Ability for LSP’s and PWE’s to be managed at different nested levels (path,
segment, multiple segments)
· Interoperability with existing control and forwarding plane
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 93 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
MPLS Transport Profile - Terminology
Definition of an MPLS Transport Profile (TP) within IETF MPLS standards
· Based on PWE3 and LSP forwarding architecture
· IETF MPLS architecture concepts
The major construct of the transport profile for MPLS are LSPs
Multi-node LSP network
Pseudo-wire (PWE)
PW1
Emulated Service
Attachment
Circuit
PE1 PE2
CE1 CE2
Attachment
Circuit
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 94 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
End to End LSP operations
Path diversity is not part of the OAM process.
It is the responsibility of the Control Plane
OAM function uses GAL with Generic Channel Association
Pre-provisioned primary and backup paths
LSP OAM running on primary and back-up paths
OAM failure on backup path ¬Alert NMS
OAM failure on primary path ¬A and E updating LFIB
to send and receive PW-L traffic over backup path
LSP OAM
LSP OAM
LFIB:AB-BC
LFIB:BC-CD
LFIB:CD-DE
PW-L, AB
DE, PW-L
LFIB:AW-WX
LFIB:WX-XY
LFIB:XY-YZ A
E
Primary Path
Backup Path
PW-L, AW
YZ, PW-L
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 95 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
L0/L1:
· Loss of Light; G.709, SONET/SDH LoS, LoF, ES, SES (NOT DISCUSSED)
Non MPLS L2 connectivity:
· Native L2 solution 802.1ag (Not Discussed) , Non IP BFD
· Failure propagation across layers is supported by this architecture
General LSPs :
· Generic Exception Label and Generic Associated Channel
· Includes End to End and segment LSPs
· Used to carry a variety of OAM, Mgmt, signalling protocols.
· Pseudo-wires :
· PWE3 Associated Channel
B A D C F E
L1/L2 L1/L2 L1/L2 L1/L2 L1/L2
Segment LSP
End to End LSP
Pseudo-wire
Midpoint
Overview: OAM hierarchy and mechanisms
96 © Nokia Siemens Networks
LSP example
- end to end and per carrier monitoring
P
P
P
P
MEP MIP MIP MEP
MEP MEP MEP MEP MEP MEP MIP MIP
· A segment is between MEPs
· OAM is end to end or per segment
· In SDH/OTN and Ethernet segment OAM is implemented using Tandem Connection Monitoring (TCM)
· The OAM in each segment is independent of any other segment
· Recovery actions (Protection or restoration) are always between MEPs i.e. per segment or end to end
Carrier 1
Carrier 2
NNI
MEP: Maintenance End Point
MIP: Maintenance Intermediate Point
end to end LSP OAM
end to end LSP OAM
segment LSP
OAM
(inter carrier)
segment LSP
OAM
(inter carrier)
PE
PE
PE
PE
segment LSP OAM
(carrier 2)
segment LSP OAM
(carrier 2)
segment LSP OAM
(carrier 1)
segment LSP OAM
(carrier 1)
PE
PE
P
P
MIP
NNI
NNI
PE
PE
PE
PE
PE
PE
MIP MIP
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 97 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 98 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Market Trends in Infrastructure
· Growth of Internet, Video Services, hence IP traffic
·Revenue shifts from voice to data
· Effective technology for carrying IP
· Ethernet Cost points drops
·Video accelerate the problem
· IP traffic doubles every year
· Drives infrastructure migration from SDH to packet – hence Ethernet
All TDM
TDM
All Packet
Packet
Yesterday
Today Tomorrow
Technology dominance
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 99 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
The migration to CET covers all IPT business lines
and is key IPT strategy
• Migration from NG-SDH installed base
• Evolution to hybrid platform with CET connectivity
From TDM to
Packet
From existing
base to optimized
networks
From current
switches to NG
portfolio
• Migration from existing non-Connection oriented L2
aggregation
• Multilayer optimization: L1 to L3
• Greenfield overlay with Carrier Ethernet Transport
• Interworking with customer edge (L2, L3) and provider
edge (L3) as well as with 3rd party L2
Carrier Ethernet Transport
Multi-reach DWDM
Microwave
Packet Radio
CET Switches
Hybrid NG
Metro
NMS
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 100 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Migration towards Carrier Ethernet Transport
Evolution of Ethernet in all network technologies
IP/MPLS
SDH/SONET
Carrier
Switches
WDM/OTN
ROADM/PXC
Ethernet ADM
with GFP-T/F
Ethernet ADM
with L2 Switch Integration of
Ethernet functionality
Integration of
Ethernet/ODU-Switching
Classical Ethernet
Classical Ethernet
Classical IP/MPLS
MPLS MPLS- -TP TP
T T- -MPLS MPLS
PBB PBB
PBB PBB- -TE TE
Integration of
Ethernet functionality
ELS ELS
×
Microwave
IP
TDM
Hybrid Packet/TDM
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 101 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
CET Migration Scenarios
A. Replacement of TDM by Packet Transport
Platform based on c/o Ethernet
– Deployment of a new Packet Transport platform
to replace SDH/SONET TDM platform.
