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THE LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY

OF GUELPH

Date due

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

'rJ

^7

V^

DE AETE LOGISTIC!

JOANNIS NAPEEI
MEKCHISTONII BARONIS
LIBRI QUI SUPERSUNT.

IMPRESSUM EDINBURGI
M.DCCC.XXXIX.

THE LIBRARY UNIVERSITY OF GUELPH

At a Meeting
House

of the

COMMITTEE

of the

BANNATYNE CLUB, held

in the

of the President, on

Monday

the 28th of January, 1839,

"

RESOLVED, That One Hundred and One Copies

of a

Volume,

entitled

JOANNIS NEPERI A MERCHISTOUN BARONIS DE ARTE LOGISTICA

LIBRI TRES, be subscribed for in the name of the Club, to

MARK
for that

NAPIER,
number."

ESQ., Advocate

and that Club paper be furnished

Extracted from the Minutes of the Club.

DAVID LAING,

Secretary.

SEPTEMBER, M.DCCC.XXXIX.

THOMAS THOMSON, ESQ.


PRESIDENT.

THE EARL OF ABERDEEN. THE EARL OF ASHBURNHAM. THE DUKE OF BEDFORD.


LORD BELHAVEN AND HAMILTON. ROBERT BELL, ESQ.
WILLIAM BELL, ESQ. WILLIAM BLAIR, ESQ.

THE
10

REV. PHILIP BLISS, D.C.L.

JOHN BORTHWICK, ESQ. BERIAH BOTFIELD, ESQ,

THE MARQUIS OF BREADALBANE GEORGE BRODIE, ESQ.


CHARLES DASHWOOD BRUCE, ESQ. O. TYNDALL BRUCE, ESQ.

THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH AND QUEENSBERRY.


JAMES CAMPBELL, ESQ.

WILLIAM CLERK, ESQ.


HON. HENRY COCKBURN, LORD COCKBURN, VICEPRESIDENT.

THE BANNATYNE CLUB


DAVID CONSTABLE, ESQ.

20

ANDREW COVENTRY,
JAMES
T.

ESQ.

GIBSON-CRAIG, ESQ., TREASURER.

WILLIAM GIBSON-CRAIG, ESQ.

GEORGE CRANSTOUN,

ESQ.

JAMES DENNISTOUN, ESQ.

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ESQ.

RIGHT HON. W. DUNDAS, LORD CLERK REGISTER.

LORD DUNFERMLINE. LORD FRANCIS EGERTON. SIR CHARLES DALRYMPLE FERGUSSON, BART.
ROBERT FERGUSON, ESQ.
'

30

GENERAL

SIR

RONALD

C.

FERGUSON.

COUNT MERCER DE FLAHAULT. HON. JOHN FULLERTON, LORD FULLERTON.


WILLIAM GOTT, ESQ.

ROBERT GRAHAM,

ESQ.

LORD GRAY.
RIGHT HON. THOMAS GRENVILLE.

THE EARL OF HADDINGTON.


40

THE DUKE OF HAMILTON AND BRANDON.


ED. W. A.
SIR

DRUMMOND HAY, ESQ. THOMAS BUCHAN HEPBURN,

BART.

JAMES MAITLAND HOG, ESQ. LORD HOLLAND.

JOHN HOPE, ESQ., DEAN OF FACULTY. COSMO INNES, ESQ.


DAVID IRVING,
LL.D.

THE BANNATYNE CLUB.


JAMES IVORY,
SIR
50

ESQ.,

SOLICITOR-GENERAL.

HENRY JARDINE.
ESQ.

HON. FRANCIS JEFFREY, LORD JEFFREY.

JOHN GARDINER KINNEAR, THE EARL OF KINNOULL.

DAVID LAING, ESQ., SECRETARY. THE EARL OF LAUDERDALE.


REV.

JOHN LEE, D.D. ALEXANDER WELLESLEY LEITH, LORD LINDSAY.

ESQ.

JAMES LOCH, ESQ. LORD LOVAT.


60

THE MARQUIS OF LOTHIAN. ALEXANDER MACDONALD, ESQ. WILLIAM MACDOWALL, ESQ.


HON.
J.

H.

MACKENZIE, LORD MACKENZIE.

JAMES MACKENZIE, ESQ. JOHN WHITEFOORD MACKENZIE, ESQ. WILLIAM FORBES MACKENZIE, ESQ.
JAMES MAIDMENT, ESQ.

THOMAS MAITLAND,
70

ESQ.

VISCOUNT MELVILLE.

WILLIAM HENRY MILLER, THE EARL OF MINTO.


HON. SIR
J.

ESQ.

W. MONCREIFF, BART.,
A.

LORD MONCREIFF.

HON. SIR JOHN

MURRAY, LORD MURRAY.


ESQ.

WILLIAM MURRAY, ESQ.

MACVEY NAPIER,

THE BANNATYNE CLUB.


SIR FRANCIS

PALGRAVE.

LORD PANMURE.

HENRY PETRIE, ESQ. SIR THOMAS PHILLIPPS, BART.


80

EDWARD

PIPER, ESQ.
ESQ.

ROBERT PITCAIRN,

ALEXANDER PRINGLE, ESQ. JOHN RICHARDSON, ESQ.


THE EARL OF ROSEBERY.
RIGHT HON.
A.

RUTHERFURD, LORD ADVOCATE.

THE EARL OF SELKIRK.


JAMES SKENE, ESQ.

WILLIAM SMYTHE, ESQ.

THE EARL SPENCER.


90

JOHN SPOTTISWOODE,

ESQ.

EDWARD STANLEY,
MAJOR-GENERAL
SIR

ESQ.

JOSEPH STRATON

THE HON. CHARLES FRANCIS STUART. THE DUKE OF SUTHERLAND.

ALEXANDER THOMSON, ESQ. WALTER C. TREVELYAN, ESQ.

DAWSON TURNER, ADAM URQUHART,


100

ESQ.

ESQ.

RIGHT HON. SIR GEORGE WARRENDER, BART.

THE YEN. ARCHDEACON WRANGHAM.

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE'

FRANCIS LORD NAPIER OF MERCHISTON,


ETC.

ETC.

ETC.

MY

DEAR LORD NAPIER,

THIS Memorial of your great Ancestor, which


been

it

has
it

my

ambition to present in a form worthy of the genius

records, I dedicate to you, in


liberality

remembrance of the exemplary

with which the Archives of your noble family have


illustrate the

been always open to


of SCOTLAND.

HISTORY and the LETTERS

Yours

affectionately,

MARK NAPIER.
EDINBURGH, November
1,

1839-

INTRODUCTION.

INTRODUCTION.

IN the Memoirs of NAPIER of MERCHISTON, published in 1834,

some account was given of two manuscript treatises one of Arithmetic, and the other of Algebra composed in Latin by that celebrated mathematician, and which had remained inedited in the charter-chest of his family,
to the world, until the

and indeed unknown

Memoirs were

published.

Upon

that

occasion,

little

more could be

afforded than a very imperfect

review of their contents.


that
it

The

idea subsequently occurred,


if

might gratify the lovers of science

these mathematical

studies of (to adopt the expressions of the historian

" The celebrated Inventor of Logarithms, the


the
title

Hume) person to whom


any other

of

GREAT

MAN

is

more

justly due than to

whom

his

country ever produced,"

were added as an appendix

IV

INTRODUCTION.

to a

new

edition of his Life.

have been induced, however,

to publish the treatises in their present independent

and more

becoming form, by the

of the spirited interposition


;

Bannatyne

and Maitland Clubs of Scotland


of the work,

whose unanimous patronage


in,

with their characteristic care for, and pride

the ancient letters of Scotland,

has alone enabled

me to render

the volume so worthy a memorial of Scotish genius.

Napier's scientific manuscripts

came

into the possession,

not of his eldest son Archibald, thq

first

Lord Napier

of

Merchiston, but of a younger son Robert.


niality of their pursuits,

From

the conge

Robert became

his father's literary

" Logarithexecutor, and edited his posthumous work, entitled

morum Canonis
tion of that

Constructio," being his secret of the construc

three years

Canon of the Logarithms which he had published before his death. Robert Napier, designed of Bo-

whopple, Culcreugh, and Drumquhannie, was the second son of


Napier's second marriage.

The

late

Colonel Milliken Napier,


still

Robert's lineal male representative, was

in possession of

many

private papers of the family at the close of last century.


occasion,

Upon one

when the Colonel was

called

from home on

the service of his country, these papers, along with a portrait


of the great Napier, and a Bible with his autograph, were

deposited for safety in a

room

of the house of Milliken, in

INTRODUCTION.
Renfrewshire.

burned to

During the owner's absence the house was the ground, and the precious relics perished.

As

these manuscripts had not been arranged, nor properly


is

examined, the extent of the loss

unknown

but

it is

more

than probable that


Napier's
served,

among them were the originals from which son Robert made the transcripts accidentally pre

and now given to the public. The manner in which these transcripts had escaped the fate of the Culcreuch papers
appears from the following note, written in the
itself,

MS. volume

by Francis seventh Lord Napier, grandfather of the

present Peer to

whom

it

now

belongs

left

" John Napier of Merchiston, inventor of the Logarithms, his manuscripts to his son Robert, who appears to have
fair

caused the following pages to have been written out


his father's notes, for

from

Mr

Briggs, Professor of Geometry at


to Francis, the fifth

Oxford.

They were given

Lord Napier,

by William Napier of Culcreuch, Esq., heir-male of the above-

named Robert.

Finding them, in a neglected

state,

amongst

my

family papers, I have

bound them together,


"

in order to

preserve

them

entire.

NAPIER."

"

Jth March, 1801."

vi

INTRODUCTION.

The

in the handwriting of transcripts are entirely


is

Robert

Napier himself, as

ascertained beyond doubt by a comparison

with some of his letters in


this title, written

Lord Napier's

charter-chest

and

on the

first leaf, is also in his

handwriting :-

" The Baron of Merchiston


and Algebra.
at Oxforde."

his

booke of Arithmeticke

For

Mr

Henrie Briggs, Professor of Geometric

That they were taken


papers,
is

directly

from the author's own

adds at the proved by the note which the transcriber


:

conclusion of the fragment on Geometrical Logistic

"
all

could find no

more of this Geometricall

pairt

amongst

his fragments."

And

also

by another note which immediately follows the


:

abrupt termination of the Algebra

" There

is

no more of his Algebra orderlie

sett

doun."

These notes, of which fac-similes


respective places in this volume,
to
;

will

be found in their

seem to have been addressed

Henry Briggs and they not only prove that the transcripts were made from Napier's private manuscripts, but that Napier
form now
and that more remained to be digested and arranged.

himself had so far written out the treatises in the


published,

INTRODUCTION.

vii

The

late

Lord Napier, whose untimely death

in China, a

few years ago, attracted the mournful interest of the public,


intrusted to myself, before his departure on that mission, the

many
full

curious and valuable historical relics of his family, with

permission to publish whatever might serve to illustrate

the history and letters of Scotland.

This task I have now

accomplished, with at least industrious zeal, in the Memoirs


of Merchiston, the History of the Lennox, the

Memoirs of

Montrose, and,

finally,

the editing of this beautiful, though

unfinished treatise,

DE ARTE

LOGISTICA.

The

authenticity of the

MS.,

as

an unpublished work of the

Inventor of Logarithms, being thus unquestionable, the date


of
its

composition becomes an interesting enquiry, in reference

to the history of science in Scotland.

As Napier

died in the

year 1617, no later date can be assigned to thesa mathematical


studies than the

commencement

of the seventeenth century


is

an epoch when the light of science

only said to have dawned,

in our country, because of the publication of his

own

invention
is

of Logarithms.

From

the internal evidence, however, there

every reason to suppose, that,

when

so

much

of his Arithmetic

doun" by Napier, the system of Logarithms was not only unknown to the world, but had not as yet been developed in the mind of the inventor
orderlie sett

and Algebra was thus "

INTRODUCTION.
himself.

Consequently, a

much

earlier date

must be assigned
are, in all

to the compositions
bility,

now

published.

They

proba

the first-fruits of that immortal genius which eventually

greatest

drew from the mysterious depths of Numbers their pearl of will be re Napier's Arithmetic and Algebra price.
all

garded with reverential interest by


appreciate the analytical power,

who

can, in any degree,


effects of

and the practical

the

Logarithms

especially

if,

in those treatises,

we can

trace the

Scotish Baron, ere he preparatory labours of this secluded so unexpectedly displayed himself on a pinnacle of science to

which Kepler himself paid homage.

" Napier published his great work, entitled Mirifici Canonis

Logarithmorum Descriptio," in the year 1614. By that time his mind was so deeply engrossed with the subject, and he was
so constantly, employed,

during the short interval between

the date of that publication and his death in 1617,


plans for extricating science

with his

from the trammels of ordinary

calculation, that his Arithmetic

imagined to have been his

and Algebra can hardly be But what latest compositions.


is,

appears decisive upon the point

that there cannot be dis

covered throughout the whole of the work


allusion

now

printed an

even to the principle of the Logarithms.

complete
in his

exposition of the subject

was not, indeed, to be expected

INTRODUCTION.
treatise of Arithmetic

but neither

is it

to be supposed that
fifth

he would have written, for instance, the " De second book of


Arithmetic,
tionis

chapter of his

Multiplicationis et Parti-

Compendiis Miscellaneis,"

after

having published the

Logarithms, without the slightest allusion to that means of


substituting, for the real numbers, a set of artificial

numbers

rendering the whole art of calculation compendious beyond the

most sanguine hopes of emancipated Astronomy.


even more improbable that the treatises in question
far

It is

were composed, or so

reduced to order, at some period in

the long interval which must have elapsed between the author's

conception of the Logarithms, and the construction of those

by which the glory of the invention was secured to himself, and the benefit bestowed upon mankind. In his book of Geometrical Logistic, Napier seems to allude
to the Arithmetic of Surds as a discovery of his own, the full

elaborate works

value of which he promises afterwards to disclose.

Had

he

been conscious at
the Logarithms,

this

time of the far more important secret of


first

which, after his

conception of the idea,


there would, in
it.

was
all

his daily labour to the

end of

his days,

probability, have been

some

allusion to

Indeed, his

great invention must have formed a most interesting chapter


of his work

DE ARTE

LOGISTICA, had he lived to complete


b

it.

INTRODUCTION.

Not only

is

there no mention of his

Canon of the Loga

rithms in these treatises, but when, to illustrate the relation

between the powers of numbers and their indices, there


exhibited the following table,
I.
1.

is

II.
4.

III.
8.

IIII.
16.

V.
32.

VI.
64.

VII.
128,

2.

no allusion occurs to the


illustration

fact, that this table also affords

an

of the logarithmic principle.

The upper

series

are not only indices to the lower series, considered as powers,

but they are Logarithms to those numbers, being an arith


metical adapted to

a geometrical progression.

The word

Logarithms was compounded by Napier before he published his discovery, and this term itself embodies the principle
illustrated

(though on a very limited scale) by the above


figures.

arrangement of

Agtdpoi signifies

numbers

the ratios of numbers, or rather the


aptifux.

number of
his

ratios,

Now, although Napier expounded

system

of

Logarithms through

his geometrical idea of fluxions

(a de

monstration and a term afterwards adopted by Newton), and not through the doctrine of powers and exponents, yet he could not have composed the term without a

Logarithms

perfect

knowledge of the connexion of his system with the

arithmetic of proportions.

INTRODUCTION.

xi

It can scarcely be doubted, then, that the composition of

Napier's treatise of

Numbers
;

is

prior in date even to his

conception of the Logarithms


natural to any one

a conclusion that will seem very


his

who has examined

works on the subject,

and who

is

at all capable of appreciating the

command

of the

science of

Numbers which those works


was not

evince.

Undoubtedly,

his great invention

(as is alleged of the theory of

gravitation) the result of a sudden thought or suggestion, in

some happy moment of genius. from the arcana of Numbers,


sort of Csesarean operation,
science.

It

was laboriously

elicited

deliberately extracted,

by a

from the unripe

womb

of analytical

Napier himself alludes to


a most interesting

this predetermination of

his genius, in

letter,

the last he ever wrote.

It is prefixed as

a dedication, to the Chancellor of Scotland,

of his RHABDOLOGIA, or the art of computing by means of


figured rods, better

known by the name

of " Neper's bones."

In the present attempt to trace the chronological order of his


works, I

may here

take the liberty to translate this letter from


all

the original Latin, the language in which he composed

his

mathematical works

rii

INTRODUCTION.

" To the most

illustrious

Alexander Seton, Earl of

Dunfermline, Lord of Fyvy and Urquhart,


Chancellor of Scotland, &c.

High

" The
Sir),

difficulty

and

calculation prolixity of

(most illustrious

toil

which

is

from the study apt to deter most people


all

of mathematics, I have,

my

life,

with what powers and

little

to eradicate. genius I possess, laboured

And, with that end

in

view, I published of late years the

Canon

of Logarithms (for

a long period elaborated by me), which, rejecting the natural

numbers, and the more

difficult

operations performed by them,

substitutes in their place others affording the

same

results

by

means of easy

additions, subtractions,

and extractions of roots.

Of which Logarithms, species much superior


grant

indeed, I have
to the former,

now found out another


and intend,
if

God

shall

me

longer

life,

and the possession of health, to make

known the method of constructing, as well as the manner of using them. But the actual computation of this new Canon, on
account of the infirmity of

my

bodily health, I have

left

to

some

who

are well versant in such studies;

and

especially to that

most learned man, Henry Briggs, public professor of geometry in London, my most beloved friend. Meanwhile, however, for
the sake of those

who may

prefer to

work with the natural

numbers as they stand, I have excogitated three other compen dious modes of calculation. The first is by means of numerating

INTRODUCTION.
rods,

xiii

and

this I

have called RHABDOLOGIA.


all for

Another, by far the

most expeditious of

multiplication,

and which, on that

account, I have not inaptly termed the


PLICATION, box.
is

PROMPTUARY OF MULTI

by means of

little

plates of metal disposed in a

And,

lastly,

a third method, namely, LOCAL ARITHMETIC But, to the publication of this

performed upon a chess-board.


little

work, concerning the mechanism and use of the rods, I

was

specially impelled, not

merely by the fact that they are so

approved of as to be already almost in


carried to foreign countries
;

common
it

use,

and even

but because

also reached

my

ears that your kindness advised

me

so to do, lest they should

be published in the
sing with Virgil,
'

name

of another, and I be compelled to

Hos ego

versiculos

feci,'

&c.

This very friendly counsel from your Lordship ought to have


the greatest weight with

me and most
;

assuredly, but for that,

this little treatise of the use of the rods (to

which the other two

compendious methods are added, by way of appendix), would


never have seen the
light.
If,

therefore, any thanks be due


all

from

the students of mathematics for these little books, they


to

belong

you

as your just right,


fly,

my

noble

Lord

to you, indeed,

they must spontaneously


parent
:

not only as patron, but a second


that you have done these

especially since I

am assured

INTRODUCTION.
rods of mine such high honour as to have

them framed, not of

common
good

materials, but of silver.

Accept, then,
it is
;

my

Lord,
it

in

such as part, this small work,

and, though

be not

take worthy of so great a Maecenas,


as a child of your

it

under your patronage

own.

And so I earnestly pray God to preserve


state, to preside

you long, to us and the " Your

over justice and equity.

Lordship's very

much

obliged

"JOHN NAPIER,
" Baron of Merchiston."

The

date of the volume to which this letter

is

prefixed

is

1617, and Napier died upon the 4th of April in that

same

year.

We
of

learn from

it

the chronological order of the composition

all his

published works.

In the

first place,

he had long and


elaboratum"-

laboriously
his

wrought out

"a

me longo tempore
Then he

Canon

of the Logarithms.

excogitated

" exco-

gitavimus"

the mechanical system of calculating rods, for the

sake of those

who might be

distrustful of his artificial

system

of Logarithms.

His Promptuary of Multiplication, which

immediately follows the Rhabdologia, he states to be the latest


of
all

his inventions

" omnium ultimo a nobis inventum

sit
it

hoc Multiplications Promptuarium "

-though he gives

precedence in the volume, according to his estimate of


importance.

its

He had

previously invented his

mode

of calcu-

INTRODUCTION.
lating with the abacus or chess-board, in the preface of

XV

which

he again refers to the origin of


that
it

all

these inventions,
his life to

namely,
fetters

was the constant labour of

rend the

with which science was yet subdued.


he,

" In the course," says

" of devoting every moment of my leisure," doubtless, from what he considered his great calling, the exposition of " to the invention of these the Revelations, compendious

methods of
labour and

calculation,
toil

and to the enquiry by what means the

of calculation might be removed, besides the

Logarithms, Rhabdologia, the Promptuary of Multiplication,


.and other devices, I hit upon a certain arithmetical table,
which, as
it

performs the more troublesome operations of

common
of

upon an abacus or chess-board, may be considered an amusement rather than labour ; for, by means
arithmetic
it,

addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,

and even

the extraction of roots, are accomplished, simply by moving-

counters hither and thither upon the board.


to consign
itself,
it

Unwilling either

to oblivion, or to publish so small a matter by


it

I have prefixed

to

my

Rhabdologia, in addition to the

Promptuary,

for the benefit of the studious

and the

criticism

of the learned."

That Napier composed his Rhabdologia after the year 1614, when he published his Canon of the Logarithms, is also indi-

xvj

INTRODUCTION.

cated by the fact, that in the minor


selects, as

work (Lib.

I.

cap. 2) he

a numerical example,

" Annus Domini 1615."

Now,
must

an invention of earlier date than supposing the Rhabdologia


the Logarithms (which latter, as will presently appear,

be referred to some time in the previous century), the year of

our Lord 1615, when thus selected for the example, was a year
yet to

come

and

it is

not likely that such an example would

have occurred to him, in place of a year either present or past.

Probably the year selected was that in which Napier was writing
at the time, a supposition perfectly consistent with his state

ment,

in the letter to the Chancellor, that this

minor invention

was for the benefit of those who might be disinclined to use the
Logarithms, and that
it

had become well known, and even been was induced to publish
it.

carried abroad, before he

For 1615

was the year after the publication of the Logarithms, and


the Rhabdologia was not printed until 1617.

There

is

only one circumstance which seems to interfere


;

with this chronology

but

it is

easily explained.

In the

fifth

chapter of the second book of his Arithmetic,

when expound

ing various compendious methods of multiplication and division,

Napier adds,
nostril-."

" Sive omnium facillime per ossa Rhabdologiae This might be supposed to afford decisive evidence

that the Rhabdologia

was composed before the book of Arith-

INTRODUCTION.
metic.
It

xvii

must be observed, however, that the expressions quoted are written on the margin of Robert Napier's manu mark in the text where the note should script, and there is a
be inserted,
a direction complied with in printing the present

volume

(p. 42).
;

Probably

this

note was an addition of the

transcriber's

or perhaps Napier himself had subsequently

added

it

to his

MS.,

after the invention of the calculating rods

had occurred.

If the note be contemporary with the composi


is

tion of the treatise, then undoubtedly the latter

of a sub

sequent date to his Rhabdologia.

But

there

is

another circum

stance which seems to render this supposition totally out of the


question.
fractions,

In Napier's Arithmetic occurs a genesis of decimal

and perhaps the earliest on record. But the peculiar notation of decimals, from which the system derives all its

power

as a reciprocation of the Arabic scale,

and which Napier


in

could not have failed to use and


of a decimal fraction,
is

comment upon

any notice

when once aware

of the expedient,

not hinted at in the treatise on Arithmetic.


is

Now,

in the

Rhabdologia, there

a section (of the fourth chapter) entitled


being his exposition
in use at the present

" Admonitio pro Decimali Arithmetical,"


of that very notation of decimals which
day.
is

Napier had

hit

upon

this

admirable expedient when


the
first

constructing his

Canon

of the Logarithms,

mathe

matical work in which the arithmetic of decimal fractions was

xv jjj

INTRODUCTION.
full

in developed, and displayed

operation.

This circumstance

of

itself

tise

that the composition of his trea appears to determine on Arithmetic is prior in date both to the invention of the

Logarithms and of the Rhabdologia.

It

is

in composing very probable that Napier's progress,

a complete digest of Numbers, might have been interrupted, and that work set aside for the time, in consequence of those
his very operations having suggested

more profound inven

tions

but that he composed his Arithmetic and Algebra sub


is

sequently to those inventions

most improbable, considering


works are 1614 and 1617, and
of the latter year.

that the dates of his published

that he died in the


over,
it

month of April

More

appears that, at the time of his death, Napier was

occupied in bringing to perfection his most elaborate and beautiful work, the " Constructio Logarithmorum ; " which
treatise,

although

it

did not see the light until


it

two years
he had

after his death,


left in

when

was edited by

his son Robert,

a state for publication.

This volume, with some pro

found and original aids to the science of trigonometry added


as a

supplement to

it,

must have occupied

all

the time which deeply engaged

he devoted to mathematics, (for he was

still

with the Apocalypse,) between the date of the publication of


the

Canon of Logarithms and the date of

his death.

The

INTRODUCTION.

xix

concluding sentences of his Canon afford so interesting a

view of the

last

labours of Napier's

life,

that I

may

here

quote them from the English translation of 1616, which he


revised himself:

"

Now,

therefore,

it

hath been

sufficiently

showed that there


;

are Logarithms, what they are, and of what use they are

for

with help of them, we have both demonstratively showed, and

taught by examples of both kinds of trigonometry, that the


arithmetical solution of any geometrical question

may most

readily be performed without trouble of multiplication, division,

or extraction of roots.
table of

You

have, therefore, the admirable

Logarithms that was promised, together with the most

plentiful use thereof, which, if (to

you of the learned

sort) I
shall

by
be In
all
all

your letters understand to be acceptable to you, I

encouraged to
the

set forth also the

way

to

make the

table.

mean

time,

make use

of this short treatise, and give

praise

and glory to God, the high Inventor and Guider of

good works."
follows an isolated sentence which he terms "

Then

Admo-

he refers to his theological labours when, in that sentence, he speaks of " rerum graviorum cura" having interfered with the perfecting of his mathematical work
nitio ;" and, probably,
:

\\

INTRODUCTION.

"

Seeing that the calculation of this table, which ought to

have been perfected by the labour and pains of


tors,

many
it
it.

calcula
will

has been accomplished by that of one alone,


if

not

be surprising

many

errors have crept into

I beseech

you, benevolent readers, pardon these, whether occasioned by


the weariness of calculation, or an oversight of the press
as for myself, the infirm state of
;

for

my

health,

and weightier

occupations, have prevented


if

my

adding the

last finish.

But

shall

understand that the use of this invention proves

acceptable to the learned, I may, perhaps, in a short time

(God

willing) publish the philosophy of

it,

and the method

eithec of

amending

this

Canon, or of constructing a new one


;

upon a more convenient plan

that thus, through the

dili

gence of many calculators, a Canon, more highly finished and accurate than the labour of a single individual could accom
plish,

may

at length see the light.

Nothing

is

perfect at

its

birth."

Yet the work had been long and intensely laboured, and came from his hands nearly perfect. No sooner had KEPLER
perused
fc

it,

than he addressed his enthusiastic letter to this

most

illustrious

Baron," as he

calls

him,

the mysterious

hermit of the sciences, whose startling appeal to the great


continental astronomers, issuing

from the terra incognita of

INTRODUCTION.
Scotland, had

xxi

come upon the immortal German like a voice from another world. Ere Kepler's letter reached Scotland,
Napier was no more.

The

" response came not from

The

Baron of Merchiston," who was no longer old tower on " the Borough-muir," nor

to be found in his
in
his

yet

more

romantic retreats in the Lennox and Menteith.

Had
and

he been

spared to reply, and to express his delight at the homage of


Kepler,
it

might have been

said, of this eloquent

electric

sympathy between the distant


"

orbits of

Kepler and Napier,

Rude

Scotia's

mountains now have found a tongue

Benlomond answers, through his misty shroud, Back to the joyous Alps, who call to him aloud."

But, to return to a

less poetical

view of the matter, Robert

Napier, the transcriber of the manuscripts

now

published, was

he who responded to Kepler's ardent request, by publishing " his father's Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio;" and, to
complete this review of the nature and chronological order of
Napier's mathematical studies, I shall here translate the preface
to his

posthumous work, which was published

in

1619

" Some years ago,

my

father, of ever venerated

memory,
;

published the use of the Wonderful

Canon

of Logarithms
it,

but

the construction and method of generating

he, for certain

INTRODUCTION.
reasons, was unwilling to

commit to

types, as he mentions

upon

the seventh and the last pages of the Logarithms, until he

knew

how
this

it

was judged of and

criticised

department that this new invention assured, from undoubted authority,

of letters.

by those who are versed in But since his death I have been
is

much thought

of by the most able mathematicians, and that

them nothing would delight


his

more than

if

the construction of

Wonderful Canon, or so much at


it,

least as

might

suffice to

illustrate

were published for the benefit of the world.


it is

Although, therefore,

very manifest to

me

that the author

had not put


what
afford
in

his last finish to this little

work, I have done

me

as well as to lay to satisfy their laudable desires,


assistance, especially to those
stick at the

Some

who

are weak in such


I doubt not,

studies,

and apt to

very threshold.

however, that this posthumous work would have seen the light
in

a far more perfect and finished state,


dearest father,

if

to the author himself,

my

who, according to the opinion of the best


other illustrious gifts this in particular,

judges, possessed

among

that he could explicate the

most

difficult

matter by some sure

and easy method, and


a longer use of
life.

in the fewest

words,

God had

granted

You

have, then (benevolent reader), the

doctrine of the construction of Logarithms, which here he


calls artificial

numbers,

for

he had

this treatise beside

him

composed for several years before he

invented

the word

INTRODUCTION.
Logarithms,

xxiii

most copiously unfolded, and

their nature, acci-

dences, and various adaptations to their natural numbers, per

spicuously demonstrated.

I have also thought

good to subjoin

to the Construction itself a certain appendix, concerning the

method of forming another and more


and

excellent

species of
epistle

Logarithms, to which the inventor himself alludes in his


prefixed to the Rhabdologia,
in

which the Logarithm of


last is that

unity

is 0.

The

treatise

which comes

which, tend

ing to the utmost perfection of his Logarithmic trigonometry,

was the

fruit of his latest toil,

namely, certain very remarkable

propositions for resolving spherical triangles, without the neces


sity of dividing

them

into quadrantal or rectangular triangles,

and which are absolutely general. These, indeed, he intended to have reduced to order, and to have successively demon
strated,

had not death snatched him from us too soon.

I have

added some lucubrations upon these propositions, and


the

also

upon

new

species of Logarithms, calculated

by that most excel

lent mathematician,

Henry Briggs,

public professor in

London,

who undertook most

willingly the very severe labour of this

Canon, in consequence of the singular affection that existed between him and my father of illustrious memory, the method
of construction and explanation of
its

use being

left

to the
this

inventor himself.
life,

But now,

since he has been called

from

the whole burden of the business rests upon the learned

INTRODUCTION.
Briggs, as

if it

were

his peculiar destiny to

adorn

this Sparta.

In the

mean

labours such as they are, while, reader, enjoy these


in

and receive them

good

part.

Farewell.

"

ROBERT NEPER."
from

From

this history of Napier's studies, derived chiefly


is

himself and his son, the conclusion

inevitable, that the

work

now given

to the public was


;

composed before

his conception
his

of the Logarithms

and that that invention, as well as

to subsequent minor inventions, arose out of the very attempt,

he indicates in the abridge the toils of calculation, which

fifth

" chapter of the second book of his Arithmetic,


cationis et Partitionis

De

Multipli-

Compendiis Miscellaneis."

In order to

ascertain, then, the age of his Arithmetic

and Algebra, we must

determine, as nearly as possible, the period of time

when he

formed his conception of the Logarithms.

No

one who has taken the trouble to examine Napier's

original works, or

who understands any thing

of the nature

and construction of Logarithms, can doubt that many years of labour must have elapsed, between the first idea of the system
in

the inventor's mind, and

its

publication, in 1614,

accom

panied with calculated tables of Logarithms.


lished after his death

The work pub

had been composed for several years, as

INTRODUCTION.

XXV

we

are informed by his son, ere Napier had

compounded the

term Logarithms, under which denomination, however, they


were
first

published.
his

He

himself alludes to the long labour


fact that his

bestowed upon

Canon, and to the interesting


"

operose calculations were entirely performed by himself.

M.

" extrait Biot, in his review and

of the

Memoirs

of Napier,

published in the Journal des Savans for the year 1835, after

passing the highest encomiums upon the genius of Napier's

works, thus speaks of the mechanical labour of the calcula


tions
:

" Besides the merit of the invention, Napier's tables are a


prodigy of laborious patience.

As we

reflect
all

upon the time


those numbers,
7

and

toil it

must have

cost

him

to calculate

we shudder

at the chances there

were of
its

his being cut oft ere


It

he had realized his idea, and of

having died with him.

has been said, and Delambre repeats the observation, that the
last figures of his
it

numbers are inaccurate.

This

is

true

but

would have been a more valuable truth to have ascertained

whether the inaccuracy resulted from his method, or from some


error of calculation in applying
it.

This

is

what I have done ;


slight error,

and I have discovered an error of the kind, a very


in the last

term of the second progression, which he forms pre


All the successive

paratory to the calculation of his tables.

xxv

INTRODUCTION.

from this one, the trifling error in question steps being deduced I corrected his the calculations. is thus carried on
through
error,

and then, adopting

his

own method, but abridging


which

the
I

our operations by
calculated the

more rapid processes of developement,


of 5000000,
is

logaritlim

the last in the errors


;

that Napier's table, and consequently

upon which

all

accumulate.

found for
series, it

its

value 6931471.808942

whereas,

by the modern
the difference
in
like

ought to be 6931471.805599.
at the tenth figure.

Thus

commences

I calculated,

manner, the hyperbolic

logarithm,

with

Napier's

numbers corrected, and found


while,

for its value


it

2.3025850940346,
;

by our present
difference

tables,
falls

is

2.3025850929940

so

the rgal
this is

only

on the ninth decimal.


Callet,

But
in

beyond the range of the tables of


If Napier

which are

daily, use.

had even commanded the services of

a village schoolmaster, to calculate, by the inventor's

own

method of subtractions, a geometrical progression still slower than what he used, a desideratum to which he himself calls
attention, the tables of Briggs, calculated to fourteen deci

mals,

would have possessed no superiority over those of His minor inventions are scarcely worth mention Napier.

ing after this immense invention of Logarithms.


sufficient for the lifetime, as it is for

That was

the fame, of a single

individual."

INTRODUCTION.
It
is

XXV11

interesting to

compare
in

labours,

pronounced

judgment upon Napier's the nineteenth century from the

this

" Admonitio" highest tribunal of science, with that modest


of his own, already quoted, wherein he anticipates the chance,

and deprecates the


calculations.

criticism, of casual errors in his


tells us,

unaided

Biot

that he could only discover " une

petite faute de ce genre,

une

tres petite faute."


first

We

may

assume, then, that Napier's great invention had


to

occurred

him many years before


which

its

publication.

Indeed the following

details,

will serve to

determine the chronology both of

the invention of Logarithms and of the treatises

now submitted

to the public, afford a curious proof that he was in possession

of the secret, and preparing his publication of the Logarithms,

some time before the

close of the sixteenth century.

It is

a remarkable

fact,

not generally known, that


of this

TYCHO

BRAKE obtained some


upon
science,

hint

boon to be conferred

twenty years before Napier's other avocations, added to the tedious labour of the calculations and his

own

diffidence,

permitted him to give his invention to the

world.

Sir Archibald

Napier of Merchiston, the father of

the great Napier, was Justice-Depute in the reign of


of Scotland.

His colleague in that

office

was Sir

Mary Thomas

Craig of Kiccarton, celebrated for his work on Feudal law.

INTRODUCTION.

The

third son of the Feudist

was John Craig, afterwards


;

Dr John
friend of
office.
tie.

Craig, physician

to

James VI.

and he was

also the

John Napier, the son of his father's colleague in But there was another, and perhaps the stronger
studies. given to mathematical

Young Craig was much


is

There
suits,

one record, indeed, of his success in those pur


itself is sufficient to distinguish

which of

his
in

in

that

respect,
still

record

rarely

met with
I allude

memory his own


a small

country, and

seldomer perused.

to

volume of Latin

epistles,

printed at Brunswick in the year

1737, and dedicated by their collector,


tenius," to the

" Rud. Aug. Nolthree


first letters

Duke

of Brunswick.

The

in this- collection are

from

Dr John

Craig to Tycho Brahe,

and they prove that he was upon the most friendly and con He addresses fidential footing with the Danish astronomer. " " Tycho as his honoured friend," and signs himself, your most
affectionate

John Craig, Doctor of Philosophy and Medicine."

The

first

of these letters (which are written in Latin)


fact,

com
last

mences with the

that,

" About the beginning of

winter that illustrious man, Sir William Stewart, delivered to

me your

letter,
is

and the book which you sent me."


not given
;

The

date

of this letter
sity

but, in the Library of the Univer

of Edinburgh, there

is

a mathematical work by Tycho


first

Brahe, which bears, upon the

blank

leaf,

a manuscript

INTRODUCTION.
sentence in Latin to the following effect

xxix

"
:

To Doctor John

Craig of Edinburgh, in Scotland, a most illustrious man,


highly gifted with various and excellent learning, Professor of

Medicine, and exceedingly skilled in the Mathematics, Tycho

Brahe hath sent


this at

this gift,

and with

his

own hand hath

written

URANIBURG, 2d November 1588."

from contemporary records, that, in the month of August 1588, Sir William Stewart, commanding the royal guard of Scotland, was sent to Denmark to arrange the preli
It appears

minaries of

King James's marriage, and that he returned to Edinburgh upon the 15th of November 1588. There can be
no doubt that the volume above-mentioned
in Craig's epistle to
this
is
it

that referred to

Tycho.

Neither can

be doubted that
of
his

was

Dr John

Craig, third son of Sir

Thomas Craig
was raised to

Riccarton, and physician to James VI.

He

highest post in the royal household by a gift from that monarch,

recorded in the Fosdera,

" dilecto nobis Johanni Craigio

in medicinis doctori, officium et

locum

ordinarii, et primarii

medici nostri," dated at Westminster, 20th June, 1603.

This

was the friend of Tycho Brahe and of Napier.

The Danish
his

astronomer transmitted his present to John Craig, from


palace of Uraniburg, with the air of the

Monarch

of Science.

Napier, from his old tower of Merchiston, when writing, in

XXX
the year 1608, to his

INTRODUCTION.

own

son,
in
sail

who was gentleman

of the bed

chamber to King James " Ye


King's physician
:

England, thus remembers the

make my commendatiouns

to

Doctor Craig."

The

facts

now

stated serve to throw light

upon a sentence,

respecting the invention of Logarithms, which occurs in one of


Kepler's letters,

a sentence which has been


Kepler,

little

noticed,

and

never rightly understood.

when writing to

his favourite

correspondent Petrus Cugerus (a mathematician of Dantzic,

and the master of Helvelius) upon the subject of the economy


of the heavenly bodies, and after reveling in his deepest calcu
lations^ declares that, of all

the methods of calculation in aid


;

of astronomy, nothing excels the invention of Napier

and yet

(he adds), even so early as the year 1594, a certain Scotchman,


in

a letter written to Tycho, held out some promise of that

Wonderful Canon. " Nihil autem

The

precise words of Kepler's letter are,


:

supra Neperianam rationem esse puto


literis

etsi,

quidem, Scotus quidam,


scriptis,

ad Tychonem A. CIDIOXCIV.
illius

jam spem

fecit

Canonis

Mirifici."

Kepler was

the pupil of Tycho, and joined

him

as such after the reverse of

fortune which expelled the illustrious

Dane from

his palace of

Uraniburg.
partial

This accounts for Kepler's having obtained some


letter to

knowledge of the

which he

alludes.

But who

INTRODUCTION.
was the " certain Scotchman" from
this

XXXI

whom Tycho

received

important communication before the year 1594,


precisely
?

a date
its

so

given

by Kepler, that we cannot doubt

accuracy

John Craig had long intended


Brahe.

to pay a visit to

Tycho

This appears by his letter of the year 1589, already

quoted, in which he states that five years before he had

made

an attempt to reach Uraniburg, but had been baffled by


storms and the inhospitable rocks of Norway
since, being
;

and that ever

more and more attracted by the accounts, brought by ambassadors and others, of Tycho's fame, and the magni
ficence of his observatories, he

had been longing to

visit

him.

In the year 1590, James VI., the patron of Craig, spent some
days at Uraniburg, before returning to Scotland from his

matrimonial expedition.
physician,

It

cannot be doubted that James's


this

who was long about

monarch's person in a

medical capacity, and eventually at the head of his medical


staff,

would

seize the pro"pitious opportunity, of the progress


;

of his royal master, to visit his friend

and

it is

not unlikely

that Craig himself had suggested or encouraged the visit of

master to Uraniburg. Dr Craig, it is most pro " certain Scotchman" to whom bable, was the Kepler alludes,
his royal

and who,

in the year

1594, had written a promise of the

xxx|i

INTRODUCTION.

Brahe. Logarithms to Tycho


in the year 1690, the

For

after his visit to

Tycho,

to person in Scotland,

whom

Craig would

most eagerly unfold the wonders of Uraniburg, was Napier of


Merchiston.

Frederick

II.

of

Denmark, the munificent patron of Tycho,


adding honours and revenues, and

had established that philosopher on the island of Huen, situated


at the

mouth of the

Baltic,

which the most ardent astro every aid and encouragement

nomer could

desire.

Upon
It

the 8th of August, 1576, the

first

stone of the far-famed castle or palace of Uraniburg was laid


in

Tycho's principality.

was a vast quadrangle, the dimen


and flanked with
lofty

sions being sixty feet every way,

towers

thirty-two feet in diameter, the observatories of this palace of


science.

Tycho

is

also said to

have

fitted it

up with certain

mysterious tubes, and other telegraphic contrivances, which


enabled him to communicate with his domestics as
if

by magic,

and obtain secret knowledge of


their arrival.

his

many

visitors

long before

In the year 1590, that in which King James visited Tycho,


Napier's fertile genius, unaided by the encouragement of royal

patronage, was teeming with various discoveries in mechanical


science (besides his speculations in the science of

Numbers),

INTRODUCTION.

xxxiii

which, like Archimedes of old, he intended should be applied


for the defence of the island against foreign invasion.

A
he
his

report

made

to Napier by his friend


at

Dr

Craig,

of

all

had seen and heard

Uraniburg,

when there with

Majesty, would perfectly account for the following sentence of


Napier's admonitory letter to
his

King James (on the


" For

subject of

Majesty's supposed inclination to Popery),


:

dated from

Merchiston, 29th January, 1593

let

not your Majesty

doubt but that there are within your realm, as well as in other

and good ingynes, versed and exercised in all manner of honest science, and godly discipline, who, by your
countries, godly

Majesty's

instigation,

might

yield

forth

works and

fruits

worthy of memory, which otherwise, lacking some mighty


Maecenas to incourage them,
eternal silence."

may perchance

be buried with

His conversations with

Dr

Craig might suggest to Napier,

not merely this hint to King James, that his Majesty should
patronise science in Scotland, but the transmission of a hint
to

Tycho himself on the

subject of astronomical calculation.

If the

King of Denmark, when he invested Tycho with some

thing like eastern splendour, could have added the power that
still

of the world lay hid in Arabic numbers, a false system


at

would not have been re-established

Huen.

It

was

in the

INTRODUCTION.

means of astronomical
Brahe was most

calculation that the science of

Tycho
which

deficient.

Now

Kepler

tells us,

that even so

that in early as in the year 1594, (the year following


Napier's letter to

had written to

King James is dated,) a certain Scotchman Tycho some promise of the Logarithms. After
it

the facts referred to,

can scarcely be doubted that this

correspondent from Scotland was none other than Tycho's


old friend

and correspondent there, the learned physician of


also the friend of Napier,

King James, and


could not
visit
all

with

whom

he

fail

to have often discussed the subject of the royal

to Uraniburg.

And

this appears to

be placed beyond

doubt, when, to what has been already stated,

we add

the following anecdote,

somewhat imperfectly recorded by

Anthonv-a-Wood. w

That indefatigable and amusing


thus narrates
it,

collector of literary gossip


:

in the

Athense Oxonienses

"

It

must now

be known that one

Dr

Craig, a Scotchman, coming out of

Denmark

into his

own

country, called upon Joh. Neper,

Baron
other

of Marcheston, near Edinburgh, and told him,


discourses, of a

among

new

invention in

tanus, as

'tis

said, to

Denmark, by Longomonsave the tedious multiplication and divi


Neper being
solicitous to

sion in astronomical calculations.

know

further of

him concerning

this matter,

he could give no

INTRODUCTION.
other account of
it

xxxv

than that

it

was by proportional numbers.

Neper taking, he desired him at his return to call upon him again. Craig, after some weeks had passed, did so, and Neper then shewed him a rude draught of what he called
hint

Which

Canon

Mirabilis

Logarithmorum.

Which
it

draught, with some


into the

alterations,

he printing in 1614,

came forthwith

hands of our author Briggs, and into those of Will. Oughtred,

from

whom

the relation of this matter came."

Any

one at

all

conversant with the history of science, and

the nature of the invention of Logarithms, will at once per


ceive, that,

whatever foundation in fact

this

anecdote

may

have,

it is

here inaccurately and ignorantly told.

Longomon-

tanus was the pupil and assistant of Tycho at Uraniburg, and


a most distinguished mathematician.

He,

in

common

with

many

others,

was well acquainted with a principle of numerical


the

progression,

extraordinary generalization

of which by

Napier

is

that which constitutes the invention of Logarithms.


first

Archimedes had

observed and speculated upon such pro

gressions, but without discovering the Logarithms. It could not

possibly be, that a hint

from Longomontanus had suggested


;

to Napier his great invention

for if a hint of the kind could

have urged any human


tion

upon the concep of the Logarithms themselves, that hint had arisen in the
intellect thus rapidly

XXX vi

INTRODUCTION.

school of Alexandria, was

submerged

in the middle ages,

and

rose again with the letters of Greece,

a hint which Tycho

had, which Stifellius, Byrgius,

Longomontanus, and Kepler


it

himself had
letters,

yet

no more was made of

after the revival of


fall.

than had been by Archimedes before their

Kepler

too, informs us, that in the year 1594,

something regarding'

the generalization of this numerical principle had actually been the secret was still undis reported in a letter to Tycho ; yet In a covered until Napier published his Canon in 1614.
letter,

dated
after

llth March, 1618,

to

his

friend

Schikhart,

Kepler,

descanting upon the various

difficulties

and

resources of trigonometry, exclaims,


started up, his

"

Scotish

Baron has

name

I cannot

remember, but he has put forth

some wonderful mode by which all necessity of multiplications and divisions is commuted to mere additions and subtractions,
nor does he make any use of a table of sines
;

still,

however,

he requires a canon of tangents, and the variety, frequency, and


difficulty of additions

and subtractions,

in

some

cases exceed the


first

labour of multiplication and division."

