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You are on page 1of 58

research and manuscripts

David L. Schriger, MD, MPH

Richelle J. Cooper, MD MSHS

e mail: mikulich@ucla.edu

put graphing lecture on the subject line

any comments about the lecture would be

appreciated. Mr Mikulich will anonymously

forward these to us (yeah right).

Much of this material can be found in the

January, 2001 issue of Annals of Emergency

Medicine.

Importance and advantages of graphical

data display

Master use of basic features of graphs

Learn advanced techniques

Gain ability to critique graphs

Importance of graphs:

Exploratory Data Analysis

Presentation of data

Values of data elements

Relationship of data elements

Importance of graphs:

Exploratory data analysis

How the investigator learns about the data

Seeing is believing

If we only had n dimensions

Make multiple slices

Advanced computer methods - Fantastic voyage

Cant cover in this hour

-1.79

-1.7

-1.68

-1.57

-1.55

-1.44

-1.36

-1.34

-1.29

-1.27

-1.23

-1.23

-1.18

-1.12

-1.09

-.97

-.95

-.89

-.87

-.85

-.85

-.8

-.8

-.78

-.76

-.75

-.75

-.73

-.66

-.66

-.64

-.63

-.63

-.59

-.59

-.57

-.55

-.55

-.38

-.35

-.33

-.33

-.32

-.31

-.29

-.23

-.22

-.22

-.2

-.19

-.12

-.1

-.06

-.04

.01

.05

.1

.14

.14

.15

.16

.2

.21

.24

.27

.28

.3

.31

.32

.33

.37

.46

.48

.52

.55

.57

.57

.59

.64

.71

.82

.87

.87

.9

.96

1

1.08

1.13

1.13

1.14

1.25

1.25

1.26

1.27

1.53

1.62

1.85

1.9

1.95

1.98

. summ z

Variable |

Obs

Mean

Std. Dev.

Min

Max

---------+----------------------------------------------------z |

100

-.0692

.9138869

-1.79

1.98

. summ z,d

z

------------------------------------------------------------Percentiles

Smallest

1%

-1.745

-1.79

5%

-1.495

-1.7

10%

-1.25

-1.68

Obs

100

25%

-.755

-1.57

Sum of Wgt.

100

50%

75%

90%

95%

99%

-.155

.56

1.195

1.575

1.965

Largest

1.85

1.9

1.95

1.98

Mean

Std. Dev.

-.0692

.9138869

Variance

Skewness

Kurtosis

.8351893

.2684074

2.395736

-.155

-1.787513

1.983905

plot in units of .01

-1** | 79,70,68

-1** | 57,55,44

-1** | 36,34,29,27,23,23

-1** | 18,12,09

-0** | 97,95,89,87,85,85,80,80

-0** | 78,76,75,75,73,66,66,64,63,63

-0** | 59,59,57,55,55

-0** | 38,35,33,33,32,31,29,23,22,22,20

-0** | 19,12,10,06,04

0** | 01,05,10,14,14,15,16

0** | 20,21,24,27,28,30,31,32,33,37

0** | 46,48,52,55,57,57,59

0** | 64,71

0** | 82,87,87,90,96

1** | 00,08,13,13,14

1** | 25,25,26,27

1** | 53

1** | 62

1** | 85,90,95,98

Fraction

-1** | 79,70,68

-1** | 57,55,44

-1** | 36,34,29,27,23,23

-1** | 18,12,09

-0** | 97,95,89,87,85,85,80,80

-0** | 78,76,75,75,73,66,66,64,63,63

-0** | 59,59,57,55,55

-0** | 38,35,33,33,32,31,29,23,22,22,20

-0** | 19,12,10,06,04

0** | 01,05,10,14,14,15,16

0** | 20,21,24,27,28,30,31,32,33,37

0** | 46,48,52,55,57,57,59

0** | 64,71

0** | 82,87,87,90,96

1** | 00,08,13,13,14

1** | 25,25,26,27

1** | 53

1** | 62

1** | 85,90,95,98

.1

0

-1.79

z

1.98

Importance of graphs:

summary statistics?

