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Writing a paragraph Organizing compositions Cohesive devises Activities
I. WRITING A PARAGRAPH A paragraph (in Greek, paragraphos = to write beside or written beside) is a self-contained unit of a discourse in writing dealing with a particular point or idea. Paragraphs may consist of one or more related sentences. The start of a paragraph is always indicated by beginning on a new line, whether the style is indented or blocked. The structure of the paragraph is the following: • one topic sentence: is usually placed first in the paragraph; is the most general sentence of the paragraph; introduces or summarizes the main topic of the paragraph; gives the reader an idea of what the paragraph will be about. . • one or more supporting sentences: develop and support the main idea of the paragraph; explain why the main idea is true; contain examples, facts, details. • one concluding sentence, which is optional: is usually placed last in the paragraph; restates the main idea or makes the transition to the following paragraph.
E.g. a. Paragraphs are helpful to both writers and readers. They help writers group together and develop associated ideas into coherent units, which is useful both at the planning and writing stages. As readers, we very much like to recognize “threads” of thought, to feel that things are at their right place in the text. Thus, we feel the presence of a good writer, a good guide through the subject we are reading about. b. There are several reasons why this country should be part of the EU. First of all, it seems to be technically prepared for joining the Union. Secondly, significant support has been received lately from the businesspeople of Germany and France, as well as from their EU representatives. Thirdly, important steps have been taken as regards the he studies using public opinion. However, the homework that Turkey needs to do in this respect cannot be disregarded. c. Time management is much more of an issue at university than at high school. Why? Because in higher education one must take greater responsibility for one’s learning. There will be no one, for instance, to constantly remind you of deadlines. But it will be still up to you to meet them. You will not usually be given course books, as you will have to buy or borrow them yourself. This is because, to a large extent, university assumes that you are already highly developed in autonomous learning. Under these circumstances, a course like “Learning Strategies” can help you think about what autonomous learning really means and enable you to learn some strategies to take responsibility for your study.
The way a company approaches customer service is one of the most important factors in determining its future success or failure. analyses the major issues and supplies relevant evidence. • • • Remember: each paragraph should focus on one main idea only. 1. If one takes a look at companies that are not doing well or have gone under. often help us to anticipate what is coming next. its purpose is to develop points related to the subject of the composition. structure. The structure of most types of writing consists of three parts: • introduction • body • conclusion. ORGANIZING COMPOSITIONS In any text. 3. They: signal the relationship between ideas.d. No matter what a company does. Conclusion • is a short final paragraph. • • • COHESIVE DEVISES Cohesive devices are means by which parts of the text are linked as logically related sequences. . • provides relevant background information. o enticing the reader to further read the text. Introduction • consists of the first paragraph. III. • • • • Body usually consists of two or more inter-connected paragraphs. it is always in the business of providing customer service. • aims at: o giving the reader a general idea of the subject of the composition. one of their common features is their inability to deliver reliable and efficient customer service. each paragraph should be checked for content. make obvious the developing thread of meaning. the paragraph should be coherent and easy to read. II. o refer to a plan of action/ proposal. • may: o summarize the main idea of the subject o restate the writer’s opinion in different words o make general comments. all paragraphs should support each other. leading the reader from the first idea to the final resolution of the written work. form. the number of paragraphs depends on the specific topic of the composition. • identifies the topic of the text and defines it/ limits it to one specific issue. 2.
