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EN1994 5 Hicks Composite Slab|Views: 68|Likes: 0

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Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop 1

EN 1994 - Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures

Composite Slabs Stephen Hicks

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

Composite slabs

2

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop

Welded mesh reinforcement for crack control, transverse load distribution and fire resistance

Concrete cast in situ

Headed stud connectors for shear connection to the composite beam and, when required, end anchorage to the slab

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

**Through-deck welding of headed stud shear connectors
**

3

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop

EUROCODES

Background and Applications

**Conventional composite construction
**

4

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop

EUROCODES Background and Applications Benefits of composite beams 5 Brussels.5 • Stiffness increased by a factor of 3 to 4.5 to 2.5 • Steel weight reduced by typically 30 to 50% • Reduction in beam depth (span:depth ≈ 25) • Lightweight construction . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop • Bending resistance increased by a factor of 1.

EUROCODES Background and Applications Benefits of composite slabs 6 Brussels. . • Sheeting can provide all. of the main tension reinforcement to the slab. • Sheeting can stabilise beams during construction. or part. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop • Profiled steel sheeting acts as a safe working platform and permanent formwork. • Unpropped construction may be achieved.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Commercial sector Residential sector .EUROCODES Background and Applications Examples of composite construction in UK 7 Brussels.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Health sector .EUROCODES Background and Applications Examples of composite construction in UK 8 Brussels.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Re-entrant profiled steel sheet Open trough profiled steel sheet .EUROCODES Background and Applications Types of profiled steel sheeting defined in EN 1994-1-1 9 Brussels.

5 mm Super Holorib 51 Cover width : 610 80 mm ComFlor 80 Cover width: 600 9 mm 80.EUROCODES Background and Applications Practical examples of open trough and re-entrant profiled steel sheets used for composite slabs 10 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop 9 mm 60 mm Multideck 60 Cover width: 1000 15 mm 323 mm 60 mm 300 mm ComFlor 60 Cover width: 600 58 mm 207 mm Confraplus 60 Cover width: 1035 40 mm 150 mm Cofrastra 40 Cover width: 750 73 mm Cofrastra 70 15 mm 183 mm 145 mm 70 mm 180 mm 120 mm Cover width: 732 51 mm 152.5 mm 300 mm Multideck 80 Cover width: 900 .

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop .EUROCODES Background and Applications Composite construction with services passed under structural zone 11 Brussels.

EUROCODES Background and Applications Examples of fixings for ceilings and services 12 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Wedge attachment Clip attachment Alternative wedge attachment .

EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1994-1-1 detailing requirements 13 Brussels.5 mm bb bs 1/2 h p . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Re-entrant trough profile bo br hc hp Scope limited to sheets with narrowly spaced ribs : br / bs ≤ 0. b0 / 3 and 31.6 Slab thickness When slab is acting compositely with beam or is used as a diaphragm: h ≥ 90 mm & hc ≥ 90 mm When slab is not acting compositely with beam or has no stabilizing function: h ≥ 80 mm & hc ≥ 40 mm h bb bs Open trough profile bo br hc hp Reinforcement ≥ 80 mm²/m in both directions h Spacing of reinforcement bars s ≤ 2h & 350 mm Maximum aggregate size dg ≤ 0.4 hc.

•For bearing on steel or concrete: lbc = 75 mm and lbs = 50 mm •For bearing on other materials: lbc = 100 mm and lbs = 70 mm . that fastening of the sheet to the bearing can be achieved without damage to the bearing and that collapse cannot occur as a result of accidental displacement during erection.EUROCODES Background and Applications EN 1994-1-1 composite slab bearing requirements 14 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop bc bs bc bs bs bs bs (a) (b) (c) The bearing length shall be such that damage to the slab and the bearing is avoided.

75 kN/m b) Imposed load of 0. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop a) Imposed load on a 3 m × 3 m a b c b b a c b 3000 3000 working area (or the length of the span if less).EUROCODES Background and Applications Actions and action effects on profiled steel sheeting 15 Brussels.5kN/m² and ≥ 0.75 kN/m² c) Self weight load corresponding to the design thickness of the slab plus ponding effects if δ > h / 10 . with an intensity of 10% of the selfweight of the concrete but ≤ 1.

EUROCODES Background and Applications Analysis for internal forces and moments . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Combined bending and crushing at internal support .set-up for double span tests on profiled steel sheeting 16 Brussels.