Variable |

Obs

Mean

Std. Dev

---------+-------------------------------z |

100

-.0692

.9138869

a |

100

-.0692

.9136105

u |

100

-.0692

.9131416

.2

.34

Fraction

Fraction

0

-1.79

1.98

a

Fraction

0

1.98

z

1.04

u

.1

-1.79

-1

Importance of graphs:

analytic statistics?

. regress o n

Number of obs =

100

F( 1,

98) = 411.93

Prob > F

= 0.0000

R-squared

= 0.8078

Adj R-squared = 0.8059

Root MSE

= .40336

---------------------------------------------------o |

Coef.

Std. Err.

t

P>|t|

---------+-----------------------------------------n |

2.818721

.1388798

20.296

0.000

_cons |

-1.41951

.0816387

-17.388

0.000

----------------------------------o | [95% Conf. Interval]

---------+------------------------n | 2.543118

3.094323

_cons | -1.581519

-1.2575

-----------------------------------.

2.46622

-2.10937

.005723

.984407

n

Principles of graphing:

Graph the data, not statistics

Exploit the dimensionality of the

graphic format

Depict the unit of analysis

Stratify on confounders

Show the trees and the forest

82

82

81

p< .05

80

79

77

78

77

76

75

A

B

Treatment Group

100

90

80

p < .05

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

A

N = 200

Treatment Group

B

N = 200

group A was 77 (SD 30,

N=200) and in group B

was 82 (SD 7 , N=200)

(p< .05).

20

Median

89

15

Treatment A

N = 200

Number of subjects

10

Mean 77

5

0

50

VAS score (mm)

100

10

15

20

Treatment B

N = 200

Mean 82

Median 83

9

7 9

7 88

6988

High pain group

6878

8 58677

979847667

8

9868747667

7

88877487366678

97

777574853355569 787

894763537433555599673

7 8854653336333345469572

6 6 7533632325323343353352

96 56253432431323322222343212

Number of cases

5

2 8

32 2

22222

22112

11112

11111212

4

11

VAS (mm)

71

VAS (mm)

100

Principles of graphing:

100

82

20

90

82

p< .05

80

79

77

78

p < .05

70

50

40

30

20

77

75

A

A

N = 200

Treatment Group

B

N = 200

9

7 9

7 88

Mean 77

6988

6878

5

0

50

VAS score (mm)

100

10

10

76

Treatment A

N = 200

10

60

Number of subjects

Median

89

15

80

81

15

2

0

8 58677

979847667

9868747667

88877487366678

97

777574853355569 787

894763537433555599673

7 8854653336333345469572

6 6 7533632325323343353352

11111212

96 56253432431323322222343212

Treatment B

N = 200

Mean 82

Median 83

Treatment Group

Depict the unit of analysis

Stratify on confounders

Show the trees and the forest

8

7

28

32 2

22222

22112

11112

No assumptions needed

Efficiency

Empowers readers to:

make their own conclusions

determine whether authors analyses are

appropriate

do their own analyses

Title

Title should state what is being shown or

compared.

Focus reader on what they are about to

see

NOT - Change in Respiratory Function

BUT - Change in FEV1 by group and

baseline FEV1

Legend

Makes the figure self-explanatory.

Defines abbreviations, symbols, and

methods

any regression line, p-value, or other symbol

based on calculations should be explained

Axes

Axes - scale

Appropriate boundaries: Do not overly

compress or expand the data.

Uniformity: Distance along axis must

retain consistent interpretation

throughout graph.

73

72

71

70

69

68

67

66

65

64

63

62

61

60

59

58

57

1

Post-op day

Axes tick marks and labels

Avoid clutter

Align ticks, labels and data points

Consider specific label for first and last

point of the data set

Data points

.99277

.074068

-.007491

3.27872

.99277

.074068

-.007491

3.27872

.99

.07

-.01

3.28

Data points

Is it the pattern or the individual points

that you want readers to see?

