Metal Oxide Surge Arresters

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Volker Hinrichsen
Darmstadt University of Technology High Voltage Laboratories
hinrichsen@hst.tu-darmstadt.de

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b

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Contents • Arrester application in general • considerations on protective characteristics • Arrester design (station arresters) • porcelain housed • polymer housed • Configuring arresters • electrical data • mechanical data

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b

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Development of Surge Arresters over the past 25 years
Internally gapped SiC arresters with porcelain housings 1980 MO arresters without gaps with porcelain housings Æ "state of the art" latest by 1990 MO arresters without gaps with polymeric housings (mv; distribution class) 1990 MO arresters without gaps with polymeric housings (hv; station class)

Technology

2000

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b

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Development of Surge Arresters over the past 25 years
Failure Failure rates rates of of MO MO arresters: arresters: Distribution: Distribution: 0.1 0.1 %/a %/a ... ... 1 1 %/a %/a (with (with geographical geographical variations) variations) High-voltage: High-voltage: virtually virtually zero zero Expected Expected life life time time of of MO MO arresters: arresters: > > 30 30 years? years? (no (no indication indication for for any any severe severe degradation degradation of of MO MO material material so so far) far)

1980

2000 2003

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

Today's situation …

1990

Market Market share share of of polymer polymer housed housed MO MO arresters: arresters: Distribution: Distribution: 80 80 % %… …> > 90 90 % % Reasons: Reasons: -- partly partly poor poor performance performance of of porcelain porcelain housed housed types types -- benefits benefits of of polymeric polymeric designs: designs: sealing, sealing, handling, handling, overload overload performance performance -- cost/price! cost/price! High-voltage: ≈ 30 %, with increasing tendency Reasons: - hv users more conservative - higher requirements - cost/price!
Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b -4-

Typical Arrester Application: Transformer Protection
Us = 420 kV

Siemens / VEAG

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b

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Special Arrester Application: Protection of an SC Capacitor Bank
Us = 550 kV

Siemens / Hydro Québec
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b

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Special Arrester Application: Line Arresters Us = 245 kV Us = 800 kV ABB / AEP Siemens / REN Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b -7- .

Special Arrester Application: HVDC Valve Protection Arresters UDC = 600 kV UDC = 600 kV Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b -8- .

Arrester Application Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b -9- .

Fundamentals of Insulation Coordination 5 Possible voltages without arresters Magnitude of (over-)voltage / p. 4 Withstand voltage of equipment 3 2 1 Voltages limited by arresters 0 Lightning overvoltages (Microseconds) Switching overvoltages (Milliseconds) Temporary overvoltages Highest voltage of equipment (Seconds) (Continuously) Time duration of (over-)voltage Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .u.10 - .

4 700 Peak value of rated voltage: √2·Ur = √2·336 kV = 475 kV Peak value of continuous operating voltage: √2·Uc = √2·268 kV = 379 kV Peak value of line-to-earth voltage: √2·Us /√3 = √2·242 kV = 343 kV Leakage current îres ≈ 100 µA Nominal discharge current In = 10 kA 10 -2 1 Peak value of current / A 10 2 10 4 8 decades of magnitude Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .11 - .Voltage-Current Characteristic of an MO Arrester (Us = 420 kV) α≤5 1200 1100 1000 Peak value of voltage / kV 900 800 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 10 -4 I = k·Uα with α values up to 50 α≤5 10-kA residual voltage = lightning impulse protection level = 823 kV Factor 2.

00 0.50 -0.00 1.12 - .25 0.Voltage-Current Characteristic of an MO Arrester (Us = 420 kV) 400 300 Voltage 200 Voltage / kV . 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 0 5 10 Time / ms 15 20 Current 0.75 -1.00 -0.75 Simplified circuit diagram at : at U U= =U Uc c Itotal ≈ 1 mA total ≈ 1 mA R = f(u) C Voltage / kV 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 -100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Time / µs Current Voltage 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 Current / kA at î = In : n û û≈ ≈ 825 kV Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .50 Current / mA 0.25 -0.

Current Total leakage current Time at U = Uc : c ≈ 1 mA Itotal total Icapacitive ≈ 1 mA capacitive ≈ 10 µA … 100 µA îresistive resistive ≈ 10 µA … 100 µA Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Voltage-Current Characteristic of an MO Arrester Voltage “Resistive component“ Simplified circuit diagram R = f(u) C Voltage.13 - .

MO Resistors Ø 70 mm Ø 100 mm Ø 58 mm Ø 48 mm Ø 41 mm Ø 78 mm Ø 32 mm Example: EPCOS Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .14 - .

vs. E-J-Characteristics U U--II-characteristics -characteristics for for different different MO MO resistors resistors common common E E--J J-characteristics -characteristics J Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .U-I.15 - .

16 - .LI Protection Characteristics 2 Tra veling wav 4 m Doubling of voltage due to full reflection at "open" end of line e effects !!!!! •• Voltage Voltageat atarrester arresterterminal terminal might mightbe behigher higherthan thanthe theLI LI protection protectionlevel level •• Voltage Voltageat atterminals terminalsof of equipment equipmentto tobe beprotected protectedare are higher higherthan thanvoltage voltageat atthe the arrester arresterterminal terminal 1 3 Inductivity of current path ≈1 µH/m (here: L = 10 µH) Currents exceeding In 3.5 m Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .5 m 2.

x=0 Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Transformer LIW = 1425 kV ?= ℓ = 300 m x=ℓ .Protective Distance – Model Calculation 1 (Um = 420 kV) Overvoltage surge of s = 800 kV/ µ s Arrester u pl = 800 kV = const.17 - Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

Protective Distance – Model Calculation 1 (Um = 420 kV) 2000 1600 1200 800 400 0 -400 -800 -1200 0 0 1600 kV 0.5 800 400 t t= =0 0 µs µs 1600 kV 1200 uArr (x = 0) uTr (x = ℓ) x=0 x=ℓ 1200 800 400 x = 0 kV x= = 0: 0: u uArr Arr = 0 kV x = 0 kV x= =ℓ ℓ: : u uTr Tr = 0 kV 0 0 Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik 0.5 1 1.5 Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 .5 2 µs 2.5 1 1.5 .18 - 2 µs 2.

