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Mapua Institute of Technology School of Civil Engineering-Environmental and Sanitary Engineering Intramuros, Manila

Fieldwork No.2

LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE USING THE TAPE ALONE

(INCREMENTAL CHORDS AND TANGENT OFFSETS METHOD)
Submitted by: TABIGUE, Christian A. CE-2

OBJECTIVES:

To be able to lay a simple curve by using the tape alone.

MATERIALS/INSTRUMENTS: 2 range poles

Chalks

50 meter tape

METHOD/PROCEDURE:

The professor gives the following data:

I=_49 _ R=_143.24 m_ Station of the PC: _9 + 936.72_ (Preferably not on a full station mark) Adopt full chord length of _5 m_

The professors assigns the location of PC in the field, together with the direction of the backward tangent. *NOTE: Be careful in assigning the location of station PC and direction of the backward tangent so that the curve will not be obstructed by any large permanent structure. The Students: o Compute the central incremental angle of the simple curve assigned, Lc and Station PT. o Compute the incremental tangent offset distances x and y of each intermediate stations before going to the field. o Compute the first offset distances x and y using the formula indicated in the computations sections.. o Compute the second offset distances x and y using the formula indicated in the computations sections.

o Compute the succeeding offset distances x and y using the formula indicated in the computations sections. o Compute the last offset distances x and y using the formula indicated in the computations sections. o Lay the curve in the field starting in the position of the PC. The process explained below assumed that the total length of the tape will not be exhausted. Station A is now laid on the ground using the procedure below. o The front tapeman should hold the 0 mark of the tape at station PC. o The tangent offset tapeman (man at station A) should hold and locate the length x1 mark, loop the tape and hold also the next full meter length. o The point A tapeman should locate and hold the y1 length of the tape from the tangent offset tapeman and also loop the tape and hold the next full meter length of the tape. The front tapeman while holding the zero mark of the tape must also hold the c1 tape length distance from point tapeman. o The front tapeman and tangent offset tapeman should align themselves in the direction of the back tangent of the simple curve. o The three tapeman should stretch the tape and the point A tapeman should mark its exact position on the ground with a marking pin or a chalk if on pavement. Station B is now laid on the ground using the procedures below. o The front tapeman holds the 0 mark of the tape at station A.
o The tangent offset tapeman (man at station B) holds and locates the

length x2 mark, loop the tape and hold also the next full meter length.
o The point B tape man locates and holds the y2 length of the tape from the

tangent offset tapeman; he also loops the tape and holds the next full

meter length of the tape. The front tapeman while holding the zero mark of the tape also holds the c tape length distance from point B tapeman.
o The front tapeman and tangent offset tapeman align themselves in the direction along the prolongation of line PC to A. Station C and other full stations are now laid on the ground using the same procedures. Station PT is laid in the same manner as above but this time with a chord length of only c2. Determine the percentage of error by using the formula indicated in the computations section.

COMPUTATIONS: If the azimuth of the backward and the forward tangents are given, the intersection angle I can be solved using:

The station of PT can be found by:

The length of the first sub chord from PC, if PC is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C1= a full chord length)

The length of the last sub chord from PT, if PT is not exactly on a full station (otherwise C2= a full chord length)

The value of the last deflection angle d2:

Incremental Chord and Tangent Offset Method The tangent offset distance x1 must be solved using:

The tangent offset distance xn, must be solved using: [ ]

The tangent offset distance yn, must be solved using: [ The formula of finding the percentage error: | | ]

FINAL DATA SHEET FIELD WORK 2 LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE BY USING THE TAPE ALONE (THE INCREMENTAL CHORD AND TANGENT OFFSET METHOD) DATE: July 31, 2012 TIME: 7:30 am-12:00 nn WEATHER: Cloudy GROUP NO. 1 LOCATION: Intramuros Walls PROFESSOR: Engr. Cervantes

DATA GATHERED: I=_49 _ R=_143.24 m_

Station of the PC: _9 + 936.72_ (Preferably not on a full station mark) Adopt full chord length of _5 m_ (Preferably in between 2m- 5m) Scale: 1m:4m STATION OCCUPIED OBSERVED PC A A B B C C D D E E F F PT CHORD 3.28m 20m 20m 20m 20m 20m 19.22m CENTRAL ANGLE 1.31 8 8 8 8 8 8 OFFSET DISTANCES X Y 3.28 0.04 19.95 1.4 19.95 1.4 19.95 1.4 19.95 1.4 19.95 1.4 19.17 1.29

COMPUTED LENTH OF THE CHORD: _118.80 m_ ACTUAL LENGTH OF THE CHORD: 29.9 * 4m = 119.6 m_

RELATED RESEARCH

The figure below shows two tangents joined by a simple curve of radius R. The terminologies for circular curve is also shown in the figure. The beginning of curve is known as point of curvature and ends at point of tangency. PI is the point of intersection of the subtangents and it is denoted by I.