This was the

crude

and inaccurate idea formed by Kepler of the work which he had not yet studied and already the Scotish Baron whose name
;

he could not remember was

in his

grave

But of

this fact

Kepler was not aware even on the 28th July, 1619, when he thus addressed Napier himself
:

INTRODUCTION.
" But the chief cause that impeded
in

XXXvii

my

progress this year,

framing the Rudolphine Tables, was an entirely new, but


befallen a part of the Tables I

happy calamity, which has


long ago completed.

had

I mean,

most
at

illustrious

Baron, that

book of thine, which, published


years ago, I
first

Edinburgh

in Scotland five

saw at Prague the year before last. At that time I had not leisure to study it ; but last year, having met
with a
little

book by Benjamin Ursin (long

my

familiar,

and

now astronomer

to the Margrave), wherein he briefly gives the

marrow of the matter, extracted from your own work, I was awakened to its merits. Scarcely, indeed, had I made trial of
it,

in a single example,

when

I became aware, to

my

great

delight, that

which I

you had generalized a certain play of Numbers, myself, in a very minute degree, had practically

adopted for many years, and had proposed to incorporate with

my
this
this

Tables

especially in the matter of parallaxes,


;

and

in the

minutes of duration and delay in eclipses

of which

method

very Ephemeris exhibits an example. I knew, indeed, that

method of mine was only

applicable in the single case of

an arc differing in no sensible degree from a straight line. But of this I was ignorant, that, from the excesses of the
secants,

LOGARITHMS could be generated, thus rendering the

method universal throughout any extent of arc. Then indeed my mind, above all things, was eager to ascertain, whether,

xxxvm
in

INTRODUCTION.
book of Ursin's, these Logarithms had been to my aid, therefore, Janus
Calling

this little

accurately investigated

Gringalletus Sabaudus,

my

familiar, I ordered

him to subtract

the thousandth part of the whole sine,

the again, to subtract

thousandth part of that residue, and to repeat this operation more than two thousand times, until there remained about the
tenth part of the whole sine
;

but of the sine from which a

thousandth part had been subtracted, I computed the loga rithm with the care, beginning from the unit of that
greatest
division

which Pitiscus most frequently uses, namely, the duo

decimal.

The logarithm

thus computed, I arranged uniformly the subtractions.

with the remainders of


I

all

In this manner,

ascertained that these logarithms were as nearly perfect as

possible,

although a few errors had crept

in, either

of the press,

or in that minute distribution of the greater logarithms about

the beginning of the quadrant.

mention

all this

to you by
it

the way, in order that you

may understand how

gratifying
if

would

be, to

me
Of

at least

(and I should think to others),

you

would put the world


proceeded.

in possession of the

methods by which you

these, I

make no doubt, you have many, and


intuitively.

most ingenious, at your command

And

so the

promise held out by you on the 57th page of your work," (to
put the world in possession of his methods of constructing the

Logarithms, should he understand that the invention was

INTRODUCTION.
approved of by

XXxix

men

of science,) " has fallen due to the public.


,-/r

And now

let

us grapple with your Tables."

This interesting

letter,

written after he to

whom

it

was

addressed had been dead for nearly two years, affords the most

complete refutation of that part of the anecdote, in the Athense


Oxonienses, which seems to impute Napier's invention to a

sudden thought suggested by a hint from Kepler's intimate


friend

and companion Longomontanus.

Kepler himself, in
namely,

this letter, refers the invention to its true source,

Napier's surpassing

command

of the science of Numbers.

Astronomy obtained for him the daring title of Legislator of the Heavens, bowed at the shrine of the Logarithms, and at once, and without
discoveries in

Kepler, whose

own immortal

reserve, acknowledged Napier as his master in Logistic.

A
also

quaint indication, of his estimate of Napier's invention,

is

to be discovered in the frontispiece to those Rudolphine Tables

of which he speaks in his letter.


elliptical

The

telescope of Galileo, the

orbit of a planet, the system of Copernicus,

and a

female figure with the Napierian Logarithm of half the radius


of a circle arranged as a glory round her head, are there
delineated as figurative of the mighty impulses which Astro

nomy had

received in those days.

But

that the anecdote of


is

Anthony-a-Wood has some foundation

in fact

obvious,

when

INTRODUCTION.

Doctor we compare it with what has been previously stated. The


Craig therein mentioned
physician of
into his
in 1590.
is

undoubtedly Napier's friend, the

King James

and the " coming out of Denmark

own

his return with his Majesty country," refers to

with Moreover, that Craig had some conversation

his friend the

Baron of Merchiston on the

subject of astrono

mical calculations, and that the result was

some communication
verified

on the subject of the Logarithms, seems to be

by the other letter, where independent evidence afforded by Kepler's


he says that a certain Scotchman, in a letter to Tycho written in the year 1594, already held out some hopes of that won
derful

Canon
of,

a fact which Kepler had subsequently

become

aware

scientific probably from his inspection of Tycho's

papers and correspondence.


of evidence,
it

Thus, by a very curious chain

seems proved, that Napier had made some

advance in his construction of the Logarithms so early as


1594, and that he had set himself deliberately to the task,
after the difficulties

which harassed the throne of Astronomy

at

Uraniburg (in consequence of the crudeness of numerical

science)

had been reported to him in 1590.


the

But, as Kepler

himself observes,
previously
resources.

Inventor of Logarithms must

have

commanded many and most

ingenious numerical

He must

have been far in advance of his age in a

profound knowledge of the mysterious play of Numbers.

His

INTRODUCTION.

xli

mind must have been thoroughly and deeply imbued with the Logistic art, and analytical power, ere he proposed to him
self

the invention of that great lever of science.

Now

it is

in

the Latin treatises, which these observations preface, that

we

may
sent

trace Napier's

command

of Numbers, before he had

formed a conception of the Logarithms.

And

thus the pre


in

work may be

said to afford a

most interesting chapter

the history of the progress

of Science.

digest

of the

whole art of Logistic, equal, in so far as the then existing


numerical notation admits of the comparison, to Euler's in

modern

composed prior to the year 1594, amid the storms of faction which then distracted Scotland, was an
times,

achievement worthy of being crowned by the invention of

Logarithms, for the natural discovery of which, in the gradual

development of algebraic resources, the analytic art was at the


time an age too young.

Another circumstance may here be mentioned which


affords evidence, that,

also

many

years prior to the publication of

the Logarithms, Napier's fame as a mathematician was esta


blished with the learned of his

own countrymen, and


visit

that he

was the person to

whom Dr

Craig would be most eager to


to

converse on the subject of his

Tycho Brahe.

The

celebrated lawyer, and learned and accomplished author, Sir

INTRODUCTION.

John Skene of Currie Hill, when, " De Verborum his treatise


the year 1597), he
terrae,"

in the

course of preparing

Significatione" (first published in

came

to the

which he explains,

word " particata vel " from the French word

perticata
'

perche,'

meikle used in the English lawes, ane ruid of land," adds this

sentence

" But

it

is

necessare that the measurers of land


'

called landimers, in

Latin

agrimensores,' observe and keep

ane just relation betwixt the length and the breadth of the

measures quhilk they use in measuring of lands, quhairanent


find

na mention

in the lawes

and register of this realme,

albeit

ane ordinance thereanent be made by King

Edward
;

the First.

King of England, the 33d


knawledge of
this

yeir of his reigne


is

and because the

matter

very necessare in measuring of

lands dayly used in this realme, I thought


oertaine questions to

good to propone
ane

John Naper.

fear of Merchistoun,

gentleman of singular judgement and learning, especially in the mathematical sciences. the tenour quhairof, and his
answers made thereto, followis."
siderable length,

Napier's answers are of con


his characteristic simplicity

and given with

and power.

If the

composition of the treatises

now published

is

to

be referred to a date prior to the year 1594, which seems to be placed beyond doubt by what has been stated, they are

INTRODUCTION.
interesting

xliii

not

merely as the works


first

of the

Inventor

of

Logarithms, but as being the very


land,

of the kind in Scot

and among the

first

systematic works on

Numbers

after the revival of letters in

Europe.

The

sixteenth cen

tury was the rudest period of algebraic science in Europe.

Leonardo of

Pisa, indeed,

composed

his

work before the inven


;

tion of printing,

and

early in the thirteenth century

but this

had been

lost sight of,

and was not known

for

more than a

century after Napier's death, when the manuscript was disco

vered at Florence.

The

first

printed work on the subject was

that of Lucas de Burgo, from

whom

is

generally dated the

decided

dawn of Algebra

in

Europe.

De

Burgo's principal

work was printed about the year 1494. The second printed work upon Arithmetic and Algebra appeared in 1539. This
was a work of the great but eccentric Cardan, of whom it is affirmed by Scaliger that he was so devoted to astrology as
actually to starve himself to death, that his

own

astrological

prediction might be fulfilled,


his favourite science.

a very equivocal illustration of


in the year 1575.

Cardan died

Germany

produced one or two mathematicians, who, at the same time


that

Cardan wrote, gave a more decided impulse to Numbers. Hitherto nothing had been added to that recondite science,
and the rude
in

since the introduction of the Arabic numerals,

and imperfect symbols of Burgo's Algebra, except

the

x lj v

INTRODUCTION.

which had received a great extension theory of equations, from Tartalea and Cardan. The defect which materially

was impeded the system


ical science.

in notation, the

mainspring of numer
Stifellius,

In the year 1544, Michael

a Lutheran

at clergyman, published

Nuremberg

his Arithmetica Integra,

a very original Latin treatise on Arithmetic and Algebra,


wherein he viewed numerical quantities, and their combina
tions, closely

and ingeniously, and gave an impulse to Algebra bv improving its notation. He was the first to introduce the
signs

and

- - for

plus

and minus, and

also the character ^/

to denote the radix or root. (derived from the letter R),

Moreover, he entered systematically into the consideration of


arithmetical

and geometrical progressions, pointing out what


the logarithmic properties of a correspond

may now be termed

ing series of the powers of a given number, of those powers, which latter
culation he

and the exponents

term he

uses.

But

in this spe

had formed no conception of the


infinite series

possibility of

changing the

of natural numbers from an arith

metical to a geometrical progression,

and then of generating a

corresponding arithmetical progression.

In the year 1552 appeared the

first treatise

upon Arith
author was

metic and Algebra in the English language.


the unfortunate

Its

Robert Recorde, a mathematician of un-

INTRODUCTION.
doubted genius, but so
little

xlv

appreciated that he was allowed

to linger out his last days in the Fleet,

where he was im

prisoned for debt, and where he died about the year 1558.

His works are curious and


in their style.

original,

but rude and puerile

They

are generally in the form of a dialogue

between a Master and Scholar, and under such quaint titles, " " The Ground of as " The to

Pathway

Knowledge

Arts"" The
Wit."
rules
is clear,

Castle of

Knowledge"" The Whetstone

of

Napier's style of communicating even his elementary


simple,

and philosophical. His son

tells us, that,

"

according to the opinion of the best judges,

my

dearest

father possessed,

amongst other great endowments, this in particular, that he could explicate the most difficult matter by some sure and easy method, and in the fewest words." Ac
cordingly, he never indulged in such facetiae as the following,

which occurs in Recorde's Arithmetic, a work, nevertheless, " Master. Exclude of original genius number, and answer
'
:

this
c

question

How many
'

years

old

are

you

?'

Scholar.

Mum.'

Master.

by mummes.
poak
full

How

of plums.'
;

number want, you answer all many miles to London ?' Scholar. A Master. If number be lacking, it maketh
So
that, if
' '

men dumb
mum.
Scholar.
'

so that, to
call

most questions, they must answer

What

you the science you desire so greatly ?' Some call it Arsemetrick, and some Augrime.'

x|vj

INTRODUCTION.

Master.
for

Both names are corruptly written ; Arsemetrick and Augrime for Arithmetic, as the Greeks call it;
4

the Arabians Algorisrae, as

sound

'

it.'

in

Recorde was ingenious and inventive, and is remarkable, the history of Algebra (which owes so much to successive

inventions in the art of notation), for having added to its

characters the sign of equality.


the fact.

Mr

Babbage had overlooked


in his history

That distinguished mathematician,


"
It is

of notation, observes,

a curious circumstance that the

was first used to denote symbol which now represents equality subtraction, in which sense it was employed by Albert Girard.
and that a word signifying equality was always used instead,
until the

time of Harriot."

The works

of Girard and Harriot

did not appear until the seventeenth century

was

far advanced,

and long
as already

after Napier's death.

Napier's book of Arithmetic,

shown, must be referred to a date prior to the year


it will
still

1594

and

presently appear that his book of Algebra


If

is

of a date

earlier.

Mr

Babbage's observation were


for

historically accurate,

we might claim
time of Harriot.

Napier the merit of

having hit upon this ingenious device, in his unpublished work,


a century before the

For,

it will

be observed,
it

he adopts
terms
:

it

in his chapter of equations,

and defines

in these

" Betwixt the parts of an equation that are equal to

INTRODUCTION.
each other, a double line
equality
;

xlvii

is

interposed, which
is

is

the sign of

thus

ty=7, which
is,

pronounced, one thing equal

to seven."

The

fact

however, that this notation was already


it is

more or
first

less in
is

use
;

and

to Recorde that the merit of the


first

idea

due

for, in his

work,

published in 1552, he

"
says,
6

And
to,'

to avoid the tedious repetition of these woordes,


I will sette, as I doe often in

is

equal

woorke

use, a paire

of paralleles, or

gemowe

lines of

ane length, thus =, because

noe two thynges can be moare equalle."

In France, the celebrated


treatise

Ramus wrote an

elementary
;

on Arithmetic and Algebra, about the year 1560


left

but he

the science as he found

it.

Raphael Bombelli,

whose Algebra was published at Bologna in the year 1572, in Italian, wrote more elaborately and profoundly, but did not
add any thing of consequence to the labours of his predecessors. The first that can be said to have done so, between the time
of Stifellius and of Napier, was

Simon Stevinus of Bruges,

who
1582.

published

La

Practique d'Arithmetique about the year

He

afterwards put forth other works upon Arithmetic

and Algebra, along with a translation of some books of Diophantus


subject.
;

in all of which he evinced a remarkable genius for his

Algebraic notation received at his hands another of


it

those impulses by which

has so gradually reached

its

present

INTRODUCTION.
to have been the first who expressly power ; and he appears mooted the doctrine of a decimal division of unit, which idea, and practically applied as however, remained to be developed

a system by Napier.

contemporary of Napier's was Vieta,

whose name

reflects lustre

upon France.

He

generalized the language of

to denote known as well as Algebra, by employing letters unknown quantities, and he extended the theory of equations.
It is

not at

all likely

that Napier ever

saw any of

his treatises,

which were only


in 1646.

first

collected into one

volume by Schooten,

All the other conspicuous treatises, illustrative of

the progress of numerical science, are subsequent to the death At some period of his life he had perused the of Napier.

work of Stevinus, as he mentions


logia
;

this

author in the Rhabdo-

but considering

how

very few works of the kind existed


his numerical

at the time
treatises,

when Napier must have composed

how

slowly books were then spread abroad,

and that

literary

communication between Scotland and the Continent


slight as to leave

was so

Kepler in ignorance of the death of


it
is

the Inventor of Logarithms two years after that event,

not to be supposed that Napier had at his

command even

those

scanty stores of information which other countries could afford,

on the abstruse subjects to which he was devoted.

The most

INTRODUCTION.

xlix

accurate chronology of his treatises, so far as can be ascer


tained,

would seem to be between the publications of Stevinus of Germany, in 1582, and those of Vieta of France, about the
century.

commencement of the next

Of

all his

predecessors

and contemporaries, however, Napier was the one destined to


create the greatest revolution in

Numbers.

This fact alone

must render the perusal of


very interesting to
great invention.
for
all

his early

and preparatory labours

who

are capable of appreciating his

Countries the most distinguished in Europe,

men

of science, had produced in that recondite path the

few remarkable

men

so briefly

and imperfectly noticed above.

But even the


it)

gigantic Kepler (on his

own

authority

we

state

had struggled

in vain against the spell that yet

bound the

Arabic system.

From Archimedes

to Kepler, not one of the


sufficient

victorious in the field of science

had struck a blow

to extricate the best


arose,

wing of mathematics.

Until Napier

the Arabic scale remained undeveloped.


is

The name

England a place in the previous history of the progress of science ; and as for Scot land, when Napier was acquiring for his country the fame of
barely sufficient to give

of Recorde

one of the greatest impulses which


received,
it

human knowledge

has

was distinguished by mists which science had not penetrated, and by the Douglas wars, whose baronial leaders

knew

little

of the denary system beyond their mail-clad hands.

INTRODUCTION.
Napier, in the
first

refers to chapter of his Arithmetic,

what he terms Geometrical Logistic, as forming the subject


a of his third book, and to Algebra, as being the subject of
fourth book.
so far as
It

would appear, however, that


is

his Algebra,

"

orderlie sett doun,"

an

earlier

production than

either his Arithmetic or the

fragment of Geometrical Logistic.


:

This

is

manifest from several circumstances

1. It is entitled

" The Merchistoun Algebra of John Naper, Baron of


but there

;"

but

not Liber Quartus, in correspondence with the other books.


2.

Arithmetic

is

referred to in

it

is

no reference to

his

own book

of Arithmetic, as there would have been, accord

the rest of the manuscript, had ing to his practice throughout 3. The treatise of Algebra is that been previously composed.
itself

divided into two books


its

and, while there

is

a systematic

reference to

component
4.

parts, there is

no reference to any

Napier adopts in his Algebra the nomina tion and notation which had been introduced before his time ;
previous books.

whereas,

in

his

Arithmetic and Geometrical Logistic,

he

adopts and expounds a peculiar nomination and notation of


his

own, applicable to the arithmetic of Surds, and whereby

he proposes to supersede that with which he operates in his


treatise of Algebra.
his

There can be
still

little

doubt, therefore, that

Algebra

is

a work of

earlier date

than the other books

and these, as has been seen, were prior in date to

his conception

INTRODUCTION.
of the Logarithms, which was

11

some time before the year 1594.

Yet there

is

no appearance of crude or hasty composition in


It
is

his earliest work.

stamped with the same characteristics and original views, and


all his

clear

and simple

exposition, profound

symmetrical arrangement
compositions.

which eminently distinguish

Having ascertained the most probable chronology of the


treatises

now

printed, as being the occupations of a period

embracing a course of years prior to 1594, we must compare


the fact with Napier's time of
life.

He

was born at Merchisin 1571, the

ton in the year 1550

so that he

was only of age

year of his marriage in Scotland.


of his
life,

Even

at this early period


his abstruse

he must have been far advanced in

studies,

in order to have obtained that complete

command

of Logistic,
art,

a term he uses to denote the whole analytic

which had enabled him, prior to the year 1594, to


into

digest every department of numerical science

a more

comprehensive and perfect institute of the subject than had


yet appeared.

Napier himself has recorded an anecdote which


;

illustrates the extraordinary precocity of his genius

and, while

referring to
studies.

it,

may add

a few particulars relative to his early


original records of the University

It appears,

from the

of St Andrews, that Napier was incorporated in the College

lii

INTRODUCTION.

of St Salvator in the year 1563.

But there

is

an

earlier

and very curious

notice, in reference to his education.

His Both-

mother's brother was that celebrated character,


well,

Adam

the

first

reformed Bishop of Orkney

the same

who

and performed the marriage ceremony between Queen Mary the Earl of Both well, and who afterwards anointed and
crowned the infant James VI.
letter (still

This prelate concludes a

preserved in the Napier charter-chest) on the

subject of his

own

private affairs, addressed

"

To

his

Bruder

the Laird off Merchistoun in Loudeanne," Napier's father,

with the following remarkable and prophetic sentence

"

'I

pray you, schir, to send your sone Jhone to the


;

schuyllis

oyer to France or Flandaris

for he can leyr

na

guid at hame, nor get na proffeit in this maist perullous


worlde,
efter

that he

may be
proffeit,

savet in

it,

that he

may do
will
:

frendis

honour and

as I dout not but

he

quhem,
sister

with you and the remanent of our successione, and

my

your pairte,

God mot

preserve eternalle.

At

the yairdis in

Kirkwall, this v day of December, the yeir of

God

1560, be

" Your Bruder

at powair,
off

ADAME, Bischopp
Napier, at the date of this

Orknay."

letter,

(in

which

will

be

INTRODUCTION.
observed a promiscuous use of the
notation),

Roman and

the Arabic

was ten years of age, and his public education had not commenced. His father was only about sixteen years
his senior,

which probably induced the Bishop to tender


it

his

advice.

But

was not
;

until

culated at St
pelled
self.

Andrews

1563 that young Napier matri and how soon his genius there im

him

to the deepest speculations,

we

learn from

him

In his address "

To
" In

the Godly and Christian reader,"

prefixed to his Commentaries on the Apocalypse, published


in 1593,

he

tells

us

my

tender yeares and barneage

in Sanct Androis,

at the schooles, having,

on the one part,

contracted a loving familiaritie with a certaine gentleman,

a Papist,

and,

on the other

part,

being attentive to the

sermons of that worthy

man

of God,

Maister Christopher
I

Goodman, teaching upon the Apocalyps,


most evidently
see their seven-hilled citie

was so moved

in

admiration against the blindness of Papists, that could not

Rome

painted out
all

there so lively by Saint John, as the mother of

spiritual

whoredom, that not onely


against

burstit I out in continual reasoning

my

said familiar, but also,

from thenceforth, I deter

mined with myself (by the assistance of God's Spirit) to employ my studie and diligence to search out the remanent
mysteries of that holy book,
as to this houre (praised be the

Lorde

!)

I have bin doing at al such times as conveniently I

|j

INTRODUCTION.
It is

might have occasion."


of his mind, that,

a curious trait of the early power


age, he should

when only fourteen years of

have listened so intensely to an exposition of the Apocalypse from the pulpit, bursting forth afterwards in disputation with friend and companion, until he conceived the his
papistical

of prophecy undis daring project of leaving not a mystery

a project eventually realized, as he supposed, by those profound but fruitless speculations, in which he has been followed by Mede, Sir Isaac Newton, and a host of moderns,
covered,

who have added nothing

to his labours.

The anecdote

not

of his only proves the precocity

genius,

but indicates the

immediate cause of his very early attraction to that profound

been co-extensive study of numerical science, which must have


with the progress of his very learned and long laboured work,
the " Plain Discovery of the whole Revelation of St John."

His varied illustrations of such propositions


that

as, for instance,

" the forty-two months, a thousand and two hundred


half,

and threescore prophetical days, three great days and a


and a time, tunes, and half a time, mentioned
the Revelation, are
all

in

Daniel and

one date," prove that he was deeply

versed in ancient chronology and numbers.

Moreover, in

attempting to expound the mystery of the

name and number

666, he evinces a knowledge of the numeral system of the

Greeks, and that they worked arithmetically with the letters of

INTRODUCTION.
their alphabet, instead of the

lv

Arabic or Indian notation now


also, that the
is

in use.

It

must be observed

arrangement and

structure of his theological

work

mathematical.

There

is

reason to believe that Napier had

made some

researches abroad, relative to the history of the Arabic nota


tion,

when a very young man. In


Andrews.

his

Memoirs, I had ventured

the hypothesis that he must have been abroad for a time after
his studies at St

This was founded on the

facts,

that, as appears

from the records of the University, he did not

remain at St Salvator's long enough to take a degree, or to


complete the usual course of studies there
;

and

that,

from the

terms of a

letter of the

Bishop of Orkney to the Laird of

Merchiston in the year 1668, young Napier seems to have been


absent from

home

of that date.

Besides, the almost invariable


all

custom of Scotland then was, for

young men of family, having

any pretensions to a learned education, to complete their studies

on the Continent.

Napier's Commentaries on the Apocalypse

prove that he was a most accomplished scholar, that he pos


sessed a general knowledge of the arts and sciences, and a

great

command

of the learned and continental languages.


it is

Under these circumstances,

more

difficult to believe

that

he had never quitted his own rude country, than that he had
obtained the usual advantage of spending some years of his

Ivi

INTRODUCTION.
and the Low Countries; more
especially,

youth in France,

Italy,

as this very plan of his education

had been earnestly recom


In coming to
his

mended by
this natural

his uncle, the

Bishop of Orkney.

and indeed inevitable conclusion, when writing


fact,

Memoirs, I was not aware of a very interesting

subse

quently mentioned to the Royal Asiatic Society by the Right

Honourable Sir Alexander Johnston, (a

lineal

descendant of

the Inventor of Logarithms,) as chairman of the

Committee of

Correspondence.
held on the 9th of

At

the anniversary meeting of the Society


Sir Alexander, in the course of

May, 1835,

an address, for whose varied information he received the thanks


of the Society, took occasion to communicate the following
facts relative to Napier,
life

and the curious

result of a projected

of him by

Lord Napier, which

I have extracted

from

the proceedings of the

learned body to

whom

they were

addressed

" The province of Madura again became an object of


literary interest in the eighteenth century, in

consequence of

my

grandfather, the

fifth

Lord Napier
life

of Merchiston, having

determined to write the

of his ancestor,
it

John Napier of

Merchiston, and to prefix to

a history of the knowledge


It appearing

which the people of India had of mathematics.

by John Napier's papers, that he had, from the information he

INTRODUCTION.

Ivii

obtained during his travels, adopted the opinion, that numerals

had

first

been discovered by the college of Madura, and that

they had been introduced from India by the Arabs into Spain,

and

into other parts of Europe,

examine the sources

Lord Napier was anxious to from whence John Napier had derived his
;

information upon this subject

and, when he himself was abroad,


Italy, in

he visited Venice and other places in

which he thought it

was

likely

he should find an account of the information collected


this

by the members of the Jesuit mission at Madura, upon


other parts of Hindoo science.

and

Having been

successful in

obtaining some interesting documents relative to the object of


his researches,

he returned to Scotland, and submitted them to

the then

Mr

Mackenzie (afterwards Colonel Mackenzie), who

had been recommended to him by Lord Seaforth,*as a young man who had devoted himself to the study of mathematics.

Lord Napier
Napier
;

died before he had completed his

life

of

John

and

Mr

Mackenzie, whose mind had been turned to

the subject of Hindoo science by


obtained, through

Lord Napier,

applied for, and

Lord

Seaforth, a commission in the East

India Company's Engineers on the Madras establishment, in

order that he might have a favourable opportunity of prose


cuting at Madura, the site of the ancient Hindoo college, his

Hindoos possessed, in of matheearly days, of arithmetic, and the different branches


enquiries into the knowledge which the

Iviii

INTRODUCTION.

matics.

On Mr

Mackenzie's arrival at Madras, finding that


latter

my

father

and mother (the

being the daughter of his

Lord Napier, and then engaged in completing the life which had been commenced by her father) were stationed at
patron,

Madura, where
under

my father held

political situation of

high trust

his friend

Lord Macartney, he obtained leave from Lord

Macartney, the then Governor of Madras, to join them.


soon as

As

Mr Mackenzie reached Madura,


Hindoo

he began his enquiries


;

relative to the ancient

college of that place

and, in

conjunction with

my

father

and mother, formed the plan of

reviving, under the protection of the English government, the

Hindoo -college.

In furtherance of this plan,

my father

having

obtained from the

Nabob

of Arcot, the then sovereign of the

country, some deserted ruins in the jungle, about a mile from


the fort of

nected in

Madura, which were supposed to have been con former days with the proceedings of the Hindoo

college, built

upon them,

at considerable expense, the house

which has ever since been known at that place by the name of

Johnston House, and which


different

is still

my

property, laying out

its

compartments, under the direction of

Mr

Mackenzie,

in such a

manner

as

might best

suit the adaptation of it as

a building, in which the mathematical instruction that

Mr

Mackenzie wished to be circulated amongst


the

all

the natives of

country might be pursued.

The

pillars

which supported

INTRODUCTION.
this

lix

house were divided into


all

six

compartments, upon each of

which
to

the diagrams were to be carved which were necessary

illustrate

a course of arithmetic, geometry, mechanics,

and astronomy, there being a building erected upon the roof, in which plane and spherical trigono metry were to be taught two orreries were to be erected, the
hydrostatics, optics,
:

one illustrating the Ptolemaic, the other the Copernican,


system of the universe
;

and lectures were to be given

in

Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Canarese, pointing out the


superior utility of the Copernican over the Ptolemaic system,

and the great practical


might be applied

utility to

which the sciences of Europe

in every

department of practical knowledge.

Mr
my

Mackenzie, shortly after he had finished this building for


father,

was obliged to quit Madura on account of the public service, and the plan of the college was, owing to his
absence, not then carried into effect."

It is to

be lamented that the

life

of Napier, undertaken by

the nobleman here mentioned, and subsequently by his accom


plished daughter, never saw the light.

In the preface to the

Memoirs published

in 1834,

had erroneously stated that


fire.

Mrs

Johnston's papers on the subject had perished by

I have since learned,

from Sir Alexander

himself, that the

papers referred to in his address to the Asiatic Society, and

INTRODUCTION.

which were bound together in the form of a quarto volume,

were

lost at sea,

on board of the Jane, Duchess of Gordon, on her voyage from Ceylon, in 1809.
to

when that

vessel perished

As

Francis, fifth

Lord Napier, was he

whom

the then

Napier of Culcreuch presented the valuable manuscripts which

compose the present volume, it is not unlikely that the papers, from which it appeared that John Napier had prosecuted some
enquiries abroad relative to the history of the Arabic or Indian
notation,

had

also

been obtained from the family of Robert

Napier.
the

The

fact that

Napier had made

this investigation is
first

more

interesting, that

he himself was the

who

fully

developed the system.

He

added to

it

the Logarithms, and

the reciprocation of the scale in the working of decimal frac

" There are two improvements," says Wallis (the friend and contemporary of Newton), " which we have added
tions.

to the

Algorism of the Arabs, since

we

received

it

from them

to wit, that of

Decimal Fractions and that of Logarithms."

In the manuscripts

now

printed,

and which have so fortu

nately escaped the fate of nearly the whole of Napier's private

papers illustrative of his studies,

it

was not to be expected that

he would allude to his researches abroad, or enter into anti


quarian details relative to the origin of the present system of
arithmetical notation.

But that he

well understood the prin-

INTRODUCTION.
ciple of its operation,

Ixi

and had

also

turned his mind to new


these

inventions in notation,
scripts.

may be gathered from

manu

In the

first

chapter of the second book of his Arith

metic, in which he discusses the nomination

and notation of
its

numerical quantities, he says that " every idiom supplies


vocal nomination
;

own

but that the written names of integers are


1,

the nine significant figures,

2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,

and

that these signify various numerical values, according to their

change of place.
left
;

This progress," he adds, "

is

from right to
it

and the
is

circle 0,

which has no

signification

wherever

be

placed,
figure,

merely used to indicate the progress of the significant

by representing the vacancy which that has occasioned

in its progress.
first place,
it is

When
when

the significant figure

is

occupying
its

its

named," says Napier,


;

"

according to

own
it

individual value
is

it

has progressed to the second place,


;

named by its

tenfold value

in the third place, a hundredfold

and so on by an

infinite progress,

each step attaching to the

figure a value equal to the multiplication of the last step

by ten."

Such is Napier's explanation of that all-powerful though simple expedient ; and none more accurate and lucid has been afforded
during the two centuries and a half which have elapsed since

he composed his digest of Numbers.


with which he adapted to this principle

The extreme

ingenuity

of numerical values in

geometrical progression, indicated by the progressive motion

x ij

INTRODUCTION.
a new set of digits of his own
is

of the same digit in space

invention, intended for the Arithmetic of Surds,

well

worthy

of attention.

Napier commences what he terms Geometrical Logistic


with an important principle,
his

profound consideration and

command
invention.

of which most probably paved the

way

to his great
different

He

views quantity and


;

number under two

aspects or conditions

namely, either as separated into distinct

parts, capable of being exactly expressed

by absolute numbers,

or fractions of numbers, which he terms discrete quantity and

number
not to

or, as consisting of

an

infinite continuity of parts,

by numbers ; and this he terms concrete " " 3 a" If," says he, quantity or numbers. (by which he means " 3 of any given quantity) refer to three digital lines, thus,
tfe

so expressed

it

is

a discrete number

but

if it refer

to a concrete

and continuous -,
it
is

tri-digital line,

in this form,
;

called a

concrete

number

though

not a proper concrete number, but only in relation to the


quantity to which
it

refers.

proper concrete number."

Napier adds,
be measured
;

"

is

the root of a
is,

number whose root cannot

that

exactly and finitely expressed by any

number, integral or

fractional."

He

had already explained


termed the Power of a

that the numerical quantity, generally

INTRODUCTION.
number, but which he terms Radicatum,
is

Ixiii

that which can be

reduced to unit, when divided one or more times by some other

number, the number of the partitions being the index, and the
dividing

number the

radix, or root.

Euler, the great alge

braical writer of the eighteenth century,

had not a more pro

found knowledge of the properties of the relative numerical


quantities,

Root, Power, and Exponent, than Napier in the

sixteenth century had of what he called Radix, Radicatum,

and Index.
is less

Indeed, his opening of the subject of involution

perplexing than Euler's, whose statement might leave

the student at a loss to

know why

the square of a
first.

number

is

called the second power,

and not the

For Euler,
its

after

having said that a power of a number derives


particular denomination,
plied by
itself,

rank, or

from the number of times


is

it is

multi

informs us, that a square


itself,

obtained by multi

plying a

number once by
itself.

and a cube, by multiplying a


then,
is is

number twice by
tiplication of the

Why,

a square called the


first

second power, since the elevation

obtained by the

mul

perplexity,

number by itself? Napier avoids all such when he commences by saying, that the first step in
is

the process of involution

to " multiply unit by the radix,


itself; secondly,

which multiplication returns the radix

multiply

that again by the radix, and the duplicatum (the expressive

term he uses

for square or second

power)

is

produced ; and so

X JV

INTRODUCTION. "
is

the index, which," he says, on, according to the quality of

determined by the number of

.units

composing the index."

Thus, whether he explain the nature of a radicated quantity,


as that

which a certain number reduces to simple unity by one


divisions, or as that

or

more

which

is

raised to

its

particular

denomination by one or more multiplications of the same


ber into
itself,

num

he so brings unit into his statement of the invo

lution or evolution, as at once to

the algebraic law> that,

make manifest the meaning of although the powers of a number are


number
when thus taken
first

the products of the successive multiplications of that


into
itself,

yet every number,


is

as the root of

successive powers,

considered the

power of itself.

Moreover, Napier did not


certain

fail

to observe, that there are

numbers which neither are to be obtained by the multi plication of any number whatever into itself, nor can be resolved
into simple unit

by division by any number whatever.


reduced to
1

Thus,

the

number 16
2.

is

by four times dividing by the

number

This discovers 2 as what Napier called the quadru-

partient root of 16, and 16 as the quadruplicate, or fourth

power of

2.

But

there

is

no number, for instance, which by

involution will produce the

number

10.

The
is

bipartient or
;

square root of 9

is

3,

because 3 times 3

but what
the

is

the square root of 10 ?

In other words, what

is

number

INTRODUCTION.
produces 10 ?

Ixv

which, being multiplied by

itself,

Not 3 times

3,

that being only 9, nor yet the next number, 4, which gives too

much, namely

16.

The

doctrine of fractions, indeed, enables

us to express exactly numerical quantities between 3 and 4,


nearer to each other than the relative quantities indicated by

3 and 4, and consequently a nearer approximation to the


quantity sought.

This approximation, however,

will still

be

found to consist of terms, the one too much, and the other too
little,

exactly to express
it

what

is

required

and a curious pro


closer

perty

has, that these fractional terms

may be brought

and

closer together,

by an endless approximation, and


multiplied into

still

no

number obtained which, by being


produce the precise number.
the

itself,

will

Hence, numerically speaking,


infinity

number 10 (being a simple example of an numbers in the same predicament) has no root
;

of

that

is,

no

root capable of finite expression in discrete or absolute


ber.

num
is

"

Now,"

says Napier,

" a concrete number proper

the

root of such irreduceable number, and these roots are

com

monly

called surd

and

irrational."

Napier had too strong a hold of his subject to reject these latent and ineffable roots as no quantity at all, or as incapable
of submission to the rules of Arithmetic, and the purposes of

computation.

He

views them in their proper concrete charac-

x vi

INTRODUCTION.

ter of quantity or magnitude, rather than as

number or multi

tude

and

calls

them " nomina," because

susceptible, he says,

rather of being

named than numbered.

Moreover, he had con


all

sidered these quantities so profoundly as to discover

their

computative properties, and fully to illustrate them under the


operation of
all

the rules of Arithmetic relative to discrete

number and

quantity.

Having digested this important chapter of his system of Logistic, Napier was struck with the necessity of a new nomi
nation and notation wherewith to work,

more

easily

and

effec

tually, the peculiar quantities in question.

The

ancient geo

metricians had derived their nomination of the successive

powers of a number, entirely from the three local dimensions of


nature, length, breadth,

and thickness.

Napier, in his

Com
with

mentaries on the Revelation, took those co-existing qualities


as an illustration of the Trinity
;

but he was not

satisfied

their illustration of the geometrical progression of

numbers.
in all

geometrical progression, of which

we hear
is

so

much

statements of the Logarithmic principle,

so called, because
it

the successive numerical powers which compose

were named
line,

from the geometrical extensions


surface or square,

represented by a

and a

solid or cube.

The

square contains
;

two of the

local dimensions,

length and breadth

in the

cube

INTRODUCTION.
are the whole three,
length, breadth,

Ixvii

and

thickness.

In any

progression of numbers, increasing from unit by a


ratio of multiplication, the second

common

power contains two dimen

sions of the root,

and was

called
;

by the ancient geometricians

a square number, or square

so the third power, being

com

posed of three dimensions of the root, obtained the name of a


cubic number, or cube.

exhausted

for,

But here the imperfect analogy became while the powers of a number are infinite,
Hence, by an expedient incongruous
powers were

extension in space admits of no other distinctions than the


three above mentioned.

in idea as well as unwieldy in practice, the higher

designated as

if

repetitions of the

geometrical dimensions.
is

This

will

be seen from the following table, which


earlier

given by

Napier in his

work on Algebra,

p. 92.

A/TS
A/-J-J

Radix quadrata. Radix cubica.

A//?

Radix quadrati quadrata. Radix supersolida.


Radix quadrati cubica. Radix secunda supersolida.

A/T5T3

Radix quadrati quadrati quadrata. Radix cubici cubica. Et sic de casteris

in infinitum.

Here the

signs are just an initial abbreviation of the words,


less

and scarcely

unmanageable in

practice.

Napier had sub-

xviii

INTRODUCTION.

sensible of the defect both of this notation gequently become and nomination. The numbers, or rather quantities, particu
larly

tegers

nomenclature in question, are surds, dependent upon the which cannot be expressed in effable numbers, whether in or fractions. Accordingly, in his Arithmetic (p. 11),
surd quantity, called the

after showing, for instance, that the

cube root of
adds,

9, lurks

between the numbers 2 and 3, Napier

" But of greater accuracy, prefer geometricians, studious


of prefixing the sign of the index to the radicate

the

mode

itself,

instead of including the root between

two terms.

For

example, they note the tripartient root of 9 thus, \/7S9, which


they pronounce the cube root of 9.
L.9, arid call
it

I,
;

however, note

it

thus,

the tripartient root of 9

of which signs I shall

more
trical

fully

speak in their proper place.

Hence

arises

geome
and

or concrete numbers,

commonly

called irrational

surd."

This was tantamount to naming the cube root of 9 (or


it

whatever power be taken) the third root, and noting


equivalent numeral index
;

by an

for

we

shall

immediately see that

the symbol |_ was an invention of Napier's, to represent the

numeral 3 used for a special purpose.

Along with a nomination expressive of the index, or quality of the root, it was Napier's object to establish a notation which,
in

like

manner, would immediately suggest to the eye, not

INTRODUCTION.

Ixix

merely that a surd root was taken, but what number of root

it

was

and

this

by symbols

entirely

new and unappropriated.


the expedient devised
of the

Since his day,

when roots were


number

to be expressed by radical signs,

instead of by the

itself evolved,

was to retain the contracted R, as the

initial

word

root,

and to place within


quality of the root.

it

a small numeral, as the index of the


expresses the cube root, or, as

Thus */10
it,

Napier would have called

the tripartient or third root, of the

number ten considered


tion,

as a radicatum or power.

This nota

which,

it

will

be observed, gets rid of the unwieldy


initials

expedient of repeating the

?, 15,

and

y?, for square,

cube, and supersolid, and presents to the eye the


evolutions requisite to obtain the particular root,

number of
was not

invented until

many

years after Napier's death.

Now,

the

notation to which he refers, in the sentence quoted above, was


so devised as at once to express that a root, of that

number

to

was attached, was the quantity taken, the particular number or index of that root, and the fact that the root was a
which
it

surd root, or concrete quantity.


tion of equal lines
intervals.

He

took this simple combina


other at equal
this

Ztt
nine

intersecting each

In the

compartments,

which

figure

presents, he inserted the nine numerals,


says, of assisting the

for the sake,

he

memory.

From

the natural arrange-

xx

INTRODUCTION.
within,
it is

ment of the

figures

easy to

remember the
Separate the
will retain

number appertaining to each compartment.


U12JUL

compartments thus,

SEE,

and

still

the

memory

the relation of each to the

original form,
this

even when the


is

numerals are withdrawn.

By

simple process there

for the nine significant digits actually obtained an equivalent

of Arithmetic, susceptible of the


in character. fectly distinct
_],

same combinations, yet per


is

Napier's unit of this system


is

and when the root which he wishes to represent

beyond
is

the original value of the highest of his digits, which

[~,

corresponding to 9, he obtains the tenth value by moving his


unit one step to the
circle
left,

indicating the

move by

placing a

on the right of the


its

significant digit, thus, _J.

In

like

manner, his unit in

first
=JJ,

place combined with the


indicates

same

advanced a step, thus

the root of the llth


it.

division, or undecupartient root, as

he named

Thus having

invented a
9,

new

set of digits equivalent to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,

he submitted them to the same law of progression as in

ordinary arithmetic.

Upon comparing
with the
first

the fragment of Geometrical Logistic


his Algebra,
it

book of

which Napier

calls

the

nominate part of Algebra,

will

be obvious, that the latter had

INTRODUCTION.
been framed before the conception of the former.

Ixxi

Having two books of he had extended his composed Algebra, plan so as to embrace the whole art of Logistic ; and the nominate
part of his Algebra would probably have merged in his third

book called Geometrical Logistic, while the second book of


Algebra, which he called the positive or cossic part, in which

unknown
tions,

quantities are treated of

under

fictitious

representa
his great

would have formed the fourth and

last

book of

digest of

Numbers.

It is quite consistent with the nature of

the subject to suppose, that the reason

why

Napier's book of

the Logistic of concrete quantities by concrete numbers termi


nates abruptly, and

why no

other fragment of

it

could be

found, was, that at this stage of his speculations, he had set

himself to the invention of Logarithms, which

may

indeed be

considered as the grand result of the Logistic of concrete

by concrete numbers. These, in all probability, were the very speculations which led him to that achievement, of which Playfair has said, that, " at a period when the nature
quantities

of series, and
avail himself,

when every
little

other resource of which he could

were so

known,

his success argues a depth

and

originality of thought, which, I

am

persuaded, have rarely

been surpassed."

Napier's device for the notation of surds

is

of itself sufn-

U\ii

INTRODUCTION.
Logarithms was sub for the mind which accomplished
for

cient to prove that his invention of the

sequent to such speculations


the Logarithms, and
scarcely
fail

compounded that name

them, could

very soon to perceive that the radical signs, expres

sive of a surd root,

were to be entirely superseded by fractional


a strange anachronism, and

exponents.

Dr Hutton committed

one which does injustice to the genius of Napier, in the follow " The notation of powers and roots, by the pre ing passage
:

sent

mode

of exponents, has introduced a


;

new and general


powers are

arithmetic of exponents or powers

for hence

multiplied by only adding their exponents, divided

by subtract

ing the exponents, raised to other powers, or roots of


extracted,

them

by multiplying or dividing the exponent by the

index of the power or root.


rt 5_j_

So

Xfl 3

5 ,

and a$Xai=a$
is
6
,

a3

a 2 9 an(j a |_!_0i
6

a
is

the second power of # 3


.

and

the third root of

a2

This algorithm of powers led

the

way

to the invention of Logarithms, which are only the

indices or exponents of

powers

and hence the addition and

subtraction of Logarithms answer to the multiplication and


division of

numbers, while the raising of powers and the ex


is

tracting of roots

effected

by multiplying the logarithm by the

index of the power, or dividing the logarithm by the index of


the root."- -Math. Diet.
If the algorithm of

which

Dr Hutton

here speaks had belonged to science before Napier invented

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxiii

the Logarithms, Playfair's eulogy of him, quoted above, would

not have been merited

for the arithmetic of

powers and

exponents might have disclosed the Logarithms even to an


ordinary mathematician.

The more

accurate statement

is,

that the invention of Logarithms led the

way

to the algorithm

of powers.

Napier,

writing, be

it

remembered, some time in


Girard,
all

the sixteenth century, before Vieta, Harriot,

and

Oughtred, and when Algebra was not cultivated at


country,

in this

had no assistance from the algebraic refinement of working known quantities by means of other symbols than the significant digits, or of expressing powers by means of small
letters instead of numerals.

He

did not, for instance, consider

a a a a as the quadruplicatum (to use his

own term)

of any

number a
form,
4 ;

still

less

did he consider the same quantity in this


literal

he had neither the


;

notation of powers, nor the

numeral notation of indices


genesis, he

for although, in explaining their

named the

indices, one, two, three, &c.,

and

also
1,

noted and arranged them above the powers by the numerals


2, 3, &c., yet

he did not systematically attach them to the root

for the expression of the power.

To

have done so would have


is

been to anticipate the notation of Descartes, whose epoch


1637, twenty years after Napier's death.

But, while he had

not these advantages to lead him to the Logarithms, the


arithmetic of exponents was so obviously to be deduced from

Jxxiv

INTRODUCTION.

that invention, that, having achieved the Logarithms, he could

not

fail

of fractional immediately to perceive the application


and, consequently, that his

indices for the expression of roots,

was proposed notation of surds, in his Geometrical Logistic,


comparatively crude and useless.

This

fact,

which

it

would

occupy too

much

space fully to illustrate here,

as internal evidence, afforded

by the

may be offered manuscripts now printed,

that they are studies which

must have preceded the conception

of his great invention.

That which may

truly be said to have led Napier to the


is

invention of Logarithms,

the profound view he took of

the Logistic of concrete quantity, after having thoroughly


tered that of discrete quantity.

mas

The

properties of

what we
namely,

may now term

the Logarithms of discrete ratios,

the series of natural

numbers taken to enumerate the steps or

terms of any geometrical progression represented by integers,

had been known since the days of Archimedes.

But the

desideratum was, to prove that the infinite series of natural

numbers,

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, &c.,

might be viewed as in a geome


all

trical progression,

and then to discover the indices of

these

numbers, considered as powers of some given number, which would disclose the corresponding arithmetical series, and the

Logarithms par excellence.

Less profoundly considered, the

INTRODUCTION.
idea that the
difference

Ixxv

arithmetical

series,

or

progression by equias

of the natural numbers,

could be viewed

geometrical series, or progression by multiplication, seemed

a contradiction in terms.

Napier commences by demon

strating that the progressive increase, or decrease, of a con

crete or continuous quantity

may be

conceived to be gener

ated by a motion in space, so regulated, in respect of the


velocity,

as to generate a

continuous

geometrical progres

sion, of infinitely small ratios of

magnitude, various terms of


infinitely nearly
all

which might be represented, or


series of natural

so,

by the

numbers, which thus


In
like

become terms of

a geometrical progression.

manner, he demonstrated

the genesis of a corresponding arithmetical progression by a

simultaneous motion, the velocity of which, being equal through out and not increasing or decreasing, generated magnitudes
in

an arithmetical progression, which, at any given point of the

progress, might be represented by a numerical expression that

would serve

for the index, or

number of the

ratios (logarithm),

of the corresponding point in the simultaneous geometrical

motion.

His idea of motion, thus taken to generate propor

tional magnitudes,

was analogous to the law of the Arabic

notation in discrete numbers, where the significant digit

may

be conceived to generate a decuple progression, by travelling


in a line

from right to

left.