5 2 µs 2.5 0.Protective Distance – Model Calculation 1 (Um = 420 kV) 2000 1600 1200 800 400 0 -400 -800 -1200 0 0 1600 kV 0.5 1 1.19 - 2 µs 2.5 Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 .5 800 400 t t= = 0.5 µs µs 1600 kV 1200 uArr (x = 0) u1v uTr (x = ℓ) x=0 x=ℓ 1200 800 400 x = u 1v = x= = 0: 0: u uArr = 400 400 kV kV Arr = u1v x = u 1v = x= =ℓ ℓ: : u uTr =0 0 kV kV Tr = u1v 0 0 Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik 0.5 .5 1 1.

5 2 µs 2.5 800 t t= =1 1 µs µs 1600 kV 1200 uArr (x = 0) u1v 400 uTr (x = ℓ) x=0 x=ℓ 1200 800 400 x = u 1v = x= = 0: 0: u uArr = 800 800 kV kV Arr = u1v x = u 1v = x= =ℓ ℓ: : u uTr =0 0 kV kV Tr = u1v 0 0 Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik 0.5 .5 Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 .5 1 1.20 - 2 µs 2.5 1 1.Protective Distance – Model Calculation 1 (Um = 420 kV) 2000 1600 1200 800 400 0 -400 -800 -1200 0 0 1600 kV 0.

Protective Distance – Model Calculation 1 (Um = 420 kV) 2000 1600 1200 800 400 0 -400 -800 -1200 t t= = 1.5 µs µs 1600 kV 1200 uArr (x = 0) u1v u1r u2v 800 400 0 0 1600 kV 0.5 .5 1.5 Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 .5 2 µs 2.5 uTr (x = ℓ) Increase at double steepness! x=0 x=ℓ 1200 800 400 (1200 (1200 – – 400) 400) kV kV = = 800 800 kV kV x = u 1v + = x= =ℓ ℓ: : u uTr +u u1r Tr = u1v 1r = x = u 1v + = x= = 0: 0: u uArr +u u2v Arr = u1v 2v = (400 (400 + + 400) 400) kV kV = = 800 800 kV kV Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik 0 0 0.5 1 1.21 2 µs 2.5 1 1.

5 .Protective Distance – Model Calculation 1 (Um = 420 kV) 2000 1600 1200 800 400 0 -400 -800 -1200 0 t t= =2 2 µs µs u1v 1600 kV 1200 800 uArr (x = 0) u1r 400 u2v x=0 x=ℓ 0 1600 kV 1200 800 400 0.5 2 µs 2.5 uTr (x = ℓ) (1600 (1600 – – 800) 800) kV kV = = 800 800 kV kV x = u 1v + = x= =ℓ ℓ: : u uTr +u u1r Tr = u1v 1r = x = u 1v + = x= = 0: 0: u uArr +u u2v Arr = u1v 2v = (800 (800 + + 800) 800) kV kV = = 1600 1600 kV kV Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik 0 0 0.22 2 µs 2.5 Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 .5 1 1.5 1 1.

5 2 µs 2.5 1 1.5 uTr (x = ℓ) x=0 x=ℓ 1200 800 400 (2000 (2000 + + 400 400 – – 1200 1200 – – 400) 400) kV kV = = 800 800 kV kV x = u 1v + + u 2v + = x= =ℓ ℓ: : u uTr +u u1r +u u2r Tr = u1v 1r + u2v 2r = x = u 1v + + u 2v + = x= = 0: 0: u uArr +u u1r +u u3v Arr = u1v 1r + u2v 3v = (1200 (1200 + + 1200 1200 – – 400 400 – – 400) 400) kV kV = = 1600 1600 kV kV Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik 0 0 0.5 µs µs u1v u1r 1600 kV 1200 800 400 uArr (x = 0) u3v u2r u2v 0 0 1600 kV 0.Protective Distance – Model Calculation 1 (Um = 420 kV) 2000 1600 1200 800 400 0 -400 -800 -1200 t t= = 2.5 .5 1 1.23 2 µs 2.5 Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 .5 2.

5 m (propagation time 5 ns) b) Distance arrester .transformer: 1.Protective Distance – Model Calculation 2 (Um = 24 kV) Assumptions: • overvoltage surge as a voltage ramp 1 000 kV/µs (1 kV/ns) • arrester limits voltage to 80 kV at its terminals 100 90 80 70 u [kV] u [kV] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 t [ns] Voltage at arrester Voltage at transformer 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 t [ns] 70 80 90 100 110 120 Voltage at arrester Voltage at transformer a) Distance arrester .transformer: 3 m (propagation time 10 ns) Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .24 - .