…/ next. …. INFERENCE indicates a deduction from what is implicit in the preceding sentence(s): then/ in other words/ in that case/ if so/ if not/ that implies/ my conclusion is/ else/ otherwise h. … above all/ last but not least: mark the end of an ascending order first and foremost/ first and most important(ly): mark the beginning of a descending order b. → etc. to begin/ start with. → three. REPLACEMENT expresses an alternative to what has preceded: again/ alternatively/ rather/ better/ worse/ on the other hand/ the alternative is/ another possibility would be . / moreover./ for example/ for instance/ such as/ including f. ENUMERATION indicates a cataloguing of what is being said. Equation: equally/ likewise/ similarly/ correspondingly/ in the same way From the point of view of meaning. ADDITION adds something to what has been previously indicated. APPOSITION is used to refer back to previous sentences or to parallel or related references: i. …. …/ finally. …./ that is/ that is to say/ namely/ in other words/ or/ or rather/ or better/ e. RESULT expresses the consequence or result of what was said before: so/ therefore/ as a result/ as a consequence/ the result was…/ the consequence was…/ accordingly/ consequently/ because of this/ thus/ hence/ for this reason/ for that reason g. …→ etc. …/ afterward. Reinforcement: also/ again/ furthermore/ further/ moreover/ what is more/ then/ in addition/ besides/ above all/ too/ as well as b. … → lastly. … → two. now/ with reference to/ with respect to/ with regard to/ regarding/ let us turn to/ as for/ as to/ as per b. SUMMATION indicates a generalization or summing-up of what has preceded: in conclusion/ to conclude/ to sum up briefly/ in brief/ to summarize/ altogether/ overall/ then/ therefore/ thus. … → third(ly). …/ to conclude. … → furthermost. e.e. ….… one. …→ in the second place. …/ then. TRANSITION can lead to a new stage in the sequence of thought. incidentally/ by the way/ come to think of it: indicate a digression and an afterthought d. It includes: a. talking/ speaking of/ apropos/ that reminds me of: introduce a digression c. there could also be negative equivalents of “and”: neither…nor… c. Some enumerations belong to clearly defined sets: • • • • • • first. → second(ly). … → finally.• include a variety of devices such as: o pronouns o articles o conjunctions o demonstratives o synonyms o repetition of key words. first(ly).g. List of connectors a.. a.
(although. thought or idea accompanied by supporting details. In contrast. 3. CollinsELT. It is the fastest. It can be rather expensive. and) Mobile phones are expensive. From the list of statements below. she is very kind and assists everybody. h. In this way. a paragraph in prose fiction can start with a single detail and enlarge with successive details. ACTIVITIES 1. R. For example. surprising nature of what is being said in view of what was said before: besides/ else/ however/ nevertheless/ nonetheless/ only/ still/ while/ although/ yet/ an any case/ at any rate/ for all that/ in spite of/ despite/ after all/ at the same time/ on the other hand/ even if/ even though/ whilst (Based upon Appendix 8 from Academic Writing Course. idea or topic e. therefore) Adventure parks can be a very good business. (all in all/ however) It will take us all day to finish this report. a paragraph can be as short as one word. He had to voice his desire. (instead/ consequently) . each paragraph builds on what came before and lays the ground for what comes next. g. They are very convenient. (even though/ what is more) Many young people are taught computer skills at school. paragraphs are generally between three and seven sentences long. or run to many pages. decide which ones are true: a. k. j. a paragraph deals with a single thought. a paragraph can express more than one thought. the prose paragraph has a more abstract structure that depends on the author's technique and the action of the narrative. such as) Jack wanted to participate in the training. Simon failed the test. idea or topic. On one hand. Read the paragraph below and try to pick out the transition words or phrases. CONTRAST expresses an opposition with what has preceded: instead/ conversely/ then/ on the contrary/ by way of contrast/ in comparison/ on the one hand…on the other hand j. d. the non-fiction paragraph usually begins with the general and moves towards the more specific in order to advance an argument or point of view. Choose the correct linking word/ phrase and join the sentences: a. a paragraph must be at least five sentences long c. The boss will have to wait till tomorrow for it. (since/ on the other hand) Growing your own produces is cheaper than buying them.i. f. She has found happiness in both her professional and private life. Home-grown produces are usually tastier. c. i. (because/ therefore) Air travel is the most expensive form of transport. Paragraphs can be divided into two broad styles: non-fiction and prose. A paragraph consists of a unifying main point. She can be moody at times. (since. However. (nevertheless. (despite/ as a result) I admire Jackie. (but. e.R. (but/ so) As a manager. Additionally. They can be quite risky. 2. a paragraph consists of one or more sentences d. Underline all the transition words or phrases that you identify. Jordan. but it's just as common for the point of a prose paragraph to occur in the middle or at the end. They have a better chance of finding a job. a paragraph must be made up of closely related sentences that develop a main idea f. 1990) IV. CONCESSION indicates the unexpected. He had not studied enough. while) Ordering take-away food is very convenient. b. a paragraph is a section of writing that begins on a new line b.