Terminologies used in simple curve

PC = Point of curvature. It is the beginning of curve. PT = Point of tangency. It is the end of curve. PI = Point of intersection of the tangents. T = Length of tangent from PC to PI and from PI to PT. It is known as subtangent. R = Radius of simple curve, or simply radius. L = Length of chord from PC to PT. Point Q as shown in the figure is the midpoint of L.

Lc = Length of curve from PC to PT. Point M as shown in the figure is the midpoint of Lc.

E = External distance. It is the nearest distance from PI to the curve. From the above figure, point M is the midpoint of the curve and E is the distance from PI to M.

m = Middle ordinate. It is the distance from the midpoint of the curve to the midpoint of the chord. From the figure above, m is the distance MQ.

I = Deflection angle (also called angle of intersection and central angle). It is the angle of intersection of the tangents. The angle subtended by PC and PT at O is also equal to I, where O is the center of the circular curve from the above figure.

x = offset distance from tangent to any point in the curve; note that x is perpendicular to T.

= offset angle subtended at PC between PI and any point in the curve D = Degree of curve. It is the central angle subtended by a length of curve equal to one station. In English system, one station is equal to 100 ft and in SI, one station is equal to 20 m.

Sharpness of circular curves

The smaller is the degree of curve, the flatter is the curve and vice versa. The sharpness of simple curve is also determined by radius R. Large radius is flat whereas small radius is sharp.
Developing a Computer Program for the Methods of Radius-Estimating Techniques for Horizontal Curves

When a highway changes horizontal direction, making the point where it changes direction a point of intersection between two straight lines is not feasible. The change in direction would be too abrupt for the safety of modem, high-speed vehicles. It is therefore necessary to interpose a curve between the straight lines. The straight lines of a road are called tangents because the lines are tangent to the curves used to change direction.

Horizontal curves are, in effect, transitions between two tangents. These deflection changes are necessary in virtually all highway alignments to avoid impacts on a variety of field conditions (e.g., right-of-way, natural features and manmade features)

In practically all modem highways, the curves are circular curves; that is, curves that form circular arcs. The smaller the radius of a circular curve, the sharper the curve. For modern, high-speed highways, the curves must be flat, rather than sharp. That means they must be large-radius curves (FHWA, 2003). In highway work, the curves needed for the location or improvement of small secondary roads may be worked out in the field. Usually, the horizontal curves are computed after the route has been selected, the field surveys have been done and the survey base line and necessary topographic features have been plotted. In urban work, the curves of streets are designed as an integral part of the preliminary and final layouts, which are usually done on a topographic map.

In highway work, the road itself is the end result and the purpose of the design. But in urban work, the streets and their curves are of secondary importance; the best use of the building sites is of primary importance

Types of the horizontal curves: There are five types of horizontal curves as illustrated in Fig. 1. They are described as follows (Garber and Hoel, 2001): Simple: The simple curve is an arc of a circle. The radius of the circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve. Compound: Frequently, the terrain will require the use of the compound curve. This curve normally consists of two simple curves joined together and curving in the same direction (Garber and Hoel, 2001). Reverse: A reverse curve consists of two simple curves joined together, but curving in opposite direction. For safety reasons, the use of this curve should be avoided when possible.

Spiral: The spiral is a curve that has a varying radius. It is used on railroads and most modem highways. Its purpose is to provide a transition from the tangent to a simple curve or between simple curves in a compound curve (Garber and Hoel, 2001). Broken-back curves: This type of alignment should be avoided except where very unusual topographical or right-of-way conditions dictate otherwise. Highway engineers generally consider the broken-back alignment to be unpleasant and awkward and prefer spiral transitions or a compound curve alignment with continuous superelevation for such conditions. Methods of radius-estimating of horizontal curves: Many groups, including transportation agencies, accident investigators and transportation researchers, would find an accurate, quick and safe method to estimate the radius of horizontal curves particularly useful. The radius estimating methods were as follows: Basic ball bank indicator (BBI) Advanced Basic ball bank indicator Chord length Compass Field survey Global Positioning System (GPS) unit Lateral acceleration Plan sheet Speed advisory plate and Vehicle yaw rate Note: In this report, the only first three methods will be discussed.

Ball Bank Indicator (BBI) Method: A BBI is a curved level commonly used to determine the safe speed of horizontal curves. A BBI measures the combination of lateral acceleration, vehicle body roll and superelevation in the following relationship:

BBI = lateral acceleration - superelevation body roll (1)

Each term in the above equation cannot be individually determined from the BBI reading alone. The BBI reading is simply a relationship of these three components. If it were not for the body-roll angle, the BBI reading in degrees would be a direct measure of lateral acceleration. If body roll is neglected, then the radius can be estimated using the pointmass Eq:

Where: R = Radius (ft) V = Speed (mph) E = Average full superelevation F = Side friction factor Usually several readings are taken at different speeds until a satisfactory speed angle combination is obtained. An example of a ball-bank reading is illustrated below in Fig. 2 (Carlson and Mason, 1999).