80 2·1000 · 300 = 4. arrester of Ur = 336 kV: xs = (1425 / 1.(150 .25 - Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .4 m !!! . Um = 420 kV. insulated neutral.3 m !!! Example 2: Transmission network.. Simplified estimation of the protective distance *): (LIWV / 1.300 m/µs (overhead line) (equals "c0") . effectively earthed.823 2·1000 · 300 = 62.15) . 200) m/µs (cable) Example 1: Distribution network. arrester of Ur = 30 kV: xs = (125 / 1. Um = 24 kV.15) .Protective Distance – Estimation (Rule of Thumb) Due to traveling wave effects on the line the protection of the equipment by an arrester can be guaranteed only for short distances between arrester and equipment. IEC 60071-1 and IEC 60071-2 xs = protective distance [m] standard rated lightning impulse withstand voltage [kV] LI protection level of the arrester [kV] front steepness of the overvoltage [kV/µs] (in the range of 1000 kV/µs) propagation speed of traveling wave: .Upl · vtw 2·s xs LIWV Upl s vtw *) For more detailed information see IEC 60099-5..15) .

. (e.. distances a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 in m n . connected). Assuming Assuming n n> >2 2 could could yield yield too too optimistic optimistic results results that that are are not not valid valid in in a a real real failure failure scenario scenario (e. factor describing the lightning performance of the OHL in kV (see next slide) Note: Note: n n should should reasonably reasonably be be set set to to n n= =1 1 (if (if only only one one line line is is connected) connected) or or n n= =2 2 (if (if two two or or more more lines lines are are connected). to IEC 60071-2) A L U rp = U pl + n ( Lsp + Lt ) Lt = adopted return rate 1/a shielding failure rate + back flashover rate 1/a ⋅ m Lsp . lines).26 - . span length in m L ...g.g.. Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .. number of connected lines A ..Representative Overvoltage (acc. possible possible loss loss of of lines)..

to IEC 60071-2) Factor A describing the lightning performance of an OHL [IEC 60071-2] Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .27 - .Representative Overvoltage (acc.

one OHGW): 2. Shielding failure rate (typ. A = 11000 kV (four conductor bundle) L = 30 m Lsp = 400 m ≥ 2 lines connected.28 - . to IEC 60071-2) Example: Us = 420 kV • • • • • • • Upl = 825 kV.Representative Overvoltage (acc. overvoltages.5 ⋅ 10−5 A L 11000 kV 30 m U rp = U pl + = 825 kV + ⋅ = 1200 kV n Lsp + Lt 2 (400+40) m Note Note 1: 1: These These equations equations yield yield representative representative overvoltages. for Germany.5·10-5 (a·m)-1 Adopted return rate: 1·10-3 a-1 1 ⋅ 10−3 Lt = = 40 m 2.5 per 100 km and year = 2. which which are are not not implicitly implicitly the the real real overvoltages! overvoltages! Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Note Note 2: 2: No No effect effect of of the the lightning lightning overvoltage overvoltage amplitude amplitude!! Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

Increase of Protection Voltage by Inductive Voltage Drops Example: outdoor arrester Us = 420 kV 4 m Ur = 336 kV u10kA. 8/20 µs = 823 kV (= Upl) u10kA.5 m 2. 1/2 µs = 872 kV 3.29 - .5 m Specific inductance of surge current path ≈ 1 µH/m Length of surge current path ≈ 10 m ⇒ Inductance of surge current path ≈ 10 µH Steepness of surge current impulse ≈ 10 kA/µs ⇒ Additional inductive voltage drop ≈ 100 kV Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

30 - .Arrester Design Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

31 - .Examples of High-Voltage Arresters Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

Grading rings Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . • Corona rings serve to reduce RIV.5 m to 2 m arresters need grading rings for control of voltage distribution along the arrester axis.Grading Rings – Corona Rings Corona rings • Beginning with a height of about 1.32 - . usually applied in system voltages of 550 kV and higher.

Examples of Medium-Voltage Arresters Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .33 - .

Design of a Porcelain Housed High-Voltage Arrester O-ring Pressure relief vent Sulfur cement bonding Pressure relief diaphragm Compression spring Supporting rod (FRP) Fixing plate (FRP) Porcelain housing Aluminum flange MO column Example: Siemens Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .34 - .

35 - Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Basic Designs of Polymer Housed High-Voltage Arresters Porcelain/Type A MO column Type B1a Gas Type B1b FRP supporting structure Outer housing Type B2 Solid/semi-solid material Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Metal end fittings .

RTV. LR/LSR) Porcelain/Type A MO column Gas FRP supporting structure Outer housing Metal end fittings .36 - Solid/semi-solid material Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Type A "Tube Design" Type Type A AÆ Æ "tube design" • • "conventional" "conventional" approach approach (like (like porcelain porcelain type) type) • • gas gas volume volume included included • • separate separate sealing sealing system system • • pressure pressure relief relief vents vents • • outer outer housing: housing: silicone silicone rubber rubber (SR) (SR) (all (all types: types: HTV.

Type A "Tube Design" Top cover plate Flange with venting outlet Sealing ring Pressure relief membrane Compression spring MO resistor column Composite hollow core insulator (FRP tube/ rubber sheds) Example: Siemens Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .37 - .

38 - . Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Type A "Tube Design" Ü Nearly any desired mechanical strength and energy absorption capability (separate housing. multi-column possible) Ü Safest possible short-circuit performance (closed tube) Ü Single unit arrester up to Um = 300 kV (control of radial fields) Þ Most expensive design Þ Internal partial discharges possible (depending on design) Þ Separate sealing system – risk of sealing deficiencies Æ The Type A arrester is the typical "special feature" arrester.