Consider using jitter or alter graph

dimensions to avoid clutter.

Consider symbols to further

differentiate strata in the data.

Chartjunk!

Any ink that does not

show or explain data

82

82

81

p< .05

80

79

77

78

77

76

75

A

B

Treatment Group

Background and Shading

Efficiency is the key to a good

graphic.

Avoid

- background shadings, background

grid lines, or unnecessary axes

- moir patterns

- 3-D effects

Other pitfalls to avoid

Avoid redundancy within the graphic

Check for errors

Matching the graph with the text

Avoid redundancy.

Use a graph to provide information

beyond what can be conveyed tersely in

text.

Be sure text and figures are congruent.

Work with copy editor - get the graphic

on the same page as the relevant text.

Choice depends on the type of data

collected, number of observations, and

the message you wish to convey.

Numeric details or overall pattern?

Number of subjects or measurements?

Data form a distribution?

Data paired?

Univariate simple display - pie chart,

bar graph, point graph

Univariate distribution one-way,

histogram, stem-and-leaf plot, boxand-whisker, survival curve

Bivariate display scatterplot and its

variations (ROC, Bland-Altman)

100

90

80

4%

12%

12%

1

2

3

4

5

6

60

Mean VAS (mm)

10%

26%

p < .05

70

50

40

30

20

36%

10

0

A

N = 200

Treatment Group

B

N = 200

Univariate distributions

20

Median

89

15

Treatment A

N = 200

10

Mean 77

5

Number of subjects

-1** | 79,70,68

-1** | 57,55,44

-1** | 36,34,29,27,23,23

-1** | 18,12,09

-0** | 97,95,89,87,85,85,80,80

-0** | 78,76,75,75,73,66,66,64,63,63

-0** | 59,59,57,55,55

-0** | 38,35,33,33,32,31,29,23,22,22,20

-0** | 19,12,10,06,04

0** | 01,05,10,14,14,15,16

0** | 20,21,24,27,28,30,31,32,33,37

0** | 46,48,52,55,57,57,59

0** | 64,71

0** | 82,87,87,90,96

1** | 00,08,13,13,14

1** | 25,25,26,27

1** | 53

1** | 62

1** | 85,90,95,98

100

50

VAS score (mm)

5

10

15

2

0

Treatment B

N = 200

Mean 82

Median 83

PEFR (L / min)

600

400

200

Pre

Post

Pre

Post

0

Drug S

Drug N

PEFR (L / min)

Figure 6a - Drug S

600

600

400

400

200

200

0

Pre

Post

Pre

600

600

400

400

200

200

0

Pre

Post

Post

Pre

Post

Not on Steroids

On Steroids

PEFR (L / min)

600

475

350

225

100

Subjects

N = 360

N=180

Not on steroids

On steroids

470

400

200

0

-110

110

200

300

400

Initial PEFR (L / min)

510

Special Features

Allow extra detail or strata to be

portrayed.

Convey complex relationships simply

Increase information content while

maintaining visual clarity

Illustration of pairing

Symbolic dimensionality

Small multiples

Layering of two graphic types to convey

detail and summary measures (eg scatterplot

with box-and-whisker plots)

Linear Regression

Lowess Regression

Patient Satisfaction

10

1

0

2

4

6

Length of ED Stay - hours

Discharged

. Admitted

10

Patient Satisfaction

8

6

4

2

1

0

2

4

6

Length of ED Stay - hours

ankle injury

laceration

wrist/hand fracture

back pain

bronchospasm

vomiting

weakness

headache

10

7

Satisfaction

Patient

Satisfaction

4

1

10

7

4

1

10

7

4

1

0

Length

ofStay

Stay(hours)

- hours

Length of

e mail: mikulich@ucla.edu

please put graphing lecture on the subject line

any comments about the lecture would be appreciated. Mr

Mikulich will anonymously forward these to us (yeah right).

Much of this material can be found in the January, 2001 issue

of Annals of Emergency Medicine.

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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