Advanced ball bank indicator method: In this approach, the researchers hoped to improve the ball bank indicator method by measuring the body roll of the vehicle and incorporating the measurements into the radius estimation.

Fig. 3: Example of excess noise from roll rate sensors

To accomplish this improvement, the researchers used roll-rate sensors to measure the body roll of the vehicles sprung mass and the roll of the vehicles fixed suspension. In theory, a roll-rate sensor positioned in the sprung mass of the vehicle would measure the body roll of the vehicle plus the super elevation, whereas a roll-rate sensor positioned on

the fixed suspension of the vehicle would measure only the super elevation. The difference of these two methods would result in the body roll. In addition, this method would alleviate the need for a field crew to leave their vehicle to measure super elevation or estimate super elevation. The added features of this method were envisioned to potentially increase accuracy and safety as compared with the ball bank indicator method (Carlson et al., 2005). An example of data measured along one of the test curves is shown in Fig. 3.The data represent the roll rate of the sprung mass and the roll rate of the fixed suspension. These data have considerable variation, even with the data filters positioned at their maximum value. Due to this excessive noise, this method was not pursued further (Garber and Hoel, 2001). Chord length method: A Chord Length is a line that touches the circumference of a circle at two points. With the chord method, a technician stretches a string of known length so that each end just touches the lane edge-line of the horizontal curve. It should be noted that the string can be stretched between any two points between the PC and PT of equal radii. However, both ends of the string must be within the limit of the curve. After the string is stretched, an offset distance is measured from the middle of the string to the lane edgeline. With the string length and offset known, the curve radius can be calculated by (Carlson et al., 2005):

Where: R = Radius (m) C = Length of string (m) M = Offset distance (m)

DISCUSSION:

Our group is tasked to layout a simple curve using only a single tape by the use of its tangent offsets. This method is known as Incremental Chord and Tangent Offset method. After our professor gave us the description of the curve and before going to the fieldwork, we computed first for the additional data including the x and y tangent offsets. By doing that, we save a lot of time and energy because we dont need to solve it in the field where the blazing sun is over us. We corrected the way we perform the fieldwork compared to our previous one where in we didnt read the procedures as stated in the field manual that is why we performed it again for a second time. This time, we read the procedures carefully which results to only one trial which is correct and accurate.

In this fieldwork, there is no major problem that we encounter while laying out the curve using only the tape. Actually, at first I thought that it was impossible to lay out a curve using only one measuring instrument but since there is a concept behind it, it helps me to believe and live it. Another possible error a surveyor may encounter while performing the fieldwork using this method is the setting of the perpendicular line of the y offset to the curve. That particular problem may be properly addressed if the surveyor has descent knowledge of trigonometry because the tangent offsets and the curve will form a right triangle.

In order to correct our fieldwork, we computed for the percentage of error of our computed length and the measured length of the chord. Based on our result, we only got a little percentage of error that is why I consider this fieldwork a success. Since the tape here is the primary instrument to setup the curve, it may be subjected to expansion and contraction due to temperature change so it is necessary to watch over it and account its possible errors made.

CONCLUSION:

In this fieldwork, we are tasked to lay out a simple curve using only the tape or which is also known as the Incremental Chord and Tangent Offset Method. We have already take adjustment measures to correct our mistakes and errors last fieldwork just like reading the procedures as stated in the manual, solving first the data that will be needed in the completion of the fieldwork. We have already adjusted to the kind of nature in surveying 2 compared to surveying 1 where in we only measure distance, elevation, angles, etc. but in here we are to layout a curve that will be complex as the term near its end.

Since we performed the fieldwork well, our objective where in it states that to be able to lay a simple curve by using the tape alone was met. We encountered minor problems which are easily solved such as the setting of the tangent y offsets that creates a right angle with the extended of the previous line.

Overall, the fieldwork is just very easy since it is only a simple curve. Comparing this fieldwork and the previous one, they differ in method but the concept and the laid out curve will be the same. Actually, the previous one is easier because it conserve a lot of time since you have both theodolite and tape but the advantage of this method is that it is practical to use whenever you dont have a theodolite in hand.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

I would like to extend my appreciation to those people and institution that helped us accomplish this particular field work. Thank you to my professor for making us laugh in the class which lessens the pressure and stress we feel. I would like also to thank the surveying lab assistants who let us borrow the materials that we are going to use in the field and for patiently waiting for us to return all of it. Thank you also to my parents who are always supportive on me whatever I do. Thank you to my group mates for their cooperation and time for the completion of the field work. To the Intramuros guards, thank you also because they helped us get rid of the street children that keep on annoying us while doing our field work. Lastly, thanks to the God Almighty for giving us a cloudy weather and for making us always enlightened and guided. Thank you also to my other references which gave me more ideas and concrete facts that are added in this report.