Basic designs of polymer housed high-voltage arresters Type B • no (intentional) gas volume included Type B1 Æ "wrapped design" Type B1a Æ "wrapped design" • FRP material directly wrapped onto MO stack • outer housing slipped over or molded on (SR.39 - Solid/semi-solid material Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . EPDM. EPDM/SR blends …) Type B1a MO column Gas FRP supporting structure Outer housing Metal end fittings .

• Best compromise between mechanical strength and short-circuit performance must be found. • They do not fully overlap and form rhombic "windows".40 - main orientation of glass fibers Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Type B1a "Wrapped Design" Implementation example 1: • Fiber glass rovings soaked in uncured epoxy resin or pre-impregnated ribbons are wound crosswise around the MO stack. MO column FRP wrap Example: Ohio Brass .

41 - main orientation of glass fibers Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Type B1a "Wrapped Design" Implementation example 2: • Full overlapping of the ribbons or pre-impregnated FRP mats with appropriate (crosswise) orientation of the glass fibers • Forms a closed tube (good for mechanical strength. bad for short-circuit performance) • Slots as pre-determined weakened breaking areas MO column FRP wrap Example: Ohio Brass .

Type B1a "Wrapped Design" Implementation example 3: • Pre-impregnated FRP mats with axial orientation of the glass fibers • Forms a closed tube. which however easily tears open by the arc in case of short-circuit MO column FRP wrap main orientation of glass fibers Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .42 - .

(SR.Basic designs of polymer housed high-voltage arresters Type B • no (intentional) gas volume included Type B1 Æ "wrapped design" Type Type B1b B1b Æ Æ "wrapped design" • • FRP FRP material material with distance to to MO MO stack stack • • gap gap filled filled by by other other material material (solid/semi-solid) (solid/semi-solid) • • outer outer housing housing slipped slipped over over or or molded molded on on (SR. EPDM/SR EPDM/SR blends blends …) Type B1b MO column Gas FRP supporting structure Outer housing Metal end fittings . EPDM. EPDM.43 - Solid/semi-solid material Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

short-circuit performance) depending on design variants and implementation Þ Multi-unit arresters even for lower system voltages (radial fields) Æ The Type B1 arrester is the typical "low cost" arrester.Type B1 "Wrapped Design" Ü Most economical design. easy to handle Þ Limited mechanical strength (diameter of housing.44 - .g. wall thickness) Þ Big differences in performance (e. lowest market prices Ü Short-circuit performance better than for porcelain Ü Lightweight. with regard to moisture ingress. Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

45 - Solid/semi-solid material Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Basic designs of polymer housed high-voltage arresters Type B • no (intentional) gas volume included Type Type B2 B2 Æ Æ "cage "cage design" design" • • FRP FRP rods rods or or loops loops form form an an open open cage around around the the MO MO stack stack • • outer outer housing housing directly directly molded molded onto onto the the MO MO stack stack (silicone (silicone rubber) rubber) Type B2 MO column Gas FRP supporting structure Outer housing Metal end fittings .

46 - .Type B2 "Cage Design" 1st sub-variant Loops Example: ABB Switzerland Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

47 - .Type B2 "Cage Design" 1st sub-variant Loops Example: ABB Switzerland Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

Type B2 "Cage Design" 2nd sub-variant Loops + bondage Example: ABB Sweden Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .48 - .

49 - .Type B2 "Cage Design" 3rd sub-variant Rods Example: Siemens Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

50 - .Type B2 "Cage Design" 3rd sub-variant Rods Example: Siemens Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . low market prices Short-circuit performance better than for porcelain Mechanical strength usually higher than for B1 design Lightweight.51 - . mechanical strength of MO blocks) Þ Multi-unit arresters even for lower system voltages (radial fields) ÆThe Type B2 arrester is a higher performance "low cost" arrester.Type B2 "Cage Design" Ü Ü Ü Ü Economical design. easy to handle Þ Limited mechanical strength (diameter.

52 - .Configuring Arresters Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

switching overvoltages) LIWV.System Highest voltage of the system Us Grounding Temporary overvoltages (TOV) Lightning current stress Energy (line discharge.53 - . length of units (number of units) Height of erection Pollution Short-circuit current Seismic stress Mechanical stress (short-circuit current. distance (protection zone) Arrester Environment Min. sheds Diameter. flashover distance (withstand voltages) Creepage. number of units. MCOV. safety margin. material. Uc Rated voltage Ur2 Nominal discharge current Density of lightning strikes. magnitude of lightning strikes electrical Line discharge class LI protection level.min → rated voltage Ur1 Rated voltage Ur MCOV. tensile loads) Housing Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . Uc. SI protection level Active part specified mechanical Length of housing.

Choice of Continuous Operating and Rated Voltage (phase-to-phase) TOV (1 s) TOV (10 s) System 1 3 (phase-to-earth) System Arrester Highest system voltage Nominal system voltage 1-s-voltage Rated voltage Cont.54 - .25 Note: Nominal system voltage of no interest for configuring an arrester! Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . operating voltage ≥+5% 1.

1 1. time (U-t-) characteristics t /s Urr is the higher value of Ur1 and Ur2 .25 · Uc.85 0.95 0. rounded up to a multiple of three r1 r2 Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .25 · (1.3 1.15 1.min = 1.Choice of Continuous Operating and Rated Voltage Ur1 = 1.2 1.25 1.8 0.05 · Um/√3) Ur2 = _______ = f(tTOV) kTOV k t ov = U / U r UTOV 1.05 1 0.55 - .9 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Power-frequency vs.