There are various circumstances

xx vi

INTRODUCTION.

connected with the doctrine of Logarithms, unnecessary to be


considered here, showing
its

natural affinity to the system of the

Arabic notation, which in fact only became perfectly developed

when the Logarithms were invented

and

it

is

singular that,

among

the mathematical stores of those distant climes from

which was derived the refined and powerful notation in question,

and throughout the long ages of

its

operation in the hands of

genius, not a trace can be discovered of a conception of that

development of the scale which Napier accomplished in the

Logarithms and the arithmetic of Decimal fractions. The Chinese are said to have laid claim to the invention but the
;

splendid copy of the Logarithms which issued from the imperial


press df Pekin, contains certain errors which have been recently

discovered in the European tables, previously published.

Napier's

mode

of demonstrating the Logarithms,

by the

motion of points (fluxu puncti) generating two lines the one u when the point describing the same goeth forward equal
spaces in equal times or moments," and the other (which,
to facilitate his operations, he took in the decreasing ratio,

having complete

command

of

the

arithmetic

of

negative

" when the quantities,) point, describing the same in equal


times, cutteth
to the lines
oft'

parts continually of the


off,"

from which they are cut

same proportion was afterwards

INTRODUCTION.
adopted by Sir Isaac Newton, in similar terms, to
his

Ixxvii

illustrate

own
first

discovery of Fluxions.
idea,

The
led

accidental circumstance,

or

which

may have

any great inventor into


I have

the path of his distinction, can rarely be discovered.

endeavoured to
rithms

illustrate

Napier's

progress
studies

to

the

Loga

through

his

mathematical

now

published.

Newton

himself, in his treatise of the Quadrature of Curves,

announces the method that led him to his great discovery of " I " mathematical he Fluxions.
consider,"
says,

quantities

in this place not as consisting of very small parts, but as

described by a continued motion.

Lines are described, and

therefore generated, not by the opposition of parts, but by the

continued motion of points


solids

superficies
;

by the motion of lines

by the motion of
;

superficies

angles by the rotation of


;

the sides

portions of time by a continual flux

and so

in

other quantities.

These geneses

really take place in the nature

of things, and are daily seen in the motion of bodies.


after this
lines

And

manner the

ancients,

by drawing moveable right


taught the genesis of rect

along immoveable right

lines,

angles.

Therefore, considering that quantities which increase

in equal times,

or less

and by increasing are generated, become greater according to the greater or less velocity with which they

increase

and are generated, I sought a method of determining quantities from the velocities of the motion or increments

K\MI,

INTRODUCTION.
and
calling these velocities of

with which they are generated

the motions or increments Fluxions, and the generated quanti


ties Fluents,

fell

by degrees upon the method of Fluxions,

which

have made use of here in the quadrature of curves, in


It is remarkable, that, instead of

the years 1665 and 1666."

merely referring to the ancients in this passage,


not rather said,
'

Newton had

And

after this

manner Napier, by drawing


line,

a moveable point along a right

taught the genesis of

Logarithms

and when

I speak of quantities

or less according to the greater or less


increase
tities

becoming greater velocity with which the

and decrease are generated, and of determining quan from the velocities of the motions or increments with

which they are generated,

and when I

call

these velocities

of the motions or increments Fluxions,

I avail myself of

Napier's demonstration, I adopt his language,

and even

his
:

very expressions,

"

fluxu,"

and " incrementi aut decrement!."

Newton may have

closely studied Napier's published works, or

he may never have seen them.

The

first

idea

is

suggested by
;

the above remarkable coincidences of thought and expression

and

by the fact that Newton's Commentaries on Scriptural prophecy is little else than a less elaborate repetition of Napier's.
also

The

other idea, however,

is

after all the

more

likely,

from

this

circumstance, that, throughout the voluminous published works of Newton, mathematical and no notice of
theological,

Napier

INTRODUCTION.
is

Ixxix

Yet the great lever with which Newton worked was the Logarithms and the Binomial Theorem, says Baron
to be found.
;

Maseres,

"

is

so very closely connected with the subject of

Logarithms, as to be the foundation of the best methods of

computing them."

In Napier's Arithmetic,
never saw, there
notice, as being
is

(p. 50,)

which Newton certainly

a figurate diagram, worthy of especial

an unknown anticipation of the Arithmetical


;

Triangle of the celebrated Blaise Pascal


in a far

presented, however,

more

beautiful

form than that of the French mathe

matician.

The

properties of this triangle are so intimately

connected with the Binomial Theorem, that Bernoulli, on that


account, somewhat rashly claims for Pascal the merit of the
invention.

" Nous avons " ce merveilleux trouv," he says,

theoreme aussi bien que M. Newton, d'une maniere plus simple Feu M. Pascal a ete le premier qui Pa que la sienne.
inventee."

Maseres, who republished Pascal's mathematical

works, says of them,

" These works are

so fall of genius

and

invention, that I thought I should do a service to the

mathe

maticians of Great Britain by republishing them in this collec


tion.

Some

of them, and

more

especially his Arithmetical

Triangle, have a considerable connexion with Logarithms,

by affording a good demonstration of Sir Isaac Newton's

xxx

INTRODUCTION.

and affirmative Binomial Theorem, in the case of integral


powers, which
rithms."
is

of great use in the construction of

Loga

But Napier had

in this invention, anticipated Pascal


its

which, however,

only received
is

most valuable algebraic

as that application, dependent

notation, at the hands of Sir

upon the modern exponential Isaac Newton.

There are other

indications, in the manuscripts

now sub

mitted to the public, of an inventive genius in Numbers, far


before the times in which Napier wrote.
in his

Professor Playfair,

on the Progress of Mathematical and a Flemish of Albert Girard, Physical Science, when speaking mathematician, whose principal work, Invention Nouvelle en " He to in was
Dissertation

Algebre,

printed

1669,

observes,

appears

have been the

first

who understood

the use of negative roots in


is

the solution of geometrical problems, and


figurative expression

the author of the

which gives to negative quantities the name


a phrase that has been severe

of ' quantities less than nothing,'


ly

censured by those

who

forget that there are correct ideas

which correct language can hardly be made to express.

The

same mathematician conceived the notion of imaginary roots, and showed that the number of the roots of an equation could
not exceed the exponent of the highest power of the
quantity."
Sir

unknown

John

Leslie,

who continued

Playfair's Disser-

INTRODUCTION.
tation, also
'

Ixxxi

comments upon Girard's introduction of the phra quantities greater and less than nothing,' and upon seology, his discovery and nomenclature of It impossible quantities.
is

remarkable that Playfair and Leslie, who have expressed

great admiration for the genius of Napier, had not looked at


or studied his published works.
arithmetic of

Napier's

command

of the

an(i

the signs of positive and negative


it,

quantities, (or as

he more properly phrased

abundant or

abounding, and defective quantities,) was of great assistance


to

him

in realising his conception of

Logarithms
he

and, in the

first

chapter of his

Canon

Mirificus,

says, (to quote

from

the English translation of 1616, revised by himself,) " There


fore

we

call

the logarithms of the sines abounding, because

they are always greater than nothing, and set this mark

+ before
less

them, or

else

none

but the logarithms which are


or wanting, setting this
fallen into the

than

nothing we

call defective

mark

before them."

Dr

Horsley had

same mistake of

attributing the origin of this phraseology to Girard.


for the quantity called impossible, these authors

But

as

had not the

means of knowing that Napier was the person who first disco-' vered the use of it in mathematics, and that he had somewhat

Having laid the foundation, (p. 19,) not inferior to by an exposition of the arithmetic of -f- and Euler's, he makes the announcement, in his Logistica Geomel

exultingly recorded the fact.

INTRODUCTION.
which I
shall here translate.

"

trica,

Seeing, therefore, that a

surd uninome
defective

may be

the root either of an abounding or of a


its

number, and that

index

may be

either even or odd,

from
ing,

this fourfold cause it follows, that

some surds are abound


defective,
defective,

some
'

defective,
;'

some both abounding and

which

term
call
*

gemina

some neither abounding nor

which

nugacia.'

The

foundation of this great Algebraic secret

have already

laid in the sixth chapter of the first

book

and,

though hitherto unrevealed by any one else, so far as I know, the value of it to this art, and to Mathematics in general, shall
presently appear."

There can be no doubt that by " nugacia" Napier means the impossible quantity, and that he was the very first to con
ceive the idea,

and to propose

its

use, in the arithmetic of

surds and the theory of equations.


nature,

He

explains precisely

its

and applies to it the " a quantity absurd and impossible, startling designations of nonsensical and signifying nothing." He shows that all roots,
for its notation,

and gives rules

whether abounding or defective, (or, as he also terms


greater or less than nothing,)

it,

when

multiplied to an even index

produce an abounding radicate.


-f-2,

Thus, take for the root

and

let it

be multiplied to the index 4, (in other words,

raised to the fourth power,)

and the radicate

will

be

+16

in

INTRODUCTION.
like

Ixxxiii

manner,
so

raise

2 to the index

4,

and the radicate

will

be

+ 16;
16.

2 and

+2

are equally the quadripartient root of

Hence, says he, every abounding radicate, having an even

index, has

two

roots.
if

These were what he

called geminal.

But, he adds,

roots both abounding and defective belong


is

to the abounding radicate with an even index, then there

no

root of any kind


sign prefixed.
tion,

left for

the same radicates having the defective


HI

Hence, for example,


is

16 (in modern nota

^/-16)

an impossible quantity.
to bestow

The "

great emolu

ment" which Napier expected


this

upon Mathematics by

ghost of a quantity, can only be well understood by pro

found mathematicians.
sible

Euler has devoted a chapter to impos

or imaginary quantities, which he concludes with these


:

observations

"

It remains for us to

remove any doubt which

may be
sible, it

entertained concerning the utility of the numbers of

which we have been speaking

useless,

numbers being impos would not be surprising if they were thought entirely and the object only of an unfounded speculation. This,
;

for those

however, would be a mistake


quantities
arise -of
is

for the calculation of imaginary

of the greatest importance, as questions frequently

which we cannot immediately say whether they include


;

any thing real and possible or not

but when the solution of

such a question leads to imaginary numbers,


that what
is

we

are certain

required

is

impossible."

INTRODUCTION.

But

it

appears, that,
field

upon the great

when Napier had broken ground of equations, and with a vigour and com
of his illustrious successors, he was

mand

of the subject which obviously was about to anticipate

the conquests of

many

arrested in that progress by another idea.

The
;

stars

were

becoming too many for Tycho and Kepler

so he promised

them the Logarithms.

His mind had already penetrated the

Arabic system in every direction.

He

had already orderly

set

down how the


dually unfold,

various operations of

number and quantity gra


itself,

how the

vast fabric produces

growth

after
inti

growth, every rule the parent of another, and the whole


mately related, in
bers.
all its

parts, in endless generations of

Num

Having traced the genealogy of Numbers upwards from nothing, he had taken zero as the pivot for a reciprocal scale, and unfolded the and of " minores
logistic

quantitates

nihilo,"

quantitates impossibiles et nihil significantes."

Then he had
and had
its

viewed unit as broken into another


reduced to order
fractions.
It
all

infinite scale,

the operations of Arithmetic upon

remained to condense the vast system into greater


also to display unit as the pivot for a

simplicity

and power, and

reciprocal play of the Arabic scale, as he

had done by zero. This

he accomplished by his invention and calculation of Logarithms.

Moreover, in his

brilliant

performance of that promise to

Tycho, he

first

applied

before either

Newton

or Leibnitz

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxxv

the great doctrine of Variable Quantity, and thus he not merely


afforded materials for, but, to this extent,

had actually

antici

pated, the algebraic conquests of Newton.

Newton
is

is

well de

signed the Prince of Mathematicians.

Napier

the

King of

Numbers.

It adds not a little to the interest with


scripts

which these manu

must be viewed, that they had been written out for Henry Briggs, the satellite of Napier, and to whom Napier himself refers as " amico mihi longe carissimo." Briggs was
ten years younger than Napier, and, about the year 1596,

had been appointed Professor of Geometry,


establishment founded by Sir

in the munificent

voted himself particularly to


to the

Thomas Gresham, where he de Astronomy, and became known


his day.

most celebrated men of

In a

letter to

Arch

" bishop Usher dated August 1610, Briggs says, Concerning


eclypses,

may
send
for

in

you see by your own experience that good purposes two years be honestly crossed ; and therefore, till you
your tractate you promised the
;

me me

last year,

do not look
it

much from me
too.
all,

for if

any other business may excuse,

will

serve

Yet

am

not idle in that kind, for Kepler hath


for the motions of
all

troubled

and erected a new frame

the

seven upon a

new
;

foundation,

making scarce any use of any

former hypotheses

yet I dare not

much blame him,

save that

xxxvi
is

INTRODUCTION.
tedious and obscure,
left

he

and

at length

coming to the
his tables
all,

point,

he hath

out the principal verb

mean

both of
it

middle motion and prosthaphaereseon


eth, to his
in

reserving

as

seem-

Tab. Rudolpheus, setting down only a lame pattern


but I think I shall scarce with patience expect his

Mars

next books, unless he speed himself quickly."

But

ere those

the Logarithms appeared, long promised Tables were published,

and Kepler immediately remodeled


chapter in science.
at the discovery.

work upon this new Briggs, however, was the first to catch fire In another letter to Usher, dated Gresham
his

House, 10th March 1615, after speaking of the Arabic versions " of the Greek philosophers, he adds, Napper, Lord of Markinston, hath set

my

head and hands a-work with his new and


:

admirable Logarithms
please

hope to see him

this

summer,

if it

God

for I never
:

saw book which pleased

me

better, or

made me more wonder


"

I purpose to discourse with


is

him con
at

cerning eclipses, for what


his

there which

we may not hope for

hands ?

Dr Thomas

Smith, the biographer of Usher and

Briggs, has painted in vivid colours the state of excitement into

which the

latter

was thrown by the Canon Mirificus.

He

says

that Ursin, Kepler, Frobenius, Batschius,


it

and

others, received

with great honour, but none


it

more
;

so than Briggs.

"

He

cherished

as the apple of his eye

it

was ever

in his

bosom,

or his hand, or pressed to his heart

with greedy eyes, and

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxxvii

mind absorbed, he perused


in his bed, his

it

again and again. In his study, or


it,

whole thoughts were bent upon illustrating


to the last stage of perfection
;

and bringing

it

he considered

that his study could not be


gloriously bestowed than
for

more

fruitfully, or beautifully, or

he regarded

all

upon this most illustrious discipline ; other work as idleness ; it was the theme of
conversation with his friends, and ex
it

his praise in familiar

cathedra he expounded

to his disciples."

Mr Hallam, in his Introduction to the Literature of Europe,


recently published, has not failed to give a prominent place to

Napier.

But

it is

to be regretted that he

had not derived

his
;

information, relative to Napier's works, from accurate sources

and I may take this opportunity of correcting some mistakes into which he has fallen. Speaking of the Logarithms, he says,
" This Napier
first

published in 1614, with the

title

Logarith-

morum Canonis Descriptio, seu Arithmeticarum Supputationum Mirabilis Abbreviatio. He died in 1618 and in a post humous edition, entitled Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis De
;

scriptio,
first

1618, the method of construction, which had been at


is

withheld,

given

and the system

itself,

in consequence

perhaps of the suggestion of his friend Briggs, underwent some


change."

But the

real title of Napier's original publication


;

is,

" Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio

ejusque usus in

Ixxxviii

INTRODUCTION.

etiam in omni Logistica Matheutraque Trigonometric, ut


matica, amplissimi, facillimi, et expeditissimi Explicatio."
It
is

of importance to preserve the true

title,

because

it

bears evi

dence on the face of


to

it,

that, although (probably in reference

Tycho) he specially adapted his system to Trigonometry, he was perfectly aware of its value to the whole analytic art " in omni in 1617. Nor Logistica Mathematical Napier died am I aware of any such posthumous edition of the Canonis
Descriptio, dated in 1618.

Probably this

is

an inaccurate

reference to the distinct

published in

work of Napier's, already mentioned, 1619, under the joint editorship of Robert Napier

and Henry Briggs, and along with which appeared a reprint The title of the Constructio, the most of the former work.
beautiful of Napier's works,

Canonis Constructio
Habitudines
;

et

Logarithmorum eorum ad naturales ipsorum numeros


is,

"

Mirifici

una cum Appendice de


specie condenda.

alia

eaque praestantiore

Logarithmorum

Quibus accessere Proposi-

tiones ad triangula spherica faciliore calculo resolvenda.

Una

cum Annotationibus
eas et
I

aliquot doctissimi

memoratam appendicem."

D. Henrici Briggii in In the Memoirs of Napier


works were more
Playfair,

had

called attention to the fact, that his


;

frequently referred to than examined


Leslie,

and that even

and

Dr

Horsley were not acquainted with the original

institute

of the Logarithms.

M.

Biot,

accordingly,

when

INTRODUCTION.

Ixxxix

reviewing the Memoirs, had sought out the original editions


of Napier's works, and he appears to have been

much

struck

with their power.

Referring to the development, and loga

rithmic application, of the algebraic calculus since Napier's


time, he adds,

" I declare, however, to the honour of Napier,

that these means produce nothing which cannot be very easily


attained by his

own method

and

if,

as

it is

natural to sup

pose, this assertion

may seem
to

to our analysts something

more

than rash, I hope presently to afford unanswerable proofs of


its

accuracy.

But

form

this just idea of Napier's operations,

it is

necessary to study his

own

works, especially his second

work, in which he unfolds his method,


extracts."

and not to
"

rely

upon

In reference to the above,

M.

Biot prefixes to his

review an investigation which he


stitution

entitles,

Analyse

et re-

de 1'ouvrage original de Napier,

intitule,

Mirifici

Logarithmorum Canonis Constructio."


In the title-page of the Constructio, of which Briggs him
self

was one of the

editors, will

be found an allusion to Napier's


;

improvement of
provement
nor
is is

his

own system

and

in the preface, the

im

declared to have originated with Napier himself,

there any allusion to a suggestion from Briggs.

In his

letter to the Chancellor,

Napier also mentions the improvement


Indeed, the

he intended, without any reference to Briggs.

xc
of his original edition
before Briggs

INTRODUCTION.

Canon contains an
the Logarithms.

allusion to the same,

knew of

Mr

Hallam's doubt

on the
"

subject,

which he thus repeats in another passage,

It is uncertain

from which of them the change

in the

form

of Logarithms proceeded,"-

would not have occurred had he


assurance both of Napier
Indeed,

examined these works.

We have the
is

and Briggs that there

no dubiety about the matter.

Briggs has recorded the exact state of the case in an interest


ing statement prefixed to his Arithmetica Logarithmica, pub
lished in

London

in 1624,

and which

I shall here translate

" That these Logarithms differ from those which that illus trious man, the Baron of Merchiston, published in his Canon
Mirificus,

must not surprise you.


in

For I myself, when ex

pounding publicly

London

their doctrine to
it

my

auditors in

Gresham

College, remarked that

would be much more con

venient that
sine, as in the

should stand for the logarithm of the whole

Canon

Mirificus

but that the logarithm of the


is

tenth part of the same whole sine, that

to say, 5 degrees,

44 minutes, and 21 seconds, should be 10,000,000,000.

Con

cerning that matter I wrote immediately to the author himself;


and, as soon as the season of the year, and the vacation-time
of

my public

duties of instruction permitted, I took a journey to

Edinburgh, where, being most hospitably received by Napier, I stuck to him for a whole month. But, as we held discourse

INTRODUCTION.

xci

concerning this change in the system of Logarithms, he said


that for a long time he had been sensible of the

and had been anxious to accomplish

it,

same thing, but had published what

he had already prepared, until he could construct tables more


convenient,
if

other weighty matters, and the

frail state

of his

health would suffer

him

so to do.
this

But, he conceived, the

change ought to be effected in

manner, that

should

become the logarithm of unity, and 10,000,000,000 that of the whole sine. This I could not but admit was by far the fittest
modification
I
;

so, casting aside

commenced under

his
;

what I had already prepared, advice to bend my mind to the calcu


in the following

lation of these tables

and

summer

I again

took journey to Edinburgh, where I submitted to him the


principal part of those tables which are here published
;

and I

was about to do the same even the third summer, had it pleased

God

to have spared

him

to us so long."

It

is is

not for the sake of asserting his right to what, at

all

events,
to.

a simple derivative idea, that these proofs are referred

It is because the dubiety expressed

infer that

Napier had done injustice

Hallam might to Briggs, whose genius he


by
cordially

Mr

appreciated, and whose friendship

and admiration he

returned.

" I

will

acquaint you," says Lilly, in his Life and

Times,

" with one memorable story related unto

me

by John

xcii

INTRODUCTION.

Marr, an excellent mathematician and geometrician,


conceive you remember.

whom
I.

He was
first

servant to

James

and

Charles

I.

When

Merchiston

published his Logarithms,

Mr

Briggs, then reader of the astronomy lectures at

Gresham

College in London, was so surprised with admiration of them,


that he

could have no quietness in himself until he had

seen that noble person whose only invention they were.


acquaints
before

He

John Marr therewith, who went


Briggs, purposely to be there

into

Scotland

Mr

when

these

two so

learned persons should meet.

Mr

Briggs appoints a certain

day when to meet at Edinburgh, but, failing thereof, Merchis


ton was fearful he would not come.
It

happened one day

as

John Marr and the Lord Napier were speaking of Mr Briggs


4

Oh

John,' saith Merchiston,

'

Mr

Briggs

will

not come
;

now.'

At

the very instant one knocks at the gate


it

John

Marr hasted down, and


great contentment.

proved to be

Mr

Briggs, to his

He

brings

Mr

Briggs into

my

Lord's

chamber, where almost one quarter of an hour was spent, each beholding other with admiration, before one word was
spoken.

At

last

Mr

Briggs began,

My

Lord, I have

undertaken this long journey purposely to see your person,

and to know by what engine of wit or ingenuity you came first to think of this most excellent help unto Astronomy, viz. the
Logarithms
;

but,

my

lord, being

by you found out, I wonder

INTRODUCTION.
nobody
else

xciii

found

it

out before, when,

appears so easy.'

He

was nobly

now being known, it entertained by the Lord


during the Laird's
purposely to Scotland to

Napier
being
visit

and every summer


this venerable

after that,

alive,

man went

him."

An

engraving of the old Castle of Merchiston, in

its

primi

tive state,

where
It

this
is

symposium was

held, illustrates the pre

sent volume.

as nearly as possible a fac-simile of a sketch

by

" Grecian Williams."

The

portrait of Napier

is

from the

original belonging to the

been in possession of
for the first time.

Lord Napier, and which has always the Napier family. It is engraved now
fac-simile of the

The

autograph

is

from a

letter of Napier's to his father,

dated from the residence of his

father-in-law, Stirling of Keir.

An

odd idea has arisen that he


In the

sometimes designed himself " Peer of Merchiston."


beautiful

and ably

illustrated pictorial edition of the

works

of Shakspere,
is

now

publishing, the following ingenious note


:

founded on the error

"

remarkable illustration of our

belief,

that Peer and Fere were cognate terms, and that a


is

Fere or Fear was one holding of the Crown in Fee,

furnished

by the

which the famous John Napier attached to his name. At the end of the dedication to his Plain Discovery of the
title
'

whole Revelation of St John,' in the edition of 1645, Napier

INTRODUCTION.
signs himself
'

Peer of Merchiston.'

Mr Mark

Napier, in the

Life of his great ancestor (1834), says, that the true signature
is

Fear of Merchiston, and that Fear means that he was invest

ed with the Fee of his paternal barony.

Peer might have been

a printer's or transcriber's substitution for Fear, or Fear might

have been rejected by Napier for the more


Peer."
(Illust.

common word

Henry IV., Act

I.)

But there can be no doubt,

that, in the instance relied upon,

Peer was simply a misprint for Feer.

That Napier had

so

written his signature for the edition of 1645, the only instance

of

its

occurrence,

is

put out of the question by the

fact, that,

before that date, he had been dead for eight-and-twenty years.

The
lease,

following

is

a perfect fac-simile of his signature to a


:

dated at his place of Gartnes, 23d April, 1584

ffo$*y

MARK
11,

NAPIER.

STAFFORD STREET,
1,

November

1839-

DE ARTE LOGISTICA,

THE

BARON OF MERCHISTON
HIS

BOOKE OF ARITHMETICKE

AND ALGEBRA.

FOR MR HENRIE BRIGGS


PROFESSOR OF GEOMETRIE
AT OXFORDE.

LIBER PRIMUS.
DE COMPUTATIONIBUS QUANTITATUM OMNIBUS
LOGISTICS SPECIEBUS COMMUNIUM.

CAPUT

I.

DE COMPUTATIONIBUS
LOGISTICA
est ars

PRIMIS.

bene computandi.
ex pluribus quantitatibus,

COMPUTATIO

esi actio seu operatic quae

et

quantitatum proprietatibus datis, qusesita invenit. Dantur autem aut vocali nominatione, aut graphica notatione.

Unde in omni Logistica primo procedunt nominatio cum eis succedit computatio.
Computatio autem
Simplex
est simplex vel composita.

et notatio

mox

est computatio, quse

ex duabus datis tertiam unica aut uni-

moda

operatione invenit.
est

Simplex computatio vel

prima vel

orta.

Prima

est computatio, qure

quantitatem

cum

quantitate semel tantum

computat.

Atque

haec,

ex

totius, partis, et residua^,

duabus quibuscunque
patebit exemplis

datis, tertiam

quamcunque

invenit

Quod mox

subsequentibus.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

Hc autcm vel
ADDITIO
producitur
est
tota.

est additio vel substractio.

et computatio prima qua plures quantitates adduntur,

tota Exempli gratia, addantur 3 et 4, et producentur 7 pro item addantur 2, 3, et 4, et producentur 9 pro tota.

SUBSTRACTIO

est

a minuendo computatio prima qua substrahendum

aufertur, et producitur residuum.

Ut auferendo 4

a 9 remanent 5.
et

Dicuntur autem 4 auferenSic ablatis 3 a 5 remanent

dum, 9 minuendum,
per substractionem 2.

5 residuum.

Substractio aut est aequalium, et nihil remanet, aut insequalium.

Inaequalium vero est aut quantitatis minoris a majore, et remanet


quantitas major nihilo, aut quantitatis majoris a minore, et residuum erit

minus

nihilo.

Ut
nent

substractis
2,

5 ex 5 remanet nihil
;

substractis

3 a 5 rema

majores quidem nihilo

substractis

autem

7^5

relin-

quentur 2 minores nihilo, seu nihil minutum duobus.

Ex
Ex

his ergo constat defectives quantitates hinc originem trahere,

ex

substractione

nimirum majoris a minore


est

praemissis clarum

quibus suo loco agetur. additionem et substractionem relata esse


:

De

atque ideo alteram alterius examen.

Examina enim defmimus ea tantummodo qua?


recte computatis conveniunt.

turn

omnibus turn

solis

Ut

supra, pro examine substractionis, an 3 substracta ex 5 re-

linquant 2, adde 2 et 3 et restituent 5.


additionis, an 2
et

Et

contra, pro

examine

3 faciant

5,

substrahe 3 ex 5, et prodibunt 2

restituta

vel aliter, substrahe

2 ex

5, et

prodibunt 3 ut prius.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

Est et prseter haec aliud examen substractionis in se, substrahendo nimirum residuum ex minuendo ut relinquatur prius substrahendum.

Ut pro examine an 3
2 ex

substracta ex 5 relinquant 2, substrahe

5, et restituentur 3.

Habes

itaque, ex totius, partis, et residuse,

duabus quibuscunque

datis,

tertiam, per additionem et substractionem.

CAPUT

II.

DE COMPUTATIONIBUS ORTIS EX
HUCUSQUE de
primis.

IPSIS PRIMIS.
ortae a

primis computationibus egimus

sequuntur

Ortae sunt quae quantitatem

cum quantitate pluries

computant.

Atque

hse ex prioribus aliquoties continuatis naturalem originem ducunt.

Ortae item vel ex primis, vel ex primo ortis continuatione oriuntur.

Ortae ex primis sunt, quae ex totius, partis, et partem cognominantis.

duabus quibuscunque datis tertiam inveniunt.


haec.

Exemplis

mox

patebunt

Ortae autem ex primis sunt multiplicatio ex continuata additione, et


partitio

ex continuata substractioue.

Est ergo MULTIPLICATIO, alterutrius datarum


quoties est in altera unitas
;

toties

continuata additio
dicitur.

et

quod producitur multiplum


est alterutrius v.g.
;

Ut multiplicare 3 per 5
tinuata additio, quae 15

trium quinquies con

efficit

vel quinarii ter additio, quae totidem

etiam

efficit.

Et horum 3

et 5,

alterum multiplicans, et alterum

multiplicandum, producta vero 15 multiplum dicuntur.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
In his se habet unitas ad multiplicands et multiplicand! alterutrum,
ut alterum

ad multiplum.
in superiore exemplo, ita se habct 1

Ut
ita 1

ad

3, ut

,5

ad 15

seu

ad

5, ut

3 ad

15.

ut duplatio, quae est multiplicatio Multiplications species infinite sunt;


quantitatis oblatae per
et ita deinceps.

triplatio, quae

per 8

4 quadruplatio, qua; per

In his multiplicanda dicuntur, duplandum, triplandum, quadruplan-

dum, &c.

multiplicantia sunt 2, 3, 4, &c.

multipla

dupla, tripla, et

quadruple &c. dicuntur.


PARTITIO
tinuata
;

est partientis a partiendo substractio in

nihilum usque con-

et

numerus substractionum

est

Ut

sint partienda 15 per 5,

quotus qusesitus. auferantur 5 ex 15 continua subet fient substractiones

strfcctione

donee nihil remanserit,

numero

tres

3 ergo sunt quotus

quaesitus,

15 sunt partiendum, et 5

partiens.

In his se habet unitas ad quoti et partientis alterutrum, ut alterum ad

partiendum.

Ut
ad

superiore exemplo, ita se habet

ad

3, ut

5 ad 15

vel

5, ut

3 ad

15.

Parti tio aut est aequalium, et producitur unitas, aut inaequalium.

Inffiqualium vero aut est minoris per majorem, et quotus est fractio,

seu fracta quantitas imitate minor

aut majoris per minorem, et

fit

quotus unitate major.

Ut

sint partienda

10 per 10, producitur praecise unitas

at 1C)

divisis

per 13, producuntur decem decimaBtertiae partes unitatis

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
et imitate

minores

tertio, partitis

10 per

5,

producuntur 2 imi

tate majores.

Partitio rursus majoris per

minorem, aut

est perfecta aut imperfecta.

Perfecta, ubi nullse sunt reliquiae.

In his quotus est integrorum.

Ut

superiore exemplo partitis 10 per 5, producuntur 2, prsecise


reliquiis.

absque

Imperfecta, vero, quae reliquias impartitas relinquit. Ut si partienda offerantur 16 per 5, et inde produxeris 3,
et

unitatem indivisam remanere permiseris, imperfecta dicetur

partitio.

Ex

his ergo constat tarn ex partitione minoris per

majorem, quam ex
:

imperfecta partitione majoris per minorem, fractiones originem trahere

De

quibus suo loco.

In partitione, quantitas qua? partienda offertur partiendum dicitur ; datarum altera, partiens aut partitor ; quse provenit quotus dicitur et
;

si

quid indivisum remanserit,

reliquiae.

Ut

prsecedente exemplo, 16 dicuntur partiendum, 5 partiens,


et unitas superstans reliquiae.

3 quotus,

Partitionis species infinitae sunt


titatis oblatae

ut bipartitio, quae est partitio quan;

in
;

duo

aequalia

tripartitio, quae in tria

quadripartitio,

quae in quatuor

et ita deinceps.

In his partienda dicuntur bipartiendum, tripartiendum, quadripartiendum, &c.


;

partientes sunt 2, 3, 4, &c.

et quoti

dicuntur partes

dimidia, tertia, quarta, &c.

Ex
esse,

praemissis constat multiplicationem et perfectam partitionem relata

atque alteram alterius examen.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Ut
mine
si

dubites an 3 multiplicata in 5 producant 15, pro exa

et partire 15 per 5,
:

cum

inde redeant 3, scis te recte mul-

tiplicasse

vel aliter, partire 15 per

et redeant 5,

ut prius.

Item,

si

dubites an 16 divisa per 5 producant 3, relicta imitate

indivisa, multiplicato

3 in

5,

non redeunt

16, sed 15

ideo ad

denda
esse.

erit unitas

examini, et partitio arguetur unitate imperfecta

Est et pneter ha3c aliud partitionis examen in se, nimirum partiendo partiendum per quotum, ut pristinus inde redeat partitor. Ut pro examine an 15 partita per 5 producant 3, partire 15
per 3, et redibunt 5, ut prius.

Habes itaque ex
buscunque

totius, partis, et

partem cognominantis, duabus qui-

datis, tertiam

per multiplicationem et partitionem.

CAPUT

III.

DE COMPUTATIONIBUS ORTIS EX PRIMO ORTIS RADICALIS MULTIPLICATIO ET PARTITIO.


:

HACTENUS

ortae

ex

ipsis

primis

sequuntur

orta3

ex primo

ortis.

Ortae ex primo ortis sunt computationes quse, ex radicati, indicis, et


radicis,

duabus quibuscunque datis, tertiam inveniunt. Radicatum est quod aliquoties partitum per qfuantitatem aliquam in unitatem redit ; et quotus ille partitionum index dicitur ; quantitas
est ipsa radix.

autem partiens

Ut ex

his tribus terminis, 32, 5, et 2,

32 dicuntur radicatum,
;

quia ea partita quinquies per 2 in unitatem redeunt

scilicet

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
prima partitione
denique
1
:

fiunt 16,

secunda

8, tertia 4,

quarta

2,

quinta

Atque

igitur

horum 5 sunt

index, et 2 sunt radix.

Ortse autem ex primo ortis aut sunt radicalis multiplicatio ex continuata multiplicatione
;

aut radicalis partitio, et radicis extractio, ex

continuata partitione.

RADICALIS MULTIPLICATIO

est radicis oblatse toties continuata multi


;

plicatio quoties est in indice unitas

et

producitur radicatum qusesitum.


ter,

Ut

dicuntur 2 radicaliter multiplicari

cum 8

inde pro;

ducuntur, quia ternarius index tres imitates continet

et

ex

prima ab unitate multiplicatione fiunt quse quidem sunt radicatum qusesitum.

2,

secunda

4,

tertia 8,

Radicalis multiplicationis species infmitse sunt


est multiplicatio

Ut

duplicatio, quse
;

duorum aequalium

invicem, aut datse bis positae

tripli-

catio, quae est datse ter positse,

aut trium aequalium datse.


:

In his radicata dicuntur duplicatum, triplicatum, quadruplicatum


Indices,
partiens.

duo,

tria,

quatuor

Radices,

bipartiens, tripartiens, quadri-

Ut
bis

posito binario pro radice, et binario pro indice, bini binarii

faciunt

4 duplicatum

Et indice

ternario totidem bina, scilicet

duo bina

efficiunt
scilicet

totidem bina,

8 triplicatum : Sic indice quaternario bis duo bina bis faciunt 16 quadrupli

catum.

Et

ita in

infinitum posito binario pro radice, ut in

sequente tabella, cujus prior series est indicum, posterior radicatorum.

i.

ii.
4.

in.
8.

mi.
16.

v.
32.

vi.
64.

VIL

&c.

1.

2.

128. &c.

10

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
RADICALIS PARTITIO
radicem partitio in unitatem numcrus partitionum est index quaesitus.
est radicati per

usque continuata, ct Ut radicatum 8 partitum per radicem 2, usque in unitatem, Unde facit prima partitione 4, secunda partitione 2, et tertia 1.
ternarius,

numenis

scilicet

partitionum, est index quaesitus.

Hie indicum
radicali.

et

radicum species sunt, ut supra in multiplicatione

CAPUT

IV.

DE RADICALI EXTRACTIONE.
RADICIS EXTRACTIO, dato indice,
est inventio quantitatis quae
;

datum

radicatum radicali multiplicatione restituit


dividit..

idemque

radicali partitione

Ut

radicati 8 si quaeratur radix tripartiens, ea, per regulas suo

loco tradendas, invenietur esse

binarius enim radicali


:

tripli-

catione restituit primo 2, secundo 4, tertio 8 radicatum

Idem
2,

que radicatum contra radicali partitione primo in


tertio in

4,

deinde in

unum

redigit.

Kadicis extractio aut est perfecta aut imperfecta. Perfecta, ubi nullaa supersunt reliquiae.

Ut

in superiore exemplo.

Imperfecta vero, ubi aliquae supersunt reliquiae irresolubiles. Ut si radix tripartiens fuerit extrabenda ex radicato 9, ea

quam
non

proximo

erit binarius, qui radicaliter triplicatus restituit 8, et

relicta

ergo unitate

non

extracta, imperfecta dicitur extractio.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Hie etiam

11

radicati, radicis, et indicis species sunt, ut supra in multi-

plicatione radicali.
irresolubiles dicuntur.

Et quse post extractionem remanserint

reliquiae

Quod ex

imperfecta extractione provenit est minor terminus, cui


erit

si

unitatem adjeceris

major terminus, inter quos vera

et perfecta con-

tinetur et latet radix.

Ut

in superiore exemplo provenit binarius radix imperfecta


si

novenarii, cui

unitatem adjeceris,

fiet ternarius,

inter quos latet

vera et perfecta tripartiens radix novenarii.

Verum
dere.

GeometrsB, majoris accurationis studiosi, ipsum radicatum

signo indicis pranotare malunt,

quam radicem

inter terminos

inclu-

Ut

in superiore
:

notant, \/ 7? 9

exemplo radicem tripartientem novenarii ita quam radicem cubicam novenarii pronuntiant.

Nos autem
appellamus

sic
:

notamus, |_9, et radicem tripartientem novenarii De quibus signis amplius suo loco dicemus.

Hie numeri Geometrici seu


vocant,

concreti,

quos irrationales et surdos

ortum habent.

In his computationibus radicalibus, indices

alii

sunt pares,

alii

im-

pares, alii rursus primi, id est unitate sola dividui, alii compositi, id est

numero aliquo

perfecte dividui.
;

Ut
autem

indices 2, 4, 6, pares sunt


2, 3, 5,

3, 5, 7>

impares

Indices

autem,

6, 8, 9,

7> H> primi sunt, nee ullo numero dividui: 4, 10, &c. sunt compositi ex numeris ; nimirum 4 ex
;

duobus binariis

6 ex duobus ternariis, aut tribus binariis


;

8 ex
;

duobus quaternariis, aut quatuor binariis 10 ex duobus quinariis.

9 ex tribus ternariis

12

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Hinc
fit

radicalis multiplicationis atque extractionis

compendium ubi

indices sunt compositi, facilius

enim per componentes


composites.

sigillatim multipli-

cantur, aut extrahuntur,

quam per

Exempli gratia, radix quadripartiens


trahitur ex radicato dato,

quam

si

uno opere exejusdem radicem bipartientem


difficilius

primo extraxeris atque hinc deinde aliam bipartientem. Sic sextuplicare radicem, vel sextupartientem radicem extrahere, non
tarn facile sit

quam

si

primo

triplicaveris, aut tripartientem

ex

traxeris, inde duplicaveris aut bipartientem extraxeris.


est

Similis

similium

ratio.

Exemplum

in numeris

Radix sextupartiens

64

facilius extrahitur

ut fiant 4, inde bipartientem extrahendo, ut fiant

primo radicem tripartientem extrahendo, 2 ; vel primo

radicem bipartientem extrahendo e 64, ut fiant 8, inde extra hendo radicem tripartientem e 8, ut fiant 2, radix sextupartiens
quaesita.

Ex

praemissis colligitur radicalis multiplicationis, partitionis, et ex

tractionis singulas,

duo habere examina


;

nimirum

multiplicatio proba-

tur vel partitione vel extractione


vel extractione
;

partitio probatur vel multiplicatione

extractio, vel multiplicatione vel partitione.

Ut

in superiore

exemplo radicati 32, indicis

5, et radicis 2, si

dubites an 32 sint quintuplicatum binarii, radicaliter partire

32

per 2 et incides in 5, indicem pristinum


arguitur 32

vel extrahe radicem


;

quintupartientem 32 et incides in 2, pristinam radicem


esse radicatum

unde

verum

Item

si

dubites an 2 sint

radix, per earn divide radicaliter 32, et incides in indicem 5, aut

eundem binarium
tem e 32,

quintuplicato, et incides in

32

Denique ut

probetur an 5 sint verus index, extrahe radicem quintupartien


et incides in 2, aut radicaliter quintuplicato 2, et in

cides in 32.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Habes itaque ex
datis,

13

radicati,

indicis,

et radicis,

duabus quibuscunque

tertiam per radicales multiplicationem, partitionem, et extrac-

tionem.

CAPUT

V.

DE COMPUTATIONIBUS COMPOSITIS.
HUCUSQUE computationes
gulae.

simplices

sequuntur compositae seu

re-

computatio quae ex pluribus quantitatibus datis, atque pluribus et diversimodis operationibus, qusesitam producit. Compositae computationes, seu regulae, vel sunt proportionalium, vel

Composita

est

disproportionalium.

Regulse proportionalium sunt, quaa per solas computationes simplices


proportionatas, scilicet multiplicationes et partitiones, quantitatem quse

sitam ex pluribus datis inveniunt.

Ut

si

quaeratur,

is

qui tribus horis quatuor miliaria incedit,


?

sex horis quot miliaria incedet

Item

si

sex boves nutriantur

tribus mensuris fceni quatuor diebus, quseraturque quot boves


nutriri possunt quinque mensuris foeni
solidi Scotisc sunt

duobus diebus

Item 20

una

libra,
;

librae

sunt tres marcae, 5 marcae

valent

quot ergo solidos valebunt 9 coronati? Quaestiones proportionalium sunt absque ulla additionum vel subMultiplicationes enim et partitiones

unicum coronatum

stractionum introductione.

sunt per consectaria suarum definitionum proportionales.

In his spectantur

situs et operatio.

Situs quatuor praecepta sunt.

14

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
IViimiin,

ut ducta linea, quantitati qusesitse

cum

suis collateralibus

praeparetur

sub linea locus.


in exemplis superius propositis subsequitur.
r

Ut

Primum exemplum.
Pro
et

secundo
(i

tertio

horse,

4 miliaria

prse-

et

cepto, promptior facilior esset

horae, quaesita miliaria.

subjungere linea numinores uieros


datos

modus,

Secundum exemplum.
5 mens. 4 dieb. quot bo. 3 mens. 2 dieb.
(i

bo.

una cum
quaeis

<]uaiititate

sitn

Mil an
sit

Tertium exemplum.

modus

tutior

nondum

liquet.

20

sol.

lib.

quot

sol. 1 lib.

5 marc. 9 coron. 3 marc. 1 coron.

Secundum, ut duae quantitates, quarum altera crescente altera decrescit, ex eodem latere lineae collaterals statuantur.

Ut

in primo exemplo, quanto plures fuerint priores hora3, tres

nempe, tanto pauciora erunt miliaria quaesita. Sic, crescente numero bourn (ut secundo exemplo), decrescit numerus dierum
quibus eodem
miliaria, atque
dies,

pabulo nutriantur.

Unde 3
;

horaB et quasita

6 hora3

et

4 miliaria

atque quaesiti boves et 2 dies,

itemque 6 boves et 4 in eodem latere linearum

collocantur.

Tertium, ut duae quantitates, simul crescentes vel simul decrescentes,


ex adversis lineae lateribus statuantur.

Ut

crescentibus 3 horis, crescere etiam 4 miliaria erit necesse,


Sic crescentibus 6 horis, crescere miliaria quaesita,

et contra.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
et contra.

15

necesse

est,

Item aucto numero bourn, augeri et eorum pabulum Sic auctis diebus augeri et contra, minuto minui.
Tertio exemplo, auctis vel minutis
eis sequales

fcenum, et minutis minui.


solidis,

simul et libras priores


Sic

augeri vel minui est

necesse.

cum

posterioribus libris, 2 scilicet marcse priores

cum marcis 5 poste rioribus coronatum unum. Tandemque cum coronatis 9 poste rioribus, qusesitum solidorum numerum simul augeri et minui necesse est. Unde ex singulis hisce binis altera quantitas sub,
3
eis sequales crescent et

decrescent

atque

et altera

supra lineam constituitur, ut superius cernere

licet.

Quartum, ut
gantur.

binse quantitates

cognomines linea

ilia

semper sejun-

Prout in superioribus exemplis, 3 horse a 6


a miliaribus quassitis in primo exemplo
qusesitis,
:

horis, et

4 miliaria

Et 6 boves a bobus
et

5 mensurse
:

foeni a

3 mensuris,

dies a

2 diebus in

secundo exemplo Et in tertio exemplo 20 solidi a sitis, et 2 librae ab 1 libra, et 5 marcse a 3 marcis,

solidis quse-

et

9 coronati

ab

1 coronato, interposita linea

disjunguntur.

ad omnium ejusmodi qusestionum solutionem unicum inserviet generale hoc operationis prseceptum

His

observatis,

Multiplica quantitates superiores invicem, item et inferiores invicem,

deinde multiplum superiorum partire per multiplum inferiorum, et quotus erit qusesitum qusestioni satisfaciens.

Ut
fient

in

primo exemplo, multiplica superiores 6


;

et
3,

4 invicem,
et fient 8,

24

qu93 partire per inferiorem


qusesitus.

numerum

numerus miliarium
superiores 6, 5, et

In secundo exemplo, multiplica 4 invicem, et fient 120 ; inde multiplica 3

per

2,

fient

per quae partire 120, producentur 20, numerus

16

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
bourn satisfaciens secundae quaestioni.

Item in

tertia quaestione
;

fient 1800 multiplica superiores 20, 2, 5, et 9 invicem,

deinde

multiplica

1, 3, et 1

invicem, fient tantum 3

per quae partire

1800,

fient

600, numerus solidorum valentium 9 coronatos.

Itaque omnes species regularum proportionalium unica generali methodo, et operatione,

comprehendimus.
infinitas,

De
plicis,

hae doctrina
duplicis,

ut regulae trium seu aureae, sim-

inversae, &c.,
plices,

quinque quantitatum, sex quantitatum, directae, nee tamen trispecies et formas tradunt authores
;

aut alias ejus multiplices formas attigerunt, quas omnes

hie breviter habes.

Atque hae sunt proportionalium sequerentur disproportionalium re Sed quia hae, praeter computationes proportionatas, additiones gulae
;
:

etiam et substractiones, et alias computationes proportionem disturbantes immistas habent, has ideo omnes missas facimus, quod unica pro eis

omnibus inserviet nobis Algebra.

Ut
rum,

sunt potissima pars

omnium arithmeticarum regularum,


simpli, dupli, et aliarum plurima-

alligationis, societatis,

falsi,

itemque

Geometricarum propositionum,

problematum,

theorematum, &c. quae, confusa turn varietate turn multitudine,

memoriam
taturi.

disturbant

has ergo relinquimus, Algebram trac-

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

17

CAPUt

VI.

DE QUANTITATIBUS ABUNDANTIBUS ET DEFECTIVIS.


HACTENUS computationes quantitatum
specierum.
in genere
;

sequuntur suarum

Primo, ergo, quantitates aut sunt abundantes, aut

defectivae.

Abundantes sunt quantitates majores


ferunt.

nihilo,

et

augmentum

prae se

Hae, aut nullo, aut hoc signo

-J-,

quod copula augmenti

dicitur, prae-

notantur.

Ut
aut

si nihil

debentis opes aestimentur 100 coronatorum

eae

sic,

100

cor.,

aut

sic,

-f-100 cor., praenotantur


coronatis,

et sic
et

pronun-

tiantur,

auctae

centum

commodum semper

lucrum

significando.