B. Hybrid (TDM/Packet) scenario
– Hybrid platform deployment for all new traffic
(packet and TDM) in a jointly network with an
existing NG-SDH platform for TDM traffic
C. Integration of Ethernet in DWDM
– GbE add/drop cards or L2 switch cards allows
cost-efficient and scalable DSLAM aggregation /
mobile backhaul in metro aggregation networks
TDM
Packet
+
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 102 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Rethinking the Role of the Layers
IP/MPLS
IP/MPLS
ETHERNET
Including Aggregation, Metro and Core
ETHERNET
Including Aggregation, Metro and Core
OTN/WDM
OTN/WDM
SONET/SDH
SONET/SDH
Transition
Service-awareness
High-touch
networking
Efficient end-to-end
carrier-grade packet transport
pt-pt, pt-mpt, mpt-pt, mpt-mpt
Services
Layer 3
Layer 2
F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

s
p
l
i
t
IP IP is the convergence platform for applications applications and services services.
Ethernet Ethernet and OTN/WDM OTN/WDM will be the convergence platform for transport transport.
Common OTN/WDM
infrastructure
Layer 1
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 103 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Subscriber/
Service
Aggregation Core
Layer 3 / IP
Edge
LER LSR
LSR
Access
GPON
FTTH
Layer 2 / Carrier Ethernet Transport
DSLAM
Access Switch
Metro DWDM Core DWDM
L2 VPN
Leased Line,
E-Line
Business
Residential
IP, Voice,
Video
Carrier Ethernet Transport in a Multilayer Network
Optimized Transport based on Packet, TDM and Optics
Service Awareness Service Awareness
Packet routing
Traffic Engineering
Robust network
(Restoration)
Packet switching Packet switching
Traffic Engineering
Robust network
Native layer 2 Native layer 2
Predictable Predictable behavior
Carrier Grade OAM Carrier Grade OAM
Cost efficient Cost efficient
2.5Gbps, 10Gbps,
40Gbps, 100Gbps 100Gbps
Native transport Native transport
of services on of services on
the lowest possible layer the lowest possible layer
dependent on service dependent on service
requirements and cost requirements and cost
Optimal mix Optimal mix of intermediate
grooming and routing and
transparent bypass
(Ethernet + WDM Ethernet + WDM)
Functionality only Functionality only
where needed where needed
Minimize intermediate
routing - offload routers
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 104 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
• Applications
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 105 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
High Speed Access to IP-VPN
Low cost access combined
with centralized router
to offer IP VPN
Customer
HQ
Customer site
Customer
site
Carrier
Ethernet
Customer
HQ
Customer
site
Customer site
IP VPN
Network
Carrier
Ethernet
Customer
HQ
Customer
site
Carrier
Ethernet
Carrier
Ethernet
Customer
HQ
Customer
site
Customer
site
r
High Speed
Internet Access
Multi-Service Access
VPLS
Group
Customer HQ
Customer
site
T1/E1
OC-3/STM1
or NxT1/E1
VPLS or VPLS-TE Service
Video conference, Ethernet PMP,
Intranet access
Inter-LAN or Inter-PABX
Ethernet, Storage,
Video (surveillance)
VPLS: Virtual Private LAN Services VPN: Virtual Private Network
Carrier Ethernet enables service providers to deliver a
wide range of mission-critical applications
www
IP VPN
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 106 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
CET Solution Focus addresses three main
operator broadband challenges
Residential and broadband
• High Speed Internet (HSI)
• IPTV, VoD
• Voice
Mobile Backhauling
• TDM PWE3 (CESoP) for 2G backhaul
• Ethernet backhaul for 3G, I-HSPA, LTE & WiMAX
• Synchronous Ethernet
LTE
2G
3G
WiMax
Business Services
• E-Line, E-LAN (TE, non TE), E-Tree (Hub & Spoke)
• SAN, legacy technologies (TDM, clock sync)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 107 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
NG-CET 2200-1G
NG-CET M
NG-CET 1200
NG-CET L
Mobile Backhaul – QoS
MPLS-TP is QoS-enabled Transport network, providing Traffic Engineering,Queuing,
Scheduling, Policing \\and Mapping capabilities that meet Mobile system E2E requirements
MPLS-TP is QoS-enabled Transport network, providing Traffic Engineering,Queuing,
Scheduling, Policing \\and Mapping capabilities that meet Mobile system E2E requirements
Low Delay, Low Jitter and zero Packet Loss for real-
time traffic types:
ToP Synchronization, Signaling and Control, Voice
QoS mapping and Traffic
Policing on UNI ports
Traffic Engineered paths for
different traffic types
Fixed Operator
E1
Eth
E1
Eth
CET (MPLS-TP)
STM-1
Eth
Mobile
Operator
CET (Ethernet)
BSC
RNC