4 · Um/√3 = 445 kV LIWV = 1550 kV LD-class = 5 Rated Voltage: Uc.075 ⇒ Ur. min = 416 kV Ur2 = _______ = _______ = 414 kV kTOV 1.Calculation Example 1 (Um = 550 kV) Um = 550 kV U10sec = 1.05 · Um/√3 = 333 kV Ur1 = 1. typ = 420 kV UTOV 445 Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . min = 417 kV Ur.25 · Uc. min = 1.56 - .

4 Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .1 kV kTOV 1.25 · Uc.075 ⇒ Ur. typ = 30 kV UTOV 19.57 - . min = Um = 24 kV Ur1 = 1. min = 30 kV Ur2 = _______ = _______ = 18. min = 30 kV Ur.Calculation Example 2 (Um = 24 kV. isolated neutral) Um = 24 kV U10sec…1h = Um = 24 kV LIWV = 125 kV LD-class = --- Rated Voltage: Uc.

Uc. material. Uc Rated voltage Ur2 Nominal discharge current Density of lightning strikes.System Highest voltage of the system Us Grounding Temporary overvoltages (TOV) Lightning current stress Energy (line discharge. switching overvoltages) LIWV. safety margin.58 - . flashover distance (withstand voltages) Creepage. magnitude of lightning strikes electrical Line discharge class LI protection level. number of units. distance (protection zone) Arrester Environment Min. MCOV. SI protection level Active part specified mechanical Length of housing. sheds Diameter. tensile loads) Housing Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .min → rated voltage Ur1 Rated voltage Ur MCOV. length of units (number of units) Height of erection Pollution Short-circuit current Seismic stress Mechanical stress (short-circuit current.

Question: What is a reasonable value for In? To answer this question: what are the highest possible currents of a lightning stroke directly into the overhead line conductor? Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .59 - .Direct Lightning Strokes to Overhead Line Conductors The nominal discharge current In is a coordination current on which the protective characteristics and thus insulation coordination are based.

α = 15 ° Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .60 - h = 30 m. y = 25 m. the higher rc and rg. • The higher the stroke current. • Im is the maximum current at and above which no strokes will terminate on the phase conductor: h+ y ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2 Im ≈ ⎢ 7.75 α = shielding angle Strokes Strokes between between A A and and B BÆ Æ phase phase conductor conductor Strokes Strokes between between B B and and C CÆ Æ ground ground wire wire Strokes Strokes beyond beyond A AÆ Æ ground ground Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Examples: h = 60 m. α = 30 ° ⇒ Im ≈ 36 kA ⇒ Im ≈ 9 kA .Direct Lightning Strokes to Overhead Line Conductors CIGRÉ electro-geometrical model • rc and rg are the maximum striking distances of a return stroke to the stepped leader. y = 45 m.1 ⋅ (1 − sin α ) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 1 0.

current of propagating wave: î = 2100 kV / 350 Ω = 6 kA Surge currents are limited to values below 10 kA! *) More than 90 % of lightning flashes to ground are negative cloud-to-ground flashes! Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Lightning Stroke and Surge Propagation on a Transmission Line 1 2 1 Lightning stroke: two traveling waves of û = ½ ·Z · î (Example: û = ½ · 350 Ω · 20 kA = 3.5 MV) 2 1st insulator: flashover Example: • 100 % flashover voltage (negative polarity*)): ud100 ≈ 2100 kV for Um = 420 kV • max.61 - .

Z Z= = 350 350 Ω Ω m = 420 kV. kV.3 kA î=6 6 kA kA LI LIcurrents currentsin inthe thesubstation substationusually usuallybelow below10 10kA kA Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . no no direct direct lightning lightning strokes strokes of of discharge discharge currents currents higher higher than than ≈ ≈ 20 20 kA kA on on shielded shielded transmission transmission lines lines (all (all other other strokes strokes will will hit hit the the shield shield wire wire or or directly directly the the ground) ground) Currents Currents limited limited by by flashover flashover voltage voltage of of line line insulators insulators and and surge surge impedance impedance of of the the line: line: î = ûflashover /Z flashover Examples: Examples: U = 123 kV. û flashover ≈ Um ≈2 2 100 100 kV. Usually. ûflashover U = 420 kV. Z Z= = 450 450 Ω Ω m = 123 kV. kV. û flashover ≈ Um ≈ 600 600 kV.62 - . ûflashover î = 1.Lightning Impulse Current Stress of Station Arresters Usually.

magnitude of lightning strikes electrical Line discharge class LI protection level. number of units. material.System Highest voltage of the system Us Grounding Temporary overvoltages (TOV) Lightning current stress Energy (line discharge. switching overvoltages) LIWV. distance (protection zone) Arrester Environment Min. safety margin. flashover distance (withstand voltages) Creepage. length of units (number of units) Height of erection Pollution Short-circuit current Seismic stress Mechanical stress (short-circuit current. sheds Diameter. Uc Rated voltage Ur2 Nominal discharge current Density of lightning strikes. Uc. tensile loads) Housing Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .63 - . SI protection level Active part specified mechanical Length of housing.min → rated voltage Ur1 Rated voltage Ur MCOV. MCOV.

Energy Requirements Two aims: 1) 1) Mechanical Mechanical integrity integrity of of the the MO MO blocks blocks 2) 2) Thermal Thermal stability stability Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .64 - .

Energy Requirements Single impulse energy absorption capability • Energetic overloading (puncture or thermo-mechanical cracking of one or more MO-resistors) Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .65 - .