Harum
bentur.

computationes tarn ex prsemissis

quam

subsequentibus ha-

Defectivae sunt quantitates minores nihilo, et minutionem prae se


ferunt.

Hae, semper hoc signo


tantur.

quod minutionis copula

dicitur,

praeno

Ut
sic

si

ejus opes aestimentur cujus debita excedunt

bona 100
j

coronatis, merito ejus opes sic praenotantur,

100 coronatis

et et

pronuntiantur, minutae centum coronatis,

damnum semper

defectum significando.
originem superius ex substractione majoris a minore provenire ostendimus.

Defectivarum or turn

et

18

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Adduntur abundantes
et

defectiyae,

si

copula sunt

similes, aggregate

eorum praeponendo communem copulam. Ut addendo +3 et +2, fient -f-5


fiunt

Item addendo

et

6,

10.

Adduntur

ver6, si copulae sunt dissimiles,

eorum

differentiae praepo-

nendo copulam majoris quantitatis. Ut addendo +6 et 4-, fiunt


fiunt
2,

+2

Sic

et

+4

addita,

copulam

majoris, scilicet senarii,

semper praeponendo

differentiae.

Substrahuntur autem,
alt

si

substrahendi copulam mutaveris, eamque ad

cram datarum addideris per praecedentes regulas.

Ut

sint

substrahenda

+5 ex -f-8

muta

-f-5 in

5, et

per prae-

missam adde
quaesito
et
:

5 ad +8, et fiunt
sint

-\-3 pro residue substractionis -}-8


;

Item

ex

5 substrahenda

muta

+8
:

in

8,

ea adde ad

5, et fiunt
-|-8,

strahendo
et

5 ex

Sic sub13, residuum quaesitum 13 ; fiunt +13 ; et +5 ex 8, fiunt


;

5 ex
fiunt

8, fiunt

et

+8

ex +5, fiunt

et

8 ex

+5,

+13

et

8 ex

5, fiunt

+3.

Abundantes
similes,

et defectivae multiplicantur et partiuntur, si copulae sint


;

praeponendo multiple vel quoto copulam pluris


praenotando copulam minutionis.

et si copulae

sint dissimiles,

Ut
citur

sint multiplicanda
in ul
t i

+3

per

+2, aut
si

3 per

2,

produvel

plum

+6

et si

dividenda sint

per per

3,

producitur quotus

+2

vero

+6 per +3 per

+3,
2,

6
3

aut

et si diviseris
2.

+2 multiplicaveris, +6 per

6, multiplum quaesitum ; producentur 6 per +3, producetur quotus 3, aut

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Radices, tarn abundantes

19

quam

defectivse, pari indice multiplicatse,

producunt radicatum abundans.

+2, quam ad indicem 4 multiplicabis, et fient primo +2, secundd +4, tertio -|-8, quarto +16 abundans
sit

Ut

radix

similiter,
8,

2 multiplicata facient primo quarto item abundans +16 ut supra.

2,

secundo +4,

tertio

Hinc

sequitur,

radicati abundantis indice pari duas esse radices,

alteram abundantem,
nullam.

alteram defectivam

deficientis

vero radicati,

Ut
dans

superiore exemplo radicati


-{-2,

+16

abundantis, tarn abun

quam

defectiva

2, erant radices quadripartientes,

ut ex superioribus et utriusque examine patebit.


restat, sive

Unde

nulla

abundans
16.

sive defectiva, qua? sit radix quadripartiens

defectivse

Radices abundantes indice impari reddunt (multiplicatione radicali)


radicata abundantia, et defectivse, defectiva.

Ut

radix abundans +2, indice impari

5, radicaliter multipli

cata reddit

+32

scilicet,

primo +2, secundo +4,

tertio

+8,

quarto +16, quinto +32, radicatum abundans.


ciens
2, indice 5, radicaliter multiplicata facit

Sic radix defi-

32

scilicet,

primo

2,

secundo +4,

tertio

8,

quarto +16, quinto denique

32, radicatum defectivum

dictse radicis.

Simili

modo bine

sequitur,
;

habeat unicam tantum


tivam.

quod radicatum impari indice radicem abundans, abundantem ; et defectivum, defec

Ut

superiore exemplo radicatum abundans

+32,

indice 5,

habebit radicem abundantem

+2.

Sic radicatum defectivum

20

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
32, indice eodem, habebit radicem defectivam
2,

quod ex

et utriusque examine liquidd constat. praecedente exemplo,

Regula proportionis non

est hlc repetenda,

quod ea ex

multiplicatio-

nibus et partitionibus componatur, et per pracmissa acquiratur.

CAPUT

VII.

DE QUANTITATIBUS FRACTIS.
HACTENUS prima quantitatum
divisio
;

sequitur secunda.

Secundo, etiam, quantitates aut sunt integrae, aut

fractae.

Quantitates integras hie dicimus, quae aut unitatem, aut nullum ha-

bent denominatorem.
missis,

cum

fractis,

Integrarum autem per se computationes ex vero, ex sequentibus habemus.

prae-

Fractas vero dicimus, quae denominatorem diversum ab unitate habent

numeratori suppositum.

Denominator
denda
sit

est quantitas supposita lineae, quae

per quot partes divi-

tota indicat.
est quantitas superposita lineae, quae

Numerator autem

quot ex

illis

partibus sumendae sint denotat.

V.

g.

Haec quantitas, 3 ab,

est Integra quantitas.

Sic (quod

idem
Item

est) 2^i> est

etiam integra, sub specie tamen fractionis.


|^, sive

|^,

et

et

quod idem

est, f,

fractiones sunt,

seu fractae quantitates,

quarum termini

superiores sunt numera-

tores, inferiores vero, denominatores.

Quantitates

fractas

majores

unitate,

ex imperfectis partitionibus

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

21

majoris per minorem, et fractas quantitates imitate minores, ex partitione

minor is per majorem, or turn suum ducere superius in divisione

ostendimus.

Ut

divisis

majores.

9 per 2 producuntur 4J, seu, si mavis, f unitate Item divisis 3 per 5 oriuntur ^, ut in divisione superius

ostendimus.

Unde omnis numerator vicem


Ut

gerit quantitatis partiendse

denomina

tor vero, quantitatis partientis earn.

superiore exemplo ||$ idem significant quod Sab divisa 2 be ; sic idem valent quod 3 a divisa per 2 a, seu breper |^ vius, 3 divisa per 2 ; sive tandem idem valet quod tres partes
unitatis divisss in duas
partitse

j sunt tres quartse per quatuor, quod idem est.


;

sic

unitatis, vel tres

Atque omnis

quantitas,

numeratorem

et

denominatorem habens, pro


ut

fracta habetur, et ut fractio computatur.

Hinc prudenter unitatem pro denominatore


integrae

integris subjicimus,

cum

fractis,

quasi fractse, computentur.


fractae,
si

Facilius

autem computantur
et

earum termini contrahantur,

et abbrevientur,

priusquam inter operandum accreverint.


contrahuntur, partiendo terminos accretos per
divisorem.

Abbreviantur, autem,

suum maximum communem

Est autem maximus communis divisor, quo major dari nequeat perfecte dividens utrumque terminum.

Hie habetur, partiendo terminum majorem per minorem, primo,

et

deinde semper partiendo prsecedentem partitorem per suas reliquias, donee tandem nihil remanserit ; et ultimus ille divisor (spretis quotis)
est

maximus communis

partitor qusesitus.

22

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
15 maximus communis partitor sic habetur ; partirc 55 per 15, remanebunt 10 ; par tire 15 per 10, remanebunt 5 ; partire 10 per 5 et nihil remanebit : 5 ergo sunt

Ut terminorum 55

et

maximus communis

partitor, partiens 15

per

3, et

55 per

11.

Verum

si

ad unitatem partitorem perveneris, inabbreviabiles,


discreti.

discreti

tamen sunt termini, aut se invicem habentes ut

Ut

sint termini

5a

et

3a;

partitis
;

5 a per 3 a, remanent 2a;

inde partitis 3 a per 2 a, remanet 1 a remanet.


tate,

Unde
1

per quod partitis 2 a, nihil 5 a et 3 a non habent majorem partitorem imi


si

seu

per quod

partiantur, habebunt se invicem ut

discreti

numeri 5

et 3, ut postea suo loco

amplius dicetur.

Verum
cuum

hie

summopere cavendum

est a partitione
finis,

incommensurabi-

lium quantitatum, cujus nullus in a3ternum erit


evadet.

ut suo loco perspi-

Ut

denarii, et suae bipartientis radicis,

quam radicem

quadra;

tarn vocant,

nulla reperietur in sBternum


ille

communis mensura

multo minus partitor

maximus, ut suo loco.

Cum
est

terminis inabbreviabilibus

tanquam abbreviatis eorum defectu

operandum. Habito maximo communi divisore, et per


;

eum

partito utroque ter-

mino, oriuntur novi termini abbreviati


dicitur.

et haec operatio abbreviatio

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

23

CAPUT

VIII.

DE COMPUTATIONIBUS QUANTITATUM FRACTARUM.


ADDITIONES
tionis.

et

substractiones sunt fractionum ejusdem denomina-

Si diversae sunt denominationis,

ad eandem reducantur.
denominatoribus per suum

Reducuntur autem,

partitis

utriusque

maximum communem

partitorem, notatis quotis.

Inde multiplicando utrosque terminos prioris in quotum posterioris denominatoris, et fit nova prior ; et utrosque terminos posterioris per

quotum
tionis.

prioris denominatoris, et

fit

nova posterior ejusdem denomina

Ut

sint fractse

et et

denominator um 3

^ ad eandem denominationem reducendse 9 comniunis maximus partitor est 3, per


;

quse divisis denominatoribus, oriuntur 1 pro priore, et 3 pro posteriore


;

deinde, multiplicatis
3,

utroque termino, per posteriorem


Sic multiplicando

quotum

oriuntur ^ pro priore nova.


scilicet

unitatem (prioris

quotum), fiunt

per ejusdem denominationis

cum

-- .

Harum jam ejusdem

denominationis, addantur et substrahantur nume-

ratores novi, retento novo et

communi denominatore,

et

habebis addi-

tionis totam, et substractionis residuam.

Ut

superiore exemplo addantur novi numeratores 6 et 7

et

oriuntur 13, quse,


additionis tota.
tionis residua.

cum denominatore communi


si

9, faciunt

-^ pro

Sic

substraxeris

f ex

^,

remanebit ^ substrac

24

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Multiplicantur ctiam
fractae,

partiendo singulas binas, quarum altera est numerator, altera denominator, in suum communem divisorem maxi

mum,
i

notatis

omnium

ultimis quotis, deinde multiplicando quotes


;

nume-

-at

.rum invicem, et fiunt novus numerator

et quotes

denominatorum

invicem, et fiunt novus denominator multipli quaesiti.

Ut

sint

invicem multiplicand

et

^j-

primo partiantur
2,

18 et 20 per
-$y

suum communem divisorem maximum

fient
situ,
situ,

et

^j;

inde partiantur 10 et 35 per 5, fient 2 et 7 hoc inde partiantur 9 et 231 per 3, fient 3 et 77 hoc

et ^J-j-

rem maximum

denique partiantur 7 et 77 per suum communem diviso 7> et fient 1 et 11, hoc situ, f- -^ : His peractis, due hos numeratorum ultimos quotes 3 et 1 invicem, sic ultimos
-f7
;

denominatorum 2

et 11, fientque

illi

3, hi 22,

hoc

situ,

^-, multi-

plum quaesitum.
biles has iL
t

Item

sint multiplicandse fractiones inabbrevia;

et

invicem

multiplicentur primo numeratores 2 a

et

4 invicem,
3
et

et fient 8 o,

novus numerator

deinde denomina;

tores
|,

5 invicem, et

fient 15,

novus denominator

sunt ergo

multiplum qu;rsitum.

Hoc
tion

multiplicatione fractiones fractionum,

imo, et fractiones frac

um

iterum atque iterum fractarum, ad simplices fractiones redu-

cuntur.

trium quartarum, sic notatae, f ex |, per prsemissam fiunt primo % per abbreviationem ; inde, per numera

Ut

dua) quint

torum invicem ac denominatorum invicem multiplicationem, fiunt unica fractio idem valens -j^j, simplex, quod superior fractio frac
tionum.
tatae,

Sic tres quartae


,

duarum tertiarum unius

dimidii, sic no,

| ex $ ex inde ^ seu fc
-J-J-

et inferioribus

ex -f ex per abbreviationem, primo tandem ductis superioribus quotis invicem, invicem, fiunt J, idem valens quod j ex f ex
-J-

fient
;

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

25

Partiuntur, autem, invertendo terminos divisoris, et inverses per par-

tiendum multiplicando omnimodo ut superius in multiplicatione.

Ut

sint -f^ penultimi

exempli partiendae per j

hujus divisoris

inverte terminos, et fient J, quae per -fa multiplicatae fient primo


1 per abbreviationem y ^ T deinde ^ -f, deinde per multiplicationem superiorum invicem, et inferiorum invicem, fient |, quotus opta,

tus, et superioris multiplicationis

examen.

Extractio autem

fit

extrahendo indicatam radicem tarn ex numeratore

quam

ex denominatore, sive ex quibuscunque terminis ejusdem rationis,


extrahenda radix bipartiens ex fractione -J-J ; extrahatur radix bipartiens 16, estque 4 ; inde radix bipartiens &5, estque
sit
,5
;

et fient radicis quaesitae termini.

Ut

ex

illo fit

numerator

4,

ex hoc denominator

5,

hoc

situ,

radix bipartiens JJ optata.

Item

sit

extrahenda radix bipartiens

ex ^, seu, quod melius


titates

ex ^f ; quanto enim majores sunt quanejusdem rationis, tanto exactiores sunt radices, nisi perfecte
est,

extrahantur.

habetur

Extrahe ergo radicem bipartientem e 48, quaa non sic e 64 extrahatur eadem ergo e 49, et ea erit 7
j ;

radix, estque 8

sunt ergo

radix bipartiens j, veritati

quam

proxima.

Radicales multiplicationes, et partitiones, et regulam proportionis, quia nihil aliud sunt quam multiplicationes et partitiones repetitas, ad
prsemissa referimus, ex quibus facile habentur.

Completis computationibus

his,

restituendse sunt fractiones mixtae,

quarum

scilicet

fractiones.

numerator excedit denominatorem, ad suas integras et Fit autem restitutio haec, partiendo numeratorem per deno

minatorem, et emerget in quotiente integra quantitas, et reliquiae erunt

26

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
illi

numerator, et divisor erit denominator, fraction!


junctae.

mixtji-

et

ad-

Ut
tur
11

si

ex computationibus completis provenerint


4, et fiunt

dividan-

per

in quoto, et

tegrae, et tres quarta? unitatis,

3 supererunt ; unde duse inhoc situ, 2j, sunt idem quod supe-

riores

^-,

reformatae et magis perspicuae.

FINIS LIBRI PRIM1.

LIBER SECUNDUS.
DE LOGISTICA ARITH ME TI CA,

CAPUT

I.

DE INTEGRORUM NOMINATIONS ET NOTATIONE.


HACTENUS computationes quantitatum omnibus communium sequuntur propriarum.
;

Logisticse speciebus

Tertio, itaque, computationes vel sunt verinomiarum, vel fictinomia-

Unde Logistica vel est verino seu hypotheticarum quantitatum. miarum, de quibus Lib. II. et III. ; vel fictinomiarum seu algebraicarum,

rum

de quibus Lib. IV. agetur. Verinomise sunt quantitates veris nominibus


sint multitudine, vel quantse sint

definitae,

quibus, quotae

Verinomiae aut sunt discretae


concrete nominatae.

magnitudine, explicatur. numero discrete, aut concrete numero

Unde, Logistica verinomiarum

vel

est

discretarum
II.
;

quantitatum,

quse Arithmetica dicitur, de qua hoc Lib. Geometrica, de qua Lib. III. agetur.

vel concretarum, quse

28

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
ARITHMETICA,
ergo,
est

Logistica

quantitatum

discretarum

per

numcros

discretes.

Numerus
metitur.

discretus est, quern

suum unicum individuum numeratum


unde Arithmetica
est

Numerus

discretus aut est integer, aut fractus

integrorum et fractorum. Integri sunt, quos individua unitas numerata metitur.


Vocales integrorum nominationes quodque suppeditat idioma
;

ut

Latinum,

unum, duo,

tria,

quatuor, &c.

Scripta autem integrorum nomina, seu notae,


hai
:

novem sunt

significative

unum, 2 duo, 3
9 novem.

tria,

4 quatuor, 5 quinque, 6
numeros.
0,

sex,

7 septem,

8 octo,

HJB, diversis

locis, di versos significant

Prater has novem notas, seu figuras, est circulus

qui nullibi locorum

quicquam

significat,

sed locis vacuis supplendis destinatur.

Locorum

series a dextra in siuistram consideratur, in


;

quorum primo,
;

figura suo jam dicto valore nominatur

secundo, decuplo
;

tertio,

cen-

tuplo

quarto, millecuplo
;

quinto, decics millecuplo


;

sexto,

centies

millecuplo

septimo loco, millies millecuplo

octavo, decies millies mil

lecuplo valore nominatur.

Et

ita

deinceps in infinitum, per decuplum

incrementum semper progrediendo.

Ut 7
lia.

sunt septem
:

at

70 sunt septuaginta
;

700, vero, sunt

septingenta

Sic 8000, octo millia

60000, autem, sexaginta mil

Unde 68777*
:

sexaginta octo millia, septingenta septuaginta

septem, indicant. Item 90630, nonaginta millia, sexcenta triginta,


significant

Et

ita

de

aliis.

Hinc

fit

majorum numerorum

facilis

nominatio,

si,

post tertiam
;

quamsecun-

que figuram constitute puncto, primum punctum millia appelles

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
dum,
millia millium
;

29

tertium, millena millia milliura


;

quartum, millies

millena millia millium

et ita

de reliquis punctis.

Figurae, vero,

primo

loco a punctis constitute, suo valore


loco,

nominentur

secundo, vero, a punctis

decuplo valore

tertio denique, centuplo sui valore

nominentur.

Ut

hie numerus, 4734986205048205, sic pungatur, 4. 734.

986. 205. 048. 205.

Et haec

erit ejus

nominatio

quatuor millies

mille millena millia millium, septingenta triginta quatuor millies

millena millia millium, nongenta octoginta sex millena millia mil


lium, ducenta quinque millia millium, quadraginta octo millia,

ducenta

et

quinque

Et

ita

de

aliis.

CAPUT

II.

DE ADDITIONS ET SUBSTRACTIONE INTEGRORUM.


HACTENUS integrorum nominatio
et et notatio
;

sequitur computatio

primo de additione et substractione.


In additione spectatur situs, et operatic seu praxis. Situs est, ut numeri numeris subscribantur ita ut, a dextris incipiendo,
;

figurae primse primis, secundae secundis, et reliquse reliquis directe sub-

stituantur, ducta sub

numero infimo

linea.

Operationis tria sunt praecepta.

Primum, ut primi
et,

loci figurse,

omnes

in

unam summam

colligantur,
;

hujus summae, prima tan turn figura


quae sint,

eis, infra lineam, subscribatur

cseteris, si

animo

reconditis.

Secundum, ut
sequentis loci, in

cseterae hae,

animo

reconditae,

una cum omnibus

figuris

unam summam

colligantur, et,

hujus etiam summae,


;

prima tantum figura

eis, infra lineam, subscribatur

caeteris ejus

summae

30

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
si

figuris,

quac

sint,

animo reconditis
est.

Et haec operatic

in

ultimam

omnium figuram repetenda


Tertium, ut ultimi
sint) in

loci figurae,

cum novissime animo reconditis,


compleant.

(si

quac

unam summam
et

collectae, loca sinistima

Ut quintum caput Geneseos exhibet annos a creatione Adami hinc 105 ad Enosch, hinc ad Kenan mundi 130 ad Sheth
;

90, hinc ad Mehalalelem 70, ad Jered 65 annos, hinc ad


105

Henoch

162, inde ad Methuselach 65, ad

Lamech

187,

QO XQ
lb& 65
j

hinc ad natum
600.

Noah

Quasritur, his

Noah ad initium diluvii jam additis, summa annorum a con182, a nato


?

dito orbe

ad diluvium

Anni ergo omnes


;

recto situ, ut

82

a margine, constituantur

inde, primo, dextimae seu primi

loci figurae 5, 5, 2, 5, 7> 2,

addantur, et fient 26
;

subscri-

bantur 6 directe, 2 autem in mente reserventur


haec
t

secundo,
adde,

2 una cum secundi

loci figuris 3, 9, 7> 6, 6, 6, 8, 8,

fient 55, quorum priorem notam 5 scribe, posteriorem mente reserva ; tertio, hunc reservatum quinarium, una cum 1, 1, 1,
1, 1,

6, ultimi loci figuris,

adde, fient 16, quae locis sinistimis

ponantur, fitque tota

summa
est

1656.

Additio, tamen, proprie

duorum numerorum,

ut

tertius

inde

producatur.

Ut
9

sint

addendi 9754862 atque 863556;

hi,

ex

I?of?c OOoOOO

superioribus praeceptis, producunt totum


8 * tu
(

10618418,
in

10618418

UO * margi ne 1

Hujus examen habes

sub*

stractione sequente.

In substractione est
Situs,

situs,

et operatio.
;

ut in additione,

a dextris incipit

substrahendi
et

autem

et

minuendi minor infimo

loco,

major medio

loco,

residuus

summo

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
constituitur, linea inter

31

summum

et

medium

interposita

ita ut a

dextra

figurse primse primis, secundse secundis, et reliquse reliquis, directe super-

scribantur.

Operatic, contra, a sinistris aptissime inchoatur, aut

si

mavis a dextris,

hoc utcunque servato unico praecepto

quseque inferior, aut nihil ubi nihil subest, ex super posita illi figura ilia non minore, aut minore additis 10, substrahatur ; et residua Integra illi superscribatur, si modo inferioris summa, hinc dexscilicet figura

Ut

trorsum extensa, non excedit

summam

ei

superscriptam
unitate,
si sit

alioquin,

si

excedit, tune prsefata residua figura

minuta

numerus, vel

aucta novenario,

si sit 0, illi

superscribatur.

Ut
endo
:

sint

47156705 substrahenda ex 2738154098 numero minumargine, et dextimse dextimis figurse respondeant : Proinde prim 6
a sinistimis 27 aufer nihil (nihil enim subest), rema-

Sit situs hujus supra, illius infra, ut in

26qo QQ 7 oqo

2738154098 47156705

ne nt 27 minuenda unitate, quia


;

4,

&c. subscripta

excedunt

3, &c. superscripta
;

et ita 26, residua, sunt superscri-

deinde aufer 4 ex 3, additis tamen prius benda prioribus 27 his 10, ut 4 inde auferri possint, et supersunt 9, quse absque

minutione sunt superscribenda tribus, quia 7 minora sunt quam 8 ; deinde aufer 7 ex 8, remanet unitas unitate minuenda, et ita
est

superscribendum, quia dextrorsum 156, &c. exuperant


;

eis

superposita 154, &c.

deinde auferatur

ab

1,

remanet

sed

quia sequentia 56, &c. exuperant superposita 54, &c., ideo pro 0, 9 sunt superscribenda ; similiter aufer 5 ex 5, superest 0, sunt
ergo 9 superscribenda, quia 6 exuperant 4 superscripta
;

inde 6

ex 14 aufer, manent
excedit

8, scribe

superpositum

ei

7> quia subjecta figura 7 deinde aufer 7 a 10, remanent 3, in-

tantum

tegre superscribenda, quia subjectum


scripta
;

minus

est

quam 9

super

deinde aufer

ex

9, restant 9,

integre superscribenda,

32

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
sunt 8 suprapositis quia 5 inferius minora
8, et
;

tandem aufer 5 ex

nihil post extisupersunt 3, integre superscribenda, quia


:

niam figuram subjectum sequitur quod exuperat superpositum Et ita habes residuum qusBsitum, 2690997393.

Hujus operis examen

fit

per,

addendo 47156705 ad 2690;

997393, et restituentur 2738154098

vel

per,

substrahendo
:

2690997393 ex 2738154098,
in aliis.

et restituentur

47156705

Et

ita

Aliud exemplum,
Sint substrahenda
erit

et superioris additionis

examen.

863556 ex 10618418, residuus numerus

9754862, ut superius in additione.

Idem proveniet

si

dextris sinistrorsum operatus fueris.

Si offeratur major

numerus ex minore substrahendus, minorem


;

nihilo-

minus semper ex majore, per praemissam, substrabes verum, residuum minutionis copula praenotabis, et inde numerus defectivus orietur.

Ut

sint

substrabenda 10618418 ex 863556,

fiat,

per praemis

sam, substractio

horum ex

illis,

et provenient (ut in praecedente

exemplo) 9754862, quae, conversa in


residuus numerus quaesitus
;

9754862 defectivum, sunt

ut de quantitatibus defectivis, in
I.

genere, superius diximus, Lib.

cap. 6.

CAPUT

III.

DE MULTIPLICATIONS INTEGRORUM.
MULTIPLICATIO aut
per unicam, aut plures figuras. Multipb'catio per unicam, aut est unius aut plurium.
est

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Multiplicatio unius per unicam, seu singularum per singulas,
riter,

33

memo-

ex subjecta tabula, discenda est

quam

promptissime.

Ut
cem

si,

quid ex 7

et

8 inviin-

multiplicatis
?

oriatur,

terrogatur
8,

Quaere

majorem

scilicet in

suprema, et mino-

rem 7 in sinistima linea, et in angulo communi offendes ,56,


multiplum optatum.

Oblitus multipli producti ex duabus majoribus quibuscunque figuris,

earum
loci
;

a denario defectus invicem multiplica, provenietque figura dextimi

deinde minorem defectum a minore figura, aut majorem a majore,

auferto,

remanebit figura sinistima, complentes qusesitum.

Ut
7

si

oblitus sis

82 X
6

octies 7>

quantum septies 8, effecerint, earum a denario

vel

(quod idem est) defectus 3 et 2 in


;

vicem multiplica, et provenient 6, figura dextima deinde aufer 2 a 7> vel 3 ab 8, et restabunt 5, figura sinistima.
Itaque 56 sunt quassitum multiplum ex 7 et
8.

Multiplications plurium per unicam tarn situs


orditur,

quam

operatic a dextris

procedendo ordine laevorsum

ac multiplieando, etiam, sive


linea.

supra sive ante multiplicantem constitute, sub utroque ducitur

Multiplicatio plurium per unicam tria habet in operatione prsecepta.

Primum
autem,
si

est,

ut dextima figura per

datam unicam

multiplicetur, et
;

multipli unica figura, vel dextra (si duse sint), subnotetur

sinistra,

quse

sit,

animo

reservetur.

Secundum

est,

ut figura bsec,

animo reservata
E

(si

quse

sit),

addatur ad

34

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
figurae,
(si

multiplum sequentis

in unicara multiplicatae

aggregati, verd,

unica figura, vel dexterior


quae sit)

duae sint), subnotetur, sinisterior


ut prius
;

autem

(si

animo reservctur, addenda

et haec operatic in sinisti-

inam seu ultimara figuram

est repetenda.

Tertium

est,

ut ultimae figurae multiplum,

cum novissime animo recon-

dita (si quae sit), in

unicam

summam

collectum, sinistimis locis integrum

subnotetur.

Ut

sint

865091372 quintuplicanda, sen per 5 multiplicanda


:

Eorum

situs,

Primo, itaque, figura utcunque sit, ut in margine dextima 2, in unicam multiplicatricem .5, multi,

865091372
5

phcetur

4325456860

tram

10 (duae figurae), quorum dexdeinde duco, subnoto, 1 autem reserve


;

fient

seu multiplico, 7 in 5, fient 35


865091372(5 4325456860

reservatum, fiunt 36

quibus addo 1 quarum dextram 6 sub;

...

_.
:

noto, tnbus mente reconditis


t

Pergo

ter 5, seu

quinquies 3, sunt
8, et 1

1,5,

et 3,

mente

reservata, fiunt 18, subnoto


1,

reserve

sequitur quinquies
figura

fiunt 5, et 1

reservatum
;

fiunt

6,

unica

subnotanda,
;

nihilo

mente reservato

deinde, quinquies 9 sunt 45


servo
;

subscribe 5, mente autem 4 renihil est


;

sequitur quinquies 0,

quod quidem

hoc,

cum 4
;

reservatis, facit

noto 5,

4 subnotanda: Prosequor; quinquies 5 sunt 25 reservo 2 inde duco 6 in 5, proveniunt 30, et cum
;

reservatis

2 fiunt 32

scribo 2, reservo

tandem, duco 8 in

5,

fiunt 40, quibus

addo 3 reservata, jam omnium ultimo, fiuntque


integre,

43,

quae

quidem

in locis

omnium
est

sinistimis,

scribo.

Totum,

itaque,

multiplum quaesitum

432545860.

Superest, jam, plurium figurarum per plures multiplicatio.

Multiplicatio plurium figurarum per plures, praeter praemissa,

tria

habet praecepta.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

35

Primum, ut totum multiplicandum (per jam prsemissa) multiplicetur


in

quamque figuram

multiplicantis, sive a dextris, sive sinistris incipere

libuerit.

Secundum, ut cujusque figurae multiplum habeat suam dextimam figuram directe notatam sub figura multiplicante, et cseteras ordine
sinistrorsum sequentes.

Tertium prseceptum est, ut sub his particularibus multiplis ducatur alia linea, atque omnia multipla in unum aggregatum addantur, quod

quidem
ductum.

erit totale

multiplum, et qua3situm totius multiplicationis pro-

Ut

sit

praecedens numerus

865091372 multiplicandus in 92105


;

Collocentur, utrolibet situ, ut a margine


865091372 92105

deinde a quovis termino

multiplicantis incipe, sive dextro sive sinistro

ordine

exempli gratia, a dextro


;

Due

itaque

4325456860 865091372 1730182744


friTQr

totum multiplicandum per 5

fient,

per prsemissa,

4325456860, qua3
tima

ita

locentur ut figura dex-

QOOQ^lQ

79679240818060

sub figura multiplicante 5 directe statu:

atur, ca3teris sinistrorsum sequentibus

deinde,
et

idem multiplicandum per


nihil proveniet
;

0,

quod

nihil est, multiplicetur,

nihil, ergo,

hujus multiplicationis, notari opus


;

habet

sequitur multiplicandum per 1 ducere


viz.

proveniet idem

ex eodem,

865091372, quarum figurarum dextima 2 sub

sua multiplicante figura 1 collocetur, cseteris sinistrorsum sequen tibus : deinde idem multiplicandum duplicetur, seu per 2 duca
tur, et fient

1730182744, quarum

situs incipiat
:

sub suo multi

plicante 2, et inde sinistrorsum progrediendo

deinde totum mul

tiplicandum due in 9

fient

7785822348,

quse,
:

sub 9

situs initium

habentes, hinc ordine Isevorsum notentur

Tandem, omnia

invi-

cem

particularia multipla, lineis interclusa, adde, eo quern habent

situ, et fient

79679240818060, pro complete

et qua3sito multi-

36

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
865091372(92105
plicationis

multiple.

Nee

secus

eveniet

ex

7785822348
17

secundo

situ, incipiendo,

nimirum, multiplica-

8650<H372 4325456860

tionem per sinistimam figuram multiplicantis Similiter 9^ u t ex secundo schemate patet.


,.!,

in shnilibus.
in partitione sequente, ut et illius

Hujus examen habes est examen.

hoc

Multiplicatio trium, aut plurium

numerorum,

perficitur multiplicando

primum

in

secundum,

et
;

horum multiplum
et ita in

in tertium, et

horum rursus

multiplum in quartum

ultimum.
invicem 5, 4,
;

Ut
20
;

sint multiplicanda

2, et

due 5 in
due 40 in

4, fient 3, fient

secundo, due 20 in 2, fient 40

tertio,

120,

omnium multiplum.

CAPUT

IV.

DE PARTITIONE INTEGRORUM.
PARTITIO minoris per majorem non
fit

aliter

quam interponendo

lineam, inter superposition partiendum et infrapositum partitorem, et totus hie quotus fractio est, unitate minor.

Ut

sint

3 partienda per

5, sit

quotus f , quae pronunciantur, per quinque


;

tres quintae unitatis, vel, tria divisa

et fractio est.

Unde

hinc ortum habent numeri

fracti,

ut de quantitatibus fractis in

genere, cap. 7, docuimus.

De

his tractabit

secunda Arithmetics pars.

Partitionem sequalis per jcqualem, in omnibus quantitatibus, unitatem producere superius diximus.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

37

In partitione, tandem, majoris numeri per minorem, producitur quotus

semper unitate major et proprie hue spectat haec partitio. In hac majoris per minorem partitione, spectatur situs et operatic, quorum uterque incipit a laeva, dextrorsum tendens. Situs aptissimus
;

est,

ut sinistima partitoris figura sub sinistima partiendi ea minore,

aut ante sinistimam partiendi ea majorem, constituatur, caeteris figuris ordine

dextrorsum

sequentibus,

post

quarum dextimam immediate


;

incipiat parenthesis, quoto capiendo destinata


linea.

et

sub omnibus ducatur

Operationis quatuor sunt praecepta.

Primum, ut
eis

diligenter exquiratur, quoties partitor subduci potest ab


sinistimis, quse
:

supremarum figurarum

supra vacuum quoti locum,

parenthesi proximum, terminantur


conjectura,

sumpta, plerumque, hujus quoti


;

ex primis ad primas

relatis

deinde,

ut

figura

hunc

quotum notans, proximo, post partitorem


constituatur.

et parenthesin,

vacuo loco

Secundum, ut
sitam,

totus partitor, in
et

hanc figuram quoti recens acquiloco,

multiplicetur,

multiplum suo debito

per cap.

3,

con

stituatur.

Tertium, ut hoc recens multiplum, ex supremis figuris ei directe superpositis, substrahatur, atque deletis etiam figuris, et substractis et
ex quibus substrahuntur, supernotentur residuae, per cap. 2 hujus.

Quartum, ut repetantur

hae tres operationes,

endum

deleatur, et residua, seu reliquiae,

usque quo totum partiaut nullae aut partitore minores

prodeant,

dumque etiam

nulla quoti loca, usque in dextimam partiendi


;

figuram, vacua relinquantur

atque tandem, post quotum dextrorsum


reliquiae, et suppositus divisor, quoti frag-

ducatur linea, cui superpositae

menta unitate denotabunt.


Exempli gratia : Sint partiendi dies anni bissextilis 366, per dies hebdomadis 7 ut sciatur quot sint in anno bissextili heb-

38

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
domades
7(5
:

Statuantur ut a margine

deinde prime in.

quirendum est, quoties auferri possunt 7 ex 36 (etenim 36 sunt sinistimae illae figurae superpositae, quarum termi
m

nus, videlicet, figura 6, desinet supra

locum vacuum

quoti, proxistatue, ergo,

mum

parenthesi), et invenies quinquies


;

in

36

5 in primo quoti loco vacuo secundo, multiplica 7 per 5, fient 35 debito loco reponenda, (videlicet 5 sub 5, et 3 sinistrorsum)
;

tertio,

aufer 35 ex 3

et

6 superpositis,

et, eis deletis,

relinquitur unitas superius notanda.


7(5 2f

Sequuntur ergo reliquiae 16, ad et supra sequentem locum vacuum quoti, ex quibus 16, (repetendo opus ut
prius), recole quoties

auferri possint, et hie bis fieri

posse, relictis 2, conspicies

sequente, ergo, et ultimo quoti loco,


rite collo-

notentur 2

deinde ducantur 2 per 7, fiunt 14, quae


et,

cata cadunt sub 16, ex quibus aufer 14,

utrisque inde deletis,


fiat

.relinquentur 2 dies, seu

hebdomadis, quoto annectendae, ut


et &,

verus quotus, 52

hebdomadarum
in

duarum

scilicet

septima-

rum hebdomadis,

anno

bissextili.

Aliud exemplum.

861094 partienda per 432 constituta ut a margine deinde convidelicet, 4 ante 8, quia 4 minora sunt quam 8 sideratur quoties 432 e 861 auferri possint, con118
Sint
:
;

Ai? /Oz

jecturam ex 4 et 8 sumendo, vel ex 43 et 86, et


m

t
:

4W
"* fi

invenies 4 bis ab 8, et 3 bis a 6 auferri posse


I

sed

I 0'-*

432(1993118

tamen 2 non posse

bis

ab

1 auferri

unde

(fallente

hac conjectura) pones omnes ab omnibus semel

tantum autem posse

scnbatur ergo

1,

pro prima

quoti figura, per quod multiplica 432, et fient 432,

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
ex 861 auferenda, et restabunt 429.
quoties poteris auferre

39

4290 perscrutare 432, sumpta conjectura ex 4, quae in 42


Itaque, a
;

novies habentur, et remanent 6


satis

69 etiam novies continent

3, et
;

multa praeterea remanebunt, quibus novies contineantur 2 ideo 9 sequente loco vacuo, pro secunda figura quoti, ponitur
deinde, ductis

432 per

9, fient

3888, substrahenda ex 4290, et

remanent 402.
sint 432, simili

Itaque, perscrutare quoties a

4029

auferri pos-

qua prius conjectura,


posse
;

et invenies rursus novies

hoc etiam
432, et
141.

fieri

per alia ergo

9,

quoto adjecta, multiplica

3888 substrahenda ex 4029, et supersunt Considera, ergo, ex 1414 quoties 432 auferri possint, et
fient, ut supra,

id ter fieri posse reperies.

Ultimo ergo quotientis loco 3 ponantur, per quae multiplica 432, fient 1296, auferenda ex 1414 suprapositis, et tandem
supersunt reliquiae 118,
sive

J^f,

quee quoto adjiciantur,

et

perfectum quotum 1993^^f reddent.

Tertium exemplum,
Sint
tur

et superioris multiplicationis

examen.

79679240818060 partienda per 865091372 constituanut a margine deinde considera quoties 8650 auferri possint
; ;

ex 79679, seu quoties 8 ex 79, et perspicies n vies id fieri posse, relictis etiam quot sufficiunt
..

pro
.

6,

et
,

5,

et reliquis
,.
;
.

sequentibus,

865091372(92105

etiam novies aurerendis

, , , deinae per n 9, loco

quoti posita, multiplica partitorem 865091372,


et fient

et

7785822348, debito loco subnotanda, ex illis superpositis auferenda, et remane

bunt 1821017338 partienda per oblatum partitorem 86509, &c., et percipies haec ex illis (nimirum 8 ex 18, et caetera ex caeteris)

40

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
bis

tantum auferri posse

per

2, ergo,

quoto apposita, multiplica

fient 1730182744, ex superioribus reliquiis aufepartitorem, et

renda, et relinquentur 908345940, ex quibus, datus

ille

partitor

semel tantum auferri potest


tiplica partitorem,

per

1,

ergo, quoto appositum,

mul
;

et exsurget ipse

idem partitor 86509 137 2

quo ex 90834,5940 subducto, relinquuntur 432,545686, ex qui bus partitor 865091372 ne semel quidem auferri potest ideo,
;

posito

in quoto, perges, et quoties partitor

ille

ex 4325456860

auferri possit, quaeras, et invenies id quinquies fieri (facta con-

jectura per 8,
ergo,

qu

ex 43 quinquies auferri possunt)


multiplica

per

5,

quoto

adjecta,

partitorem,

et

producuntur

1-325456860, ex superioribus etiam his aequalibus auferenda, et


nihil

superest reliquium

Perfecta est ergo haec partitio,


;

et

92105 sunt quotus integer


plum
multiplicationis, et

atque approbat penultimum exemIta est de


aliis.

ab eo approbatur.

CAPUT

V.

DE MULTIPLICATIONIS ET PARTITIONS COMPENDIIS


MISCELLANEIS.
MULTIPLICATIONES per
10, 100, 1000, aut per alia ex unitate et cir-

culis quotvis conflata, facile fiunt adjiciendo, solum, tot circulos multi-

plicando a dextra, quot habet multiph'cator.

865091372 decuplicanda, fientque 8650913720 aut aut per 1000000O multicentuplicanda, fientque 86509137200
; ;

Ut

sint

plicanda, et provenient

8650913720000000.

Contra, partitio 10, 100, 1000, aut alia ex unitate et circulis quotvis conflata, facile fit abscindendo tot, ex dextimis figuris partiendi, quot

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
circulos habet partitor
:

41

abscissae

tamen

figurse

supra lineam,

et partitor

infra lineam, sunt constituendse, et quoto adjiciendse

ad quoti fragmenta

notandum.

Ut
quoto.
fit

sint

865091372 partienda per 100,


sint

fient

8650913^

pro

8650913720000089 partienda per 10000000, quotus 865091372 100 gg 000


.

Item

quoscunque numeros auctos circulis facile fieri, spretis primo in multiplicatione circulis, donee inde multiplicandi et multiplicands reliquse figura? invicem ducantur
sequitur, multiplicationes et partitiones per
;

Hinc

multiple tot circulos restituendo

atque pro partitione abscindendo et


;

circulos a partitore et toFtiguras a partiendo

atque reliquum partiendi

per reliquum partitoris dividendo, et reliquias


eas linea, adjiciendo.

cum

abscissis, posita inter

Ut

sint multiplicanda

65294 per 2300,


Item

fient

primo 1501762

(ex duetu 65294 in 23), deinde adjiciendo 00 fient 150176200,

pro toto multiple.


002)94 23 ( 28

sint partienda

2300, constituantur ut a margine, ita ut dantur gnomone 94, hoc modo |94 ; deinde partiantur

65294 per pro 00 abscin-

652 per 23, 28 seu

et fiet quotus,
<

cum

fragmentis residuis,

uo(i

idem

est

Primo

intuitui facilem se objicit bipartitio.

Ut

sint bipartienda
6,

65294

quis non primo intuitu conspicet

3 esse dimidium

2 quinarii, relicto 1, constituente cum deinde sequuntur sequente binario 12, quorum dimidium est 6 9, quorum dimidium sunt 4, relicto 1 (denario scilicet) sequuntur
et
;
;

ergo
g

omnium

ultimo 14,
3,

quorum dimidium
7>

est

ex quibus

omnibus

2, 6, 4,

fiunt 32647,

dimidium numeri

32647

oblati, dicto citius

repertum, ut a margine notatur.


F

42

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Hinc sequitur
facillima quintuplicatio,

nimirum, decuplum bipar-

tiendo.

Ut

sint

865091372 quintuplicanda

ejus

decuplum (per primam

sectionem hujus) cst 8650913720, cujus dimidium 4325456860


est

quintuplum oblati facillime inventum.

Et contra,

facilis est

Ut

sint

fientque

quinquepartitio, duplum decupartiendo. 4325456860 quinquepartienda primo duplentur, 8650913720 deinde (ex sectione 2 hujus) partiantur
; ;

per 10, fientque 865091372, quinta pars oblati quaesita.

Nee

difficilis erit

nonuplatio,

numerum

a suo decuplo auferendo


;

aut

quadruplatio,

numerum

a suo quintuple abstrahendo


adjiciendo
;

aut sextuplatio,

numerum ad suum quintuplum


ad
sibi

aut ipsa duplatio,

numerum

aequalem addendo.

Siquidem hae multiplicationes, facillima

additione, aut substractione, perficiuntur.

Atque ex

his rursus, simili facilitate, habetur triplicatio, septuplicatio,

et octuplicatio,

atque ita per omnes novem figuras multiplicatio.


loco, sint praccedentia et sequentia.

Exemplorum

Ubi autem multiplicator omnes novem

figuras, aut

earum potissimam

partem, complexus merit, vel partitoris quotus prolixus fore videtur,


praestat singularium multipla,

sive per praemissa

compendia, sive per

additionem continuatam,
nostrae,

sive,

omnium

facillime,

per ossa Rhabdologiae

impromptu habere, atque, ex

eis sic acquisitis,

integram multi-

plicationem aut partitionem contexere.

Ut, pro examine ultimi exempli cap. de multiplicatione, vide-

amus quid 92105 multiplicata per 865091372 producant Due ergo 92105 per 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, sive per praemissa com
:

pendia, sive per continuam additionem simpli ad simplum, ad

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

43

duplum, triplum, quadruplum, et ad caetera sub decuplo multipla ; et fient ordine


multipla ut a margine.
singula multipla
QQ

Ita

tamen,

ut

eodem figurarum numero


sinis-

constent, praeponendo deficientibus

trorsum

deinde, pro multiplicationis com-

pendio, haec singularia multipla eo ordine


collocentur, quern multiplicans

865091372

865091372
736840)276315 552630)644735

indicat, nimirum, sub 8 incipiat octuplum e tabella extractum, sub 6 sextuplum, sub

5 quintuplum,
quitur
;

et ita

de

caeteris ut subse-

460525(184210 828945" 092105

quibus tandem omnibus additis,

proveniunt 79679240818060,
qusesitum,
et
est.
illi

multiplum

79679240818060

consonum quod supra

repertum

Similiter pro
partitionis, sint

examine superiorum,

tarn multiplicationis
:

quam

79679240818060 partienda per 92105


deiude ex 796792,
miiiorem,
viz.

Consti;

tuantur situ quo a margine (per cap. 4 hujus)

numerum
aufer, et

tabulae

proxime
ei

736840,

figuram quoti

in tabula respondentem, 8 viz., pro quoto pone,


et supererunt

599524

ex quibus aufer sextu


scilicet tabulae illi

92105)865091372

plum

partitoris,

numerum
est
relictis

proxime minorem, qui


jiciantur quoto,

552630,
;

et

6 ad-

468940

ex quibus

aufer 460525,

quintuplum partitoris, et fiet quotus jam 865, relictis 84158, ex quibus

Ideo ne simplex partitor 092105 auferri vel semel possit. erit jam quotus 8650, et reliquiae jam 841581 supererunt ; ex

44

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
tabulatum, et fiet jam quibus aufer 828945, partitoris noncuplum relictis 126368 ; ex quibus aufer 092105, unicum quotus 86,509,

simplum parti torem ; et concrete jam quoto 865091, ex quibus 276315, triplum scilicet partitoris, supersunt 342630 ex aufer, et erit jam quotus 8650913, et supererunt 663156
scilicet et
; ;

ex quoto jam 86509137 supersunt quibus aufer 644735, et 184210 ex quibus aufer partitoris duplum tabulatum, et nihil
;

supererit, producto toto et integro quoto

865091372 superioribus

conveniente.

Hactenus multiplicatio et parti tio simplex,


sequuntur multiplicatio et partitio radicalis.

cum

suis

compendiis

CAPUT

VI.

DE RAOICALI MULTIPLICATIONE ET PARTITIONS INTEGRORUM.


MULTIPLICATIONS praxis ex
radicem duxeris,
radicem,
fit

ipsa ejusdem definitione patet.


fit

Si

enim

unitatem in radicem multiplicaveris,


fit

ipsa radix
si

quam

si

secundo in

duplicatum
;

quod
sic

tertio duxeris

triplicatum

quod, quidem,
;

si

duplicatum in quarto in radicem duxeris,

oritur inde quadruplicatum

atque

deinceps quintuplicatum, sextu-

plicatum,

secundum qualitatem indicis. Ut sint 235 multiplicanda ad indicem


etc.,

4,

seu quadruplicanda

Primo multiplica unitatem per 235 radicem, et fiunt 235 ; quae secundo due in radicem 235, fientque 55225, oblatac radicis
duplicatum
;

quod

et per

radicem
;

tertio multiplicato, et fient

12977875, oblatae triplicatum

quod adhuc per radicem 235

quarta vice multiplicato, et fient 3049800625, optatum oblatse


radicis quadruplicatum.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Unde, radicem
aliquoties ab imitate ducere,

45

idem

est

quod

tot sequales

radici invicem ducere.

