Lung Cancer (Bronchogenic Carcinoma


Risk factors:
 Tobacco smoke  Second-hand smoke  Environmental & Occupational

Exposure  Genetics  Dietary factors

Clinical Manifestations
depend on the location and size of the tumor, the degree of obstruction, and the existence of metastasis to regional or distant sites.

 Cough or change in a chronic cough  Wheezing  Dyspnea  Hemoptysis or blood-tinged sputum  Repeated unresolved upper respiratory tract

infections  Chest or shoulder pain may indicate chest wall or pleural involvement by a tumor  Chest pain and tightness, hoarseness  Dysphagia

Assessment and Diagnostic Findings
 Fiber optic bronchoscopy  Transthoracic fine needle aspiration  Endoscopy with esophageal ultrasound (EUS)  Abdominal scans positron emission

tomography (PET) scans

This chest x-ray shows a white area (yellow circle) that represents a solid area in the lung. This is a lung cancer.

Medical Management
 Radiation Therapy  Chemotherapy  Palliative Therapy  Gene Therapy  Therapy with defined tumor antigens

Treatment- Related Complication
   Pulmonary fibrosis  Pericarditis  Myelitis

 Cor pulmonale  Pneumonitis  Respiratory failure

Nursing Management
 Managing symptoms  Relieving breathing problems  Reducing fatigue  Providing psychological support

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