66 - .Energy Requirements Thermal energy absorption capability Electrical power losses Limit of thermal stability (unstable operating point) Heat dissipation. electrical power losses Heat dissipation Normal operation (stable operating point) Temperature Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

100 ms Time Energy input by two long duration current impulses 1 minute apart (each impulse 50% of the injected energy). arrester de-energized afterwards) higher energy values are allowed."Thermal" and "Impulse" Energy Values "Thermal" 1) 2 long duration current impulses.e.67 - . thermal stability not critical Note: If no thermal stability has to be guaranteed after energy injection (i. 1 minute apart Ur for 10 seconds Uc for 30 minutes 1 long duration current impulse "Impulse" Time Preheat to 60 ºC max. Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . thermal stability required 1) Energy input by one long duration current impulse t ≥ 4 ms.

68 - .Thermally Equivalent Prorated Section for Operating Duty Test Current supply Gripping Hard tissue Gripping Cork Test sample Porcelain Temperature measurement Current supply Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

*) 3 .69 - . 1996-02 Surge Arresters .u. o v e r v o lta g e fa c to r p . =√2 x Um/ √3 Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . U m kV ≤ 245 ≤ 300 ≤ 420 ≤ 550 ≤ 800 a p p r o x . Z Ohm 450 400 350 325 300 a p p r o x .Part 5: Selection and application recommendations Table 1: L D c la s s 1 2 3 4 5 a p p ro x .6 2 .6 2 .0 2 .4 2 .4 *) 1 p.u . to IEC 60099-5 IEC 60099-5.Choice of Line Discharge Class acc. lin e le n g th km 300 300 360 420 480 a p p ro x .

6 Ur 2.4. but as as a a Class Class 3 3 arrester arrester if if U Ures res/Urr = 2.Line Discharge Class (IEC 60099-4) – Problem of Definition W · (U L – ) · 1/Z · T W= =U Ures –U Ures res · (UL res) · 1/Z · T Arrester classification Line discharge class 1 2 3 4 5 Surge impedance of the line Z (Ω) 4.2 Ur 2.3 Ur 0.8 Ur 2. specified as as a a Class Class 2 2 arrester arrester if if U Ures res/Urr = 2.4 Ur 1. A /U = 2 needs A Class Class 3 3 arrester arrester of of U Ures res/Urr = 2 needs resistors resistors of of 6 6 kJ/kV kJ/kV (2·3 (2·3 kJ/kV).) 3. Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .4.9 Ur 2.c.2 Ur 3.70 - . kJ/kV).5 Ur Virtual duration of peak T (µs) 2 000 2 000 2 400 2 800 3 200 Charging voltage UL (kV d. but /U = 2.4 Ur 10 000 A 10 000 A 10 000 A 20 000 A 20 000 A Example: Example: A A MO MO arrester arrester with with resistors resistors of of 4 4 kJ/kV kJ/kV (2·2 (2·2 kJ/kV) kJ/kV) energy energy absorption absorption capability capability may may be be specified /U = 2.8 Ur 0.

safety margin. flashover distance (withstand voltages) Creepage.min → rated voltage Ur1 Rated voltage Ur MCOV. magnitude of lightning strikes electrical Line discharge class LI protection level. number of units. Uc.71 - . distance (protection zone) Arrester Environment Min. MCOV. Uc Rated voltage Ur2 Nominal discharge current Density of lightning strikes.System Highest voltage of the system Us Grounding Temporary overvoltages (TOV) Lightning current stress Energy (line discharge. SI protection level Active part specified mechanical Length of housing. sheds Diameter. material. switching overvoltages) LIWV. length of units (number of units) Height of erection Pollution Short-circuit current Seismic stress Mechanical stress (short-circuit current. tensile loads) Housing Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

8 .72 - .. 3.8 .4)·U c Upl pl = (2.4)·Uc ûr ûc Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b ...LI protection level from U-I-Characteristics U U-II-characteristics -characteristics for for different different MO MO resistors resistors U = (2.. 3.

4 · Um/√3 = 445 kV Ur. *) Typical value for LD class 5.Calculation Examples 1 + 2 (Um = 550 kV and 24 kV) 1) Um = 550 kV U10sec = 1.4 .4 1.4 LIWV = 125 kV .67 *) = 80 kV < _________ 125 kV ( _________ = 89 kV ) 1.3 *) = 966 kV < = 1107 kV ) 1. but manufacturer dependant Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . typ = 30 kV Protection Level: 125 kV U10kA = 30 kV · 2. *) Typical value for 5-kA distribution arrester.73 - . typ = 420 kV 1550 kV __________ LIWV = 1550 kV LD-class = 5 Rated Voltage: Protection Level: 1550 kV ( __________ U10kA = 420 kV · 2. but manufacturer dependant 2) Um = 24 kV U10sec…1h = Um = 24 kV LD-class = --- Rated Voltage: Ur.4 1.

4 offers sufficient protection against lightning overvoltage: upl pl ≤ LIWV ________ ________ The voltage at the terminals of the equipment to be protected must not reach values above LIWV/1.73 1. to IEC 60071-2) For more detailed information see IEC 60099-5.61 As a rule of thumb.15 (Ks = 1. acc.2 1.Typical Values of Protection Level Standard lightning Lightning impulse impulse withstand protective level upl voltage LIWV kV kV kV 24 Resonant earthed 125 80 123 Resonant earthed 550 370 145 Solidly earthed 650 295 245 Solidly earthed 950 485 420 Solidly earthed 1425 825 550 Solidly earthed 1550 960 Us Neutral earthing Factor LIWV/upl 1.15 = safety factor for non-self restoring insulation.49 2.4 Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .74 - .56 1.96 1. IEC 60071-1 and IEC 60071-2 Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik 1. a factor LIWV/upl ≥ 1.