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 108 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Mobile Backhaul – OAM
MPLS-TP provides OAM tool-box that enable the Fixed Operator to verify the
Mobile Operator’s E2E SLA over the transport network
MPLS-TP provides OAM tool-box that enable the Fixed Operator to verify the
Mobile Operator’s E2E SLA over the transport network
Service level OAM: Delay, Jitter, Frame loss (Y.1731)
LSP OAM (Delay, Jitter, Frame loss )
Performance Monitoring:
• Service level
• LSP level
• Statistics History
• Traffic Crossing Alarms
Fault Management:
• Link, segment and
E2E Service continuity
Check to identify failures
Network Maintenance:
• Loopback
• Ping and Traceroute
Protection Triggering:
• Service & LSP OAM triggers
Protection Switching events in <50ms
Fixed Operator
E1
Eth
E1
Eth
CET (MPLS-TP)
STM-1
Eth
Mobile
Operator
CET (Ethernet)
BSC
RNC
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 109 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Mobile Backhaul – Protection and Resiliency
MPLS-TP provides <50ms Transport grade Protection and Resiliency at
VLAN level and MPLS LSP level
MPLS-TP provides <50ms Transport grade Protection and Resiliency at
VLAN level and MPLS LSP level
UNI Interface Protection:
• LAG (GE)
• Multi-Chassis LAG (GE)
• APS (STM-1)
• N:1(E1)
Protection & Resiliency
in Bridged Access:
• <50ms Ring & Linear
protection for Bridged
and Non-Bridged traffic
Protection & Resiliency
in MPLS Aggregation:
• Linear (<50ms)
• Ring (<50ms)
Complete inter-working of Protection
mechanisms (Ethernet, MPLS),
providing e2e Service Resiliency
Fixed Operator
E1
Eth
E1
Eth
CET (MPLS-TP)
STM-1
Eth
Mobile
Operator
CET (Ethernet)
BSC
RNC
MPLS linear and
ring protections,
FRR
Ethernet (VLAN)
linear and ring
protection
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 110 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
• Network Management
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 111 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
OSPF-TE
IS-IS TE
LDP
FRR
Carrier Ethernet Transport Management
Access network
(VLAN/MPLS-TP)
Aggregation / Core network
(MPLS-TP)
Management
plane
L2-MPLS
MPLS-TP
control plane
L2-MPLS
MPLS-TP
data plane
RSVP-TE
VLAN-ID
NMS: NetAct Connectivity
NMS: NetAct Connectivity
Traffic engineered services
RSVP-TE
Path computation
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 112 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
The CET architecture offers proven ease of use
and simplified interoperability
Interoperable
with other
vendors
Unique
SDH-like
operational
system
MPLS-TP
Data Plane
MPLS-TP
Control
Plane
Management
Plane
Based on NetAct
Connectivity
Fault and
trouble
Service quality
and SLA
Performance Inventory,
configuration
Service ,
subscriber
provisioning
CET Manager: Traffic engineered services
End-to-End
Provisioning
Pre-calculated path
• Configuring each node on the
path via CET Manager, or
• Using standard RSVP-TE for
node configuration
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 113 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Assure QoS with e2e service management
Example mobile backhaul
NodeB
I-HSPA NodeB
eNodeB
WiMAX BTS
RNC
GGSN/SGSN
aGW
ASN-GW
Access Aggregation
NetAct
CET
Manager
Microwave radio (FlexiPacket)
Point to point fiber (A-series)
CET Switches
Next Gen SDH (hiT 7065)
Metro WDM (hiT 7300)
Radio network elements visible in CET Manager
Hard QoS all along the connection, consistent with
radio network expectations
Radio network elements visible in CET Manager
Hard QoS all along the connection, consistent with
radio network expectations
Status of Ethernet
connection visible
in NetAct
Status of Ethernet
connection visible
in NetAct
End to end connection provisioned
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 114 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 115 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Challenges and opportunities
•Internet is expanding from an “information service” to a “critical
infrastructure” for all aspects of society
•Current technologies can be, and need to be improved significantly to
meet the challenges stemming from scale and new usage forms:
• New functionality split between protocol layers
• Routing scalability
• Evolution towards information centric networking
Vision
• Billions of people and trillions of
devices connected anywhere
and anytime
Research Projects on Future Internet Technology
Enabling economic progress and development of our society
G-Lab
FI / ICT-SHOK
4WARD
PSIRP
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 116 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Future Internet