End anchorage from deformation of the ends of the ribs at the end of the sheeting. Frictional interlock for re-entrant profiles. End anchorage from through-deck welded stud connectors or other local connection. . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop (a) (c) (b) (d) a) Mechanical interlock through the provision of indentations or b) c) d) embossments rolled into the profile.EUROCODES Background and Applications Typical forms of shear connection in composite slabs 17 Brussels.

EUROCODES Background and Applications Longitudinal shear resistance 18 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Test set-up from EN 1994-1-1. Annex B .

1 mm by more than 10% Partial connection method m-k method .failure load exceeds the load causing a o o recorded end slip of 0. Brittle behaviour o m-k method 2. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Load PF (kN) (kN) 50 40 30 20 10 Slip at first end 2 F/2 P/2 Slip at second end 1 10 20 30 40 50 δ F/2 P/2 Deflection δ (mm) 1. Ductile behaviour .EUROCODES Background and Applications Classification of ductile or brittle behaviour 19 Brussels.

Rm A B f cm - N cf f yp Lo Ls F 2 F 2 f cm f yp Nc + + f yp η test C 1.0 M η= Nc cf N M test Mean value for the ultimate shear stress: τu = b(Ls + Lo ) η test N cf Mean value for the ultimate shear stress with additional longitudinal shear resistance caused by the support reaction: τu = η test N cf − μVt b(Ls + Lo ) .Rm + M test M p.EUROCODES Background and Applications Determination of longitudinal shear resistance without end anchorage for the partial connection method 20 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop M M p.

Rd from tests 21 Brussels.Rd τu.Rk is divided by the partial safety factor γVS to obtain a design . • 1 test specimen with the shear span Ls as short as possible (but not less than 3 × overall slab thickness). whilst still providing failure in longitudinal shear. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop For each variable investigated: • 3 test specimens with the shear span Ls as long as possible.Rk calculated from the test values as the 5% fractile from EN1990.EUROCODES Background and Applications Determination of design value for τu. Annex D value τu. whilst still providing failure in longitudinal shear to classify the behaviour Characteristic value of the longitudinal shear strength τu.

f (dp .5 xpl) . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop 0.d Np Nc.0.f / (0.85 f cd x pl dp + f yp.85 fcd b) ≤ hc Design moment resistance of the composite slab in sagging bending MRd = Nc.f z M pl.f = Np = Ape fyp.Rd Centroidal axis of the profiled steel sheeting Design compressive normal force in the concrete flange: Nc.EUROCODES Background and Applications Neutral axis above the sheeting and full shear connection (η = 1) 22 Brussels.d Depth of the concrete in compression xpl = Nc.

EUROCODES Background and Applications Neutral axis within the sheeting and full shear connection (η = 1) 23 Brussels.85 f cd hc f yp.f z M pr = e ep + + + + f yp.f = 0. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop 0.25M pa ⎜1 − Lever arm: z = h − 0.85 fcd b hc Reduced plastic moment resistance of the sheeting: M pr = 1.d Plastic neutral axis of the profiled steel sheeting Centroidal axis of the profiled steel sheeting Design compressive normal force in the concrete flange: Nc.d Design moment resistance of the composite slab in sagging bending MRd = Nc.d Nc.d ⎟ ⎠ N cf Ape f yp.f z + Mpr .5hc − ep + (ep − e ) ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ N cf ⎞ ⎟ Ape f yp.

d Plastic neutral axis of the profiled steel sheeting Centroidal axis of the profiled steel sheeting Design compressive normal force in the concrete flange: Nc = τu.d + - Nc z + M pr e = + f yp.25M pa ⎜1 − Lever arm: z = h − 0.d Design moment resistance of the composite slab in sagging bending MRd = Nc z + Mpr . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop 0.85 f cd hc ep + f yp.5hc − ep + (ep − e ) ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ Nc ⎞ ⎟ Ape f yp.EUROCODES Background and Applications Partial shear connection (0 < η < 1) 24 Brussels.f Reduced plastic moment resistance of the sheeting: M pr = 1.Rd b Lx ≤ Nc.d ⎟ ⎠ Nc Ape f yp.

5 d d0 f yp /2 d d0 Stud f yp /2 .d where PRd is the design resistance of a headed stud embedded in concrete. t is the sheet thickness and kφ = 1 + a / ddo ≤ 6. design resistance of a headed stud welded through the steel sheet used for end anchorage should be taken as the lesser of: PRd kt or Ppb.EUROCODES Background and Applications End anchorage 25 Brussels. kt is a reduction factor for deck shape.Rd = kφ ddo t fyp.0 a ≥ 1. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop According to EN 1994-1-1.1 times the shank diameter). ddo is the diameter of the weld collar (which may be taken as 1.