Ut

superiore exemplo, radix 235 quatuor multiplicationibus

simplicibus ab mutate ducitur, et fit quadruplicatum


et si 235, 235, 235, et 235,

3049800625

invicem duxeris, idem emerget radicatum, seu quadruplicatum ; et ita de aliis.

Radices quarum indices sunt compositi,


multiplicari et extrabi posse,

facilius

per componentes

quam

per composites indices, superius

diximus.

Ut

superiore exemplo, facilius est radicaliter duplicare 235,

fientque

55225

atque haec rursus duplicare,

seu in 55225
:

ducere, fientque 3049800625,

superius quadruplicatum

nam

Item sint quadruplicare idem est quod duplicatum duplicare. 10 radicaliter sextuplicanda ; ea fient continuata ab unitate multiplicatione,

primo 10
;

secundo 100, duplicatum


;

tertio tripli-

catum, 1000

quarto quadruplicatum, 10000

quinto quintu-

sexto, tandem, sextuplicatum, 1000000. plicatum, 100000 ; Verum, per dictum compendium, si radicaliter triplicaveris dupli catum 100, seu duplicaveris triplicatum 1000, proveniet inde

sextuplicatum

1000000

quam an tea aliquantum


quod
Bis enim

expeditius.

Idem enim

est sextuplicare radicaliter

triplicare duplica
tria,

tum, aut duplicare triplicatum radicis.


duo, idem sunt

aut ter

quod

sex.

Est

et

alia

radicalis
;

duplicationis

praxis,

quam per continuatam

multiplicationem
secando, et

nimirum, radicem multiplicandam in duas partes duplum multipli, quod fit ex ductu prioris in posteriorem,
duplicatis,

una cum duarum partium


situm.

addita faciunt duplicatum quse-

46

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Ut si radix
oblata 35 radicaliter duplicanda, secentur in partes,

5 ; due 30 in 5, fient 150, quorum priorem 30, posteriorem 30 et duplicatum 5, duplum est 300 ; quibus adde duplicatum
et 25, fientque 1225, duplicatum totius numeri 35. quse sunt 900, Nee secus eveniet ex ductu 35 in 35. Item si prorogetur radix,
sit

352

sint partes, prior 350, posterior


est

due invicem,
2,

fient

700,

quorum duplum

1400

quibus adde duplicatum


est

est 4, et

duplicatum 350 superius inventum, quod

quod 122500
;

et

ex his tribus summis, 122500, 1400, et

4, additis, fiunt

123904,

duplicatum qusesitum radicis 352.


in 352, et

Experire multiplicando 352

idem

invenies.

tam usque figuram,


duplicate
1 3397441

Eodem modo operandum foret in quarEx anterioris partis 3520 foretque 3521.
et posteriore parte 1,

jam habito 12390400,


1

habebitur

duplicatum

totius numeri, seu radicis,

3521.

Est etiam et alia radicalis triplicationis praxis

nimirum, radicem in

duas partes secando, et triplum partis cuj usque in alterius duplicatum ducendo, et singulas partes triplicando ; ex bis enim quatuor summis
additis,

producitur radicis oblata} triplicatum.

Ut

sit

radix oblata 35 radicaliter triplicanda, secentur ut supra

in partes

30
900

et
;

due triplum '5, quod

est 15, in

duplicatum 30,

quod est 25

est
;

et triplum 30,

quod

est 90, in

et fiunt ilia

13500, haec vero

2250

duplicatum 5, quod deinde radicaliter ;

triplicentur 30, et fiunt


et fient

27000

radicaliter etiam triplicentur 5,

125

ex bis ergo quatuor summis, 13500, 2250, 27000,

et 125, additis, fiunt

42875, oblatae radicis triplicatum quaesitum. Experire per multiplicationem continuatam 35, 35, et 35, invi
et in
;

cem,

idem

incides.

Similiter

si

hie prorogetur radix, sitque


1,

351

partiantur in anteriorem partem 350, et posteriorem

ex

quibus,

modo

praefato,

habebis has quatuor summas, 42875000,

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
367500, 1050,
et 1
;

47

quibus additis, fient 43243551, triplicatum

qusesitum radicis oblatse 351.

Sunt

et quadruplicationis, quintuplicationis, sextuplicationis, et alia-

rum

radicalium multiplieationum, particulares praxes ad inveniendum radicatum indicis cuj usque. Sed quia turn modus per continuatam multiplicationem prima sectione descriptus generalis
est, et satis facilis, turn

ex converse regularum extractionum haberi possunt omnes hse particu lares praxes, has ideo hoc loco prsetermittimus.
Partitionis etiam praxis ex ipsa

ejusdem definitione

patet.

Si

enim

radicatum per radicem in unitatem usque partitus titionum est radicalis quotus, seu index qusesitus.

fueris,

numerus par-

55225 radicatum dividendum per radicem 235, emerget primus quotus 235, quibus per 235 divisis, emerget 1, secunsint

Ut

dus
et

Est ergo binarius hujus partitionis index, Item si radicatum 1 2977^75 radix est bipartiens radicati.
et ultimus quotus.
sit,

per radicem 235 partiendum


secunda, 235,
tertia, 1.

emergit, prima partitione, 55225,

Unde

partitio hsec tripartitio est, et index

est ternarius, et radix tripartiens dicitur.

Numerus

indicis,

seu qualitas radicis, habetur, tarn descendendo a

radicato ad unitatem, per partitionem,

quam ascendendo ab

unitate ad

radicatum, per multiplicationem

In utroque enim, numerus operatio-

num

est index, et radicis qualitas.

Ut

superiore exemplo, sicut radicatum 1 2977875* partitum per


tertia partitione exhibet

235 radicem,

unitatem
tertia

ita,

ab unitate

continuata multiplicatio 235 radicis,

multiplicatione in

idem radicatum incidet


esse index.

unde utroque modo arguitur ternarius

Hinc

fit,

quod

in computationibus, partitionis radicalis rarus sit usus

48

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

In his autem, multiplisuo munere etiam fungatur multiplicatio. catio radicalis, qua; ab unitate in radicatum, aut partitio, quae a radicato

cum

in unitatem praecise

non

incidit, inutiles sunt.

Arguunt enim oblatam

radicem non esse perfectam radicem radicati.

CAPUT

VII.

DE INVENIENDIS REGULIS EXTRACTIONUM RADICALIUM.


UNIUSCUJUSQUE
regula.

radicis

propria

est,

et

particularis,

extrahendi

Regula quseque extractionis


supplcmenta.

consistit in resolutione radicati in

sua

Supplementum est, differentia due-rum radicatorum ejusdem speciei. Ut sint radicata ejusdem speciei 100 et 144 ; videlicet, illud
duplicatum 10,
et

hoc duplicatum 12

differentia duplicatorum

100

et

144

est 44, quae sunt

verum supplementum praefatorum

radicatorum.

Supplementa ergo variantur, prout radicatorum et radicum species Alia enim est regula inveniendi supplementa duplicavariae fuerint.
tionis,

et extractionis radicis bipartientis, alia triplicationis, et extrac

tionis radicis tripartientis, alia quadruplicationis, et extractionis

quad-

rupartientis radicis

et ita

reliquarum omnium.

Regulas, autem, inveniendi

omnium radicatorum

et

radicum supple
referta,

menta, docet Tabella nostra triangularis,

areolis hexagonis

dextrorsum inscriptis unitate sola, sinistrorsum vero numeris ab unitate unit at is incremento crescentibus, et a vertice descendentibus ; et quae
introrsum habet singularum areolarum

numerum, quemque aequalem

duobus numeris proxime superpositis.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Sit

49

triangulum

ABC,

angulos,

sinistrum,

verticalem, et

dextrum, habens.

Quot autem radicum

species desideras

tabellam comprehendere, per bis tot partes, plus una, dividatur quodque latus ; v. g., ad duodecim extractionum species continen-

dum, dividatur quodque


piendo a basi

latus in

25 sequales partes

et,

inci-

AC,

per singula alterna puncta laterum ducantur,

intra triangulum, linese


incipies

duodecim basi
et
ei

parallelae

simili

modo
BC,

latere

AB,

duodecim

parallelas,

singulis

alternis punctis basis,

per singula alterna puncta lateris

tarn

intra
;

triangulum

quam

ultra

lineam BC,

digiti

spatio

extendes

eodem prorsus modo,


ultra triangulum

lateri

BC, duodecim parallelas


extendes.

a singulis alternis punctis basis, et per singula alterna puncta


lateris

BA,

digiti

spatio

Hinc

babes triangulum areolis hexagonis refertum, quarum 12 dextimse, et linese BC proximae, 12 unitatibus sigillatim inscri-

buntur

sinistimse vero

numeris

1,

2,

3,

4, 5, etc.,

usque ad

13, ordine, a vertice

ad angulum sinistrum

A descendentibus,
interius

inscribuntur
inscribatur

deinde hexagonum

quodque

vacuum

positorum
et 1,
tituli

aggregate duorum numerorum ei proxime superut sub 2 et 1 scribantur 3 ; sub 3 et 3, 6 ; sub 3

et ita in

calcem usque
*

tabulae.

sinistrorsum,

prsecedentis,'
*

Tandem, ascribantur supra secundum hexagonum


'

duplicatum prsecedentis ; supra ' et sic de cseteris scribe, triplicatum prsecedentis ; quartum dextrorsum radicatis prsecedentis usque ad duodecuplicatum
;
* :

supra tertium 3 scribe,

vero

scribe
'

supra

primum hexagonum
'

'

succedens

'

;
*

supra
tripli

secundum,

duplicatum succedentis
'

supra tertium,

catum succedentis

et

sic

de reliquis radicatis succedentis,


tabellse ipsius

usque ad tredecuplicatum, prout in


subscripto habes.

diagrammate

50

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
TABULA SUPPLEMENTORUM.

66 Y220Y495Y792Y924Y792Y495T220X 66 Y XV. /\ / /\ /\ /l\ /|V


x' 11

V'D'

\Xv

>w

\\Y

v'y

\\ f

1\

/!\

/l\

/IX

Cuique supplemento respondent duse partes radicis altera constante una vel pluribus figuris sinistimis jam inventis, quse praecedens dicitur ;
:

altera

constante

unica dextra figura

jam proxime invenienda,


se

qua?

succedens nuncupatur.

Atque

hae radicis partes, et


;

supplementum, mutuo

componunt

et

condunt ad invicem

ut postea patebit.
est 12,

Ut

duplicati 144 radix bipartiens

quorum du

partes,

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
1 et 2,

M
1

respondent supplemento 44, et anterior


'

dicitur

'

prae-

cedens,' posterior vero 2,

succedens

;'

at si

duplicatum 15129

sumpseris, cujus radix bipartiens est 123, anterior pars jam

nuper inventa,
3,
'

scilicet 12,

dicitur

praecedens,' et unica figura

succedens.'

Ex

hac itaque tabella, cujusvis supplementi inveniendi regula

sic

Primo, quaeratur juxta crus sinistrum numerus indicis proposita3 radicis ; hie enim, una cum reliquis arealibus numeris
colligitur et legitur.

directe in

eadem
offert
;

linea ordine sequentibus,

quaesitum supplementum
singulo legantur tituli
ei

legendum

modo una cum eorum

oblique, tarn sinistrorsum


tiplicandi.

quam dextrorsum,

superpositi invicem mul-

Exempli gratia:

Quaeritur, e tabula, regula inveniendi supple

mentum

duplicationis et extractionis radicis bipartientis.

Haec

in secunda linea duobus numeris, 2 et 1, et suis titulis invicem

multiplicandis, exprimitur hoc modo,


et 1

prsecedentis 2 succedens,

duplicatum succedentis, qua3


:

ita

legenda et pronuntianda

sunt

supplementum duplicationis constat prsecedentis duplo


ut exemplis sequentibus patebit.
Sic pro supplemento

multiplicato per succedens, et unico seu ipso duplicate succe


dentis
;

triplicationis, in tertia linea reperies tres

numeros,

3, 3, 1, qui,

cum

suis titulis, ita leguntur


;

supplementum

triplicationis tribus

constat numeris

primus

est,
;

duph'cati praBcedentis triplum mul-

tiplicatum per succedens

secundus

est,

pra3cedentis triplum
;

multiplicatum per duplicatum succedentis


triplicatum succedentis.

tertius est,

ipsum

pro supplemento quintuplicationis, vel extractionis In quinta linea reperies quinque radicis quinquepartientis :
Similiter,

numeros

hos, 5,

10,

10, 5,

1,

qui,

cum

suis titulis, indicant

52

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
supplemcntum quintuplicationis,
quinque constare partibus
;

aut

quintuparticntis

radicis,

quarum prima est quadruplicati secunda est, ductum per succedens prajcedentis quintuplum ductum per duplicatum succetriplicati praecedentis decuplum
;

dentis

tertia est, duplicati praecedentis

decuplum ductum per


quintuplum

triplicatum

succedentis

quarta

est,
;

praecedentis

ductum

in

quadruplicatum succedentis
:

quinta

est,

ipsum quin-

tuplicatum succedentis
cationis,

Atque

ita quadruplicationis, sextupli-

et

reliquarum supplementa ex hac tabella invenire

poteris.

sinistimarum figurarum radice quam maxima praecedente, et singulorum supplementorum figuris succedentibus in unum collectis,

Ex

emerget radix plene extracta.

Supplementa autem omnium radicum hactenus descripta habes superest ergo jam de earundem extractione disserere.

CAPUT

VIII.

DE RADICUM EXTRACTIONE.
OMNIS
radicati radix aut est unius figurae, aut plurium.
figurae, infra

Radices omnes unicae


subscquens.

tredecupartientem, exhibet tabella

Ut

si

radicem quintupartientem

16809 quaeras
directe

In

lineji

quintuplicatorum quserendus est oblatus

numerus, aut

ei saltern

supremo reperies radicem figuram quaesitam, nimirum, quintupartientem oblati,


;

proximo minor, 16807

et loco

eis

vel

oblato

proximi,

quae est

7,

et

supersunt

2,

extractione

irresolubiles.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

53

TABULA RADICATORUM ET RADICUM.

Construitur hsec tabula, ex continuatis multiplicationibus, per singulas

novem

figuras, seriebus

ab eisdem

figuris descendentibus.

Ut
5,

in fronte tabulae, habes figuras, octo multitudinis, 2, 3, 4,


;

&c. usque ad 10

et

sub quaque figura, suum duplicatum,


:

triplicatum, quadruplicatum, &c. in tredecuplicatum usque

ut,

sub 2 habes

4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128,

256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096,


;

cum

suis

inscriptionibus
triplicatum,
;

margine sinistrorsum

nimirum,

duplicatum,

catum ultimo

sub

3,

quadruplicatum, &c. et duodecupliautem, habes sua radicata 9, 27, 81, 243,


;

&c. continuata ratione descendentia

sub
;

4, item,

habes 16, 64,

256, &c.

et ita
;

ad novenarium usque

sub quo habes 81, 729

6561, &c.

ut in tabula ipsa perspici possunt.

In extractione radicis constantis pluribus


et operatio.

figuris, spectandi

sunt

situs,

54

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Situs
est,

ut

sub radicato oblato duas ducantur line


sit

parallels-?,

quarum intervallum

radicis qua3sitae capax, inter quas,

radicis dextimfi, signetur

punctum

sub figura abhinc autem sinistrorsum, sub

secunda quaque figura pro radice bipartiente, et sub tertia quaque pro notentur tripartiente, et sub quinta quaque pro quintupartiente, &c.,
puncta.

In hsec puncta, inter lineas posita, cadunt figura3 singulas radicis


quaBsitae.

Operationis autem duo sunt praecepta. Primum, ut a figuris, in sinistrum punctum terminantibus, auferas
radical uin proposits speciei, in tabula

secunda inventae,

quam maximum

auferre poteris, notatis supra reliquiis, et loco hujus sinistimi puncti

ponatur assumpti radicati figura tabularis, pro prima radicis figura. Secundum, ut, facta conjectura ex primis supplementi numeris, succedat in sequenti puncto, seu periodo ejusmodi, recens et nova figura,
cujus supplementum propositae speciei,

quam maximum
reliquiis

sit,

non tamen
;

excedat figuras
ijuibus

illi

superiores in ipsa hac periodo terminantes

ex

inde

supplementum idem auferatur,

supra notatis.

Atque

ba3C secunda operatic toties,

seu tot vicibus, repetatur, quot


;

supersunt periodi vacuae versus dextram


dentes sunt radix quaesita.

et figurse in periodos inci-

Ut, exempli gratia,

Constituantur situ

extrahenda radix bipartiens e 55225 quo a margine ; deinde primo, a 5, sinistimaB


sit
:

periodi, aufer
.

maximum duplicatum

possit, scilicet 4, et restat 1, deletis

quod auferri 5 supra et 4 infra ;

tabula*

quaternarii radix bipartiens tabularis, quse est 2, ponatur primes periodi loco ; 2 ergo dicuntur praacedens figura ;
cui succedens est quaerenda, et in secunda periodo consti-

tuenda, cujus supplementum non excedat suprascriptas

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
figuras 152, facta conjectura ex

55

prima supplement! parte, scilicet ex 2 jam inventis (qua3 20 sunt in hoc loco) duplatis et multiplicatis
per inveniendam, id
est,

40

multiplicatis per succedentem.

Si

autem quaternarius
20

foret succedens,

prior supplementi pars foret 160, quse

_2 40
3
120.

excedunt 152
3 3
rio,

rejecto ergo quaterna-

eligimus ternarium in hac periodo

Prior

9.

Posterior

pars prioris supplementi. 129. Totum

pars prioris supplementi.

collocandum; cuj us supplementum duplicationis, ex priore tabula, est 129


(scilicet ter 40, et ter

primum

sup-

3)

plementum.

mento ex 152

oblato,

quo supplesupersunt hoc


;

loco reliquiae 23, seu ad dextram usque

J23
2 3

2325, et pars prsecedens radicis jam


23,
vel

est

iterum ergo repetatur secunda operatic, ad inveniendam 110;

230

vam succedentem
periodi loco

figuram, dextimse
;

ponendam

hujus nova?

succedentis supplementum, quodcun-

que

sit

futurum, constat (per primam

tabulam) prsecedentium 230 duplo, scilicet 460, multiplicato in succeden


tem, et succedentis duplicato
;

at si 6

multiplicaveris per 460, excedunt 2325;


rejectis ergo 6,

tum
2325,

computetur supplemen quinarii ; eritque, ex tabulis,


(scilicet

quinquies 460, et quinablatis

in

quies 5) quibus

ex totidem
;

235

suprapositis, nihil superest

et

radix

bipartiens 235,

jam plena

et perfecta,

emersit oblati numeri 55225.

56

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
A
Sit
1 i

in

exemplum

extractionis bipartientis radicis.


collocatis ut a

extrabenda radix bipartiens e 164860,


:

margine

Figurarum primae

radix bipartiens periodi, scilicet 16,

est 4, in ilia periodo

locanda

borum

4 duplicatum, 16, est ex superioribus 16 auferendum, et supersunt 48 in

secundam periodum usque,


figurae praecedentes
;

et

40 sunt

jam

si

vel unita-

tem pro succedente

elegeris, erit ejus

supplementum 81, quae non possunt ex 48 auferri ; ergo figura succedens


et nova, in
erit

secunda periodo ponenda,

24

0,

cujus

supplementum
et

est

quo ex 48

ablato,

supersunt in
:

ulti-

mam
ritur

periodum 4860

jam 40 sunt
;

inventae figurae praecedentes

et quae-

nova succedens, ultimae periodi

loco statuenda
licet sexies

ea

erit necessario 6, cujus et sexies

duplum 400,

6) est

supplementum (sci 4836 quibus ex 4860


;

sublatis, restant 24, reliquiae irresolubiles quaesita, imperfecta

et radix bipartiens

tamen,

est

406, oblati radicati 164860.

Exemplum
Sit

extractionis tripartientis radicis.


:

extrabenda radix tripartiens e 12977875


;

punctiset situ

collocentur ut a margine
4

inde,

maximum

triplicatum tabulare

non excedens

12, scilicet 8, ex

12 aufer,
;

et super

Z2977875

sunt 4, superscribenda, deletis 12

octonarii

autem

radix tripartiens, scilicet 2, primae periodi loco statuatur, et

20 sunt jam praecedens

cujus succedens,

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
cum
suo supplemento, sic quaeratur
:

57

supplementum

tripartientis

radicis (ex

prima tabula) constat tribus partibus,


fit

quarum prima
succedentem
4977*

ex triple duplicati prsecedentis


per
si
;

multiplicato

unde

sequitur,

supra-

scripta,

dividerentur per triplum


scilicet

duplicati prsecedentis,

per

triplum 400,

quod

est

1200,

de

succedente dabit quotus conjectu-

ram
est

succedens enim plerumque


sequalis,

3600 540 27
27.

aut huic quoto


;

aut

unitate eo minor

si

itaque 4977

Tertia

4167.

Totum

per

1200

partirentur,
;

4
at

foret

pars prioris supplementi.

prius supple-

mentum.

quotus et succedens
narii

quater-

supplementum
;

est

5824, quse
ergo 4,

excedunt 4977
810
2

rejecto

eligamus

tum
3

est
3,

quorum supplemen 4167 (nam 1200 ducta


3,

per

et ter

3 ducta per

ter 20,

et triplicatum 3,

aggregata faciunt

4977 ablatis, supersunt hie 810, et in periodum ter4167)


tiam
230 3
figurae
;

his ex

810875,

et

230 jam sunt


Quserenda
in
:

prsecedentis.

690
25

restat

succedens

dextimum

158700
5

345 138
17250. Secun

punctum locanda
5, cujus

ea, simili
;

modo

793500. Prima
pars posterioris supple ment!.

quo prsemissa, invenietur

estque

da pars posterioris sup-

supplementum
scilicet

est

plementi.

(nam triplum
turn

duplicati

810875 230 dueet

per

5,

793500,

58

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
6 5
'25

triplum 230 ductum in 25, videlicet


793500 17250
125
Tertia

5
125.

17250, et triplicatum 5, quod est 125, fiunt 810875) ; his ergo ex superToposte-

810875.

pare posterioris

tum

positis eis sequalibus

ablatis,

nihil

sup

rius supple-

superest
sita,

et radix tripartiens quae-

plement!.

mentum.

235, perfecta et integra,

ob-

lati triplicati

235

Atque

ita

12977875, producitur. in omnibus extractionibus

radicum, ubi indices sunt primi et


incompositi, ut quintupartientis, et
sextupartientis, &c., operaberis.

Exemplum

extractionis

radicum ubi indices sunt compositi.


extrabenda
radix
50
2

Sit

quadrupartiens e 304Q800625 ; quod hoc expeditius


fiat,

100 5

_5
25. Supplemen-

bis

extrahendo

radi-

~500
550
2

tum primum.

cem
5 5

bipartientem,

quam
radicem
consule

22

semel

extrahendo

TToo
2

quadrupartientem,
cap.

Lib.

I.

Eorum
radix
bi-

2200

4.

Supplemen-

tum secundum.
5520
2

ergo

extrahatur

partiens,
debitis,

situ et operatione

ut

a margine,

et

11040 2

22080
rur-

4.

producentur 55225, bipartiens oblatorum


sus
entis

radix
55220
2_ 110440
5_ 552200
;

Supplementertium.

tum

hujus

radicis

biparti-

5
_5
25. Supplemsn-

extrahe

jam secundo
ut

radicem

bipartientem,

tum quartum.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
etiam a margine vides,
et

59

n
mn_ 235

reperies

hujus

bipartientis
esse

20 2_ 40
3
1

bipartientem
235,
quae

radicem

etiam est radix


optata,
ra-

_3
9-

20

quadrupartiens
dicati

Supplementum primum.

3049800625
ita

oblati.

230
2

Atque
radicum

in

extractione

460
5

sextupartientium,

_5
25.

2300

Supplementum
secundum.

octupartientium,
tientium,
et

nonuparaliarum qua-

rumcunque
operaberis.

compositarum,

CAPUT

IX.

DE RATIONE EMENDANDI EXTRACTIONES IMPERFECTAS.


post extractionem supersunt reliquiae,
biles

quantumcunque

irresolu-

quoad totum, tamen ex parte seu partim reformari possunt. Hae autem superstites reliquiae, nisi ex parte seu partim refonnentur,

errorem plerumque sensibilem pariunt.


Sensibilis radicis et

suarum reliquiarum error duobis modis

prae-

cipuis emendatur.

Prior

est,

post radicem imperfectam ducendo lineam, supra


infra

quam

scribantur reliquiae,

minore termino,
latet

et unitate

integer pro Supplementum minutus pro majore ; inter hos enim terminos
possit.

vero

unitatis,

vera quantitas radicis, quae numero nulli definiri

extrahenda radix bipartiens e 164860, in secundo praecedentium exemplo reperies eorundem radicem bipartientem
sit

Ut

60

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
406 imperfectam,
et reliquias

24

superstates.

Constitue ergo

lineam post 406, et supra lineam scribantur 24, ut a margine ; inde ex inventa jam praecedente 406, quaere

supplementum unitatis succedentis respon^ ens duplicationi > noc integrum erit 813,
et unitate

minutum

erit

812,

quorum

illud

40tj

pro mmore, hoc pro majore termino bis sub linea scribatur. Erit ergo quaesitae radicis
bipartientis
1

2
Ml
"2

minor

terminus

406,&*r,

et

major
l.

406^jV,
et
latet
.

inter

quos
T^

terminos

con-

812

Unitatis

tinetur

praecisa
oblati.
1.1

radix
i_

bipartiens
sen-

supplementurn.

numen ^n^oc^ 164860


sibili

Ita ut absque

errore (praecipue in mechanicis) radix

bipartiens

164860

possit

dici

406^^,

vel

406^.
t

Radicis tripartientis emendandi exemplum.


Sit

extrahenda radix tripartiens numeri 998, haec (ex


9,

prae-

cedente tabula) deprehenditur proxime esse

et supersunt

adhuc 269
dse.

reliquia3

emendan-

Ilia

9 ante lineam, ha3C


earn, ut a
-r,

991
9
81

3 27

i l
-

269 supra
9,

margine Ex figura autem


..
,.

31
i

Supplement!
tertia pars.

"243
243

27

27. Secundapars.

pro praecedente inventa, unii

tatis
r

supplementum

243. Prima pars.

tnphca270, ut a

2?1.

Totum

sup-

ion is

integer reperietur 271,

plementum
unitatis.

et unitate

mmutus

margine conspicere licet, quse sub lineis scribantur. Et tripartiens numeri 998 oblati precise inter terminos

ita radix

9ffi% mino-

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
rem, et 9f^

61

majorem, constituitur

ita ut

pro

ea, haec vel ilia

absque
Posterior

sensibili errore capi possit.

modus

est,

ut totum radicatum propositae speciei oblatum

per cujusvis electi numeri radicatum ejusdem speciei multiplicetur ; producti autem radix ejusdem speciei (spretis reliquiis) per numerum
ilium electum partiatur.
tinctis, erit

Nam
j

quotus,

cum

suis fragmentis linea dis-

minor terminus

et si
erit

ad eorundem fragmentorum nume-

ratorem addideris unitatem,


vera radix.

major terminus, inter quos continetur


e

Ut

sit

extrahenda radix bipartiens emendata admodum,


Electus numerus
sit

numero

50.

1000, ejus duplicatum erit


7oo
2

1000000;
959
plica

per quse multifient

50,
;

50000000

producta

quorum radicem
bipartiensitu et

1400
7

ejusdem

speciei,

9800

49- Supplementuin

7071
HHl

tem nempe,
operatione
et

quaere,

primum.

quibus
erit

marradix

gine

haec

bipartiens

7071

(neglectis

reliquiis 959),

per electum

1000

partire, et net inde quotus,

cum

fragmentis,

7yJ^, pro
ut alteru-

minore termino,

et 7Tooo"

Pro majore termino.

Ita,

trum, pro ipsa radice bipartiente numeri 50 oblati, capi possit,

absque errore perceptibili.


,

Exemplum
Sit

pra3cedentis tripartientis radicis hoc

modo

emendatse.

extrahenda tripartiens radix emendata, e numero 998.

Sit alius

numerus

electus

100

ejus triplicatum erit

1000000

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
998000000, quarum extraper haec multiplica 998, provenient radix, ut a margine, et ea producetur quam hatur
tripartiens

proximo 999, quae


997001
tJJitT

(gpretis ^ f

jam
*

reli-

quiis

997001) per

999

electum

numerum
;

mm

100

partiantur

proveniet

inde

9^$j, pro minore


termino,
et

2 1 8700. Supplem. primi prima pars, 21870. Secunda pars. 729. Tertia pars.

(nu-

241299. Totum suppl. prius.

meratore

imitate

aucto) 9}{J$, quae

sunt 10, pro ter

mino majore.
que,

Ita-

absque pererrore,
26462700. Posterioris supp. prima pars. 240570. Secunda pars.
729. Tertia pars.

ceptibili

9^&,

vel 10, dici


tri

possunt radix
partiens

26703999- Totum posterius suppl.

numeri
;

998

oblati

inter

bos enim terminos arctissime

includitur.

Hi modi, quia
fectas

radices imperfectas

non

perficiunt, sed nimis imper-

reddunt, Mecbanicis magis


I.

quam Mathematicis

placent.

Ut

cap.

4 Lib.

diximus.
prae-

Geometrae ergo bis radicatis numeris, radices non habentibus,


ponunt signum
species

prima uninomia vocant. numerorum, geometricorum quam Ut superiorum duplicatorum 164860, et 50, non extrahunt

radicis debitae.

Unde ex

his ita signatis oritur

radices bipartientes (quia nullas praecise habent in numeris),

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

63

nee extractas emendant, sed signum radicis extrahendae, quam quadratam vocant, numero prseponunt, hoc modo, \A 164860,
et,

A/-J50

vel sic, \/q 164860, et,

\/q50
et,

quse sic pronuntiant,

radix
50.

quadrata numeri 164860,

radix

quadrata numeri
et

Nos autem

ita

notamus,

LJ 164860,

LJ50

et

sic

pronuntiamus, radix bipartiens 164860, et, radix bipartiens 50. Ita, radicem tripartientem numeri 998 nee extrahunt

(quod non
\/73998,
ita

sit

in

et

ita

numeris) nee emendant, sed pronuntiant, radix cubica 998.


;

ita

signant,

Nos autem

notamus, L-998

proferimus autem

sic,

radix tripartiens

998, ut amplius suo loco dicemus.

Utcunque, haec uninomia


Logisticae
;

seu medialia dicuntur, et sunt Geometricae

funda-

mentum
oriri

sequenti ergo Libro tractabuntur monuisse satis est.


:

hinc

autem ea

Hucusque computationes
tur compositse, seu regulse.

simplices

numerorum integrorum

sequun-

CAPUT

X.

DE REGULIS PROPORTIONIS INTEGRORUM.


PROPORTIONIS integrorum numerorum
regulse,

sub generali quantita-

tum methodo,
et

et praeceptis initio fuse satis explicantur.

Prout in tribus qusestionibus exemplaribus, simplicis, duplicis, triplicis regulse proportionis, cap. 5 Lib. I. propositis, et unica

generali

methodo

solutis,

cernere poteris.

Particularia tamen

numerorum exempla
Si

specialia habent compendia,

quibus expediantur

enim in majusculis numeris,

partitor aliquot

64

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

tipli

mulhabeat versus dextram circulos, poteris, compendii gratia, tot fere loca dextrorsum & %uris vacua, aut circulis referta relinquere,
multiplicationem
a sinistris ordiendo.

Ut (exemplo e sinibus) si 10000000 dederint 9925461, quan tum dabunt 7986354 ? At quia haec omnes fere figures complectitur,

ideo,

per cap. 5 Lib. II. compen-

09925461 19850922 29776383 39701844 49627305 59552766

diose

multiplicentur

9925461

per

singulas

novem
est
;

a figuras, ut in tabula

margine factum

deinde sub singula figura multiplicands 7986354 incipiat, et inde


procedat
figure
j

69478227 79403688 89329149 99254610

numerus

tabulae

illi

nerespondens, r
et

7986354 69478227
enQOoi/i

Decupl.

glectis

tamen

omissis

794036..
2977 4 ^6
OJ7

sex
figuris

dextimorum

locorum
cir-

omnibus, propterea quod septem

culi partitoris
si

10000000 eas abscinderent,


omissae
fuissent
:

7926824|l

exprimerentur et non

Haec igitur particularia multipla, praeter sua sex loca dextima vacua, in unum addita fiunt 79268241
quibus, tarn locis

quam

figuris dextimis, si

abscindantur septem

circulorum partitoris otiosa loca (ut partitionis compendium


exigit),

restabunt 7926824,

responsum quaesitum.
sequetur,

10000000
^21926824.

dant

9925461,

Ubi ergo quod 7986354 dabunt

Quae a ut mi, in hujus compendii multiplis, omittuntur


dextram,
etiamsi

figurae versus

omnes novenariae

essent,

non

vel

union

imitate

augerent responsum.

Merito igitur eae omnes negligi possunt in his majusculis numeris in quibus ne unitatis quidem, totius et integri,

error est sensibilis.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Esto enim quod vacua
ilia

65

puncta, a margine posita, novenarise

essent (quod supra possibilitatem est), nihilominus ad

5888889

tantum accrescerent, quse ad 79268241 addita facerent 79268246888889, quibus per 10000000 partitis proveniunt ad

summum 7926824 i

fi

888

(fo ^->

quse

non exten-

duntur ad 7926825, nee superius productum unitate In maximis itaque numeris, maxima exuperant.
5888889

laude dignum est hoc compendium regulse trium.

Est etiam aliud compendium hujus regulse, absque omissione

figu-

rarum, omnes oblatos

qusestionis

numeros

debitis locis supra vel infra

lineam constituendo, ut in generali methodo, cap. 5 Lib. I. proposita prsecepimus ; deinde singuli bini numeri, quorum alter est superior et
quasi numerator, alter inferior quasi denominator, partiantur per

suum

maximum communem

divisorem, donee singuli numeratores ad singulos

denominatores fuerint in ratione prima seu minima ad invicem, notatis

omnium ultimis quotis j tandem, multiplum quotorum superiorum om nium partiatur per multiplum quotorum inferiorum, et hie quotus erit
responsum quaesitum, qua3stioni
satisfaciens.

Ut 4

sedificantes

construxerunt
;

murum 6

pedes altum, 48

ulnas longum, diebus 42

quseritur, quot diebus

5
?

sedificantes

SBdificabunt murum 9 pedes altum, 50


/Edific.

_,...

Lib.
Pedes.
Ulnae.

I.

Dies.

Per cap. 5 disponantur omnes numeri


ulnas longum
;

4
5

9 6

42 50 48 Quot dies ?

debito situ, et stabunt ut a margine


,
.

aeinde

inferiorem 6, abbrevia per 2,


fient

numerum superiorem 4, eorum maximum divisorem,


et

et
et

f hoc
,

situ,

4 2
'

^g'.^g'

deinde partire 2 superiorem,

48

inferiorem, per
s

communem
j

partitorem 2, et fient 1, et 24,

hoc

^ Uj

1.9.50-42

deinde partiantur superiora


et 1 infra,
i

9, et inferiora 3,

per 3, et fient

3 supra,

hoc

situ,

^?'^?' Jl as 4 O

42
;

deinde

66

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
et fient superius 10, inferius partiantur 50, et 5, per 5,
situ,
1,

hoc

deinde partiantur 10 superiora, et 24 inferiora, communem divisorem 2, et fient 5 supra, per suum maximum 42 * tandem, partiantur superiora ; et 12 infra, hoc situ, j
;

i-s-io-**

4-2,

et inferiora 12, per

eorundem maximum divisorem


hoc
situ,
5
}

6,

et

fient

7 superius,

et

inferius,

\' ^'

Ecce jam
1, 1, 2,

habes familiares et tractabiles numeros

1, S, 5,

7 atque

invicem multiplicandos, pro majusculis numeris oblatis. Ducantur ergo invicem 1, 3, 5, 7 et fient 10,5 ; ducantur item infe
riora 1,
1,

2, invicem, et fient

per quae partiantur 105, et


quaestioni satisfaciens,

proveniet quotus

52, numerus dierum

absque magnis aut laboriosis multiplicationibus et divisionis


operibus.

Haec proportionum regula plurimas habet tacitas et latentes species, non negligendas, qua beneficio etiam hujus compendii fruuntur, et eo
expediuntur.

Ut regula reducendi

fractiones fractionum, iterum atque iterum

fractarum (de qua generaliter superius, et particulariter inferius


tractabitur), est species hujus regulae

proper tionis, ex definitione

regulae proportionis.

Unde eodem compendio


8
Lib.
I.

abbreviatur,

ut in exemplis cap.

quo haec, ostensum est, et


ilia,

inferius ostendetur.

De

integrorum numerorum Arithmetica

satis

superest fractorum,

seu fractionum.

DE ARTE LOG1STICA.

67

CAPUT XL
DE FRACTIONIBUS, SEU NUMERIS FRACTIS.
FRACTIO, seu numerus
fractus, est quern

minima

et individua pars,

umca

scilicet unitatis

numerata, metitur.
imitate habetur, et

Ut apud astronomos gradus pro


prima sunt
ejus
fractio
;

7 scrupula

nam

hoc loco

unicum scrupulum
1

primum

est ejus

minima
7-

et

individua pars, quae earn metitur, et

ab ea numeratur per
solidus hie est

Sic 5 solidi sunt Iibra3 fractio, quia


et

minima

individua unius librae pars, quae frac-

tionem metitur, et ab ea numeratur per 5. Sic 17 trigesimse unitatis partes sunt fractio quia unica trigesima est hoc loco
;

minima
ab
eis

et

individua unitatis pars, quae 17 trigesimas metitur, et

numeratur septemdecies.
vulgares, aliae physicae dicuntur.

Fractionum,

alise

Vulgares sunt, quae varias et liberas habent denominationes.

Ut unum dimidium,
ortum habent in

duae

tertiae,

quatuor undecimae,

quse

partitione, cap.

Lib. II.

In Arithmetica fractionum vulgarium spectantur nominatio et operatic. Nominatio, quae voce fit, dicitur pronuntiatio quae autem scriptis,
;

notatio.

Vulgarium fractionum nominatio duobus terminis exprimitur, numeratore et denominatore.

Denominator
distribuenda.

est,

qui nominat in quot partes aequales unitas

sit

Numerator vero

est,

qui numerat quot ex his partibus sint sumendae.

68

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Atque
hie prius, et cardinal! numero,
;

ille

posterius, et ordinali, pro-

nuntiatur

hie quoque supra lineam,


si

ille

ver6 infra, notatur.

Ut

unitatem, aut

ut v. g. in 11,
statuas

rem unicam propositam, in partes quotvis, partitas nieris, et harum 5 partes sumendas esse

11 sunt hujus fractionis denominator, et 5 sunt ejusdem


;

numerator

quorum, haec 5 prius,


ilia

(quinque), profertur; et

11

numerum cardinalem posterius, et per numerum oret

per

* dinalem (undecimas), pronuntiatur ; hoc modo, quinque undecimas partes/ Notantur vero hsec 5 supra lineam, et ilia 1 1

infra,

hoc modo, ^-

et ita

de

aliis.

Huic constat quod

fractio,

seu fractus numerus,

sit

pars, aut partes,

unitatis divisae in partes aliquot.

Constat etiam quod fractio idem valet quod numerus numeratoris,


divisus per

numerum

denominatoris.
-j^,

Ut in

superiore fractione
unitatis,'

idem
'

est earn pronuntiare,


11
;

quin
'

que undecimas
cap.

quod,

quinque partita per

ut in

7 Lib.

I.

generaliter diximus.

Sunt et quaedam improprie fractiones, quae non sunt unitatis pars, aut partes, expresse, sed sunt partes fractionum ; et hae fractiones fractionum

nominantur

' quas nos notamus interposita particula ex/ omissionem posterioris lineae, aut linearum. ;

alii

notant per

Ut

duae quintae partes, trium quartarum partium unitatis,

non

est proprie,

nee immediate, unitatis

fractio, sed fractio fractionis

unitatis

significant

enim unitatem
5 partes

in quatuor partes dividi, et


partiri,

harum

tres partes rursus in


esse.

quarum duas tandem

sumendas
et sic

Ideo

pronuntiamus,

notamus, f ex }, alii sic notant, f ; duae quintae ex tribus quartis,' aut, * duae
sic

quinto trium quartarum/

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Vulgarium fractionum nominationem sequuntur operationes,
putationum praxes.
et

69

com-

Ergo, quoad praxin, reducimus integrum ad fractionis speciem, subjiciendo unitatem pro denominator, et abbreviamus fractionum terminos

quum

accreverint, partiendo eos per

suum maximum communem

divi-

sorem, quern etiam invenimus continue, partitione partitoris per suas reliquias, donee nihil remanserit ; atque hujus beneficio diversas de-

nominationes ad eandem reducimus

reductas tandem addimus et sub-

strahimus, in omnibus et per omnia, juxta canones quantitatum in genere cap. 7 Lib. I. oonscriptos.

Ut binarius, numerus integer, reducitur ad speciem fractionis cum fit f Sic 3 ad f, et 4 ad T et 5 ad -f, idem enim valent.
. ,

Abbreviamus etiam terminos hujus fractionis, $, partiendo et numeratorem et denominatorem per suum maximum communem
divisorem 2, et fient f
.

Sic j-J , partitae per

suum maximum
divi

communem
partire
;

divisorem 7> fiunt ^.


sic invenies
:

Quern etiam maximum

sorem ibidem

partire

35 per 14, remanent 7 J nihil 7 ergo sunt maximus communis divisor terminorum 35 et 49. Sic etiam per eosdem canones, duas fractiones diversarum denominationum, ut -^p
tionem reduces hoc modo
:

49 per 35, remanent 14 ; partire 14 per 7> remanent

et

y^, ad eandem
132
et

denomina-

partire
scilicet

mum
7 per

divisorem
33, et fient

communem,
231
;

per 4,

128 per suum maxi et fient 33 et 32 ; due


4224, hoc
situ,

et

due 128 per 33,


:

et fient

$r$, pro fractione yj^- oblata

Similiter,
situ,

due 32 per

11, et

32

per 132, et fient 352 et 4224, hoc


oblata.

^%,

pro fractione y^-

Habes ergo duas


e^

oblatas fractiones, -ffo et

^,

ad has,

^z%

3?Wl

generales canones.

ejusdem denominationis, reductas, per dictos Quibus jam reductis, per eosdem canones
et fiunt,

addimus dictos numeratores,

cum communi denomina-

70

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
*

tWr

iiovuin

P ro additionis 231 ex novo 352,

toto.

Sic,

substrahimus numeratorem

et supersunt,

cum novo
sint

denominatore,
reducendae ad

JUUj, pro substractionis

residue.
:

Item,

eandem denominationem
1
et

et -fa -fa

-^

deinde partiantur 3
1

et

divisorem 3, et fient

et

primo abbreviantur, fiuntque 15 per maximum communem due J, tarn numeratorem quam
;

denominatorem, per denominations -fe, ejusdem

5, et fient -fa

sic
;

due

-fo

per

1,

et

manent

cum
,

-fa

quibus jam additis, fient


toto.

|,

sive,

per abbreviationem,

pro additionis

Simili

modo, pro substractionis residue, aufer -fa a -^-, et relinquentur substractionis residuum. Item, sint addendae, seu potius
-fc,

uniendae,

tionem ; fient 198 et


3

primo fient && deinde, per reductionem ad

66

et

et

per unitatis subscrip-

communem denominatorem,
fient
3
.

tandem, additione numeratorum,

Item, sint addendae fractiones


,

et

et

hae,

per reduc;

tionem ad eandem denominationem, fient primo


deinde,

-fa et -fa et -fa

suprascribendo aggregatum numeratorem,

et

subscri1 et
-}-.

bendo

communem denominatorem,
^:

fient ^f, quae

sunt

Item, sint auferendas -fa ex


tionem,
-^;

restant primo, per substracfient

deinde,

per abbreviationem,

J,

residuum

quacsitum.

CAPUT

XII.

DE MULTIPLICATIONIBUS ET PARTITIONIBUS SIMPLICIBUS ET RADICALIBUS FRACTORUM NUMERORUM.


MULTIPLICANTUR
fracti,

atque etiam fractiones fractionum iterum

atque iterum fractarum ad simplices frictiones reducuntur, singulum

quemque numeratorem

in

singulum

quemque denominatorem, per

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
cap.

71

7 Lib.

I.,

ita

abbreviando ut nulla remaneat inter eos composita


fit

ratio.

Inde, ductis novis superioribus invicem,


fit

novus numerator

et

novis inferioribus invicem,


quaesitae.

novus denominator, multipli aut fractionis


invicem multiplicanda

Ut

sint

-j%f
884

et

fjff

et |4jjg

abbre-

vientur superiora 1078, et inferiora 1768, per 2, et fient 539


supra,
et
infra.

Item, abbrevientur 3705 superiora,

et

per 3, et fient 1235 superius, et 483 inferius. Inde, abbrevientur 1455 et 2090, per 5, et fient 291 superius,

1449

inferiora,

et

418

inferius

hoc

situ,

fff iggg
per
;

|^

deinde abbrevientur

539

superius, et

483

inferius,

suum communem divisorem

7, et fient
rius,

et

77 supra, et 69 infra deinde abbrevia 1235 supe 418 inferius, per suum communem divisorem 19, et
et

fient

65 supra,
inferius,

22

infra

deinde abbrevia 291 superius, et


divisorem 17, et

884
fient

per suum
et

maximum communem
inferius
;

23 superius,

52

hoc

situ,

-J

f-f

His

factis,

abbrevia 77 superius, et 22 inferius, per suum communem maxi mum divisorem 11, et fient 7 superius, et 2 inferius ; sic abbrevia

65 superius,

et

52

inferius,

per

suum communem divisorem maxi


;

mum

13, et fient

5 supra,
per
et fient

et

4 infra

tandem, abbrevia 23 supe


partitorem

rius, et

69

inferius,

suum communem
1

maximum,
hoc
situ,

videlicet per 23,


'
'
'

superius,

et

inferius,

'I

g I,

nos itaque faciles et tractabiles numeros superiores,

7> 5,

invicem multiplica, et

similiter,

35 pro novo numeratore multiplicentur invicem inferiora 4, 3, 2, et fient 24


fient
; :

pro novo denominatore

Est ergo fractio ff multipla quaesita omnium oblatarum fractionum. Item, sint invicem multiplicandae

hse inabbreviabiles fractiones


5, et fient 15,

^ novus numerator

et
;

fy

multiplicentur ergo 3 in

multiplicentur etiam inferiores


:

in 7, et fient 28, novus denominator

Unde

sunt fractio

72

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
qirasita multupla.

Item, sint reducendaB


:

$ ex

ex ^ ex f ad

eandem simplicem fractionem


et

abbrevientur primo 6 superius,


3, et

inferius,

per
et

suum communem maximum divisorem


infra,

fient

2 supra,

hoc
sit

situ,

ff

ulterius

enim non
:

est inter

has superior qui

cum

inferiore aliqua abbreviabilis

multiplicentur ergo, tandem, superiores 2, 4, 2, 8, invicem, et


fient

128

itemque, multiplicentur 3, 5, 7> 3, inferiora invicem,


;

et fient
rator,

315

ex his

fiet

novus denominator, ex

illis

vero

nume

hoc

situ,

J^f

fractio

simplex quaesita, idem valens quod

J ex

ex ^ ex f

oblatae.

Pro partitione autem transponantur termini

partitoris, et transpositos
I.,

per partiendum multiplica omnino, ut in praecedente, et cap. 7 Lib.


praecepimus.