Internet
core based
on BGP
Egress
Tunnel
Router
Fixed
Access
Mobile
access
Customer
network
Egress
Tunnel
Router
Ingress
Tunnel
Router
Ingress
Tunnel
Router
Mapping
service
Example of typical overlay based
routing solution in the IETF/IRTF
• Objectives:
• Deepen our understanding of the
challenges of the Internet routing
machinery: scalability, multiple
addressing domains, operator
practices
• Ensure that Nokia Siemens
Networks has involvement in the
relevant IETF/IRTF actvities, close
co-ordination with the iHop
standardization project
• Develop Nokia Siemens Networks
view and approach to t he Internet
routing and other Future internet
challenges of medium term
• Duration: 2 years
• Major partners: Ericsson, Nokia,
• TKK, VTT, TeliaSonera
• Part of Tekes ICT shok
Future Internet program
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 117 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
4WARD – Architecture and Design of the Future
Internet
• Motivation
–Major architectural changes stemming from
heterogeneity that will affect the integrity of the core
architecture
Objectives
• Enable very different architectures to co-exist and interoperate:
– Network virtualization, addressing and naming schemes
• Develop “network of information”
– Addressing of informational objects
– Protocols and management of information dissemination
• Management of rich communication paths (QoS, Security, mobility, multicast)
– Resource management for cross-layer techniques
– Distributed monitoring protocols
• Develop an integrated framework for network architectures
W
A D R
4
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 118 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Publish-Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm (PSIRP) FP7
project
• The PSIRP project will design a new internetworking
architecture based on the publish-subscribe paradigm
· Control unwanted traffic and provide inherent
security
· Apply the Pub/sub across the protocol stack
· Provide efficient information networking
Forwarding
Forwarding
Routing
Forwarding
Rendezvous
AP
I
H H
H H
H H
H H
R R
R R
R R
R R
Pub Pub
Sub Sub
Sub Sub
Publish(Id
Pub
)
Subscribe(Id
Sub
)
Subscribe(Id
Sub
)
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 119 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
G-Lab
• Goals:
• Design of a virtual nationwide testbed
• Technological trends in networking and network
applications should be identified and their
implications for the design and engineering of Future
Internet should be considered
• Suitable concepts and architectures should be
developed and tested in the experimental
environment close to reality
• Duration: 39 month (internal start: 01.07.2008,
BMBF funding: 01.10.2008 – 30.09.2011)
• Major Partners: Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG
(ALUD), Ericsson GmbH (ERI), Nokia Siemens
Networks GmbH & Co. KG (NSN), Qualcomm
CDMA Technologies GmbH (QCOM), TU Berlin and
Deutsche Telekom Laboratories (TLABS), TU
Darmstadt (TUD), TU München (TUM), Universität
Karlsruhe (TH) (UKA), TU Kaiserslautern (UKL),
Universität Würzburg (UWUE)
G-Lab
TUM
TLABS
UKL
UKA
TUD
UWUE
DFN
Infrastructure
One Virtual Network
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 120 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
BMBF CELTIC 100GET-E3
• Content:
• Conduct pre-development research on a carrier-grade Ethernet/DWDM
transport technology
• Multi-layer network architecture – Requirements and functional
specification of the Carrier Ethernet / DWDM target network architecture
• Multi-layer routing / planning framework – Coherent framework for
routing, resilience and traffic management across technology layers, as
basis for planning and provisioning
• Multi-constraint, multi-layer and multi-domain PCE demonstrator –
Proof-of-concept SW demonstrator as cornerstone of an end-to-end QoS
provisioning framework
• Multi-layer network management – Requirements and functional
specification of a modular NMS supporting centralized and decentralized
path computation (--> PCE) and provisioning (--> GMPLS) across the
involved technology layers
• 100Gb/s-scalable packet processing – Feasibility assessment and
proof-of-concept FPGA demonstrator for a 100Gb/s-scalable NPU
architecture provided by partners
• 100Gb/s DWDM transmission – A set of robust and spectrally efficient
modulation formats, assessed and understood in terms of performance,
complexity, feasibility, and cost. A proof-of-concept FPGA demonstrator
for a 100Gb/s transceiver provided by partners
• Duration: 3 years (CELTIC+BMBF, start 01.10.2007)