Rd M Rd q MEd Lx L MRd without end anchorage M Ed M M pl.Rd Ppb.Rd b or b τ u.p. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop M MRd with end anchorage M pl. Rd L sf L Lx τ u.Rd PRd k t whichever is the lesser τ u.Rd pa Ve.EUROCODES Background and Applications Variation of bending resistance along a span: uniform distributed load 26 Brussels.Rd b .

p.EUROCODES Background and Applications Variation of bending resistance along a span: Point load 27 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop M M M pl.Rd pa L sf L Lx .Rd Rd MRd without end anchorage F Lx MEd L M Ed MM pl.

EUROCODES Background and Applications Classification of ductile or brittle behaviour 28 Brussels. Ductile behaviour . 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Load PF (kN) (kN) 50 40 30 20 10 Slip at first end 2 F/2 P/2 Slip at second end 1 10 20 30 40 50 δ F/2 P/2 Deflection δ (mm) 1.failure load exceeds the load causing a o o recorded end slip of 0. Brittle behaviour o m-k method 2.1 mm by more than 10% Partial connection method m-k method .

EUROCODES Background and Applications Determination of m-k values from tests 29 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Vt b.8 (F / 2) .d p 2 m Vertical shear F/2 F/2 1 Longitudinal shear Ls Ls Flexural k Long Ls Short Ap b Ls For each variable investigated: • • 3 test specimens with the shear span Ls as long as possible. 3 test specimens with the shear span Ls as short as possible (but not less than 3 × overall slab thickness). whilst still providing failure in longitudinal shear. whilst still providing failure in longitudinal shear to classify the behaviour If behaviour brittle. Vt = 0.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Characteristic regression line calculated from the test values as the 5% fractile Vt b. Rd = bd p ⎛ mAp ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + k ⎟ bL γ VS ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ .EUROCODES Background and Applications Determination of m-k values from tests 30 Brussels.d p Mean value Vertical shear 2 m F/2 F/2 1 Longitudinal shear Ls Ls Flexural k Long Ls Short Ap b Ls Design shear resistance Vl.

but are impossible to separate from one another. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop • The results contain all the influencing parameters.EUROCODES Background and Applications Disadvantages of m-k method 31 Brussels. . • Other loading arrangements that differ from the test loading can be problematical. • Methodology is not based on a mechanical model and is therefore less flexible than the partial connection approach (contribution from end anchorage and reinforcement need to be evaluated from additional tests).

EUROCODES Background and Applications Effective width for slabs with concentrated loads 32 Brussels.6 For bending and longitudinal shear: i) for simple spans and exterior spans of continuous slabs hc hp bm b cm ⎛ Lp ⎞ bem = bm + 2 Lp ⎜ ⎜1 − L ⎟ ⎟≤b ⎝ ⎠ ii) for interior spans of continuous slabs ⎛ Lp ⎞ bem = bm + 1. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop bp Finishes Reinforcement hf For hp / h ≤ 0.33Lp ⎜ ⎜1 − L ⎟ ⎟≤b ⎝ ⎠ For vertical shear bp 1 b ⎛ Lp ⎞ bev = bm + Lp ⎜ ⎜1 − L ⎟ ⎟≤b ⎝ ⎠ Width of slab over which load is distributed bm = bp + 2 (hc + hf) Case c – Concentrated loads applied parallel to the span Case d – Concentrated loads applied perpendicular to the span L 2 b Lp bp .

the distribution of bending moments and the appropriate amount of transverse reinforcement should be evaluated according to EN 1992-1-1. • distributed load: 5. .5 kN. a nominal transverse reinforcement of not less than 0.0 kN/m².2% of the area of concrete above the ribs of the sheet (which extends ≥ the minimum anchorage length beyond bem). For characteristic imposed loads greater than these values.EUROCODES Background and Applications Transverse reinforcement for concentrated loads 33 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop bp Finishes Reinforcement hf hc hp bm b cm If the characteristic imposed loads do not exceed the values given below. may be provided without any further calculation: • concentrated load: 7.

For heavily loaded slabs. 6. it is permitted to assume that the sheeting contributes to Asl provided that it is fully anchored beyond the section considered.2a).Rd = [CRd. For normal loading conditions. According to the ENV version of EN 1994-1-1. the vertical shear resistance will commonly be based on Eq (6.2b) (6.Rd = (vmin + k1 σcp) bsd (6. .Rd should be determined using EN 1992-1-1.c k(100ρl fck)1/3 + k1 σcp] bsd with a minimum of Vv.2 which gives the following: Vv.2a) where ρl = Asl / bs d.2.EUROCODES Background and Applications Vertical shear resistance of composite slabs 34 Brussels. additional reinforcement bars may be required at the support and the vertical shear resistance based on Eq (6. Asl is the area of the tensile reinforcement which extends ≥ (lbd + d) beyond the section considered and other symbols are defined in EN1992-1-1. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Vv.2b). and the fact that the sheeting is unlikely to be fully anchored.