Ut

si

partiendae sint

f per

retentis

illis,

inverte has, et ita

multiplicato

et

fientque, primo, per abbreviationem,


sive,

et

deinde

fient,

per multiplicationem, f,

quod idem

est,

1,

pro quoto quaesito.

Aliud exemplum mistarum.


Sint

66J partiendae per

2,
-i-L

seu,

quod idem

est,

per reduc-

tionem partiantur i5
illas,

: has inversas hoc modo, -^-, et per invicem multiplica, et provenient L2o, quaa sunt i|^,

30J, pro quoto

quaesito.

Aliud exemplum, pro examine multiplicationis.


Sint,

ex praecedentibus exemplis,

partiendaB per

inver-

tatur haec, fiet

et ilia

manet

abbrevientur, et fient primo

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
-%
et ^, deinde fient

73

et

hos numeratores invicem, et deno-

minatores invicem due, et fient ^, ut superius in multiplicatione.

Multiplicatio radicalis

in

fractis

numeris,
:

continuatam multiplicationem perficitur


in
se,

prout in integris, per Si enim fractionem oblatam


duplicata
;

aut sibi sequalem, multiplicaveris,

fit

si
;

hanc

dupli-

catam in eandem primam multiplicaveris, fit triplicata quam triplicatam si adhuc in primam multiplicaveris, proveniet inde quadruplicata Et sic deinceps quintuplicata, sexturadicis et fractionis primo oblatae
:

plicata, et ceterse radicatae

componuntur.
,

Ut

sit

radix hsec,
:

radicaliter multiplicanda

ad indicem
fient

5,

seu quintuplicanda
duplicata
;

Primo, multiplica $ $-, $ pro deinde multiplica hanc duplicatam $ per easdem f
,

in

fient ^-, triplicata oblatse fractionis

hanc triplicatam

-fa multi-

plica per easdem $-, et proveniet oblatae radicis quadruplicata quam tandem per multiplica, et producentur ^41
;

Partitio etiam radicalis fractionum,


plici,

ex continuata partitione sim-

per regulas superiores, et integrorum more, perficitur, partiendo fractionem radicatam propositam per suam radicem datam, continue, in

unitatem usque ; et numerus partitionum dabit indicem, ut superius ssepe dictum est.
Sint,

tiendse

^^

pro exemplo ea per


:

et

examine prsecedentis, radicaliter parprimo,


j
;

fient,
;

secundo,

-fa

tertio,
:

quarto,

fiet

ipsa radix

quinto, devenit ad unitatem

Itaque,

quinque ha3 partitiones exhibent indicem quinarium

pro radicali
legi-

quoto qusesito, et arguunt prsecedentem quintuplicationem

timam

esse.

74

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

CAPUT

XIII.

DE EXTRACTIONE RADICUM E NUMERORUM FRACTIONIBUS.


Si, fractionis

reductae ad

minimos terminos, uterque terminus habuerit

radices propositae speciei, ese extrahendss sunt integrorum more, et fient

numerator

et

denominator radicis

quaesitae.

Sin autem uterque terminus fractionis


ejus radix, aut geometrical

non habeat talem radicem, tune


est extrahenda.

more aut mechanico,

Ut
sunt

sit
;

radix tripartiens extrahenda e ^t, cujus termini minimi


in hujus termino utroque clare constat radix tripartiens
3,

j-

numeratoris

et

denominatoris 2

sunt ergo

radix tripar

tiens quaesita oblati radicati

^,

seu S2^

Aliud exemplum.
Contra vero
sunt
^2.
;

sit

fractio

oblata

2^,

cujus termini minimi


:

ex his extrahenda radix bipartiens Dico, quia et non habeat radicem 4, uterque terminus, 29 bipartientem,
sit

(quamvis
seu
2.,

alter,

scilicet 4,

habeat) ideo, fractionis oblatae

non

est arithmetice

l^P-, 40 extrahenda radix perfecta, sed aut

geometrice aut mechanice.

Geometricus modus

est,

prseponere radicatae fractioni

toti

signum
radicem

radicis extrahendae, aut signa radicis utrique termino.

Ut

superioris exempli fractio


;

^,

seu

^, veram

bipartientem non habet


est

ideo,

toti fractioni

aut praeponendum

signum

radicis,

hoc modo,

|J>

aut utrique termino, hoc

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
modo,

75

UM

aut,

tandem, eadem radix est mechanice

admodum

inter terminos includenda, ut sequitur.

Mechanicus autem modus


nequit, inter terminos

est,

radicem qusesitam, qua? numeris exprimi


et

majorem

minorem quam

arctissime includere.

Termini quanto tanto radicem arctius includunt,

majoris denominationis, et

minoris differentiae fuerint,

et praecisius definiunt.

Ut ergo
quaesitam

termini sint denominationis optatae,

numerum
et

optatae

deno

minationis multiplica radicaliter,


;

speciem radicis radicatum inde, hujus multiplica per fractionis oblatae nume;

secundum indicem

ratorem, productum partire per ejusdem denominatorem

quoti radix

propositse speciei, tarn proxime minor quam major, extrahatur integrorum Erunt enim termini more, et utrique denominator electus subscribatur
:

optati, ille

minor, hie major, radicem quaesitam includentes.


sit

Ut

fractionis
:

superioris

-^,

seu

-2-2-,

extrahenda radix
;

Sit denominatio optata 200 partium harum radica bipartiens est 40000 multiplica tum propositge speciei (duplicatum scilicet)
;

ergo 40000 per 29, numeratorem oblatum, et productum partire


per
4,

ejusdem denominatorem, provenient 290000 quotus

cujus

radix bipartiens,

nempe proxime minor,

est

,538,

et

proxime

major

est

539, (ex superioribus integrorum regulis) quibus sub-

scribendo denominatorem 200 optatum, fient

|^, minor

ter

minus, et !$$, major terminus, differentes sola unica ducentesima unitatis, et ita arete satis includentes [_J^r seu radicem
bipartientem hujus fractionis
2JL

quaesitam.

Exemplum
Item,
sit

radicis tripartientis.

extrahenda radix tripartiens e


est

$-,

seu potius (quia

hBC radix non

numero

explicabilis) quaerantur ejus termini

76

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
major
mille
et minor,

dcnominationem quam
habentes
seu
est
;

volueris,

exempli gratia,

partium

inter

quos vera tripartiens radix

lua rum

tertiarum,

L_$,

contineatur.

Triplicatum ergo
2,
;

mille partium,

quod

1000000000, multiplica per


3, et fient

fient

2000000000

quae partire per

666666666J
est 874,

horum

radix tripartiens minor

est 873, et

major

quibus sub-

scribatur electus denominator 1000,

fientque

{$$$ minor, et

major terminus radicis tripartientis duarum tertiarum,


seu

Ultimo omnium, fractiones, quarum numerator excedit denominatorem, ad integros numeros restituendae sunt partiendo numeratorem
per denominatorem,
est.

ut

fuse

satis,

in

fine

Libri Primi,

explicatum

Ut

si

ex praecedentibus operibus provenerit fractio

1, con-

tinet haec fractio integros

per quos danda

est

ultima responsio
fient

potius

quam

per fractos.

Dividantur ergo 562 per 18, et


4, quae sunt -^, seu $
;

31 in quoto, et relinquuntur
tota reductione

unde, ex

proveniunt 31$, quae sunt 31 integri, et duae

novenae unitatis.

CAPUT

XIV.

DE REGULIS PROPORTIONIS FRACTIONUM.


IN regulis proportions fractionum, observandae sunt situs et operatio. In his, situs numeratorum idem est, qui et generaliter quantitatum Libri Primi ; denominatorum vero contrarius ; ita ut si capitis quinti

numerator hac lege infra lineam

ceciderit,

denominator invertetur,

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
et

77

cadet

supra

et

contra,

si

ille

supra,

hie

(ut par

est)

cadet

infra.

Ut

si

proponatur e cisterna aliqua aquae congii ^ partes


;

effluere in -fa hora3


,

quaeratur autem quanto tempore


?

J,

seu

3.

Primo, ducta linea ut a margine, prioris temporis numerator 5 supra lineam constituacongii effluent
tur (per

praeceptum generale cap. 5 Lib. I.), quia fa horse et horae quaesitae sunt cognomines, atque simul Sic crescunt et decrescunt congii simul cum quaesitis horae
et
:

hanc

partibus crescunt et decrescunt

ideo, et illarum

numerator 5

supra lineam collocatur : sed prioribus congii partibus ^, crescentibus decrescunt temporis quaesiti partes, et decrescentibus
crescunt
;

ideo illarum numerator 3

infra

lineam

statuitur.

Contra vero denominatores omnes,


7
.

scilicet,

12, et 2, singuli

5.5.
.

singulis suis numeratoribus ex adverse latere lineae

a. 12.2

opponuntur, ut a margine.
Multiplica superiores numeros invicem, et

Operatic

sic perficitur.
;

producetur numerator

item et inferiores invicem, et producetur de


et

nominator, praefatum numeratorem dividens,


exhibens.

optatum productum
invicem multiinvicem

Ut

praefati

exempli superiores numeri

7> 5, 5,

plicati, faciunt

175 numeratorem

et inferiores 3, 12, 2,
;

multiplicati,

producunt 72 denominatorem

unde \p#,
effluent.

sive (per

175

partitionem) 2fJ, horae sunt tempus quaesitum,

3.12.2

72~

quo nimirum 2J congii aquae


sis

secundi compendii cap. 10. Lib. II. quotieseunque inter superiorum aliquem, et aliquem inferiorum, incident ratio

Hie etiam memor

composita quae abbreviari

possit.

78

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Ut pro
nequiunt,
tenninis superioris exempli
si

J fa
et

et et

qui abbreviari
,

capiantur termini

hi,

qui rationes
:

6.21

.8.

habent compositas, et abbreviari quidem possunt Ideo, collocatis ut a marline, dividantur 7 superiora, et

21 infenora, per
,

communem maximam
g
;

mensuram

7,

et fient

hoc

situ,

*
;

y
l
;

;
;

deinde,
et fient

simili

modo abbrevientur 10
loco 5 superius, et

superius,

et

inferius,
*
;

eorum

inferius,

hoc

situ,

abbrevientur

tandem 15 superius, et alterutra 3 inferius, * * * vel hoc, et 1 inferius, hoc situ, ;,


;

et fient
*

5 superius,
vel aliter

;*;%;>
1,

.5

quorum

multiplicatis superioribus

5, 8,

5,

invicem,
1,

fient

25

deinde, similiter, inferioribus 3,


:

1,

vel 6,

4,

invicem, et fient 24
erit JJ,

Itaque, tota fractio, quaestioni satisfaciens,

seu, per abbreviationem,

1^.
est.

Atque

ita in

omnibus

similibus compendiose

operandum

CAPUT XV.
DE FRACTIONIBUS PHYSICIS.
PERFECIMUS jam fractionum vulgarium computationes omnes
sequerentur physicae.
Physicas vocant partem aut partes integri partiti per statutum et vulgo
;

ordine

receptum partitorem, denominatoris

loco,

a suis authoribus impositum.

Ut

monetariis nostratibus placuit monetaB libram

non

in

quotvis sed in

20 partes

dividere, eisque

deuominationem

solidi

imponere

et

solidum in 12 partes subdividere, quas denarios


Sic medici, ponderis libram in partes 12, quas

denominant.

uncios nominant, et unciam in 8 drachmas, et


scrupulos,
etc.,

drachmam

in

partiuntur.

Chronologi,

annum

in 12 menses,

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
t

79

mensem
buunt.
primas,

in

30 (aut
in

id circa) dies,

diem in 24 horas,

&c., distri-

Astronomi, gradum in 60 scrupula prima, seu minutias

primam

60 secundas, secundam

in

60

tertias, et ita

deinceps, partiuntur.

In fractionibus physicis,
quoties
ultra

suum
;

hoc cum vulgaribus commune est, quod denominatorem accreverint, superiorem locum
fractio

unitate augent

et

quoties major

a minore subducenda

sit,

prsestanda est ei superioris loci unitas

Ut

si

ad defectum supplendum. fuerint 14 horse addendse ad 19 horas, quse constituunt

33 horas, pro quibus non scribuntur 33 horse, sed, sub titulo dierum et horarum, scribuntur dies 1 et 9 horse ; quia ultra 9
horas accreverunt 24 horse in diem.
addendis,
Ita,

non scribuntur 16
12 denariis,

denarii,
1

pro 7 et 9 denariis sed 4 denarii, et, pro


solidi

accretis reliquis

sub

titulo

inscribenda.

Item, pro 48 scrupulis primis addendis ad 15 scrupula prima,

non scribuntur 63 scrupula prima, sed 3 tantum, et 1 gradus, Haud secus, prout tarn in integris pro reliquis 60 scrupulis.

quam

in fractis vulgaribus numeris,

fieri solet

ut

cum addenda
1300.

sunt quinque centena ad octo centena, non scribuntur, nee pro-

nunciantur,

13 centena, sed mille trecenti, hoc modo,

Et

in fractis vulgaribus addendis, veluti sex septense seu ^, et

quinque septense seu fy additse, et debito modo abbreviatse, non sunt dicendse undecim septense, sed quatuor septense, et, pro Sic, reliquis septem septenis, scribenda est unitas, hoc situ, 1^-.
in substractione,
si

fuerint substrahendse 14 horse,

superioris

exempli, ex uno die et 9 horis,


ideo resolvendus est dies
horis efficiunt
ille

quia 14 horse excedunt 9 horas,


unicus in 24 horas, quse

cum 9
4

33 horas

e quibus

subductis 14 horis, relinSic,

quuntur, ut supra,

19 horse

qusesitse.

ex

solido et

80

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
denariis, si substrahendi sint
ct

9 denarii, qui excedunt 4 denarios, ideo 4 denariis praestandum est unum solidum, seu 12 denarii,
16 denarii, e quibus jam subductis 9 denariis,
Sic,
si

ut fiant inde

remanent, ut supra, 7 denarii qusesiti.

gradu

et

15 scrupula scrupulis primis fuerint

cenda sunt unus gradus et

tria

prima substrahenda, reduscrupula ad 63 scrupula prima,

ut inde 15 auferri possint, et

remanebunt 48 scrupula prima.


ad defectum ejus supplenquinque centena,
ter

Haud
(liuii.

secus ac in vulgaribus integris et fractis, unitas praece-

dentis loci praestanda est sequenti loco

Ut

si

e mille trecentum auferantur

centenis praestandum est

unum

millenarium, ut hinc fiant trede-

cim centena,

e quibus

jam

aufer quinque centena, supersunt octo

centena, ut supra.

sunt sex septenae

ex uno et quatuor septenis, auferendae ut hoc fiat, reducenda est unitas in septem
Sic,

septenas, quae pracstandae sunt quatuor septenis, ut fiant


septenae ; e quibus sex septenis ablatis,

undecim

ut supra.

remanent quinque septense, Vides itaque communem horum omnium concentum.

Est enim omnium, tarn fractorum

quam

integrorum, par ratio et re-

spectus ad suas denominationes, tarn ascendendo

quam descendendo.
et millesimas infe-

Ut integrorum unitatum ad
superiores
riores.
;

suas denas, centenas, et millenas

et

ad suas decimas, centesimas,

Sic,

scrupulorum primorum ad suos sexagenos (qui

gradus sunt), et sexagenos gradus (qui duo signa sunt), ascen dendo ; et ad suas sexagesimas partes (qua? scrupula secunda

scrupulorum secundorum sexagesimas descendendo (quae Item, solidi ad sua vigecupla ascendendo scrupula tertia sunt).
sunt), et

(quae librae dicuntur), et ad suas duodecimas descendendo (quae denarii dicuntur).


in

Par

est respectus, et

computationis similitudo,

omnibus.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Hinc
culum
fit

81

quod otiosum

et

superfluum

foret, hisce

particularem cal-

computatio facilius expediatur per vulgares integros et fractos numeros, quam per suas particulares formas calculi,
texere,

cum harum

prsesertim astronomici, ad quern etiam tabula prolixa sexagenaria requi-

una cum molestia duplicium figurarum unicuique denominationi subjectarum, ubi arithmetica vulgaris requirit tantum unlearn figuram
ritur,

unicuique loco.

Ut

patet expertis

Nam

facilius et citius

astronomicum thema

vulgato more arithmetico computatur, et resolvitur,

quam

ipso

; duplicium tsedium. sub Namque vul quaque denominatione, figurarum, garis arithmetica loco primo unitatum, et loco secundo denorum,

astronomico calculo

prseter etiam tabulae

prsefatse, et

et loco

tertio

centenorum,

et

tantum figuram in singulis autem calculus in singulis suis


'

reliquorum singulorum unicam Astronomicus locis constituit.


locis,

tarn ascendendo

quam

descendendo,

sic notatis,

"

'"

"",

etc.

binas plerumque figuras

subjectas complectitur, qua3 omnia confusionem pariunt.

Unde, omnibus fractionibus

prseter

jam

expositas vulgares omissis,

huic Arithmetic93 Logisticae finem imponimus.

DEO
menso,

autem

OPT. MAX.,

et suis

Numeris omnibus

Infinite,

Im-

et Perfecto, retribuatur

omnis

laus, honor, et gloria in seternum.

Amen.

FINIS LIBRI SECUNDI.

LIBER TERTIUS.
DE LOGISTICA GEOMETRICA,

CAPUT

I.

DE NOTATIONE ET NOMINATIONS CONCRETORUM.


PRECEDENTS Libro Arithmeticam docuimus,
Geometrica sequitur.
hie ordine Logistica

GEOMETRICA ergo
numeros concretes.

dicitur Logistica quantitatum concretarum per

Concretus dicitur omnis numerus quatenus quantitatem concretam


et

continuam

referat.
si tres

Ut 3 a,
est

tineas digitales referat sic


:

numerus
et

discretus

Quum autem
hoc modo
-

tridigitalem lineam concre


i
1

tam

continuam

refert,

dicitur

numerus concretus, sed hoc improprie


Proprie autem, et per

et ratione subjecti.

se,

concretes numeros dicimus radices nu(sive

merorum
possunt.

quse

nullo

numero

integro

sive

fracto)

mensurari

84

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Ut radix bipartiens, seu quadrata,
minor
cssentiti,

septenarii major est binario,

ternario, et nulli fracto, in universa fractorum


aequalis aut

numerorum

commensurabilis reperietur ; dicitur ergo Sic radix tripartiens, seu cubica, concretus numerus proprie.
denarii numeri,
surabilis,

non

est

numerus
;

discretus, nee

numero commen
radices,

sed concretus

et aliae infinitae

numerorum

quas vulgo surdos et irrationales vocant.

Horum
non

concretorum ortus habetur extrahendo e numeris radices

eis

insitas.

Ut

cap.

4 Lib.

I.

et cap.

9 Lib.

II.

monuimus.

Unde ex

diversitate

radicum oriuntur diversae notationes

et

nomina-

tiones concretorum.

Ut radicem bipartientem
,

septenarii
sic

(quam vulgo radicem


et

pronuntiamus radicem bipartientem septem seu septenarii. Item, radicem cubicam 10, nos proferimus radicem tripartientem decem, et sic
scribimus,

quadratam septenarii vocant)

notamus, LJ7,

L_10.

Item, radicem quadripartientem 11 ita no


sic,

tamus, ZJll.

Item, radicem quintupartientem numeri


sic,

sextupartientem

C.
varietatem

Hanc characterum radicalium


in suas partes distinctum.

cum

suis

indicum
[
|

numeris suppeditat nobis (memoriae gratia) hoc unicum schema,

Ut
JJHJ13,
sita

in exemplis praecedentibus,

|_J

l_ Zl

D C praepo-

numeris, suas radices bipartientem, tripartientem,

quadrupartientem, quintupartientem, sextupartientem denotabant. Sicut et ~~] radicem septupartientem ;


f~|

octupartientem ; f" noncupartientem ; itemque_Jde-

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
cupartientem
;

85

Jj undecupartientem
;

duodecupartientem

_|_ tredecupartientem
f~1

_J I], vel
;

J, quadrudecupartientem
;

quindecupartientem
;

__Q sedecupartientem
octodecupartientem
; ;

JJJ

sep-

temdecupartientem
cupartientem
tem |J_ 23 40m
;

|~~]

["""

novemdej

l_j

vigecupartientem
vel

21 tem
:

tem |_jj 22

U
F

90

m
;

UH y 5(T; Co Q J L00m Et
:

24tem ^Om

Itemque Lo m m ~1, vel -|, 70 ; Ro 80


et

cetera

30"

ita in

infinitum,

more figurarum

arithmeticarum.

numeri eo quod quantitatem potius nominent quam numerent, ideo vulgo nomina dicuntur.
Geometric!

Nominum

alia sunt unius nominis, ut est

uninomia

alia plurium.

Uninomium

idem quod concretus numerus unicus,


quod uninomium
vel est

sive proprie,

sive improprie dictus.

Unde
unici

sequitur

numerus unicus simplex,

vel

numeri simplicis radix aliquse. Ut 10 sunt numerus simplex,


uninomio.

et a geometris

Item UlO, L_12, IH26,


et vere

usurpatur pro et similia sunt radices


sigillatim sumpta.

numerorum,

uninomia radicata

Cumque

ita

radicatum uninomium

sit

vel abundantis vel defectivi

numeri radix, ejusque index vel par vel impar, quadrifario hoc casu sequetur, quaedam uninomia esse abundantia, qusedam defectiva, quaBdam et abundantia et defectiva, quse gemina dicimus ; qua3dam tandem
nee sunt abundantia nee defectiva, quse nugacia vocamus.

Hujus arcani magni algebraici fundamentum superius Lib. I. quod (quamvis a nemine quod sciam revelatum cap. 6, jecimus
:

sit)

quantum tamen emolumenti

adferat huic arti,

et caBteris

mathematicis, postea patebit.

86

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
In uninomiis abundantibus et defectivis, non multum refert an debita

tamen earn praeponere. copula prseponatur an interponatur ; prasstat In uninomiis autem geminis et nugacibus, copula debita est semper
interponenda.

Primi casus exemplum

est L_10,

seu (quod per cap. 6 Lib.


I.)

I.

idem

est)

L+10,

est (per cap.

6 Lib.
10,

uninomium abundans.
defect! vum

Secundi casus exemplum,


(cap. eodem).
(quae, ut supra,

l_

est

uninomium
est

Tertii casus

exemplum

UlO, seu LJ-HO

eadem

sunt), significat tarn quantitatem abunfacit -j-10,

dantem, quae in se ducta


ducta
facit

quam

defectivam quae in se

etiam

+10

Veluti, lucidioris exempli gratia, |J9,

seu LJH-9 est tarn -j-3

quam

ut superius Lib.
9,

I.

cap.

demonstravimus.
meris nugacibus
vel deficiat
;

Ultimi casus exemplum est LJ


est,

quod ex

nam

nee quicquam significat quod vel abundet novenarius defectivus nullam habet radicem
I.

bipartientem, ut Lib.

cap. 6 patet.

In nugacibus summopere cavendum est ne copula


interponenda, praeponatur.

minutionis,

Ut

si,

pro

|_J

9 (quse

est

radix bipartiens minuti nove|_J9,

narii, et

quae

absurdum atque impossibile infert), sumpseris quantitatem minutam radice bipartiente novenarii
longe aberrabis
(scilicet
:

sig

nificat,

Radix enim bipartiens novenarii hie


est,

abundantis
ternarius

JJ9) gemina
et
3,

scilicet -f-3 et
;

3,

id est,

abundans

ternarius

defectivus

et ita quantitas
;

his geminis -|-3 et

minuta gemina

erit

qui itaque pro


et quantitate

LJ

9 ponit
et nihil

|J9> pro absurdo et impossibili,


significante,
;

nugaci

duplicis significationis

profert quantitatem geminae seu ab hoc ergo, in quo plurimi errarunt,

cavendum.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
In
caeteris

87

uninomiis (significativis

scilicet)

idem

est

copulam inter
:

signum radicale et
in uninomiis
illis

numerum

interponere, sive utrique praeponere

Nee

valorem mutat, primo vel medio etiam loco vacuo (per

cap. 6 Lib.

I. )

copulam

+ inserere.
+LJ9,
et

Ut

LJ9, et U-r-9, et

+LJ+9, idem
;

prorsus signi-

ficat, videlicet tarn -\-3

quam

item |_27, seu L.-j-^7> seu

+L-27, seu +|_+27, idem


|_
27, seu

valent

quod
seu

-\-3

tantummodo

item

+|_

27, seu
;

L 27>

L+27, idem
|_J
;

valent
9, et

quod
-f-|_j

3 tantummodo
9,

item in nugantibus idem est

scilicet

eandem impossibilitatem implicant


LJ9, seu

sed cave

ne pro ipsis posueris monuimus.

LJ+9,

ut praecedente sectione

Atque

bee sunt affectiones


affectiones.

uninomiorum in

se

sequuntur uninomio-

rum ad invicem
mensurabilia.

Sunt itaque uninomia bina, aut invicem commensurabilia aut incom-

Commensurabilia
seu absoluti.

sunt, quse se

habent ad invicem ut numeri

discreti,

Unde, omnis numerus absolutus omni numero absolute est commensurabilis. Itemque, uninomia bina consimiliter radicata, quorum alterius

numerus simplex, numerum simplicem


tali

alterius partitus, reddit

numerum

radice prseditum qualem radicale signum indicat, dicuntur ad invi


in ratione

cem commensurabilia

quam

indicat radix.

Ut 5 ad

7>
;

quia sunt numeri absoluti, seu rationales, sunt comitem, sint bina uninomia consimiliter radicata,
8,

mensurabiles

US

et LJ2,

quorum numerus simplex


;

per

numerum sim

plicem 2 partitus, reddit 4


signi LJ, scilicet

habet autem quaternarius radicem bipartientem, estque binarius ; sunt ergo Ll8 et
radicis, scilicet dupla.

commensurabiles invicem in ratione

88

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Caetcra omoia uninomia ad haec irreducibilia, incommensurabilia esse

cons tat.

Ut L.12

et LJ3, quia sunt dissimiliter radicata, sunt


;

incom

Ll2 (quamvis sint consimiliter radi cata) sunt incommensurabilia, quia 6 per 2 partita producuntur at 12 et 3, quse carent radice signi LJ, scilicet bipartiente
mensurabilia
item, LJ(i et
;

LJ4 sunt commensurabilia, quia reducta idem valent quod 12


et 2.

Et

caetera.

ALGEBRA JOANNIS NAPERI


MERCHISTONII BARONIS.

LIBER PRIMUS.
DE NOMINATA ALGEBRA PARTE,

CAPUT

I.

DE DEFINITIONIBUS ET DIVISIONIBUS PARTIUM, ET DE VOCABULIS ARTIS.


1.

ALGEBRA

Scientia est de qusestionibus quanti, et quoti, solvendis

tractans.
2.

3.

nominatorum, altera positivorum. Nominata sunt, quae a numeris rationalibus, aut irrationalibus,
altera

Estque ea duplex,
habent.

nomen
4.

Rationales sunt numeri absoluti, aut numeri partes

de quibus

tractat etiam Arithmetica.


5.

Irrationales

sunt radices

numerorum rationalium non habentes

radices inter numeros.


6.

7.

(quod quantitates sunt) in Geometriam etiam spectarit. Positiva AlgebraB pars est, quae quantitates et numeros latentes

Atque

hae

per suppositiones
8.

fictitias

prodit

de qua Libro II. tractabimus.


et

Priorem autem Algebrae partem, de numeris nominatis, hoc Libro I. docebinms.

quantitatibus

92

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
9.
:

Suntquc nominatorum tres species universalia ; de quibus ordine agetur.


10.

Uninomia, plurinomia,

et

Uninomia

sunt,

numerus unicus simplex, aut numeri


diversae sunt

simplicis

radix aliqua.
11.

Atque radices numerorum

diversis igitur charac;

teribus prsepositis, artis et doctrinee gratia,


hi characteres signa radicalia.

exprimuntur

dicunturque

Ut radix cubica
quadrata quinarii

senarii

sic
;

scribitur,

V'TSG

item,

radix
:

sic,

\A5

et sic

de

reliquis, ut sequitur

Radix quadrata. Radix cubica.

\//7

Radix quadrati quadrata. Radix supersolida. Radix quadrati cubica. Radix secunda supersolida.

Radix quadrati quadrati quadrata. Radix cubi cubica.


Et
sic

de

caeteris in infinitum.

12.

Radicum

et

radicalium qusedam sunt simph'ces

Ut Vi, VTS, \//?, Vjdft. Qusedam multiplices Ut */$$, V-S7S, <S$$$,


:

\/TSTS, etc.

13. Rursus,

radicum

et

radicalium quaedam sunt quadratinomiae,

quae nominantur a quadrato, sive solo, sive secus.

radix quadrata, radix quadrati quadrata, radix quadrati cubica, radix quadrati quadrati quadrata, radix quadrati super
solida, etc.

Ut

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Quaedam vero sunt
mentio.
exquadratse, in

93

quorum nomine non

fit

quadrati

radix cubica, radix supersolida, radix secunda supersolida, radix cubi cubica, radix cubi supersolida, etc.

Ut

14.

Uninomia
;

bina,

eodem

radicali signo affecta, consimiliter radicata

dicuntur
15.

et quae diverse, dissimiliter.

Omnes duo numeri

rationales commensurabiles sunt


alterius

itemque,

uninomia bina consimiliter radicata, quorum


per alterius

numerus simplex,
tali

numerum simplicem

divisus, reddit

numerum

radice

praaditum qualem
surabilia.

radicale demonstrat,

dicuntur ad invicem commen-

Ut 12 ad
biles
;

2,

quia sunt rationales, erunt etiam commensura


sint

itemque

bina uninomia consimiliter radicata, -s/^8


divisus

et -v/^2,

quorum 8 per 2

reddit quaternarium

prse-

ditum radice quadrata signo

demonstrate,

quse est

sunt

ergo \A$8 et V-%% commensurabilia.

Corollarium.
16.

Hinc

patet, csetera

uninomia ad hsec irreducibilia incommensu-

rabilia esse.

Ut

\/-J6 et

A/^2 sunt incommensurabiles, quia 6 divisa per

2 reddunt

quadrata ; item, \/TSl2 et -v/^3> quia sunt dissimiliter radicata, sunt incommensurabilia ; at 12
et <v/^4 sunt

3, quse carent radice

commensurabiles, quia reducti idem valent quod

12

et 2.

94

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

CAPUT

II.

DE UNINOMIORUM ADDITIONE.
uninomia bina proposita commensurabilia fuerint, divide majorem numerum absolutum per minorem ; quotientis extrahe (per Arithmeticam) radicem qualem radicale demonstrat ; huic radici adde
1.

Si

unitatem

productum

in se

due

toties

quoties radicale demonstrat

inde hoc in

numerum absolutum
suum

minoris uninomii due, atque producto


:

praepone pristinum
binis.

radicale

fiet

hoc uninomium aequale prioribus

Ut

sint

uninomia commensurabilia addenda


;

\A12
2
;

et

V$3
adde

divide 12 per 3, fiunt 4


fiunt
licet

ex

4-

extrahe \/^, fiunt

his

1,

quae in se

due
9

toties quoties
;

quadrate,

fiunt

haec per
;

signum 3 (numerum

monstrat, vide
scilicet

minoris

uninomii) due, fiunt 27


fiunt

quibus praspone signum pristinum,

\A$27,

quae

Item, >s/TS24 et
rabiles,
et

aggregatum utriusque V-%12 et V%3. \X733 (per cap. 1 prop. 14) sunt commensuItem,

est

(per hanc) additae faciunt \/TS81.

\Af

ad

J
2.

additae

producunt

uninomia proposita incommensurabilia fuerint, non aliter connectuntur quam interposito hoc signo +, quod augmenti dicitur
Si

copula.

Ut
sic

addenda^ x/^5 et \/^3, fiunt \/TS5-f V$3 ; quse pronuncianda sunt, radix cubica quinarii aucta radice
sint

quadrata ternarii.

Item, \/^6 et

\/2

additaB faciunt

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Corollarium.
3.

95

Hinc
et

patet, ex additione

uninomiorum incommensurabilium
sic dicta
;

oriri

binomia

plurinomia abundantia,
-j-

quod duobus aut pluribus


loco.

uninomiis, copula

conjunctis, constent

de quibus suo

CAPUT

III.

DE UNINOMIORUM SUBSTRACTIONE.
1.

Si uninomia proposita commensurabilia fuerint, divide

numerum

quo substractio fit, per numerum uninomii substrahendi ; quotientis extrahe radicem qualem radicale denotat ; ab hac substrate unitatem ; reliquum in se toties due quoties indicat radicale ; prouirinomii, ex

ductum etiam

in

numerum uninomii

substrahendi due, atque huic praefiet

pone signum radicale pristinum, et substractionis priorum uninomiorum.

inde residuum seu reliquum

Exempla.
substrahenda \AJ12 ex */$%! ; divide 27 per 12 arithmetice, fient f , cujus V'-J est f ; bine aufer 1, fiet j quod in
Sit

se quadrate due, fiet

et

bane in 12 due,

fient

quibus

prsepone radicale suum, fietque


A/-J12 ex \/-$27.
relinquit \/TS3.

V$3,

pro reliquo substractionis

Simili modo,

\/TS24 subducta ex \/TS81


.

Item, \X-Jf ex \X-J6 subducta relinquit \/-?2f

uninomia proposita incommensurabilia fuerint, ambo simul scribe postposito uninomio substrahendo, et interposito hoc signo
2.

Si

quod copula minutionis nuncupatur.

96

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Exempla.
Sit
sic

ex \A$S substrahenda \/7S5, remanent \AJ3


Item, \/-2 ex

\/TS5, quae

ternarii pronunciatur, radix quadrata

minuta radice cubica

quinarii.

V$3

relinquunt

V$3

Corollarium.
3.

Hinc

patet,

ex substractione uninomiorum incommensurabilium


et

oriri

plurinomiorum residua defectiva, seu apotomes ; ex uninomiorum enim plurium commixtione per copulam substractionis

binomiorum

definitur apotomes.

CAPUT
<

IV.

DE EXTRACTIONE RADICUM EX UNINOMIIS.


1.

Si

radix extrahenda simplex fuerit, atque in


latitet,

numero absolute

uninomii

earn arithmetice extrahe retento pristine radicali.

Exempla.
Sit radix

in

latitat

quadrata extrahenda ex hoc uninomio \XTS4 ; quia radix quadrata, earn extrahe retento pristine radicali,
Item, \/TS extracta ex

eritque \/TS2.

\A^f

seu

VQ^i

erit

2. Si

vero radix simplex extrahenda in

numero absolute uninomii non

deprehendatur, tune praepone numero absolute et radicis extrahendse

signum

et

pristinum signum.

Ut
hujus

sit

extrahenda
fit

\/-J

ex hac \/^3, ea

erit

V$$3

item,

V$5,

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
3.

97

Si

tiplicis
1 et

autem radix multiplex ex uninomio extrahenda sit, primo mulunam simplicem, inde aliam ex hac, et sic omnes sigillatim (per
ex hac \//?27, extrahe hinc (per 2) deinde ex hac extrahe (per 1) \/7S, ea
erit

2 hujus), extrahe. Ut sit extrahenda


\A?> ea erit
erit

\X-jTS
;

r<

J /?27
t

ViJtS.

Item,
erit

*/i$ hujus \/7Sl6

A/TS&

Item,

hujus A/7510

4.

In radicibus extrahendis ex fractionibus, idem


linese

est

prseponere
scilicet

radicale

interpositae,

ac

si

id utrique

numerator!

et

denominatori prasponeres. Ut sit ex f extrahenda

V-Q'IS,
;

ea erit

^ff

seu A/-?:ff , seu

\/lS^,
eadem.

seu op time v^'TSf

sunt enim haec omnia penitus

CAPUT

V.

DE REDUCTIONE AD IDEM RADICALE.


Si

duo uninomia fuerint

dissimiliter radicata, et utriusque

numerum

absolutum
indicat
;

toties in se multiplicaveris, quoties dissimile radicale socii

et utrique producto,
;

per se posito, utrumque radicale


pristino.

prse-

posueris

ad idem radicale reducentur, salvo valore

Exemplum.
Sint duae dissimiliter radicatse,

V&
8,

et

\/^2, reducendae ad

idem radicale
cubice,
fient

multiplica ergo
illis

in se quadrate, et 2 in se

ex

9,

ex his

qua3

pracpositis

utrisque

radicalibus fient A/-J7S9 et \/^TS8,

qu33 consimiliter radicatae

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
sunt,

retento etiam valore pristine


et

idem enim
\X-J2,

valet

quod V^S,
Lib.
I.

idem

valet \AjTS8

quod

ut per cap. 4

patet.

Item, \AJ-J2 et \/-jTS5 sic reducuntur:


se,

mul-

tiplica

2 cubice in

et

5 in

so

quadrate (in priore enim


Item, A/-$6

quadrate sunt similes), fient \AJ-j7S8 et v^-$T325.


et

2 sunt \A$6

et

CAPUT

VI.

DE MULTIPLICATIONS ET DIVISIONS UNINOMIORUM.


1.

OMNE

uninomium, nulla notatum copula, notari copula augmenti

subintelligitur.

Ut V$10 pro -rV-JlO habetur.


4

2.

Eadem

copula per eandem multiplicata, aut divisa, producit aug


j

menti copulam
divisa^,

contraria?

autem copula; invicem

multiplicatae,

aut

producunt minutionis copulam.


inferius.

Exempla sunt
3.

Primo ergo uninomia proposita


per reductionem
;

fiant consimiliter radicata, si

non

per

se, saltern

deinde multiplica aut divide

numerum

per numerum, producti radicem qualem indicat radicale extrahe, per cap. 4 ; ultimo (per 2 hujus) multiplica aut divide copulas, copulamque

productam

praefatse

radici praepone,

fietque inde multiplicationis aut

divisionis production.

Sint uninomia multiplicanda >s/-J12 per \/-J3


fiunt 36,

due 12 in

3,

Item,

quorum radix quadrata est V7S3 per \/TS2 ducta facit

6, quas sunt

productum.

^TS6 productum, per 2

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
hujus.

99

Item,

v/TS3 per A/-J2 multiplicantur, prius facta re;

ductione ad \AjTS9 et V-?1S8, per cap. 5


faciunt 72,

inde 9 in 8 ducta

quorum radix
copulam
,

-JTS

(per cap. 4 sect. 2) erit

cui prsepone

per 2 hujus productam,

Exempla
Sit

divisionis.

dividenda \AJ12 per


2.

V/-J3, fiet,

per praemissa, productus


divisa
alias
fiet

quotiens

Item,

v/t5l6 per

Vt32

2.
;

Item,
ut

\A?T372 per A/-JTS9 divisa facit \X-jTS8,


capitis

\X-J2

ex

sectione 1 patet.

Corollarium.

Hinc patet uninomium quadrate, cubice, aut ad aliquem ordinem multiplicari, cum numerus ejus absolutus in se quadrate, cubice, aut ad
4>.

ilium ordinem multiplicatur, retento pristine radicali.

Ut

A/-J2 cubice ducta

fit

V-J8.

Item, \/TS3 quadrate ducta

fit \X-TS9, etc.

Corollarium.

Hinc sequitur unum quodvis radicatum in se toties multiplicari, quoties suum radicale quadratinomium indicat, quum copula prsecedens
5.

et radicale auferuntur

aut non quadratinomium,

cum
5.

radicale tantum

aufertur.

Ut

x/735 in se cubice ducta facit

Item \/$3 in

se

quadrate ducta facit 3. Item, A/-JT36 in se quadrate ducta facit Simili modo fit in universalibus radi<\/t56, cubice vero, A/ -$6.
cibus, et in positivis,

de quibus postea.

100

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

CAPUT

VII.

DE PLURINOMIIS.
1.

PLURINOMIA

sunt, quae pluribus uninomiis copulatis constant.


alia

2.

Plurinomiorum

abundantia dicuntur (cap. 2

sect.

descripta),

alia defectiva, vulgo residua seu apotomes, quae cap. 3 sect. 3 descri-

buntur.
3.

Plurinomia infima sunt


radices,

numerorum

quorum uninomia omnia sunt quadratse cum numero vel sine numero.
ea,

Ut V-$3-rV-j5
plurinomia infima.

V$2+5,

item >v/-?3-fV-?5

V-?2, dicuntur

4.

Caetera omnia plurinomia dicuntur superiora.

5.

Alia

aliis

magis aut minus plurinomia dicuntur, quanto plura aut

pauciora fuerint uninomia.

Ut quadrinomium v'-JS-fV^
hoc trinomio
-N/-J 3-}-\Aj5

magis plurinomium trinomium rursus magis \A?2, quod


V/-J2-J-5

plurinomium
6. Si dati

est

quam binomium,

ut

plurinomii convertas

quasdam

copulas,

non autcm omnes,


;

ex abundante facies
defective

suum defectivum seu apotomen


fiet.

aut contra, ex

suum abundans Ut
\/ $5-r-A/-j3
<

tivum

</$3 trinomium
\/
<

v^2 sit trinomium abundans, ejus defec erit V^5-V^3-V-J2, vel V$5 V$3+V$2, vel V$5+\/$2, vel V$3 V-?5 V-g2. Item, sit idem

V^S+V^S

N/^2 defectivum,
patet,

ejus

abundans

erit

$5-rV-j3+v''$2.

Quo exemplo

posse et abundans et defectivum esse,

idem plurinomium diverse tamen respectu.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
7 Si plurinomii dati
copulse, ea (per cap.
et fiet abbreviatio

101

fuerint bina
s.

uninomia commensurabilia ejusdem

1) adde,

copulamque illam producto praepone,


cujus \A$12 et

Sit

magis plurinomii in minus. trinomium hoc V^l^+V-^S


et

2,

V$3
qua
ad

commensurabiles,

cum

ejusdem 2 facient abbreviationem ad minus plurinomium,


2>

copulae, additae facient V-%%7,

viz.

quod binomium

est.

8.

Si plurinomii dati fuerint bina uninomia commensurabilia divercap. 3s. 1) et producto

sarum copularum, minus a majore substrahe, (per


prsepone copulam majoris uninomii, et
in minus.
fiet

abbreviatio magis plurinomii

Ut

sit

trinomium \A?10-fV-?2
et

\AJ8,
diver sis

in

quo +\/-?2

et
;

v/^8 sunt commensurabiles,


substracta ergo
prsepone,
fiet

copulis notantur

faciunt A/-J2,

cui

\A?2> quae
viz.

cum

copulam majoris uninomii \/-10 faciunt abbreviationem

ad binomium,

CAPUT

VIII.

DE ADDITIONE PLURINOMIORUM.
1.

suis

PLURINOMIORUM addendorum omnia uninomia simul cum copulis deinde si qua3 fuerint commen in unicum plurinomium connecte
;

surabilia, ea (per 7 et 8 prsecedentis) abbreviate, et inde producitur

additionis

summa.

Ut
fient

sint

addenda \/-?3-{-V-J8 ad 4

v/^2, primo per hanc

\/^3+^8+4

V-?2

deinde, quia -H/-?8 et

V-J2

sunt commensurabiles, ideo

fiet

abbreviatio (per cap. 7 sect. 8)

102

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
ad <v/-J3-rV-?2+4.
X/-512, ea

Item, sint addenda


fient
-v/
<

<S$5+V$3
<

ad V-J20

primo per hanc

$5-f-A/-3-{-\/ $20

\/^12

erunt V$4>5 V-?3. deinde, per dictam abbreviationem, /f> ad \/TS2 x/^2, faciunt -v/TS54+v 8. 5

Item,
Item,

ad >/^24-\/-93,

faciunt

Corollarium.

2.

Hinc

patet, in additione

abundantium ad sua

defective, particular

abundantes et defectivas sese mutuo destruere, particulas vero reliquas


duplari.

Ut abundans 12-JV-J3 additum ad suam apotomen 12


facit

\X-J3,

12-f \/-J3-|-12

V/-J3,

quod idem

valet

quod

24.

CAPUT

IX.

DE SUBSTRACTIONE PLURINOMIORUM.
PLURINOMII substrahendi converte omnes copulas, deinde hoc conversum plurinomium addatur (per caput prsecedens) ad plurino1.

mium

ex qua

fieri

debuit substractio, et producentur inde substracti-

onis reliquiae.

Ut

a binomio

V-45

\X-J3

substrahendum
V/-J3,

sit

cujus converte copulas,

sic,

v/-5

hoc ad

adde (per cap. praecedens), fiet ^-20 \X-J12. Item, ex -fV-?3 substrahendum sit \/7S2 v/-2, remanebit
-V/-J18.

Item, ex \/T54+\/'32-fA/'J3
,

sint

substrahenda

remanebit

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Corollarium.
2.

103

Hinc

patet, in substractione defectivi a suo abundante, particular

abundantes sen defectivas duplari, cseteras vero se invicem destruere. Ut ex abundante \AJ13-P7 sit substrahendum suum defec-

tivum
his 14.

V$13

7,

primo

fiet

^$13+7

x/^lS+V, inde

fiet

ex

CAPUT

X.

DE MULTIPLICATIONS PLURINOMIORUM.
1.

cap.
sect.

SINGULA multiplicand! uninomia due in singula multiplicands, per 6 aggregatum autem (si quse habet commensurabilia) abbrevia, per
;

et

8 cap.

7.

Ut
erit

\/-S3
;

v/TS2-f-6 sit multiplicandum,

\/-5

sit

multi-

plicans

-v/-?15

V-S^OO-j-V-J 180^147 +\/TS686

42

productum, undique incommensurabile et ideo inabbreviabile. 5 multiplicandum, \/-l2 v/-?2 Item, sit \/-j8-}V-?3
multiplicans
4)
;

A/'jOe+v'-JSG

(alias 6)

_-s/^300
sect.

v/^16 (aKas

\/^6+A/-50, quod productum (per

et

8 cap. 7)

abbreviation facit \7-g54+2

v/-g300+\A?50.

2.

In multiplicando abundante per suum defectivum,

sufficit

partem

abundantem per partem defectivam, atque partem utrique communem se invicem in se multiplicare reliquiae enim transverssa multiplicationes
;

destruunt.

Ut \/^7+\/ *?5 abundans multiplicandum per V-%7 ^-?5, suum defectivum, fiet 7 5 (alias 2) pro totali producto etenim
;

transverse multiplicationes,

A/-J7

P er

*/$$>

et

*/7

P er

104

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
+V$5,
sunt

v/^35
inutiles.

et

+\X-J35,

qua

se

invicem destruunt,

utque igitur

Corollarium.

infimum plurinomium abundaiis in suum defectivum ducatur, producit minus plurinomium infimum. Ut multiplicetur hoc trinomium infimum abundans
3. Si
,

per suorum defectivorum aliquod, viz. per V/-J132, quod producetur inde binomium hoc 12
facit uni-

etiam per suum abundans 12-J--V/-J132 multiplicatum

nomium imo numerum,

viz. 12.

Corollarium.

infimum binomium abundans in suum defectivum ducatur, producitur numerus.


4. Si

Ut, in

jam

dicto, si

binomium abundans 12-f-\AJ132 duxeris


\/^132,
producitur

(per 2

hujus) in
viz. 12.

suum defectivum 12

numerus,

Annotandum

est,

multiplicari possit,

quod binomium ut inde numerus

irrationale per tale


rationalis proveniat,
fiet

plurinomium hoc modo


:

Duo nomina
ex abundant

cubica due in se et invicem, et

trinomium abundans,
;

binomio, aut defectivum ex defectivo

hoc trinomium,
si

si

abundans

sit,

per binomium defectivum ducatur, aut,


Aliter
:

defectivum, per

abundans, et proveniet numerus simplex.


Euclid.,

quaere tres
;

Per prop. 2 lib. viii. quantitates in ea ratione quam habent invicem

nomina cubica

aut quatuor quantitates in ea ratione


;

quam habent
deinde due ut

binomia biquadrata
supra.

aut quinque pro supersolidis

et

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Exemplum.

105

Ex

binomio abundante

\/'7S6-}-\/TS4< fac

trinomium \/7336-f-

A/TS^+v/TSlG, quod per defectivum \/TS6 \/TS4 due, fiunt 2. v/TS^ fiat trinomium defectivum \/TS36 Item, ex defective \/TS6
v/TS24-j-A/'7Sl6, quod per binomium abundans A/T36+A/7S4
due, fient 10.

Aliud exemplum.

Ex

A/-J-J3

v/-?-?2,
,

fit

quadrinomium

quod per

v^3+A/-^2

due,

fiet

1.

CAPUT XL
DE DIVISIONS PLURINOMIORUM.
1.

Si divisor fuerit
6,

uninomia, per cap.


connecte.

uninomium, divide per illud singula dividendi et quotientis uninomia cum copulis productis

Ut
Item,

sit sit

dividendum dividendum
per
12,

\AJ12+\A8
fiet

per \/-j2,

fient

+\/-?9900

quotiens

2.

Si plurinomium fuerit divisor, illudque infimum


fac (per sect.

ex hoc pluri;

nomio

et

capitis 10)

numerum

simplicem

perque

eadem plurinomia per quse


etiam dividendum
;

multiplicaveras divisorem multiplicabis


divide,

productum per dictum numerum simplicem


o

et reddetur inde quotiens prioris divisoris et dividendi.

106

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Sint 5 dividend

per trinomium hoc infimum \AJ11

\AJ3
inde 12

\/-j2

quod
;

si

prius in

\AJ11

v/-$3-fV-j2 duxeris,

fiet

V/-J132

deinde hoc in

124V^132
5,

duxeris, fient (per

et

capitis 10)

12; deinde per idem trinomium \/-Jll


viz.

\/-j3-|-\/-j2
;

multiplica dividendum,

fient

V$275-^/$75+V$50
binomium
12-}-\/
<

hoc rursus multiplica per praefatum


fit

132, et

x/^36300+\/37200 -v/-?10800+A/-J6600+\/'$9900 pro novo dividendo, quo, per dicta 12 diviso, provenit quotiens
congruens
5 divisis per \AJll
prsefatis

V$3

V-?2.
ex superioribus plurino,

Hc
nam

aunt emendanda

"]

per

6+-v/^2
ut

fieri

... mils V1X

3. Si divisor fuerit
,.
.

,.

unquam
;

dividet

mtegrum dividendum

potest

divisio,

per
fine

omne binomium, ex
pnecedentis capitis.

atque igitur inter superscriptum dividendum et subscriptum divisorem linea duj


.

sine reliquiis

catur

more fractionum
1

arithmetices.

Ut
10

sint

10

\X-J3 dividenda per 6-fV'7S2,

non

aliter fiet

quam

interlineali

divisione hoc situ

9^*|>

qua3 sic

pronuntiantur,

x/^3 divisa per 6


Corollarium.

4.

Hinc

patet,

ex divisione per superiora plurinomia oriri plurinomia

irrationaHa iracta.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

107

CAPUT

XII.

DE EXTRACTIONE RADICUM EX PLURINOMIIS.


1.

PLURINOMIORUM quaedam radices perspicuae sunt, quaedam obscurae.

Perspicuas dicimus, quae non sunt magis plurinomia


sunt radices.
2.

quam

ea.

quorum
et

Obscuras autem radices appellamus, quae plurimis uninomiis


Si binomii infimi oblati fuerit extrahenda radix quadrata

radicibus plurinomiorum confuse plerumque scatent.


3.
;

ex

differentia quadratorum utriusque uninomii radicem quadratam extrabe, quam ad majus uninomium adde et ab eodem substrahe, si scilicet

commensurabilia sunt (alioquin enim erit radix qusesita obscura), et ab horum dimidiis educ radices quadratas (per cap. 4), has binas radices
connecte copula qua prius binomium, et erit hoc binomium radix quad
rata perspicua prioris binomii.

Exemplum.
Sit

extrahenda radix quadrata hujus binomii defectiyi 3


;

\A?5
est 4,

quadrata uninomiorum sunt 9 et 5, quorum differentia radix quadrata hujus differentiae est 2, commensurabiles

ea igitur 3 et 2 adde, fient 5 ; et etiam substrahe 2 ex 3, restat 1 ; ex dimidiis 5 et 1 educ radices quadratas, fient A/^f

ad 3

et

radix quadrata hujus binomii 3


radix quadrata ex \7-j48

v^J */$?, quas connecte copula pristina, fientque \/-| sit extrahenda Item, \/^5.
6
;

radix quadrata differentiae quad

ratorum

\/^12, quae addita et substracta ad et a A/ -48, facit A/-J108, et A/-J12, quarum radices dimidiorum copulatae faciunt
est

108

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
quaesitam.

Item, \A$24-fV-?18 habet radicem

hanc -v/^-^quadratam perspicuam


4.

Caeterorum omnium plurinomiorum radices qualescunque pro

obscuris habentur.

Exemplum.
differentiae 4/.g48-tV<$28 caret radice perspicua, quia \/-J est commensurabilis ad \/-j48, quadratorum, qua? est \/-20, non cum (per praemissam 3) deberet esse commensurabilis. Item,

radix quadrata vel cubica hujus \/TS3-f-l obscura est omnibus, prater binomia infima jam dicta.

et sic

de

5.

Radices autem obscurse non


radicale radicis

aliter

extrahuntur

quam praeponendo
signum dicitur

signum
indicat

cum

periodo ante plurinomium oblatum, idque


universalis radicis
;

radicale,

cum
Ut,

periodo sequente,

enim universi plurinomii sequentis radicem.


extrahenda radix quadrata hujus A/^S-f-A/^S ; praepone huic binomio hoc radicale \/$ cum periodo hac, fietque inde \/-^. \X-48-}-\/^28, quae sic pronuntiantur, radix quadrata
sit

universalis radicis quadratae


ficatur

mam
Item,

48 auctae radice quadrata 28 ; signienim \/^48 jungi cum radice quadrata 28 in unam sumej usque totalis summae radicem quadratam capiendam.
extrahenda radix cubica

sit

huus A/lSS-pV-g

1,

ea erit

Corollarium.
6.
oriri.

Hinc patet, ex radicum obscurarum

extractione, radices universales

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

109

CAPUT

XIII.

DE FRACTIONIBUS IRRATIONALIBUS.

1.

QU.ZE in fractionibus rationalibus fieri prsecipit Arithmetica, haec

in irrationalibus fractionibus per

Algebram
et

perfice.

In fractionibus autem irrationalibus plurinomiis, operamur per Arithmeticam, quatenus sunt fractiones ;
et irrationales sunt.

per Algebram, quatenus plurinomiae

Ut, sint ^4|jp dividenda per J^_ l9 quod, in rationalibus per Arithmeticam, fieret per transversam multiplicationem utriusque

numeratoris per utriusque denominatorem seorsum


multiplicatio per

haec ergo

Algebram

fiat,

et

producetur

quotiens optatae divisionis.


multiplicari ex vSzi' 1 transverse, et recto denominatores, ut sint ejusdem denomina-

Item,

sint

addenda ^|t?

a(l

U8B

et

tionis,

pAecipit Arithmetica

algebraice ergo sic multiplicentur,


sic,

et fient unius
et

primo denominationis
;

-jr^~

pro altero

pro uno, deinde per Algebram, jubente Arithmetica,


j ^/* illo

v *'elo

^^

~2

adde numeratores retento communi


a

denominatore, fietque

productum

additionis.

110

DE ARTE LOGISTIC A.

CAPUT

XIV.

DE UNIVERSALIUM RADICUM ADDITIONE ET SUBSTRACTIONE.


1.

UNIVERSALES adduntur copula augment!,


Sint

et

substrahuntur copula

minutionis interpositis.

addenda \A10+\/-$2 ad \A. 8


fietque </$.
X/-J3 ex

v/-$3,
V/-J3.

interpone copu-

lam +,

W+V$2+V$. 8
-v/-$.

Item, substraha,

tur V'-J.S

10-rV-2, interpone copulam

fietque

2.

Si radix quadrata universalis, binomii infimi defectivi,

ad radicem
quadrata

quadratam universalem
cap. 16
sect.

sui abundantis addatur, aut a radice


-|-

universal! sui abundant! auferatur, per copulas

et

productum (per

5 sequens) erit abbreviandum. Ut ex additione A/-J.10 \A$2 ad \/-. 10+\/^2 producetur, V$.10+V$2+V$.IO v/^2 quod per cap. 16 sect. 5
;

abbreviabile est.

CAPUT XV.
DE UNIVERSALIUM DIVERSORUM AD IDEM SIGNUM REDUCTIONE.
1.

MULTIPLICA utrumque plurinomium


et

universalis toties in se quoties

dissimile universale socii indicat,

productum universal! utriusque


v/TS3, et \X-jTS.

Ut
fient

sint

reducenda

V$$.

7+\/^2

due

plurinomium 2

v/TS3 in se cubice, et 7-j-v/-$2 in se quadrate,

5-f\/TSl94.4

\/^5184. et 51+\/^392,

quibus prsepone

DE ARTE LOGISTIC A.
\/-

Ill

commune, una cum


V/TS5184

et TS dissimilibus,

fientque

5-f \X-TS1944
universale, viz.

et \A?-?1S.

51-H/-J392 reducta ad idem

2.

Eadem
Ut
Item,

ratione, universalia

cum

particularibus ad

idem radicale

reducuntur.
3.

et

\AJ.18+A/-243,
et

fiunt

*/$.9
fiunt

et \/-.

18+A/-?243.
et

\A?. 13-JV-?20

2-fV-jS,

\A. 13+\/-20,

Corollarium.
3.

Hinc
est.

patet,

uninomium

signari universali

quod particular!

radicali

idem

Ut

A/-J.

et \X-J9

esedem sunt.

Item, \XTS5 et \/TS. 5

hsec

dum

puncto notantur universalia dicuntur.

CAPUT

XVI.

DE MULTIPLICATIONS ET DIVISIONS UNIVERSALIUM.


1.

Si universalis per universalem multiplicanda aut dividenda fuerit,


fiant (per cap.

primo
2.

15) ejusdem signi universalis.


fiat

Deinde, deletis (saltern mente) signis universalibus,


et

more

uninomiorum
3.

plurinomiorum multiplicatio

et divisio.

Ultimo, prsepone producto, vel quotient!, signum universale pristinum, cum copula (per cap. 6 sect. 2) debita prsecedente.
Sint ejusdem signi universalis \/TS. 5+A/-J2 et \/T

ad invicem multiplicanda
producentur 20-J-V-J32

Due

ergo 5-f-V-$2 per


\/-?6,

N/-J75

quibus praepone

-s/TS.

vel

112

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
.

fient -V/7S-

\/72
-V/-J.

sint
:

Item, v'-?. 4+ 20+>v/-?32_V$75-^/$6. ducenda in 3 seu in \/-$9, seu (per cap. 15 sect. 3) in

Due

ergo 4+\/1S2 in

9, fient

36-rVl3l458, per cap. 6


10
facit

His praepone V$. vel Item, V$. 10+\/-$2 ductum in


et cap. 10.

+Vi* fient V$. 36+\/TSl458.


v/-J.

\AJ2

v/-J.

98,

seu

V-J98.

4. Si universalis quadrata,

copula

-|;

praenotata, sit

ducenda in eandem

universalem, copula

prsenotatam

praenotatam copulam et radicale

universale dele, et reliquiarum copulas in contrarias converte, et orietur

inde multiplications productum.

Ut +V$>2
5.

v/^3, per

sAJ.2

v/-?3 ducta, facit

Verum,

si

universale

quadratum

in se

ducendum

sit,

delete signo

universali

cum

copula praenotata, orietur multiplications productum.


multiplicetur in
se,

Ut V-j. 10-f \/^2


6. Si

producetur

autem plures per plures universales multiplicandae

fuerint, aut

dividendae,

quod producitur ex unica per unicam, totum, habebit unicum signum universale praepositum.

illud

Ut VT.

iO-r->v/^54-\/^. 8
.

V/-J3 multiplicentur per */$.


:

3+

V/-87,

hoc modo

Reduc \/T. 10+\/-j5 cum


V-%13. 105+\/'j2000,

ad idem universale,
autem, \/-TS.81-}-\/^6534 ;

fiet ilia,

has invicem due, fientque (per hoc ca-

quae producuntur ex unica universali in

unicam ducta.

Ha-

bet ergo hoc totum

productum commune illud universale sig num V^TS ei praepositum. Simili modo due 3-j-\/J6 per 8 \/-j3, eique suum universale, viz. -f\/J. praepone, fiet +\/J.24
pro secunda parte producti.
Tertio,

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
reduc
fient

113

v/^.4

\/^7 cum \/TS.10-|-\/^5 ad idem universale,


v/^21175,
et

A/^TS.148

V^TS.105+\A$2000

has in-

vicem due, fientque

N/^TS. 15540

8000
8

\/-$42350000, pro

tertia parte

V^233454375-|-A/-4380Quarto, due product!.

N/-$3 per

\/-7, et producto prsepone

\A.

net

\A. 32

v/-'448+\/-21, pro quarta parte product!. Quarum quatuor partium quselibet fit ex ductu unicse tantum universalis in unicam quare quselibet comprehenditur sub unico signo
/v/^48
;

universal!, fitque

totum productum, V^TS. 8505-t-V^ 13068000

+ V$ 13122000 -f A/^72037350 + \/^.24


.

Vi%7

+ \AJ384

15540

\/^233454375

+V-$ 43808000

quod radice quadrata universal! binomii infimi abundantis aucta aut minuta radice quadrata sui defectivi, producto in se ducto
7fit

Unde

prseposueris

\/-$.,

fiet

inde ejusdem valoris plurinomium minus

et

abbreviatum.

Ut

si

\A.10-fV-2+A/-?.10
fiet

X/-22 in

se duxeris,

et

praeposueris,

\/-?.20+\/^392 sequale ad
Par! ratione ex

eoque brevius.
,

fit

8.

Exempla

divisionis universalium sunt


;

11

praecedente scribuntur

si

eadem plurinomia quse cap. modo eorum divisoribus dividendis et

quotientibus signum universale prseposueris.

Ut ex hac
\/TSV-J6+2.
per

et cap. 11 sect. 1,

seu quod idem est per A/T3.\/*J2 divisa,

\/TS.\/^12+\/^8 per \/^7S2, reddunt quotientem

Item, ex hac et cap. 11 sect. 2, \/^.5 divisa

V$.Vin

s/^3

s/^2 reddit quotientem x/^V Et sic de caeteris.

114

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

CAPUT

XVII.

DE RADICUM UNIVERSALIUM EXTRACTIONS


1.

PLUHINOMII

oblati

radicem sine respectu universalis signi per

huic radici prsepone pristinum cap. 12. extrahe; et


salitatis.

suum signum

univer-

extrahenda radix quadrata ex \XlS.3 v/^.5, ea (per v/*^ cu ^ P cr hanc pnupone suum cap. 12 sect. 3) erit V^$

Ut

sit

universale \XT3. fietque radix quaesita x/TS.\/^

v^^./.

Item,

radix cubica hujus V-.\/TS3-{-\/^2 erit (per hanc et cap. 12,


sect.

5) \/^T5.\/TS3-f-\/^2.
x/^48,

Item, radix quadrati cubica hujus

\/fi>7

primo ejus radix quadrata erit \//*.2 deinde hujus radix cubica erit V^JI. 2 v/^3, pro radice

v/^3

quaesita.

2. Si

ex pluribus universalibus copulatis, aut ex universalibus copulatis


;

cum

uninomiis radicem extraxeris, ea dicetur universalium universale

totiquc debet signum universale radicis extrahenda? prseponi, lineaque

per totum duci.

Ut

sit

extrahenda radix quadrata hujus 5-f-\/TS2

\/-?.3

V-^2, ea extrahitur prseponendo signum universale radicis, una cum linea ducta hoc modo \/^. 5-|-\/TS2 v/^.3 v/^2.
Corollai*ium.
3.

Hinc sequitur

in universalibus effectum universalis signi


;

tantum

extendi

quantum

linea protracta

et

si

nulla ducatur linea effectus


desinit

universalis signi in sequens universale


cipitur.

signum

ab eaque

inter-

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Ut
est

115

per \AJ.60-J-\Al6
x/^.6
at
si

\/$. 6

A/-J4 significatur totius hujus

GO-fV^lS
A/^62
;

radicem quadratam capiendam, eaque abesset linea, hoc modo, */%.60-\-*/-%l6 A/-J.

\A4

v/-4, tune prioris

extenditur, et
extenditur.

\A. effectus et vis per 60+A/*16 tantum posterioris \A. vis per reliquum, viz. per 6 \/^4>
v/-. 6

Idem ergo valet \AJ. 60-j-\/-?l6


\/^.60+\/^l6
V/-J.6

x/^4, quod
est

\A62
Et

atqui

v/^4 idem

quod 6

similiter in similibus.

Hsec de irrationalibus dicta


species
:

sufficiunt, licet et alias sint irrationalium

Ut enim per extractionem radicum ex numeris non habentibus


et

radices oriuntur uninomia (quse prima parte hujus docuimus),

ex

additione et substractione uninomiorum incommensurabilium oriuntur

plurinomia (de quibus secunda parte hujus tractavimus), et per extrac tionem radicum obscurarum ex plurinomiis oriuntur universalia (de
quibus hac tertia
et

ultima parte hujus tractavimus). Sic etiam ex univer-

salibus oriuntur universalium universalia, et ex his rursus alia

ad

infi-

nitum universalissima

Quorum artem si aliquando in usum

cadat,

quod

rarissime accidit, facillime ex prsecedentibus colliges.

FINIS PRIMI LIBRI.

LIBER SECUNDUS.
DE POSITIVA SIVE COSSICA ALGEBRA PARTE

CAPUT

I.

DE DEFINITIONIBUS ET DIVISIONIBUS PARTIUM, ET DE VOCABULIS ARTIS.


1.

POSITIVAM Algebras partem, per suppositiones

fictas,

verain quantiI.

tatem verumque
sect.
2.

numerum

quaesitum patefacere diximus, Lib.

cap. 1,

7
Positiones etiam, sive suppositiones,

sunt notulae quaedam

fictae

unitate notatae, quas loco ac vice quantitatum ac

numerorum ignotorum

addimus, substrahimus, multiplicamus aut dividimus.


3.

Positiones autem, et positionum notulae, tot sunt diversae et dis-

similes quot diversos, dissimiles,

ignotosque numeros aut quantitates

complectitur qusestio.

Quarum, exempli
prima positio
dicitur
;

gratia, figure et

nomina sunt
a,

llfy,

quae

una

dicitur, la, quae

unum

sive

una secunda
;

positio
c,

16,

unum
;

6,

sive

una

tertia positio

Ic,

unum

sive

una quarta

positio

et sic

per alphabetum.

118

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

Hae positionum notulae (co quod pro omnis rei numero et mensura nomine RES dicuntur, suntque primae incognito ponuntur) vulgari
4.

online.
5.

se

productum ortum ex harum rerum aliqua ducta, estque secundum ordine.

Quadratum

est

in

Ut

Ify in se ducta facit

scribitur

!.

Item, \b in

unum primum quadratum, quod sic se ductum facit lb%, quod unum b
;

quadratum

dicitur.

Item, la per la ductum, facit la-J, quod


dicitur
et sic

unum a quadratum
0.

de

cseteris.

Cubus

est

qui ex ductu rei cujusvis in

suum quadratum

oritur

estque ordine tertius.

Ut

lH

ducta in

facit

unum cubum,
ductum

qui sic scribitur 175.


sic,

Item, la per

la^ ductum

facit 1075,

qui pronuntiatur
facit IblS, etc.

unus

a cubus.

Item, Ib per lb-%

~s Quadrati quadratum est quod ex ductu rei cujusvis in


provenit
;

suum cubum

estque ordine quartum.

Ut

Ify ducta in ITS producit

unum

quadrati quadratum, quod


facit la^-$,

sic scribitur 1-J-J.

Item, la per laTS

quod
,

sic

pro

nuntiatur,

unum a

quadrati quadratum.

Sic

Ic-J-J, etc.

8.

Supersolidus est qui ex ductu rei cujusvis in


;

suum quadrati quad

ratum provenit

estque ordine quintus.

Ut

Ify ducta in

!$
facit

facit I/?,
in/?,

scilicet

unum

supersolidum.

Item, la per
solidus.

la^

quod pronuntiatur unus a super-

Sic de Ibfl, et

left, etc.

Corollarium.
<).

Hinc

patet alios ex aliis oriri ordines in infinitum progredientes.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Ut 1^ ducta per
per l^TS
ordine septimus.
licebit, in
I/? facit l-^TS,

119

qui ordine sextus

est.

Item,

facit \ffl,

qui secundus supersolidus dicitur, estque

Caetera ex tabella subsequent! contemplari


llfy

qua supponimus exempli gratia

valere 3, la valere

2, et 1 b valere 4,

quibus datis caeterorum ordinum valores neces:

sario sequentur, ut inferius

ftc,

&c.

&c.

&c.

&c.

10. Positivi dicuntur


signis

numeri quicunque notantur. positivorum ordinum

rationales, vel irrationales,

120

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Ut
6ty,
vel 5a,

vel

7^5.

vel \/$66,

vel

A/TS?^.

positivi

numeri dicuntur.
quovis capitur.

Interdum etiam nomen positivi pro numero

11.

numerus positivus unicus Simplex dicitur quivis


sumptus.

solus, aut soli-

tarie

Ut 6a
12.
vel

est simplex.

Item,

V$3T.

Item,

Compositus dicitur qui ex pluribus simplicibus qui signis pluris

minoris copulantur constat.

Ut Ga+V-JSTS.

Item, 5ty

-2-$.

Item,

13.

Purus dicitur simplex

qui, post

unicum uninomium habet unius

tantum positionis signum conscriptum.

Ut 5a$.

Item, 375.

Item, '/S2c7S,

etc.,

puri dicuntur.

14.

Mistus dicitur simplex qui post unicum uninomium, habet diver-

sarum positionum signa conscripta.

Ut
bitur.

5-^ac, 2fyac,
;

\/Q\ab, \/7Sla^^c, et similes


5, sect.

infiniti,

misti

dicuntur

de quorum origine inferius cap

et 3, tracta-

15. Simplices rationales sunt qui


sitos

signis positionis et ordinis.

numeros rationales habent prsepoIrrationales autem qui irrationales


2fy, rationales sunt

numeros praepositos habent.

Ut

60, item

5^a^, item

atqui \/^6r/,

item \/7S5^67S, item \/^7S7^/?> sunt irrationales.


I
^

16. Similiter radicati

dicuntur simplices

quorum signa

radicalia aut

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
nulla aut similia sunt
similia sunt.
;

121

dissimiliter

autem contra quorum radicalia

dis-

Ut

2-? et 30,

item \/-J3fy et V$5<13, item


;

VT6

et

V^Zab,

sunt similiter radicati


,

atqui

V^^Q

et \/TS3TS,

item

yyi

et

etc. sunt dissimiliter radicati.

17.

Ejusdem

positionis sunt bini simplices notati characteribus omni-

mode ejusdem positionis, licet non ejusdem ordinis. Ut 2ty et \/-5/?, item 3fya- et \/TS2^TS,
positionis
;

etc.

sunt ejusdem

at QJfy et */-%Ia, item

31^0^

et 2lfy, sunt

diversarum

positionum.

18.

Ejusdem

ordinis actu dicuntur simplices similiter radicati, quo

rum

signa etiam ordinis

eadem
item

sint, licet

non

sint

Ut 3a
A/-?^I^

et 26,

V$13

et \AJ5TS,

ejusdem positionis. item 2fy et 5tyb, item


;

et A/-?36c,

sunt ejusdem ordinis actu

at

2ty-J

et 36,

item V$2fya$, et \/-j36, item V$2fya et v^fyz-J, sicut et alia ejus generis sunt diversorum ordinum. Quse vero sunt

ejusdem ordinis potentia, et quomodo potentia in actum reducatur, inferius cap. 4 sect. 5 dicetur.

Commensurabiles sunt duo simplices ejusdem positionis et ejusdem ordinis actu, quorum uninomia (sepositis signis positionis et ordinis)
19.

fuerint commensurabilia.

Ut

3TS et 2TS sunt commensurabiles, quia 3 et 2 sunt

commen-

item A/-?12l^ et A/-j3ty sunt commensurabiles, quia \/^12 et \/-$3 sunt commensurabiles,
surabiles, per cap. 1 sect.
;

15 Lib. I

per cap. 1

sect.

14 Lib. I

sic

\Al2l^0-

et A/^Sfya-J, et similes

omnes.

122

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

CAPUT

II.

DE ADDITIONE ET SUBSTRACTIONE POSITIVORUM.


1.

Si positivi

addendi vel substrahendi minuendique simplices fuerint

atque commensurabiles, tune uninomia utriusque adde, vel minus a

majore substrahe et producto sive residue postpone signa


pristina.

positiva

Ut
7-$
;

sint

addendae 3fy ad 2fy,

fient

5ty
;

item, 4-J

ad

3-

fient

item, 6oT

ad

9fl7S fient

157S

item, \/-2TS
facit

fient -vAJlS'C,
sect. 1

quia \AJ2 addita ad \A?8


Sic

ad v^STS \AJ18, per cap. 2

Lib.
tllHI

I.

V$2fya$ ad

\Aj8fyz-$ facit

V$l8tya$

quia eorum uninomia, per cap. 2 sect. Lib. I, et cap. 13 Lib. I, reducta ad eandem denominationem faciunt 15 et ^?, et addita faciunt ^?. Item, sint Id
item,

ad

i|S5

facit

^*^

'

substrahendaB 3fy ex

5^, remanent 2fy


Lib.

item,

3b%$
ex

ex

86-J-J,

remanent 5b$$

item, \/TS3/? ex \/TSl92/? relinquunt \/7S81/?,

per hanc, et cap.

sect. 1

I.

Sic \/TS3-J-

\7-TS

92^a-J

relinquunt \/TS81-Ja-.

2.

Si simplices incommensurabiles fuerint, interpone

copulam
ad

+ in
2^

additione, et

copulam
sint

in substractione.
fient

Ut
fient

addendae 3fy ad 2-J

2^-j-Sl^
fient

item, 4-J

4-+2tf.J ; A/-J107S-fV'?5'C ; item 5a$b ad 7^6-$ sunt Item, sint substra7a^l)^-\-5a^b. henda 3-$ ex 2a-J, remanent 2ff^ 3^ ; item, 2 ex 3-J, rema
nent 3a-J
sic

item, >/^5TS ad \X-10TS

2a

item, v'-jS-J ex \/7Sl2^,

remanent

V$2a

ex

V2a6

fiunt

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Corollarium.

123

3.

Hinc

patet ex simplicium incommensurabilium additione et sub-

stractione composites oriri.

Quod

ex superioribus exemplis constat quorum producta com-

positi sunt.

4.

Adduntur autem, substrahuntur,


illic

et

abbreviantur compositi eisdem

regulis quibus plurinomia cap. 8 et 9, et cap.

sect.

et 8, Lib. I.

Et

quse

de plurinomiis et uninomiis dicuntur, hie de compositis

et sim-

plicibus subintelligantur.

Ut
fient

sint

addenda
6
:

V$2lSb$+3$

2fy+l ad 5lS+V$8<TSb$
sect. 1

4-J-J-30

ea primo (per cap. 8

Lib. I.) copulato, et

V$2<T3b$+3$

2ty+I+5<lS+V$8l3b$
sect.

4$+3a

deinde ea (per cap. 7

et

8 Lib.

I.) abbreviata faciunt

Exemplum

substractionis.

Ex hoc novissimo
substrahantur hsec \X-2'TS^-{-3-J
sect. 1)

primo (per cap. 9 converte copulas et simplices copulato, fientque A/-J18T3&2l^-f-l


:

1^21^ 5+5TS+3-V-?2^ft'8
abbreviate, et fient v^STS^-J
4-

3-g+2fy

ultimo, haec

6-\-5<lQ-\-3a, ut superius.

124

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

CAPUT

III.

DE RADICUM EX SIMPLICIBUS EXTRACTIONE.


1.

OMNE signum purum


Ut OjTS habet

tales et tot

habet in se radices

insitas,

quales

et

quot

sint ejus signi characteres, et praeter eas nullas.

in se radicem quadratam, item cubicam, item

denique quadrati cubicam, et nullam praeterea aliam.

2.

Omne

signum mixtum

tales et tot

habet radices

insitas, quales et

quot fuerint in singulis diversis suis positionibus characteres communes


alias. repetitae, et nullas praeterea

Ut O-^TSjJa^^ habet insitas radices quadratam, quia tarn in prima quam secunda positione ejus reperitur signum $, item -cubicam eadem ratione, item denique quadrati cubicam ; et
praeterea nullam, veluti nee supersolidam, quia Jl

non reperitur

inter signa secundae positionis ejus exempli, nee quadrati

quad

ratam, quia

-J-J

non reperitur

inter signa prioris positionis ejus-

dem
3.

exempli.

Ex

signo puro radicem insitam extrahere, est

numerum

ordinis

signi puri per

numerum

ordinis qualitatis radicis dividere, et quotientis

signum ordinis notare. Ut sit extrahenda radix cubica ex


est 6,

0-jTS,

numerus ordinis

$"7S
fit

quae divisa per

numerum

ordinis cubici, viz., per 3,

quotiens 2, cujus signum ordinis est

fit

ergo

0^

radix cubica
;

hujus 0-jTS

sic

ejusdem 0-$TS radix quadrata

est 073

item

ejusdem radix quadrati cubica est Ofy.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
4.

125

quum (per praBmissuis ex diversis radix talis extrahitur. singulis sam) positionibus Ut sit extrahenda radix cubica ex O-jTS/Sfl-J-jTS : primo, (per
prsecedentem) ex 0-J ^/? extrahatur radix cubica, eaque erit O%/?; deinde extrahatur (per eandem) radix cubica ex a-j-JlS, eaque
1

Ex

signo mixto radix aliqua insita extrahitur

erit

a--J

unde
Sic

et tota radix

cubica hujus O-^ISjta^TS erit

exempli radix quadrata erit hsec, item ejusdem radix quadrati cubica erit O^a-j.

ejusdem

5.

Si simplicis totius radix qusevis extrahenda

sit, ej usque

simplicis
et

non solum absolutus numerus complectatur talem radicem, sed

signum

positivum ejus talem habeat (per sect. 1 et 2, hujus) sibi insitam ; tune extrahe radicem illam ex numero, eique ascribe radicem illam signi
retento priori (si

quod

fuit) radicali.
:

extrahenda radix cubica ex 64-^t3 primo, radix cubica numeri absoluti erit 4, deinde radix cubica signi -JTS erit -J, per 1 hujus ; tota ergo radix cubica horum 64-jTS erit 4-J : item
sit

Ut

eorundem 64^T3 radix quadrata


quadrati cubica erit

erit 8TS

item eorundem radix

2^

simili

modo

et radix

quadrata hujus

Vl39%a$J!

est

WStyaJ].
Corollarium.

quod simplices habentes talem radicem insitam, qualem suum


6.
fit

Hinc

et in

numero

et in signis positivis

vel totale vel particulare radicale


et

indicat, abbreviantur delendo radicale illud,

extrahendo (per prae

cedentem) radicem illam ex reliquo.


Ut,
culare
sit ille

simplex \/-?TS4-Jj0, qui sic abbreviatur


, >

dele parti

radicale

remanet \/7S4-J /?, cujus (per praemissam)


viz.,

extrahe radicem talem,


abbreviationis producto,

quadratam, eaque

erit \/TS2/7

pro

idem valente quod

A/-JTS4-J/.

Item,

126

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
sic

abbreviatur;

dele

totale

radicale

\A$TS,

re-

manet
viz.,

quadrati cubicam,

extrahe talem radicem, 64-$7S, cujus (per praemissam) idem valet ac erit 2fy,

eaque

quae

7. Si simplicis (cujus
et

radix aliqua

sit

extrahenda) et numero absolute

non fuerit insita, tune toti simplici praepone signo positive talis radix signum radicale radicem illam denotans.

Ut
item,

sit

extrahenda radix quadrata hujus

radix cubica
erit

MS
;

sit

\/TS4TS

\AJ4TS item, radix cubica hujus


4-TS,
;

ea

sit

\ATS3fy

item, radix quadrata

horum

4-Ja erit

CAPUT
i

IV.

DE SIMPLICIUM IN SE MULTIPLICATIONE, ET DE REDUCTIONE.


1.

MULTIPLICARE signum purum


signum ordinis notare.

in se quadrate vel cubice, vel ad

alium ordinem, est utriusque ordinis numeros invicem ducere, et producti

Ut

sit

O
6,
;

(cujus

numerus ordinis

est

2) multiplicandum in se
:)

cubice (cujus cubi numerus ordinis est 3

due ergo 2 in
facit

3, pro-

ducuntur
hujus 0-$

quorum signum

ordinis est -JTS, est ergo 0-jTS cubus

item, 0-^ supersolide in se

ductum

0$JI

item,

in se quadrati-cubice ducta facit

2.

MultipHcare signum mixtum in se ad aliquem ordinem, est signa

singularum positionum in se ad ilium ordinem (per praemissam) ducere.

Ut

sit

0/?a^ in se quadrati-cubice ducenda


Ifl

primo (per

prae-

cedentem 1) due

in se quadrati-cubice, fiet 0-^TS/?, deinde

DE ARTE LOG1STICA.
due a% in
se quadrati-cubice, fiet a%-%<T3, et per consequens
erit

127

totum

quadrat! cubus hujus OJ?a$.

totum simplicem in se multiplicare volueris quadrate, vel cubice, vel ad alium ordinem, primo tarn ejus numerum absolutum
3.

Si ergo

signum (per 1 et 2 hujus) in se ad ilium ordinem due, deinde producti radicem talem extrahe (per cap. 3 sect. 5 et 7)
arithmetice,

quam

ejus

qualem suum radicale

(si

quod

sit)

denotat.
:

Ut

sint 3<T3 in se

quadrate multiplicand!

due ergo 3 in

se

quadrate, per Arithmeticam, et TS in se quadrate (per 1 hujus),


fient 9-^TS

pro vero quadrato trium cuborum.


Item,
*/iQ3}$/,

Item, 2^-

in se

cubice ducta faciunt 8-^^TS.


facit

in se quadrate ducta

\AjS9^.

Item,

sit

\A^2lfyac in

quadrentur 2
(per cap. 3
quse

et Ifytf^c, fientque (per

extrahatur radix
sect.

quam

ducenda; primo 2 hujus) 4-J^-Jc-, cujus radicale indicat, viz., quadrata, ea erit
6 6 Lib.

se quadrate

5) %fya-%c pro vero quadrato hujus \Aj2tyfl-Jc,


facilius (per cap.
sect.
I.)

quidem \A2lfytf^c etiam

deleto radicali quadratur.

4. Si simplices dissimiliter radicati,

ad

similia radicalia sint reducendi,

uniuscujusque partem rationalem toties (per praecedentem) in se due quoties caeterorum dissimilia omnia radicalia indicant, et unicuique producto per se posito, cuncta dissimilia radicalia, una
simili (si

cum communi

et

quod sit) radicali, prsepone. Ut \/TS3^ et /v/-$2l^ sic reducuntur

due

3lfy

in se quadrate,

et 2ty in se cubice, fientque 9*? et 87S

quibus utrumque radi

cale dissimile prsepone, fientque \/^TS9*J et \/-jT38'TS, ejusdem

nempe

radicalis, valoris
sic

Item, A/-J6-J et 2ty

autem ejusdem cujus A/133lfy et \/^2lfy reducuntur ; due 2lfy in se quadrate, quia
:

in priore est hoc radicale V-%, at 6-J

non multiplicantur, quia

128

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
carent radical!
;

fiunt ergo 6-J et 4-J,

quibus illud unicum radi-

cale prsepone, fientque \AJ6-J et \AJ4-J,

ejusdem radicalis
et

et
sic

pneterea ejusdem ordinis actu

Item,

A/^2^6
Sac in

V$1S3ac

reducuntur

due 2-J6 in

se cubice, et

se quadrate, (quia

eorum radicalia
altero

differunt in

cubo

et altero

quadratorum, et in
et 9-$c-J,

quadratorum conveniunt),

fiunt

S^bTS

quibus
et

praepone illud
TS, fient

commune

radicale \X-J>

una cum dissimilibus $

-v/^^TSS^TSiTS et -/$$ 75 9a$c$> ejusdem radicalis, et

valoris pristini.

Exemplum plurium duobus reducendorum.


Sint

hc
:

tria \AJ2-J, \/7S3fy, et

A/^-Jla reducenda ad idem


quadrati-cubice,
altero

radicale

due primo

2-J

in

se

non autem

quadrati quadrati
venit
.fiet

cubice
ultimo,

(quia in

quadratorum con-

primum cum

non autem in reliquo quadrato),

ergo primum,

cum

suis radicalibus dictis, A/-?

7564^^75

secundum autem

simili ratione

ductum quadrati-quadrate,

faciet

suum productum, cum radicalibus debitis, A/^-jTSSl-J-J; tertium denique ductum cubice tantum et adhibitis suis radicalibus fiet
-v/^TSlaTS q U8e q u idem sic de reliquis.
.

tria sunt

ejusdem jam radicalis

et

Corollarium.
dissimiliter radicati ejusdem reductionem fiunt ejusdem ordinis actu ; per autem videlicet non, quidam quorum alterum majoris, alterum minoris
5.

Hinc sequitur quod quidam simplices

ordinis potentia dicti,

ordinis fiunt.

Ut

in superioribus exemplis A/-J6-J et 2fy sunt

ejusdem ordinis

potentia, quia reducti constituunt \/-J6-5 et A/-J4-J, qui (per

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
cap. 1 sect. 18 Lib. II.) sunt ejusdem ordiriis actu
et A/^2lfy
;

129

at

reducti

constituunt \A^1S9^ et \X^TS87S,


est altioris seu majoris ordinis,

quorum
alterum

alterum,

viz.,

V^TSSTS

vero -v/TSQ-

est minoris.

CAPUT

V.

DE POSITIVORUM MULTIPLICATIONE GENERALI.


MULTIPLICARE signa ejusdem positionis invicem est numeros ordinum eorum signorum addere, et signum ordinis producti numeri
1.

notare.

Ut
et afiQ

sit

multiplicandum Qa-% per 0073, numeri ordinum # sunt 2 et 3, quse addita faciunt 5, quorum signum
;

ordinis est afi


in OcfTS.

est

ergo Qafl productum multiplications


0#TS, facit

Oa%
OJJ

Sic Ob

ductum per

Ob$$.

Item

0-^

per

2.

Multiplicare signa pura diversarum positionum invicem, est ipsa

signa simul connexa scribere, praeposito semper signo primae positionis


(si

quod

sit)

ante reliqua.
sit

multiplicandum Oa$ per Oi'TS, producetur 0^&TS, cujus pronuntiatio, quum numerum habet ut 6a-%blS, est ha3C, 6a-%
ducta per IblQ.
Item,

Ut

Oa^ per

OTS non producit


;

0^TS

sed

OTS^,
sic

pra3posito signo prima3 positionis

quod quidem Ot3#^


secundae
sic

pronuntiatur, tot seu nulli cubi primae positionis ducti in


secundae.

unum quadratum
tantum
nuntiatur,

At contra, 0^TS ex toto est


1

positionis (ut ex

Tabula cap.

hujus patet), et

pro

unum a

quadrati cubicum.

130

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Hinc
sequitur,

3.

ex signis puris diversarum positionum invicem

ductis produci mixta.

Ut

in

exemplo superiore, purum


;

()

per

purum ObTS ductum


cap. 1 sect. 14) est

producit Oa-$fr, per prsecedentem

quod (per

mixtum.

Mixta etiam, quatenus communicant invicem positiones, per sectionem primam hujus multiplicantur quatenus autem sunt diversarum
4.
;

secundam hujus. positionum, multiplicantur per Ut Ofya-$ per OTS ductum facit 0^-J7S

ductis

nempe (per

hujus) similibus positionibus invicem, viz. Ofy per OT3, et # per ductum per aTQ fit (per 2 TS ; et rursus #, fient 0-J-J et

hujus) O^-JaTS.

Item, Ofy0-

per

O^b ductum
per

facit

O^a^b

quia Ofy per OT5 facit


,

0-J-J, et 0-J-J

a-% facit

(per 2 hujus)

et 0-J-Jr/^

per Ob

facit

(per eandem 2)

5.

JSi

simplices invicem ducendi

sint

primo,

fiant

consimiliter

radicati, saltern

per reductionem (cap. 4 sect. 4) ; deinde, due utriusque numeros absolutos invicem ; tertio, due ad invicem signa positiva per

jam dicta

numeri signique producti radicem talem extrahe qualem indicat suum radicale, (per cap. 3) et huic tandem prsepone debitam copulam, (per cap. 6 Lib. I.)
;

quarto,

Ut

2a-J per 5aT3 ducta faciunt lOo/f,


qfi.

faciunt 10, et a-% per alS facit faciunt 1QTS-?.

quia 2 per 5 ducta Sic 2a-J per 5T ducta


facit

Item,

V$2tya$

per

V$8fy ducta
et

4tya

productum

quia ductis numeris invicem,

signis invicem,

fiunt 16-Ja-J,

quorum radix quam


Item,
sint

indicat radicale, viz. radix

quadrata, est 4fya.

ducenda 2fya per


;

\/%3ab

primo per reductionem fiant 4/<4<ga-$, et \/-%3ab ductis numeris invicem, et signis positivis invicem, fiunt

deinde

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
quorum radix quadrata cum
pro multiplicationis producto.
debita copula est

131

\AJ12^aTS&,

6.

Si compositi

ad invicem ducendi
;

sint

singulos multiplicandi

simplices due in singulos multiplicands

productum autem per commen7, sect.

surabilium additionem et substractionem abbrevia, modo, quo pluri-

nomia ducuntur
sect. 1

et abbreviantur,

per cap.

et 8

et cap. 10,

Lib.

I.

Ut
,

sint multiplicanda

2a^-}V-3fy Zfya

4 per

due simplices singulos

in singulos, fientque

inde per abbreviationem fiunt

CAPUT

VI.

DE SITU ET COLLOCATIONE SIMPLICIUM COMPOSITI.


1.

INTERVALLUM ordinum
radicalis,

est differentia inter ordines

simplicium

ejusdem

qua numerus majoris ordinis exsuperat numerum


v/TS2^, intervallum est
-J

minoris ordinis proxime sequentis.

Ut

in hoc composito V'tjSty

quia

numerus

ordinis fy est

1,

et

numerus ordinis

est 2,

quorum

differentia est 1.

Item in hoc

similiter radicato */%3T3-t-V-$%fy

s/^5, intervallum inter \/^37S et \/^2lfy est 2, quia differentia


inter

numeros ordinum eorum


numeri simplicis
erit 1.

est 2.

Sic intervallum inter A/^#Ify


Ify

et -v/^5 est 1, quia

enim numerus ordinis


est
;

est 1,

et

numerus

ordinis

eorum ergo

differentia seu inter

vallum

,32

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Simplex
fictus

2.

est nihil, seu 0, alicujus ordinis

ornatum

signis

radicalibus et positivis illius ordinis. Ut simplex fictus ordinis cubici est OTSordinis quadrati est 0-j.

Item simplex

fictus

aliquorum cuborum est solidorum est pro radice cubica super

Item simplex fictus pro radice quadrata Item simplex fictus ponendus \AJ0TS.

3.

Intervalla

redduntur eadem,

cum

(per

1,

2,

et

3 Lib. VII.

Euclidis,)
vallo

maxima communis mensura dividens ilia capitur, atque interad minimum progrediuntur simhujus mensurae a maximo ordine
\/^3TS-|-\/^2^ v/^5 sunt (per 1 hujus,) duo diversa intervalla, viz. 2 et 1, quorum 2 et 1 maxima communis mensura, ex Euclide Lib. VII. prop. 1, est
unitas
viz.
:

aut (ubi veri desunt) ficti. plices veri,

Ut

in hoc superiore exemplo,

hac ergo unitate tanquam intervallo a

maximo
:

ordine,

a \AJ3T3 progredere ad

minimum,

viz. -S/-J5

hoc modo,
fit

substrahe a numero ordinis hujus -s/^375 unitatem,


fictus simplex,

V-%0-%

quia verus deest.

Item ex numero ordinis hujus

\/-$Oj aufer
ordinis aufer

1, fit
1,

ordo hujus \Aj2fy ; ex cujus denique numero fit ordo minimus, viz. hujus \A$5. Sic ergo

collocabis simplices prafati exempli V^3lQ-\-\/ -jOj-rV j2ty

\/^5, et omnia intervalla erunt eadem.

Item in hoc ITS


per

31$

6
fit

maxima etiam mensura communis


hsec progressio

est 1,

quam unitatem

iTS-fO-J

3fy

6,

et

erunt intervalla eadem.

Item in hoc A/TSl-jTS v/TS3fy-f\/TS8 erunt intervalla diversa, viz. 5 et 1, quorum unitas adhuc erit communis mensura. Sic
ergo (facta per substractionem unitatis progressione,) collocabis ordines \/7Sl^7SH-\/TSQ^H-^TSO-J-J-f-\/TSOTS+\/ TSO-J v/7S3l^
(

-I-N/7S8.

valla

et

Item in hoc */TS2j(ffl+VlS3fl v/TSlOl^ erunt inter 4, et communis mensura 6 et 4 est binarius ; facto

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
igitur progressu per binarium, hie erit situs,

133

+A/TSQ$?+A/TS3/?-f A/TSOTS
sunt, viz. binario constant.

v/7Sl(Xfy,

quorum

intervalla

eadem

4.

Ut ergo

simplices compositorum recte collocentur


radicati, per cap. 4, sect.

primo, fiant

omnes consimiliter

deinde, qua3 ejusdem

sunt ordinis simul ponuntur, et qui majores sunt ordines minoribus

anteponuntur

tertio,

omnia

intervalla fiant (per praBcedentem)

eadem

ultimo, simplices abbreviabiles (si libet,) abbreviare poteris per hujus


cap. 3, sect. 6.

Ut 2

N/TSSfy+l^-fVTS^lS
et

facta
;

ejusdem

radicalis,

fient

V^8

v/1S3ty+\/<TSl^TS+\/lS2'5TS

deinde, prsepositis majori-

bus ordinibus,

simul positis

eis

qui ejusdem sunt ordinis, fient


;

\/TS2-5TS-h\/1Sl-lS

A/7S3fy+\/TS8

tertio,

factis

intervaUis

eisdem

fient

A/TS2-$TS

+ A/TSl-jTS+\/lSQA+\/TSO^-J+A/7SO7S
;
r

+\/TSO^
fientque
3l^-|-2.

v/TS3^-f\/TS8

ultimo, hsec (si libet) abbreviabis,

WZiTS + !? +V TSQ/?+\/TSO-J'?-|-Ol^-}-A/TSO?
Item eisdem rationibus
l-^-|-\/^2lfy

VlS

3 recte
de

sic collo-

cantur,

l^-fV-?OT5+Ol^+A/'j2^

et sic

cseteris.

5.

Hinc

collocati,

quod compositorum simplices recte, per prsecedentem, ordinem servant proportionalem singuli scilicet intermedii
;

fit

simplicis

quadratum ejusdem
fit

erit ordinis (potentia saltern,) cujus fuerit

productum quod
ducto.

ex proxime praecedente in proxime subsequentem

Ut
iiii

in

hoc ultimo exemplo, prsecedente


v

A/-?2l^

3,

quadratum secundi
Item quadratum
etiam
0-J,

est O?S,

et

due
et

1-J

in 01^,

fit

etiam O7S.
,

tertii

erit 0-^,

due -s/^OTS in Item quad-

fit

seu (quod idem est) A/-JO-J-J.

134

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
rat inn

quarti erit 2fy, ct


:

sunt ejusdem ordinis


tionates dicuntur.

due Ofy in 3, fit Ofy ; atque 2fy et OR unde in similibus ordines semper propor

6.

Hinc etiam sequitur (quum minores ordines posterius


est nullius

colloceritur)

numerum simplicem et absolutum (quia ultimo omnium loco collocandum.

positivi

ordinis)

In compositis mixtis vel plurium positionum, quot fuerint positiones diversae, tot aggregati positionum characteres ponuntur pro rebus,
7.

seu rerum ordine, ac tot etiam rerum characteres in


ducti, et aggregati, faciunt
illi

se,

et

invicem

ordinem integrum quadratorum, ac singuli


et sic

characteres rerum in singulos hos quadratorum ducti, et aggregati,

faciunt integrum

ordinem cuborum,

deinceps in infinitum.
duae sunt positiones diversae,

Ut
viz.
.

in 1-J
;

Ify+ld'Q+la
igitur

18,

R et a
!$

Ify-f-la pro ordine uno, viz.


ty-\-a in se, fient

rerum ponitur.

Item due (per cap. 5,)


igitur

+
18.

Qlfya-\-la$, licet sint tres simplices, efficiunt

Ofy-{~, atque unicum


illius

tantum ordinem, quadratorum nempe.


hie situs rectus

Est ergo

compositi

1J

Ofya-j-la-^

Ify-fla

Simili ratione

ordo cubicus hujus exempli esset hie.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

135

CAPUT

VII.

DE DIVISIONE.
DIVIDERE signum purum majus per minus signum, ejusdem positionis, est signum ordinis interval!! eorundem post numerum simplicem,
1.

aut post ejus numeratorem, collocare.

dividendum OaTS per Oa-% ; signum intervalli est afy, quod post locum saltern numeri simplicis colloca, vel post ejus
sit

Ut

numeratorem, ut
sionis.

libet,

fitque Oalfy, vel


fit

^,

pro quotiente divi-

Item

O/?

per 073

quotiens 0-J, vel

^.
positionis, est

2.

Dividere signum
intervalli

purum minus per majus ejusdem


simplicis fracti

signum

eorundem post numeri

denominatorem

collocare, et quotiens

semper erit fractio. Ut sit dividendum OaQ per OalS ; signum intervalli est a, quod post locum saltern denominatoris numeri simplicis colloca, fitque
pro quotiente fracto. tientem --.

Item 015 per

O/?

divisum

facit

quo-

signum dividendum superscribere, (viz. post numeratorem numeri simplicis fracti,)


et

3.

Dividere signum

purum per

alterius positionis signum, est

signum dividens subscribere,

(viz. post

ejusdem denominatorem,)

et

quotiens semper erit fractio.

Ut

sit OflTS

per 0-J dividendum,


fit

fit

quotiens

^.

Item

sit 0-$

dividendum per OalS,

quotiens

^.

Corollarium.
4.

Hinc

sequitur, in mixtis divisionem debere fieri per sect. 1 et 2,

136

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
;

quatenus communicant positions


sect. 3. positionum, per

quatenus autem sunt diversarum

Ut
per

sit

OTSrt^

0-J, fit Ofy.

dividendum per 0-ja ; divide (per sect. 1) OTS Item a$ per a, fit a ; fit ergo totus quotiens
OjS

Ofya.

Item 07Sa-$ per Ojb dividitur hoc modo, 0^ per


fit

dividatur (per sect. 2,) et


sect.

^.

Item,

a$

dividatur per b (per

3) et

fit

-^

fit

ergo pro
fit

toto quotiente

^.

Item

sit

Ob$c

per Obc-% dividendum,

quotiens g$.

5.

Ex omni

integro

fit

fractio

ejusdem valoris subscribendo unitatem,

et

interponendo lineam. Ut 5 sunt numerus integer, et ex eo


est integra, et

fit

fractio.

Item \/TS7

ex ea

fit

^p-

fractio.

ergo simplex per simplicem dividendus fuerit ; primo, fiant consimiliter radicati, (per cap. 4, sect. 4 ;) deinde, divide numerum
6. Si

simplicem dividend! per

numerum simplicem

divisoris

tertio,

(per
;

jam

dicta,) divide signum positivum dividendi per signum divisoris

quarto,

numeri signique pro quotiente producti radicem talem extrahe, qualem indicat suum radicale, (per cap. 3,) et huic tandem praepone debitam
copulam, per cap. 6 Lib.
I.

Ut 12&TS
sint \/-$20/?

sint

dividenda per
6-^, fit

3-

divide 12 per 3, fiunt 4


4>b.

et divide b'TQ

per

erit

ergo totus quotiens


;

Item

dividenda per A/^87S


,

divide

numerum
et
fit
.

per nu

merum,
ergo

fit

et divide

signum per signum,

Ex

his

$, seu

^,

seu 2^-$, (quaB per 1 hujus


;

eadem

sunt,) extrahe

radicem quadratam
quotiente
;

ea erit

^^
sit

seu \X-Jf-J, seu

\/^2^
I.

pro

suntque haec eadem, per cap. 4, sect.


sit

4 Lib.

Item,

e converse,

dividenda ViS'TS per v^20/?,


Item,

erit quotiens

seu

rectius

V$%%.

dividenda

\/-$l2-$a!5b

per

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
divide numeros et signa ut dictum
est,
fiet

137

4^^,
2fy#

quorum
per
et

radix

pro quotiente,

quam cum sua


:

indicat radicale, viz. quadrata, est

debita copula.

Item, sint 4l^


sic,

dividenda

*/%$BfaQ
\/^2lfya^
fit
;

primo, fiant ejusdem radicalis,


deinde, illius et

\/^l6-J0^

numerum

et

signum per hujus


debita copula,

divide, et
est

8lfy,

quorum

radix quadrata,

cum

v/-?8lfy

pro quotiente.

7-

Hie observandum, quod


fieri
si

si

quotiens signorum positivorum fuerit

(per 2 et 3 hujus) fractio, et quotiens iiumeri absoluti fuerit integer, ex

hoc integro

debet (per 5 hujus) fractio.


sint

Ut
num,
seu
i,

12TS dividenda per

3ft
;

divide

numerum

per

numerum,
fit

fiunt 4,

numerus integer
;

fractio,
fiet
fit

nempe ^, seu quotiens

signum per sig atque igitur ex integris 4,


sint

et divide

et

totus

Item

I5b$c per 5bc%


fiat fractio

dividenda,

quotiens numeri divisionis 3 integer, et quotiens


b

signorum

5?,

seu

quse fractio
,

est,

atque igitur ex 3

et fiet totus quotiens

et

non

3*

nee

j|.

8.

Si compositus per simplicem dividendus fuerit,

divide

(per

jam

dicta)

quamvis particulam simplicem compositi per hunc simplicem

divisorem, et quotientis simplices debitis copulis connecte.

Ut

sint 12-J
;

\/-<2-+6 dividenda per Zfy


item divide
-|-6

divide 12-J per

2fy, fiunt 6fy

\/^
^
;

per 21^, fiunt quibus copulatis

V$%
fit

',

denique divide
quotiens

per 21^, fiunt

totus

compositum unius ordinis sit dividendum quippiam dividendum per 2lfy \/^3^, fac ut cap. 11, sect. 2 Lib. I.)
(Si per

&c., ut sit

138

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
compositus per compositum plurium ordinum dividendus fuerit
:

9. Si

6 sect. 4) prime, utriusque compositi simplices situ recto (per cap. collocentur ; deinde simplicem maximi ordinis dividend! per simpliceni

maximi

ordinis divisoris divide, (per

primus quotientis ; Ex his toto dividendo aufer, reliquias nota, delete csetero dividendo. reliquiis conficito alium dividendum, ex quo, eodem quo prius modo,
alium quotientis simplicem, aliasque forsan reliquias, producito, donee

6 hujus,) et producetur simplex per hunc multiplica totum divisorem, productum ex

tandem aut
constent
collide et
suis,
sint.

nihil relinquitur dividendi, aut reliquiae saltern paucioribus

ordinibus

proportionalibus

quam

divisor

quibus peractis,

connecte singulas dictas particulas quotientis

cum

copulis
si

et fiet quotiens totalis,

observatis etiam reliquiis ultimis

quaB

Ut

sint
:

l^+71-+12a_154fy

147S dividenda per


:

primo, (per cap. 6,) recte collocentur hoc situ

Deinde divide

1-J-J

per
;

1-J,

fit

quotiens 1J, quod apud hemi-

cyclum nota, ut supra


sorem,
fit

per hunc quotientem due totum divi


qua3 ex toto dividendo substrahe
;

inde

5TS+6-,

relinquentur
caeteris

975+65-? hac forma


:

154^+120

haec igitur nota, deletis

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Has
fiet

139

reliquias per
:

eundem divisorem modo quo

prius divide, et

hie situs

IQOfi

+6+6
prius

Has denique
situs
:

reliquias

eodem quo

modo

divide, et fiet hie

+6
9fy+20,
et novissimae reliquiae

Quotiens ergo

totalis est !

nullae supersunt.

Aliud exemplum unico typo expressum, in quo ITS

11 -$+401$

36

dividitur per Ity

4.

12

-Zi
ITS

11^+40^36
4

( !

7^+12

pro quotiente

totali.

Et jam ultimo supersunt


divisor Ify
4.

12, pauciores habentes ordines

quam

I4 o

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
non
fuerit integre seu totaliter (viz. sine residue

10. Si dividendus

ultimo,) divisibilis

per divisorem,

tune subscribendo divisorem sub


colloca, aut si

residue

fiat fractio,

quam apud quotientem


exemplo,
l

mavis sub toto

dividendo subscribe divisorem.

Ut

in

superiore

erit

quotiens

verus

1-j

7fy
ille

_}-12-t|i, aut si

mavis *~"$!^~* ; fitque hoc quia divisor et sine residue dividere. nequit dividendum integre,

CAPUT

VIII.

DE RADICUM EX COMPOSITIS EXTRACTIONE.


1.

Si

compositi radix quadrata fuerit extrahenda, compositus


sect.

ille

primo recte (per cap. 6

4) collocetur

deinde, ex

maximi

ordinis

simplice vel simplicibus (per cap. 3 sect. 5 et 7>) radicem


extrahe,

quadratam

quam apud hemicyclum


ordinis dele, nullo,
si

pro quotiente constitue, et ilia simplicia


possis,

maximi

relicto residue.

Secundo, per

totius quotientis

duplum divide primam partem compositi remanentem


si

(per cap. 7 sect. 9), nullo,

poteris, relicto residue.

Hujus
ej usque

divisionis

quotientem

novum

post prafatum quotientem scribe,

novi quadsecunnullse

ratum ex dicta parte superstite

aufer, notatis reliquiis.

Hocque

dum

opus

tertio,

quarto, saepiusque repete, donee

tandem aut

supersint reliquiae, et tune totus quotiens

cum

copulis suis erit vera

radix insita qua^sita, aut

si

aliquae

quam

paucissimse supersint reliquiae,

tune dictus quotiens radix proiima dicitur, et non vera.

ex composito hoc x/j475+l-$ \A$576fy+144 23fy extrahenda radix quadrata primo, recte locentur simplices,
sit
:

Ut

hoc

situ

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
deinde ex primo,
viz.

HI

ex

extrahe radicem veram, ea erit

pro

quotiente, et relinquentur caster a,

hoc

situ

secundo, per quotientis duplum,

viz.

per

2lfy

seu \A?4-

divide

primam partem
et reliquiae

reliqui, viz. A/-J4T3, fiet

novus quotiens
restabunt

-f-A/-JlI^

23lfy

\AJ576I^-|-144, ex quibus aufer hujus novi

quotientis

quadratum, hoc situ quotiens


:

quod

est

ll^,

reliquiae

et

Adhuc
viz.

repete hoc

secundum opus, nempe per


fiet

quotientis duplum,
superi12, et

per 2lfy-{-A/^4lfy divide partem


viz.

primam reliquiarum
novissimus quotiens

orum,

24lfy

\/-j576I^,

reliquia3 +144, ex quibus aufer novissimi quotientis quadratum, viz. 144, et nihil relinquitur, ut hoc situ patet
:

Unde
restat.

patet

quod

l!fy-|-A/-JlIfy

12 sunt vera radix quadrata

insita hujus compositi suprascripti, quia nihil post extractionem

Aliud exemplum.

Ex
primo,

/s/754-J
fiat

N/TSl6I^
:

sit

extrahenda radix quadrata

hie situs

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Secundd,
fiat

hie situs

9
8

Unde

patet

quod x/1S2fy
9.

est

proxima

et

non vera radix


8,

quadrata hujus compositi \XTS4-$


reliquiae, viz.

v/TSlGR

quia restant

Exemplum plurium
Ex
l-$

positionum.
lfl

+ 2fya + 10-$ + lfy +


Primo,
fiat

110

sit

extrahenda radix
:

quadrata.

hie situs, (per cap. 6 prop. 7)

Secundo,

fiat

hie situs

Tertio,

fiat

hie situs

110J 110

1^+la-f J
proxima.

pro radice

Aliud exemplum plurium positionum.


Sit ex

hie situs

l-^+Gfya 7 extrahenda radix quadrata. (per cap. 6 prop. 7)


:

Primo,

fiat

-9a$ L+6B0+Ofl.J
Secundo,
fiat

7 7
(

1R

hie situs

lfy+3a pro

radice proxima.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Exemplum
Sit
rata.
difficile

143

unius positionis.

ex

-V/-J8-J fiat

6fy+8+\/-32 extrahenda
:

radix quad-

Primo,

hie situs

l$^/$8$
Secundo,
fiat

hie situs

pro
radice proxima.

Sextum exemplum.

Ex
rata.

1-g

Ofya-\-Ia-%
fiat

1^+1

18

sit

extrahenda radix quad-

Primo,

hie situs, per cap. 6 prop.

7
(

'

Secundo

Ofya+la$

1^+la

18

Ify

la

Tertio, fiat hie situs

+2fy
1^

Qfig+l^

Ifi+lg

18J 18

(l^_

2.

Si compositi radix cubica fuerit extrahenda, compositus

ille

primo

recte (per cap. 6 sect. 4) collocetur

(per cap. 3

sect.

deinde ex maximi ordinis simplice ; 5 et 7) radicem cubicam extrahe, quam apud hemiet ilium

cyclum pro quotiente constitue,

simplicem maximi ordinis dele.

Secundo, per tria quadrata totius quotientis divide primam partem non deletam compositi (per cap. 7 sect. 9), deletis divisis, nota reliquias.

Hujus

divisionis quotientem

novum

post

primum quotientem

scribe,

144

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
novi tria quadrata ducta in

H usque

ex dictis reliquiis aufer, et iterum repete, donee tandem aut Hocque secundum opus iterum atque
nulhe supersint reliquiae, et tune totus quotiens cum copulis suis erit vera radix insita qusesita ; aut si aliquae quam paucissimae supersint
reliquiae,

primum antecedentem quotientem ex eisdem aufer cubum novi, reliquiis notatis.

tune dictus quotiens dicitur radix proxima, et non vera. Ut, sit sequentis compositi extrahenda radix cubica, qui
:

sic

prim6 recte collocetur

viz.

extrahitur ex 1-JTS radix cubica, quae est

1-J,

quod pro

Secundo, per tria quadrata quotientis, viz. per 3^-J, divide 12/7, fiet novus quotiens +4>fy deletis 12/?, hoc
quotiente ponitur.
situ
:

Deinde, hujus novi quotientis


,in

+4^
in

tria quadrata, viz.


fient

48-, due

priorem quotientem,

viz.

!,

48^-^, quae aufer ex

()(>$$ &c., restant -f-12-j^-f l6OTS-f 240-J-j- 1921^+64,

ex quibus

etiam reliquiis aufer

cubum horum

-f-4fy,

qui est 64TS, restant


:

hoc

situ

--Tertio, repete

secundum opus,

viz.

per tria quadrata quotientis,

qua? sunt 3^^-j-247S4-48-J,

divide

primam partem dictarum


:

reliquiarum, fient quotiens et reliquiae ut infra

4.

3-^4- 2475+48^

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Deinde, hujus novissimi quotientis in to turn antecedentem quotientem,
tria quadrata, viz. 48,
viz. in

145

due

l^+4lfy, fient 48-5


aufer,

+19fy,
restant

qua3 ex reliquiis

illis,

viz.

ex

48^+192^+64

+64, ex quibus aufer etiam +64,

cubum
:

novissimi quotientis,

qui

est

et nihil restat, ut sequitur

64^

pro radice
48-2

+ 3$$+

24TS+

cubica vera.

48^+1921^+64

Aliud exemplum.
Sit sequentis compositi

extrahenda radix cubica, qui

sic

primo

collocetur

ITS

lO-J+311^
:

30

Secundo,

sic

- w+
1T5

disponatur

W
30
(

10-J+ 311^

Ify

3J pro radice cubica proxima,


vera, propter reliquias

non autem
extantes.

3.

Si compositi radicem

veram extrahere

volueris, qui
ei

tamen radicem

veram insitam non habuerit, sed proximam tantum,


signum
universale, et fiet

composite praepone

inde radix obscura vera.


praBfato, viz.

Ut ex secundo exemplo quadratorum


sit

ex
erit

extrahenda radix vera quadrata, ea

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Item,
sit

ex ITS

lO?+Slty

-30 extrahenda radix cubica

vera, ea erit

-v/TS.lTSlO? +31^30.

Radices autem quadrati quadratas, supersolidas, et cseteras supeturn quia ex dictis considerari riores, turn quia rarissimi sunt usus, possunt, omittimus.
4.

Ut

si sit

cubi sic

extrahenda radix quadrati quadrata, earn per regulam * emendatam extrahe. Prime, pro radicem cubicam
*

extrahe,' lege,
*

radicem quadrati quadratam extrahe.'


*

Secundo,
*

pro

tria quadrata,' lege,

quatuor cubos.'

Tertio, pro

tria
*

sex quadrata ducta in primum antecedentem quotientem,' lege, et quadrata ducta in quadratum primi antecedentis quotientis quatuor cubos novi ductos in primum antecedentem quotientem,'
etc.

Quarto, pro

cubum

'

novi,'

lege,

quadrati quadratum

novi.'

Et

sic

emendata regula ad quadrati quadratam radicem


inserviet.

extrahendam

At

vero

si

pro supersolida radice extrahenda regulam emen*

dare volueris, pro


'

cubicam,' lege,

'

supersolidam,' et pro
*

tria

quinque quadrati quadrata,' et pro tria quad decem rata ducta in primum antecedentem quotientem,' lege,
quadrata,' lege,
*

quadrata ducta in

cubum primi

antecedentis quotientis, et

decem

cubos novi ductos in quadratum antecedentis, et quinque quad


rati

quadrata novi in
*

primum antecedentem
*

quotientem,' etc.
'

Et pro cubum novi,' lege, supersolidum novi ; et simili modo, ad omnes superiores radices extrahendas, poterint constitui
regulse.

Exemplum

regulae quadrati quadratae.


(

la+lb pro vera radice


cubica.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Exemplum
regulae supersolidae.
(

147

la/l+5a$$b+WaT3bi+IO$b<13 +5b$$a+UJ?

la+lb

vera radix

supersolida.

5.

Patet itaque ex praemissis quod aliquae extractionum reliquiae nulla


et hae reliquiae
totae

habent signa positiva,

formales dicuntur

aliae

reliquiae habent, et hae totae informales dicuntur.

4 extractionis quadratae, reliquiae omnes priorum operum sunt informales, eorundem autem exemplorum
in exemplis 2, 3, et

Ut

novissimaB reliquiae sunt

numerus

atque ideo formales dicuntur,

Exemplis vero 5
dicuntur.

et

6 quadratae,

et

2 cubicae

reliquiae

omnes, turn
informales

primae turn novissimae,

eo quod positivis

scatent,

Informatium reliquiarum quaedam sunt formabiles, quaedam reformabiles,

quaedam prorsus deformes

et irreformabiles.

Ut exemplis proxime subsequentibus


6.

patebit.

quibus secunda pars regulae extrac tionis exerceri possit, reliquias inde nullas, aut prioribus minus infor

Formabiles sunt reliquiae

cum

males reddentes.

Ipsumque opus secundae

partis regulae extractionis

Conformatio dicitur.

Ut

in exemplis omnibus

superioribus, et quadrati et cubi,

reliquiae

omnes

praeter novissimas dicuntur formabiles, quia per

solam secundam partem regulae extractionis conformantur, et


reliquiae novissimae inde

minus informales exsurgent.


diviseris

per compositum aliquod aequale nihilo (seu per aequationem ad 0), et hinc extantes
7.

Reformabiles sunt reliquiae quas

si

148

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
ad
aequationem,
si

recentiores reliquias per aliam atque aliam


sit,

opus

diviseris

extabunt tandem reliquiae aut

nullae,

aut formales, aut

et formabiles, iUseque aequationes Reformatrices vocabuntur,

ipsum opus

dividend! lleformatio dicetur.

Exemplum.

Ex

1-J

Ofya+la-^

Ify-f-la

proxima, (quod supra, exemplo 6, et reliquiae erunt informales, viz.

18 extrahatur radix quadrata la J-, et erit radix Ify fit,)

+2fya

10, quod nihilo exempli gratia, compositum hoc Ifyz+lfy illas reliquias, et exsurgent reliquiae aequetur; per hoc divide 6 hujus sunt formabiles ; quae, quia per prop.

18^ la

detur autem,

2fy_j-20-|_lJ,

ideo reliquiae

+%$<*
la

18

dicuntur reformabiles, et composi


et

tum Ifya+lfy
dicentur.
.

10 reformatrix,

opus ipsum reformatio

Aliud exemplum.
Item ex l-$+4fya-f

!$

4fy6

4ab+ 4^+4l^-f-4a

Sb

61

extrahatur radix quadrata, eaque erit lfy-|-la-26-f2, et reliquiae


erunt
Ifyfl

+2fyo
\ab

65 informales.
Ib
5,

Detur autem aequatio ad


divide
illas reliquias, et

0, quae sit

exsurgent nee formales formabiles nee 55, quae, quia reliquiae +2a6-j-26 aliam debent dividi, exempli gratia, sunt, per aequationem ad
per
per 2ab
Sty
3a-j-86 21, et exsurgent reliquiae 3fy-|-3a

quam

66

34, quae, quia formabiles sunt (respectu, viz. praefatae radicis

proximae, viz. Ify-j-lo


reliquiae 2ab-\-2b

26-J-2), ideo et reliquiae

%tya

65, et

Ifyo

la&

16

55 reformabiles dicuntur, atque et compositum 21 sunt 5, et compositum 2a6 3fy 3a-f86

reformatrices aequationes.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
8.

149

Ut

igitur reliquiae informales fiant formales,


;

conformabiles conet

formabis (per 6 prop, hujus)


reliquias
fuerint,

et reformabiles (per 7,) reformabis,


si

omnium
est,

novissimas notabis, quae

aut nullae aut formales

bene

tune enim quotientes omnes conformationum copulandae

et abbreviandae sunt, et erunt radix

proxima reformata

quotientes vero

reformationum inutiles semper,

et spernendse sunt.
llfy

Ut exempli penultimi radix quadrata proxima erat


et

la

quia reformabiles sunt (per la 10 reformato, prop. 7) per reformatricem suam Hfya-fll^
reliquiae

-{-Qfya

18^,

quas,

et spreto quotiente exsurgent reliquiae

2ty-f2a-{-lf , quae quia


et

formabiles sunt (per 7) conformato,

exsurgent reliquiae for


1
1

males notandae,

viz.

-}-f

et

quotiens conformationis
fiet

cum
pro

radice praefata copulatus et abbreviatus

Ity

la

radice proxima reformata.

Item exempli ultimi

reliquiae erant
viz.

per suam reformatricem,

Ifya

primo -J-Slfya 65, quas lab Ib 5 reformato, et

spreto quotiente exsurgent reliquiae 2ab-}-2b

55 ut prop. 7

diximus

quae rursus reformato per aliam reformatricem (ut


viz.

ibidem monuimus,)

per %ab

3lfy

3a-{-8b

21, exsurgent

spreto quotiente reliquiae 3fy-\-3a

6b

34, quas, quia formabiles


viz.

sunt (per 6 prop.) ad suam radicem proximam,


25-J-2, conformabis, et erit tota radix
-|-lfl

ad

25+^2-, et reliquiae
formales.

proxima reformata & sive novissimae notandse sunt

9.

At

si

defectu reformatricium post ultimam conformationem exstent

reliquiae informales, hae

deformes aut irreformabiles appellantur.

Ut, novissimae reliquiae exempli 5 et 6 quadratae, et 2 cubicae


extractionis (si nullee occurrant reformatrices,) dicuntur deformes
f

et irreformabiles.

150

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Deformium reliquiarum
et

10.

suarum radicum duae sunt

species,

singulares et plurales,
i

quarum

singulares sunt eae deformes quae habent

in

uin aliquod

simplex et

purum

positivum, aut mixti positivi particulam

iinain in radice,

seu quotiente cui non fuerit aliud simile vel ejusdem

positionis,

nee in quotiente seu radice nee inter reliquias.

Ut radix quadrata hujus 1-%+Gfya


sunt
9fl-J

est lty-{-3a, et reliquiae

7> quae

ideo singulares dicuntur quia in eis non sunt

plures positivi primae positionis uno, qui est Ify.

Item radix
3,

Ifyo la-j-8 quadrata hujus 1-^a-J 6fya in non sunt la 1, quiae quibus signum fy saepius
reperitur.

est

et

reli

quam semel

11.

Plurales dicuntur radices suaeque reliquiae,

quum

uniuscujusque

positionis plures simplices in radice vel inter reliquias reperiuntur.

Ut radix cubica proxima hujus ITS 9-?+36fy 80=0 est 1 fy 53. In quibus primae positionis 3, et reliquiae erunt +9fy lignum fy bis reperitur.
Item radix quadrata proxima hujus 1-J -}-! 18 Ify-f-lo la J-, et reliquiae erunt (deficiente reformatrice,) erit Ify 2tya l&J, ut supra exemplo 6 docuimus, in quibus primae
positionis duae sunt simplices, viz. positionis totidem, viz.

1^

et

2fy#

item secundae

la et

Sunt itaque radicum quatuor formae. Prima est verarum radi cum, secunda est formalium, tertia singularium, quarta pluralium ; quarum extrahendarum usum inferius docebimus.
12.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

151

CAPUT

IX.

DE jEQUATIONIBUS ET SUIS EXPONENTIBUS.


1.

^EQUATIO

est

positivorum incertorum valorum

cum

aliis

sibi

aequalibus collatio, ex qua positionis valor quseritur.

Ut
llfy,

si

quis pro

numero

qusesito aut quantitate qusesita ponens

ejus valorem

ignorans, postea per hypothesin qusestionis

deprehendens 3fy sequari ad 21, conserat tres res sequalibus 21, ea sequalitatis collatio dicitur sequatio
infertur

cum
;

suis

et

hinc

rem unam seu unam positionem

valere 7-

2.

Inter sequationis partes invicem sequales interjicitur linea duplex,

quae signum sequationis dicitur.

Ut 31^21,
uni.

quse sic pronuntiantur, tres res sequales viginti

Item Ity

quse pronuntiantur,

una

res

aequalis

ad

septem.

3.

^Equationum

alise

unius tantum sunt positionis,

aliae

plurium

positionum.

Unius tantum
tionum, ut
2-

positionis,

ut

la$-{-3a=lO

Plurium posi

1=6.
alise

4.

Item sequationum

rudes, quse ad minores terminos, magisque


alise

perspicuous et succinctos reduci possunt,


quse e

perfectissimse dicuntur,

contra sunt maxime

perspicuse et succinctse.
viz. in

Ut, 3tyrr21 est sequatio rudis, quia in perfectissimam,

=7

reduci possit.

Item,

6a^^0 est aequatio

rudis, quia in

I5 2

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
perfectiorem,
est,

viz. in

la-J=4 reduci

possit.

Sed

et

la-=:4 rudis

imo perfectissimam, viz. in quia adhuc in perfectiorem, lrt=2 reduci possit, arte quam inferius tractabimus. Item 12-

+3a=i6

rudis est

aequatio,

quia in perfectiorem 4-$-fla=2

reduci possit.

5.

Item aequationum
:

aliae simplices, aliae

quadratae,

aliae cubicae, aliae

superiores
constant.

quarum

simplices

sunt quae duobus

ordinibus

tantum

Ut 8fy=27
dicuntur.

seu lfy:=9

item 5i-

20, simplices aequationes

Simplicium aequationum aliae sunt reales, quae sunt rerum aequaaliae radicales, quae sunt quorundam quadratorum, lium ad numerum cuborum, vel aliorum superiorum ad numerum aequationes.
6.
;

Reales,
1.
,

ut 3fy

21,

seu lfy=7.

Item la

3.

Radicales, ut 2<$=8.

Item 315=24.

Item 2fyi= Item \afi-

etc.

7-

^Equatio quadrata

est

quae

tribus

proportionalibus

ordinibus

constat.

Ut 2-2+3ty:r4,
Item

seu

3l^=2^

4.

Item

8.

.l-.(|ii;iti(

cubica

est

quae

quatuor proportionalibus ordinibus

constat.

Ut
la-^TS
sic

IIS

9^=24

26ty.

Item

2a^rr4

est aequatio cubica,

collocata

la-jTS+Oa-J-J

Item 21^=4. quia (per prop. 4 cap. 6) 2a-ri4, constat quatuor ordi
1TS+0-J

nibus.

DE ARTE LOG1STICA.
9.

153

^Equatio quadrat! quadrata est quse quinque

supersolida, quse
:

sex

quadrat! cubica, quse septem, proportionalibus ordinibus constant Et sic de reliquis superioribus in infinitum.
;

Quadrati quadrata, ut
persolida, ut Ib^fl
rati cubica, ut

2-J-J

28TS+142-:=308fy

240.

Su

4^-J^+l^TS

3b$$

Ib$=l2.

Quad-

10.

^Equatio illusiva est ea quse impossibile

asserit, et siquis

impos-

sibile quserit in

sequationem illusivam cadet ejus responsum.


est

Ut

Ilfyiz3lfy

sequatio illudens,
aequari.

quicquam suo
illudens,

triplo

siquidem impossibile est Item l-:=:4fy 5 est sequatio

siquidem nullum quadratum possit sequari quatuor


suis, ablatis

rebus seu radicibus

quinque

ut inferius patebit.

11.

Expositio est reductio rudis


et pars

gequationis

ad perfectissimam

et

realem aequationem,

sequationis realis quse uni rei sequatur

dicitur Exponens, eaque quaestionem solvit.

Ut quum
ad
llfy)

haec rudis 3lfyr:21 reducitur ad

hanc perfectissimam

ll^^:7> exponens utriusque sequationis erit 7> quia uni rei (viz.
sequatur.
!

perfectiorem
llfy

Item hsec rudis 5Jiz20 reducitur ad hanc 4, deinde ad hanc perfectissimam et realem
dicitur expositio,
et

2,

quod quidem opus reductionis


:

exponens, quia uni rei aequatur


solvi postea

qusestionem vero exponente

docebimus.

12.

Omnis

sequatio prseter illusivam habet saltern

unicum exponens,

validum sive invalidum.

Hoc
13.

postea docebimus, hie prsemonuisse

sufficit.

Exponentia valida sunt ea quse per

se posita copula

-f-

notantur,

164

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
nihilo.

et

temper sunt majora

se posita copula

notantur, et

Exponentia vero invalida sunt quse per haec minora sunt nihilo.
septem sint exponens validum,
copula
7>
-{-

Ut

in hac sequatione lfy=:7,


1 cap.

quia (per prop.

6 Lib.

I.)

notari subintelligitur.

At

in

hac

reali aequatione

lfy=

exponens contraria ratione


sic,

in validum dicitur,

quia copula

notatur

7*

estque nihilo

minus.

Exponentium alia et numero solo et quantitate sola, alia tan turn numero solo, alia tantum quantitate sola, alia partim hac partim illo,
14.
alia neutro,

exprimi possunt.
his,

De

suisque exemplis, latius per ordinem, capitibus 11, 12,

13, dicetur.

15.

Omnis

aequationis portio ditioni unius anterioris copulae subdita

Minima

dicitur,

quotcunque copulas

et terminos habuerit
;

anteriof et praBdominans dicitur Ductrix


diae dicuntur.

copulaque caetera vero copulae Interme;

Ut
in

in hac aequatione ITS

3+\/-?2+ J|=J
-f-

\X-J.64V-? lty=0,

qua Item 3 dicitur minima,

ITS dicitur minima, et


et

dicitur ejus ductrix copula.

ejus ductrix.

Item \AJ2 dicitur


et
-f-

minima,

et -f ejus ductrix.

Item

^=J dicitur minima,

ejus

ductrix, quia in totam fractionem extenditur ejus vis.

Caeterae

vero copulas hujus fractionis intermedise dicuntur.

Item \AJ. 6

copula ejus ductrix, quia in valorem totius universalis radicis extenditur ejus aggregation
vis,

-rV^lfy

dicitur minima,

et

et reliqua

copula -f intermedia dicitur.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.

155

CAPUT

X.

DE GENERALI ^QUATIONUM PREPARATIONS.


1.

PILEPARATIO

est reductio

sequationum rudium ad perfectiores,


deinde

quas postea ad perfectissimas reales reducit expositio.

Ut 5a$=z20
dicetur

prius

prseparantur,
2.

et

fient

laJn:4i

exponuntur, et fient la
;

Quibus modis prseparantur jam

quibus vero exponuntur postea patebit.

2.

Prseparantur et perspicuse redduntur sequationes rudes quinque


;

modis

transpositione,

abbreviatione,

divisione,

multiplicatione,

et

extractione.

Quorum modorum
3. Si

regulse et

exempla sequuntur.

minimam ex una

parte sequationis in contrariam transferas,

illique

contrariam copulam ductricem prseposueris,

erunt partes (ut

antea) sequales, et Transpositio dicitur.

Ut, ex hujus sequationis


transposueris

4>fy

65lfy
:

20 posteriore

parte, si

20 in priorem partem sequationis, copula ejus Item adhuc si transposueris mutata, hoc situ, 4lfy 6-{-20=r5]^ 4lfy, fient 4>H$i hoc situ, 6+20 51^ 4lfy. Item sequationis
hujus !
+A/-J.3-J
V/-J.3-J
2,

2
situ,

3,

si

transposueris

\AJ.3-J
5

2, erit

hoc

transposueris

3,

l-J=3a+\AJ.3-J erunt 3, hoc situ, +-J

et si

adhuc etiam
2, et

3a:=\/^.3^

partes oppositse sequales sunt, ut antea fuerant.

4.

Si

omnes minimas

alterius partis sequationis (per prsemissam) in

contrariam partem transponas, totum compositum sequabitur nihilo, et

156

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
ad
nihil
;

dicitur aquatic

debetque haec sequatio (per prop. 4 cap. 2

hujus) abbreviari.

exemplo suprascripto 4fy 6=5fy 20, transpone 20, eruntque 5fy+20, hoc situ, 4fy 6 5^+20=0, quae 5fy abbreviata efficiunt lfy-|-14=0, quae aequatio ad nihil est.
Ut,
in
-

Item

1-J

v/-$.3-$
fiet

2rz3a, cujuspartem sinistram

si

dextrorsum
dicitur

transponas,
;i'(|uai

0=

l-J-fV^.3^

2-f3,

quse

quidem

it

ad

nihil.

5. Si positivus

maximus

a fronte habeat

copulam

converte omnes

omnium minimarum
Exempla
hoc
situ,

ductrices, et producetur aequatio

ut supra

lfy-j-14-zrO,

Ify

magis perspicua. lfy-|-14 aequetur ad 0, hoc situ, 14 sequabitur etiam ad 0, per consequens -\-lty 140. Item, eodem modo ex l-$+3a-|-\/^.
:

Si

Si

2=0

net

l$3aV$. 3-J
l^-f-1-.J^O.

2=0.

Item ex hac

Ify

+-^=0 net haac,


am

6. Si aequationis positives
i

omnes maximi

ordinis per unitatem sigdiviseris, et

per totam sequationem hinc producetur aequatio per spicua habens maximum ordinem unitate notatum.
quotientem diviseris
;

i;it

signis positivis et radicalibus

ejusdem ordinis

Exemplum
maximi

aequationis, 2TS

8--|-6fy
fiet

Divide positivum
;

ordinis, viz. 275

per ITS

quotiens 2

per duo igitur

divide totam aequationem, fientque ITS

4-J-|-3fy=:0.

Item hujus

aequationis, 3fy

V/-J2-J

= 0,

positivi

maximi

ordinis sunt 3fy

v/^2-$, qui

sunt ejusdem ordinis

quidem (per prop. 5 cap. 4 hujus) divide potentiae, eorumque ordo est rerum
;

ergo

3R

Vi%$

per Ify, sive

(quod idem

est)

per \X-Jl-J,

fiet

quotiens 3
Lib. 1.)

v/^2 ; per hunc quotientem (per prop. 2 cap. 11 divide totam aequationem, -i fietque haec aequatio Ify
J

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
^p
quam
0,

157

quse quamvis fractio

sit,

tamen magis perspicua

est

prius, eo

quod signum

-J

aufertur.

Item tertium exemplum, ll^+la-f-l^ 31=0, in quo sit Divide tibi animo expurgare et delere signum mixtum, viz. lty
:

ergo ll^a-|-la per la, vel ltya-f-1.1^ per

llfy

(utram volueris loco


llfy
:

maximi

ordinis acceptare,) exempli gratia acceptetur


l-fy

divisa

itaque llfy-}~l^ P er

orietur quotiens

1 a-f-1,

per quern

divide totam sequationem H^a-j-llfy-|-la


hsec,

lty+1

TI

>

U8B

^ ce ^

fr acta >

31=0, fiet sequatio tamen magis perspicua


prius obscurum

est

quam prius, eo quod signum mixtum quod erat jam aufertur.


minimus ordo
fuerit positivus,

7. Si aequationis

tune per unitatem

signatam signis minimi ordinis divide totam sequationem, et proveniet inde aBquatio perspicua habens numerum absolutum loco minimi ordinis.

Exemplum,

1*1

4-J-}-3!fy

0, quse divide

per unitatem minimi


3-?

ordinis, viz. per Ify, fiet !

4^+3=0.
est

Item

sA<2fy:=0,

hsec divide per \/-JlIfy,

fiet

inde hsec sequatio \/^9TS

A/-j2mO,

quarum ultima
8.

series

semper

numeri.

Si particulse aliquse sequationis sint verse fractiones, inque

earum

denominatores duxeris totam sequationem, producetur sequatio integra,


et

plerumque magis perspicua.


Ut, in hac
bilis
;

6l

^+2nO,

sunt ^z^, vere fractio licet abbrevia11S-)-3J>

duces ergo totam sequationem in denominatorem

fientque

2TS+12^

8-^=0.
1-?

Item bane sequationem

+^

^ uc P er ^ net P rm10
et

^=0, 2640,

hsecque rursum per 75 due, fientque 225^


quse

quidem sequationes

integrse

sunt,

expertes fractionum.

158

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Si in aequatione fuerit radix universalis unica,

9.

earn a reliquo
se

et sequationis (per prop. 3) separabis,

utrumque aequationis latus in

duces toties quoties signum universale denotat, et producetur aequatio magis perspicua, nulla enim habebit universalia signa.

Exemplum, 2$

+ Sty

\A?.12<TS+4-?-$

+ 18 =

Primo per
;

transpositionem fiant
tera quadrentur, quia

2-J+3fy=\/-J.12<T3+4^+18
signum universale
et
2.

deinde

la-

est \/-$, fientque

4--

+12tS+9-J=1273+4J-5+18,
abbreviata facient

per consequens transposita et

!=
:

Aliud exemplum
fient 2fy

\AtS.2fy

6=3fy ducantur
271S

cubice latera,

6=271S,

alias 2fy

-6=0.

10. Si aequatio

duabus radicibus universalibus consimiliter radicatis


constiterit, transpositione separentur, et in se

absque

ullis aliis

minimis

multiplicentur quoties denotat universale

signum

producitur sequatio

perspicua nullius universalis radicis.

Ut \AJ.2fy-f5
21^ -f 5 2fy
Ity
-j-

<

v/^.3l^

separentur,

et

fient

*/$.
fient

= \/-J. Sty 5 = Sty 4, 9 = 0.

4
et

quadrate

multiplicentur,
et

et

per transpositionem

abbreviationem

11. Si

xquatio constet duabus

solis dissimiliter radicatis universali

bus, separentur universalia, et ducatur

utrumque

latus in se

ad utriusque

signi universalis dissimilis qualitatem, proveniet aequatio perspicua sine

universalibus.

Ut \//?.3^+6
supersolide

v/J.2fy

3=0
3

prius transpositione separen deinde, latera in se quadrati


32/?

tur, sic, /v//?.3-$-f 6=.V$.2ty

ducantur,

fientque

240-J-J-|-72OTS

1080-J

+810^243=9^^-1-36^+36,
fient32/?

quss transposita et abbreviata

249-$ -$+7207

1116^+8101^

279=0.

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
12. Si in sequatione fuerint duse universales radices quadratse,
aliis

159

cum

quibusdam simplicibus aut uninomiis, universales ambas copulatas

utrumque latus in se quadrate due, et fiet sequatio constans unica tantum universali radice, delenda etiam per prop. 9
cseteris separa, et

hujus.

Ut

haec sequatio

sic transponantur, \/-?-79

\/-J . 48^+lfy

l-J=^+j.;
If*?

de-

inde quadretur utrumque latus, fientque 127^+11^

v'-J.

15247+3161^

460f-J

^/TS-j-3-?-8=l-?H-i-IH-i

transpone et

abbrevia,fietquesequatio,'\/-J.15247+3l6I^-460|'

375+3-?^
4>7$

=127+^2-?, quae tandem (per prop. 9) fient l-^+lTS


189^+882=0.

13. Si sequatio constet tribus radicibus universalibus quadratis absque


aliis

minimis, duse quadratse a reliqua per transpositionem separentur,

lateraque quadrentur, et proveniet sequatio unius tantum universalis,

per prop. 9 delendse.

Ut

sit

Eequatio

V^.Sfy+S-jV-J.Sfy

^.41^2=0 sepa
;

rentur

sic,

\/-?.3l^

2-f\AJ.2lH-l=\/-5. 4fy+2;
1+\/-?. 6-?
Ify
et

latera, et fient

5fy

11^24^+2
2rz3

quadrentur deinde fient

per abbreviationem^-J.G-J
fient 6-?

llfo postea(perprop.9)
fient 5-J

11^

2=1^

61^+9,

tandem

+51^11=0,

alias

14. Si sequatio constet tribus universalibus quadratis,

cum

unico uni-

nomio aut

simplici

transponantur duse universales a reliquis, lateraque

quadrentur, et proveniet sequatio


prop. 12 delendarum.

duarum universalium radicum, per

Ut

sit

sequatio
sic,

transponantur

160

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
in se quadrate, fientque multiplicentur latera

constantia duobus universalibus quadratis, per prop. 12


delendis.

15. Si aequatio constet

quatuor universalibus quadratis absque

aliis

minimi-

binae a binis per transpositionem separentur, lateraque quad-

rentur, et proveniet aequatio

duarum tantum universalium, per


\A.52fy

prop. 12

delendarum.
Sit sequatio haec sic transposita,

\AJ.10

Ifyzz

cujus latera quadrentur, fientque

>

quae duabus

universalibus

tantum constant, per

prop. 12 delendis.

16. Si universalissima
sob', ,sive

unica ex uno latere sequetur universalissima'


sive universal! et

universali

sive uninomiis et

uninomio aut simplici unicis, tune due in se simplicibus tantum ex altero latere
soli,
:

latera

ad signorum universalium qualitates,

et

signa universalissima

delebuntur, caeteris universalibus delebilibus per praecedentia delendis.

Ut

in sequatione hac

^.10-f \X-J.5 fy
;

2ir
latera ergo
sive

universalissima universalissimae sequatur


tur,

quadren

fientque

10+^.51^-2=3+ V$.3ty+l,
quorum

universalia per prop. 12 delebis.

Aliud exemplum.
Item hujus */$JI.3+/$.2ty
I

=
729

cantur latera in se quadrati cubice supersolide, fientque

+ 18-f\/'$.8TS

12^ 4-6^1+^.1458^
400,
sive

151^

DE ARTE LOG1STICA.
729
leri

161

= \AJ.300fy

400,

quorum

universalia de

nequiunt.

Tertium exemplum.
Item hujus ^7g.3-}-\Ag.2lfr
se
latera,
-1

fientque 3-|-\/-?.2fy

= \/7g.2Q 1 = 20 4fy,

4lfr,

due cubice

in
-

sive

\A.2ty

=17

4fy,

quorum

universale (per prop. 9) delebis.

Eadem

est similium ratio.

17.

Eisdem propositionibus quibus universales


deleri.

deleri

dictum

est,

possunt et simplices irrationales inter rationales transponi, multiplicari,


et

tandem

Ut
sic,
!-

sit

sequatio 12

\AH^:nlI^, per
sive !

prop. 9 separentur,

12

11^

v^-jll^, et multiplicentur

quadrate latera, fientque

241^+144 = Ify,

25ty-f-144i3:0, quse prorsus ra

tionales sunt.
et 15, dicuntur

Quse itaque, propositionibus 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, de universalibus, eadem de simplicibus radicatis

etiam dici intelligantur.

18.

Quse

aliter prseparari
;

possunt sequationes, per propositionem ne

pra^parentur pra3missam

multiplicatio

enim irrationalium simplicium

plerumque plura exponentia debito exhibet. Ut prsecedens exemplum 12 V'-JlI^^lI^, per praemissam 2<5lfy-|-144:z:0, quse duo multiplicatum, reddit sequationem !
habet valida exponentia, viz. 16 et 9, cum revera ipsa principalis v/^H^^lty, habeat unicum exponens tan turn, aequatio, 12
viz. 9,

ut postea patebit.

Ilia igitur sequatio principalis

per

prop. 17 ne prseparetur,

dummodo eadem
praeparari

per prop. 20 subpossit,

sequentem melius
dicetur.

et

simplicius

ut ibidem

162

DE ARTE LOGISTICA.
Si aequationis ad

19.

extrahatur radix aliqua vera (viz. relicto


et

nihilo), radix ilia erit

magis succincta,

ad

SBquatio.

Ut ex

sequatione ITS
viz. Ify

6-J+12fy

8=0

extrahe radicem cu-

bicam veram,
sequatio.

2=0,

quae erit abbreviata et succincta

Item sequationis

Ify

v/-J36fy-|-9=0 radicem

quadratam

extrahe, eaque erit vera (per cap. 8), viz. \AJlfy


est

3=0,

quse

magis succincta aequatio.

20. Si sequationis

ad

extracta radix aliqua


;

sit,

aut formalis aut

(per prop. 8 cap. 8 hujus) reformata


et

reliquiarum copulam converte,

earundem radices quadratas


;

vel cubicas, etc. quales

ex reliquo ex

trahe

has radices (conversis copulis)

cum

radice proxima et formali


vel duae quadra-

copulato, fient aequationes,et unica,

non quadratinomia

tinomias ad
plectentes.

magis

succinctae, priorisque aequationis

exponentia com-

Et

caetera.

KDINBUROI: BXCUDEBANT BALLANTYNE ET HUGHES.

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