001 0. neutral effectively earthed Ur = 224 kV u10kA=538 kV Ur = 198 kV u10kA= 475 kV u [kV] 300 200 1.75 - .4 times line-to-earth-voltage 100 Line-to-earth-voltage 0 0.Protection Level and Stability against Power-Frequency Stress 600 500 400 Example: Um = 245 kV.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 i [A] Lower LI protection level Æ higher specific power-frequency stress Protection level should be set to reasonable (not necessarily the lowest) values! Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .0001 0.01 0.

min → rated voltage Ur1 Rated voltage Ur MCOV. MCOV. Uc. sheds Diameter. tensile loads) Housing Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . material. flashover distance (withstand voltages) Creepage. distance (protection zone) Arrester Environment Min. safety margin.System Highest voltage of the system Us Grounding Temporary overvoltages (TOV) Lightning current stress Energy (line discharge. magnitude of lightning strikes electrical Line discharge class LI protection level. SI protection level Active part specified mechanical Length of housing. switching overvoltages) LIWV. number of units. length of units (number of units) Height of erection Pollution Short-circuit current Seismic stress Mechanical stress (short-circuit current. Uc Rated voltage Ur2 Nominal discharge current Density of lightning strikes.76 - .

77 - .Housing Requirements • Mechanical strength • static and dynamic loads by connected conductors • strength against seismic events • Dielectric strength • Short-circuit performance • Performance under polluted conditions • shed profile • creepage distance • flashover distance • partial heating of active parts • internal partial discharges • hydrophobicity (incl. dynamics of hydrophobicity) Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

breaking value (N / lbf) 1000 / 225 1500 / 337 2000 / 450 (N / lbf) 1200 / 270 1800 / 405 2400 / 540 (Table valid for porcelain housed arresters) • Ratio Fdyn / Fstat = 2.5 for porcelain housings • Ratio Fdyn / Fstat for polymer housings not yet definitely established Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Mechanical Strength of Housing Minimum recommended strength if there are no further requirements (given by conductor loads ÅÆ wind.78 - . short-circuit current forces): System voltage Um (kV) ≤ 420 550 800 Fmin static (N / lbf) 400 / 90 600 / 135 800 / 180 Fmin dynamic min. vibration.

79 - .Pressure Relief of a Porcelain Housed Arrester Unit 1) Puncture and flashover of individual MO resistor(s) Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik 2) Internal arc along the full length of the unit 3) Opening of pressure relief devices and venting of the unit Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

Arrester has failed and gas begins to be expelled through the housing.Pressure Relief of a Cage Design Polymer Housed Arrester Unit 1.80 - . Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . The gas streams trigger an external flashover and the internal arc is commutated to the outside 2.

2 (inf.how to initiate the failure . thickness) • Favorable short circuit current loop Ø D = (d + 2H) >= 1.5 40 50 63 80 kA Test with low current: 600 A ± 200 A (additionally: tests with ≈50% and ≈ 25% of rated short-circuit current) Basic idea: Ød Arrester unit H Circular enclosure • Explosion not allowed • Thermal breaking allowed (definition: all parts within the circular enclosure) Factors that improve pressure relief performance: • Short housings • Large gas volume • Fast opening pressure relief devices h >= 0.) Test with high current (rated short-circuit current): 5 10 16 20 31.pass criteria Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik see 37/317/CDV .4 m • High mechanical strength (porcelain quality.81 - Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .8 m Problems: .Pressure Relief Test according to IEC 60099-4 Ed.

Influence of the Short Circuit Current Loop
i i i i

i i i i

Porcelain Polymer (with gas volume included) Polymer (without gas volume included)

worst case favorable case

most favorable case most favorable case

neutral case worst case worst case

most favorable cases

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b

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Examples for Successful Pressure Relief Tests with High Current
Test with 63 kA/0,2 s on porcelain housed arrester

Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b

- 83 -

Examples for Successful Pressure Relief Tests at High Current
Test with 63 kA/0,2 s on polymer housed high-voltage arrester (FRP hollow insulator)

Before test
Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik

After test

Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b

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85 - .2 s on polymer housed high-voltage arrester (cage design) Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .Examples for Successful Pressure Relief Tests at High Current Test with 63 kA/0.

86 - .Examples for Successful Pressure Relief Tests at High Current Test with 20 kA/0.2 s on polymer housed distribution arrester (cage design) Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

87 - . Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . • But not all polymer housed arresters are intrinsically "safe". polymer housed arresters tend to offer a "safer" short-circuit performance. • Design differences must still be regarded.Short-Circuit Performance – Wrap-Up • In general.

88 - Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik .Performance under Pollution Conditions Measures against: 1 • Long creepage distance • Optimized shed profile 2 Radial filed stress: .housing • no sharp edges at the MO column • MO blocks with stable aging characteristics • internal gas volume free of oxygen • high tracking resistance of supporting structure • use of desiccants In case of no gas volume included: • sufficient thickness of housing • optimized shed profile • high tracking resistance of materials General: General:High Highrated ratedand andcontinuous continuousoperating operatingvoltage voltage rather than low protection level if possible (leads rather than low protection level if possible (leadsto to moderate electrical stress under continuous operating moderate electrical stress under continuous operating conditions conditionsand andimproves improveslong longterm termstability) stability) Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . degradation of the MO resistors and deterioration of the supporting structure or .risk of puncture in case of the housing directly applied to the MO column Risk of partial heating of the active parts (see Annex F of IEC 60099-4) • Few number of units (best: single-unit arrester) 3 1 Risk of external flashover 2 3 In case of gas volume included: • large distance MO column .risk of "internal" partial discharges.

Performance under Pollution Conditions – Radial Field Stress MO column Gas or solid Solid Conductive layer Uaxial. int Uradial Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .89 - .

Summary .Characteristic Values (1): Main Data • Continuous operating voltage (Uc/MCOV) • Rated voltage (Ur) • Rated frequency • Rated short-circuit current (Is) • Line discharge class (LD-Class) • Nominal discharge current (In) (8/20 µs) • LI protection level (Upl) (= residual voltage at In) Additional: residual voltages for different current shapes and amplitudes Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .90 - .

time) • Energy absorption capability (in kJ/kV of Ur or Uc) • High current impulse capability (4/10 µs) (for distribution arresters) • Temporary overvoltage (TOV) capability (1 s. dynamic) Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . 100 s) • Creepage distance • Dielectric withstand values of the housing • Permissible mechanical headloads (static. 10 s.Summary .91 - .Characteristic Values (2): Additional Data • Long duration current impulse withstand capability (amplitude.

92 - .Metal Oxide Surge Arresters Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

6 U/Umitte l U/U ⇒ Grading rings necessary for arrester heights > 1.4 1.1 mean H= 1200 mm H= 1465 mm H= 1805 mm 1..9 1 1.2 1.Voltage and Temperature Distribution of MO Arresters 1800 1600 1400 1200 H [mm] 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0.5 m .3 1.7 0.8 0.93 - .5 1.. 2 m Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

Arrester Ur = 224 kV.7 0.2 1.94 - .3 U/Umean Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . Voltage Distribution. Equivalent Circuit 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 Height [mm] 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0.1 1.8 0.9 1 1.

95 - .Specified Currents for Residual Voltage Tests on MO Arresters Double exponential current impulses: definition by T1/T2 and î T1 T2 î Front time [µs] Time to half value [µs] Amplitude [kA] from IEC 60060-1 FS UL C L R PO T1 = 1.25 · T Typical test circuit Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

Specified Currents for Residual Voltage Tests on MO Arresters • Switching current impulse: (30…100)/(2·T1) µs. 10 or 20 kA) • High current impulse: 4/10 µs. î <= 2 kA • Lightning current impulse: 8/20 µs. î <= 20 kA Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . î <= 40 kA (nominal discharge current In usually 5. î <= 100 kA (typical values 65 and 100 kA) • Steep current impulse: 1/<20 µs.96 - .

2400.Specified Currents for Energy Tests on MO Arresters Long duration current impulse: î <= 2 kA Td Tt Virtual duration of the peak Virtual total duration Standard values of Td: 500. 2800. 1000. 2000. 3200 µs from IEC 60060-1 Ln UL Cn L1 C1 FS PO Typical test circuit Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .97 - .

6 1. U = 1. to IEC 60099-4 • Quality assurance for running MO production • ϑ = 115 ºC.Accelerated Aging Procedure Accelerated Aging Test: Test Conditions: • Part of Operating Duty Test acc.4 0.4 1.6 0.8 1.05 ·Uc. (CO2. SF6.98 - .2 0 0 5 10 15 20 sqrt (t) [sqrt (h)] 25 30 35 40 Normal Behaviour Aging Resistor Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . N2H2) Accelerated Aging Test acc. t = 1000 h (6 weeks) • "actual surrounding medium": Air.2 P /P o 1 0. N2. to IEC 99-4 2 1.8 0.

99 - .Accelerated Aging Tests Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .

1 minute apart 2 high current impulses 100 kA.Switching Surge Operating Duty Test (IEC 60099-4) 2 long duration current impulses. superimposed on 1. 4/10 µs Conditioning 4 groups of 5 impulses at In 8/20 µs. power loss. resistive component of the leakage current • No significant change of residual voltage (max. 5%) • No puncture.2 x Uc Ur for 10 seconds Uc for 30 minutes 1 minute apart Cool down to ambient temperature Time interval not specified Preheat to 60 °C max. 100 ms Time Test evaluation (pass criteria): • Decrease of temperature. flashover or cracking of MO blocks Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .100 - .

superimposed on 1. resistive component of the leakage current • No significant change of residual voltage (max.101 - . 5%) • No puncture.2 x Uc 1 high current 1 high current impulse 4/10 µs impulse 4/10 µs Ur for 10 seconds Uc for 30 minutes Time 1 minute apart Cool down to ambient temperature Time interval not specified Preheat to 60 °C max.High Current Impulse Operating Duty Test (IEC 60099-4) Conditioning 4 groups of 5 impulses at In 8/20 µs. power loss. flashover or cracking of MO blocks Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b . 100 ms Test evaluation (pass criteria): • Decrease of temperature.

5 1 1.5 2 2.6 1.6 0.5 3 3.5 4 1. 1200 A) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 0.2 Test procedure: 6 groups of 3 impulses = 18 impulses (MO blocks in open air) I [kA] U [kV] Time 1 minute apart Cool down to ambient temperature t [ms] Typical 2 ms-values for single MO blocks from 200 A (distribution class arresters) to 1600 A (station class arresters).4 ms.2 1 0.2 0 -0.LongDuration Current Impulse Test (IEC 60099-4) Long duration current impulse (2. may be increased by connecting several blocks in parallel Test evaluation (pass criteria): • No significant change of residual voltage (max.8 0.102 - .4 0.4 1. flashover or cracking of MO blocks Fachgebiet Hochspannungstechnik Overvoltage Protection and Insulation Coordination / Chapter 5 b .8 1. 5%) • No puncture.