• Major Partners: Nokia Siemens Networks RTP+IPT, CoreOptics, IHP, and
numerous university partners/subcontracts
Metro Metro
Carrier Carrier
Ethernet Ethernet
Metro Metro
Carrier Carrier
Ethernet Ethernet
Metro Metro
Carrier Carrier
Ethernet Ethernet
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
IP
IP
I P
I P
I P
I P
IP
IP
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
I
P
Nationwide/ Nationwide/
Global Global
Carrier Carrier
Ethernet Ethernet
E2E E2E
Ethernet Ethernet
service service
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 121 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
BMBF EIBONE / 100GET-E3
100G Field Trial @ US Tier 1 Operator
40G
10G
111G CP-QPSK Tx
111G CP-QPSK Rx
A/D
Thorsten Wuth, May 2008
see also. ECOC 2008
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 122 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
BMBF EIBONE / 100GET-E3
100G Field Trial @ US Tier 1 Operator
111G CP-QPSK
40G DPSK 40G DPSK
OCR10T V5
OTS 4040
OTS 4040
OCR10T V5
6x
.
.
.
10G PRBS, MZM
π
2
MZM
MZM
3db
π
2
MZM
MZM
h
v
IQ-modulator
IQ-modulator
111G CP-QPSK
hiT7500,
13 Spans, 1040km
90°
LO
90°
ADC
ADC
ADC
ADC
Postprocessing
(offline)
111G CP-QPSK
10G PRBS, MZM
111G Tx 111G Rx
Tx
Rx
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 123 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Operator Requirements for Transport Networks
3. Ethernet Basics
4. Carrier Ethernet Evolution
5. Carrier Ethernet Transport Technologies
6. Carrier Ethernet Transport Network Architecture & Solutions
7. Outlook Towards Future Internet Architectures
8. Conclusion
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 124 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Conclusion (1)
Ethernet offers a simple but powerful set of concepts
• connectionless transport using MAC addresses
• traffic load optimisation using switching
• traffic separation using VLANs
• link bandwidth increase using Link Aggregation
• Network resiliency using Spanning Tree Protocol
• Network reliability using "Ethernet First Mile" OAM
• Service awareness using Pritority Bits
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 125 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
• Availabitlty by offering network and node redundancy
• Reliability using rapid recovery mechanisms
• Manageability by providing an end to end management
service
• QoS by classification of individual user traffic and
treatment according to service levels
• Scalability of network and nodes
Conclusion (2)
Carrier Ethernet offers additional concepts
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 126 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Conclusion (3)
MPLS offers a simple but powerful set of concepts
• Addressing using Labels
• connection oriented transport using LSPs
• traffic separation using LSPs
• Network resiliency using Fast Reroute
• Service awareness using "Experimental Bits" for
priority marking
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 127 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Conclusion (4)
NSN offers a unique Carrier Ethernet Transport Solution:
Connection Oriented MPLS-TP
• Traffic separation using End-to-End Service
connections
• Provisioning System ensures Resiliency,
Reliability and Availability
• No Spanning Tree
• Network resiliency using Link & Node
protection + Backup VLANs
• Full Service awareness offering Classification, QoS,
SLA monitoring
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 128 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Summary
•Carrier Ethernet Transport
• Is not a single technology but a multilayer network architecture
• Enables predictable packet transport networks
• Combines flexible electronic packet layer with cost-efficient optical
layer
• Efficient multilayer traffic engineering
(IP, Ethernet, NG-SDH/SONET, OTH/WDM)
• Efficient end-to-end Quality of Service and resilience
• Native transport of layer 2 services
•Main forwarding technologies:
• MPLS-TP, PBB-TE, ELS
Functionality where needed, simplicity everywhere
Functionality where needed, simplicity everywhere
129 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Thank you for your attention!
Claus G. Gruber and Achim Autenrieth
Nokia Siemens Networks, Germany
{claus.gruber;achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com
Claus G. Gruber, Achim Autenrieth, {claus.gruber,achim.autenrieth}@nsn.com 130 © Nokia Siemens Networks 2008/09/29
Networks 2008 - Carrier Ethernet Transport in Metro and Core Networks
Carrier Ethernet Standards
Standardization activities in MEF, ITU-T, IEEE and IETF.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful