PROSTATE CANCER

= Is a disease in which malignant (cancer)
cells are form in the tissue of the prostate

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PROSTATE
Prostate gland is located just below the bladder and infront of the rectum. It is about the size of the walnut and surrounds part of the urethra. The prostate gland produces fluid that makes up the semen.

RISK FACTOR

Men Increasing age African-American Hereditary Diet high in red meat and fats

SIGNS AND SYMPTONS Weak or interrupted flow of urine.  Frequent urination (especially at night).  Trouble urinating.  Pain or burning during urination.  Blood in the urine or semen.  A pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn't go away.  Painful ejaculation.

DIAGNOSTIC EXAMINATION
•Digital rectal exam - The doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum and feels the prostate to check for anything abnormal.

•Transrectal ultrasound - A procedure in which a probe that is
about the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum to check the prostate. The probe is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes.

•Prostate-specific antigen test - A test that measures the level of
PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.

•Biopsy - The removal of cells or tissues, so a pathologist can view
them under a microscope.

•Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test - A test that measures the
level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer.

•Transrectal Biopsy - The removal of tissue from the prostate by
inserting a thin needle through the rectum and into the prostate. This procedure is usually done using transrectal ultrasound to help guide the needle.

•Radionuclide Scan - A procedure to check if there are rapidly
dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. As the patient lies on a table that slides under the scanner, the radioactive material is detected and images are made on a computer screen or film.

•MRI •CT scan •Tumor Biopsy - The biopsy is used to determine the Gleason score.

STAGES OF PROSTATE CANCER

Stage I
In stage I, cancer is found in the prostate only. It cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and is not visible by imaging. It is usually found accidentally during surgery for other reasons, such as BPH. The Gleason score is low. Stage I prostate cancer may also be called stage A1 prostate cancer.

Stage II
In stage II, cancer is more advanced than in stage I, but has not spread outside the prostate. The Gleason score can range from 2-10. Stage II prostate cancer may also be called stage A2, stage B1, or stage B2

Stage III
In stage III, cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate to nearby tissues. Cancer may be found in the seminal vesicles. The Gleason score can range from 2-10. Stage III prostate cancer may also be called stage C prostate cancer.

Stage IV
In stage IV, cancer has metastasized (spread) to lymph nodes near or far from the prostate or to other parts of the body, such as the bladder, rectum, bones, liver, or lungs. Metastatic prostate cancer often spreads to the bones. The Gleason score can range from 2-10. Stage IV prostate cancer may also be called stage D1 or stage D2 prostate cancer.

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
Stage I Treatment
 

    

Watchful waiting. Radical prostatectomy, usually with pelvic lymphadenectomy, with or without radiation therapy after surgery. It may be possible to remove the prostate without damaging nerves that are necessary for an erection. External-beam radiation therapy. Implant radiation therapy. A clinical trial of high-intensity focused ultrasound. A clinical trial of radiation therapy. A clinical trial evaluating new treatment options.

Stage II Treatment
•Radical prostatectomy, usually with pelvic lymphadenectomy, with or without radiation therapy after surgery. It may be possible to remove the prostate without damaging nerves that are necessary for an erection. •Watchful waiting. •External-beam radiation therapy with or without hormone therapy. •Implant radiation therapy. •A clinical trial of radiation therapy with or without hormone therapy. •A clinical trial of ultrasound-guided cryosurgery. •A clinical trial of hormone therapy followed by radical prostatectomy. •A clinical trial evaluating new treatment options.

Stage III Treatment
•External-beam radiation therapy with or without hormone therapy. •Hormone therapy. •Radical prostatectomy, usually with pelvic lymphadenectomy, with or without radiation therapy after surgery. •Watchful waiting. •Radiation therapy, hormone therapy, or transurethral resection of the prostate as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms caused by the cancer. •A clinical trial of radiation therapy. •A clinical trial of ultrasound-guided cryosurgery.

Stage IV Treatment
•Hormone therapy. •External-beam radiation therapy with or without hormone therapy. •Radiation therapy or transurethral resection of the prostate as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms caused by the cancer. •Watchful waiting. •A clinical trial of radical prostatectomy with orchiectomy.

NURSING MANAGEMENT:

PREOPERATIVE:

Reducing anxiety- the nurse must establish communication with the patient to assess his understanding of the diagnosis and of the planned surgical procedure. She/he clarifies the nature of the surgery and expected postoperative outcomes. She/he also familiarizes the patient with the preand postoperative routines and initiates measure to reduce anxiety. She/he also provides privacy and establishes a trusting and professional relationship.

 Relieving

discomfort- the patient is placed on bed rest, analgesic agents are administered, and measures to relieve anxiety are initiated. The nurse monitors the voiding patterns, watches for bladder distention, assist with catheterization if indicated.

Providing instruction- the nurse explains what will take place as the patient is prepared for the diagnosis tests and then for the surgery. The nurse describes the type of incision, which varies with the type of surgical approach. The patient is informed about the type if urinary drainage system that is expected, the type of anesthesia, and the recovery room procedure. The patient is instructed about postoperative use of medications for pain management.

 Preparing

the patient- elastic compression stockings are applied before surgery and are particularly important for prevention of deep vein thrombosis if the patient is placed in a lithotomy position during surgery. An enema is usually administered at home the evening before the surgery or the morning of surgery to prevent postoperative straining, which can induce bleeding.

POSTOPERATIVE

 Maintaining

fluid balance  Relieving pain  Monitoring and managing potential complications  Promoting home and community-based care

NURSING CARE PLAN

ASSESSMENT

SUBJECTIVE:
 “Wala

akong ganang kumain” at nasusuka ako “ as verbalize by the

 Nahihilo

patient.

OBJECTIVE:
 Weight  Nausea  Vomiting

loss

DIAGNOSIS

 Imbalanced

nutrition less then body requirements related to decreased oral intake because of anorexia, nausea, and vomiting caused by cancer

PLANNING
 After

proper nursing intervention the patient will maintain optimal nutritional status.

INTERVENTION
Assess the amount of food eaten. 2. Weigh patient 3. Ask patient why he is unable to eat. 4. Cater to his individual food preference. 5. Provide frequent small meals and a comfortable and pleasant environment
1.

RATIONALE
To help determine nutrient intake. 2. To monitor changes in weight. 3. His explanation may present easily corrected practices. 4. He will be more likely to consume larger servings if food is palatable and appealing. 5. Smaller portion of food are less overwhelming to the patient
1.

EVALUATION
 After

nursing intervention the patient improved his appetite, respond positively to his favorite food and his weight increases.

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