EUROCODES Background and Applications Punching shear resistance 35 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop hc b p+ 2h f hc dp Critical perimeter The punching shear resistance Vp.Rd should be calculated according to EN 1992-1-1. For a loaded area ap × bp. which is applied to a screed with a thickness hf.A . the critical perimeter is given by: cp = 2πhc+ 2(bp+ 2hf) + 2(ap+ 2hf+ 2dp –2hc) ap +2h f ap Loaded area of dimensions a p x b p dp A bp hc A hf hc dp Section A .

2 times the design service load.5 mm in the tests on composite slabs exceeds 1. • for the concrete. the slab should be designed as continuous. and the load causing an end slip of 0. If cracking needs to be controlled. For an internal span of a continuous slab. neglecting the effects of shrinkage.4% of the cross-sectional area of the concrete above the ribs for propped construction. the deflection may be estimated using the following approximation: • the average value of the cracked and uncracked second moment of area may be taken. For external. Deflection Deflections due to loading applied to the composite member should be calculated using elastic analysis. the minimum cross-sectional area of the anti-crack reinforcement within the depth hc should be: • • 0.EUROCODES Background and Applications Serviceability limit states for composite slabs 36 Brussels. an average value of the modular ratio for long-term and short-term effects may be used. 7.2% of the cross-sectional area of the concrete above the ribs for unpropped construction 0.3. calculations of the deflection of the composite slab may be omitted if: • • the span/depth ratio of the slab does not exceed 20 for a simply-supported span and 26 for an external span of a continuous slab (corresponding to the lightly stressed concrete limits given in EN 1992-1-1. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Crack widths For continuous slabs that are designed as simply-supported. . The above amounts do not automatically ensure that wmax ≤ 0. and the crack widths in hogging moment regions evaluated according to EN 1992-1-1. or simply supported spans.3 mm as given in EN1992-1-1 for certain exposure classes.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop P Cover 15 150 PRk Load per stud P (kN) 250 250 Slip δ (mm) 150 260 150 δu 6 mm .EUROCODES Background and Applications Standard push test 37 Brussels.

g hp.85 1.0 > 1.00 0. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Compression in slab e hp.75 0.60 nr = 1 nr = 2 ≤ 1.EUROCODES Background and Applications Position of studs in open trough sheeting and reduction factor formula according to EN 1994-1-1 38 Brussels.0 > 1.max Number of stud connectors per rib Thickness t of sheet (mm) Studs not exceeding 20 mm in diameter and welded through profiled steel sheeting 0.85 / √nr (b0 / hp) {(hsc / hp) – 1} ≤ kt.70 0.60 0.0 .n Edge of beam Force from stud hsc bo (a) Central (b) Favourable (c) Unfavourable kt = 0.0 ≤ 1.80 Profiled steel sheeting with holes and studs 19 mm or 22 mm in diameter 0.75 0.

18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop 180 160 140 120 160 140 Point at which deck delamination was observed Point at which maximum moment was applied in Cycle 5 120 100 Axial force (kN) Axial force (kN) 100 80 60 40 80 60 40 20 0 20 -20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slip (mm) 7th pair 6th pair Strong Slip (mm) Central Weak .EUROCODES Background and Applications Stud ductility demonstrated in full-scale composite beam tests with studs through-deck welded in open trough sheeting 39 Brussels.

EUROCODES Background and Applications Load-slip curves for push tests cf. beam tests 40 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 -20 -40 5 10 15 20 25 30 Load per stud (kN) nr = 1 Slip (mm) Push test Beam test 90 80 70 Load per stud (kN) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 nr = 2 Slip (mm) Push test Beam test .

EUROCODES Background and Applications Recommended detailing to push test with open trough profiled steel sheeting 41 Brussels. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop Back-breaking failure A P T C 30 recess optional 150 260 150 250 250 250 Bedded in mortar or gypsum Steel section: 254 x 254 89 UC or HE 260 B 4d minimum 750 .

com .hicks@steel-sci. 18-20 February 2008 – Dissemination of information workshop http://www.com/ s.EUROCODES Background and Applications Where can I get further information? 42 Brussels.access-steel.

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