n. engineering and management remain the top subjects taken by international students.531). a. now the seventh biggest exporter of students to the US. but within the higher education sector went up slightly. b. (as for/ however) n. i. It has been a difficult year. earnings per share increased 15%. The total number of international students in the US for academic year 2009/10 increased by 3 per cent to just over 690. Thailand (8. The employee took three days to complete the proposal. As a result of some unfair tactics by competitive call centres. On the whole. there are misunderstandings which are compounded when people speak different languages. Besides the Middle East. Most people use word processors these days. since people are moving around more for work. she has a lot of practical knowledge of accounting. the majority of countries sending students to the US actually dispatched fewer in 2009/10. Business. e. the US Department of Commerce estimates that in 2009 foreign students’ tuition fees and living expenses contributed almost $20 billion (£12. the Trevi Fountain and the Pantheon. There are many places to visit in Rome like the Colosseum. investors appear to have full confidence in our capacity to grow our business. Women are considered better than men in human resources. Men are thought to be better planners. it is important to realize that very few people have all the skills. Hong Kong (just over 8. Although Rachel has just graduated from university. but moved to Spain when he was 20. while Nepal fell by 3 per cent. b. and there were slight drops in the numbers of students coming from Taiwan (26. j. Tenth-place Turkey was up slightly to over 12. Labour costs in this country are very high.829). Vietnamese enrolments dropped by 2 per cent in 2009/10. but you should always insist on hard evidence. (so/ whilst) 4. m. Countries showing significant growth also included Saudi Arabia. There are now just over 14. so as to obtain a coherent text.500. . d. c. experience. f. Put the following paragraphs in the right order.000 Mexican students in the US. Our efficiency has earned us a place among the top ten software companies in this country.l. o. As our supplier was unable to meet the deadline for delivery. the West has now discovered another obsession: the rising power of China.685). we had to cancel our order. (after all/ on the other hand) o.000) and Russia (4.000. some multinationals are now opening call centres in more remote places. So he cannot be totally unaware of the Polish culture. The company is relocating in Asia.8 billion) to the US economy. c. in spite of the fact that it should have been ready in 24 hours. of which more than 300. which represents a fall of 9 per cent. l. 5. (that is why/ despite) m. Furthermore. Total Japanese enrolments fell 15 per cent. They would not like to live there. they failed to retain their customer base. A few still prefer to use pen and paper. Two countries that had seen sharp rises in enrolments in recent years – Vietnam (45 per cent up in the previous two years). Nevertheless. Businessmen enjoy visiting the Far East on business. k. Secondly. Then. d. He was born in Poland.000. Germany (9.548). I saw a lot of incidents while I was the head of the department. 1. g. according to the Institute of International Education’s Open Doors report.000. h. contacts or reputation that are required to get business running. and Nepal (30 per cent up in 2008/09) – both saw this trend reverse. the highest it’s ever been. CEOs may sound very enthusiastic in their reports.000 are postgraduates. seventeenth-place France climbed by 4 per cent to over 7. Despite their very competitive prices. and twentieth-place Nigeria rose by 5 per cent to over 6. The first paragraph is indicated to you. However. Some experts predict that the expansion of the European Union will produce a more mobile work force. Replace the linking words/ phrases in bold with synonymous ones from the list of connectors: a.
There were 128. now in second place. our lives are full of change. a.e.000 – 15 per cent of all international students in higher education. In healthy stress there is a rapid adjustment to the change. issued in ELGazette. Predicting stress is quite a problem. It is easy to look back on an experience. But it is not so easy to predict in advance that we will be harmed by going through a particular experience. c. (adapted from US foreign students hit a new high by Matt Salusbury. There is a key difference between healthy and harmful stress. b. Read the twelve sentences below and decide which ones are more likely to be topic (4) or supporting sentences (8). a. e. Write a paragraph to say why you consider it a good choice for your education. India and South Korea now make up 44 per cent of all international enrolments in higher education. with China overtaking India as the biggest exporter of international students to the US. February 2011) 6. g. although its old dominance is progressively slipping in face of Asian competition. g. b. and we continually try to adjust as well as possible to all the changes going on about us. Remember that you are right. Read the topic sentences below and think of appropriate supporting sentences to complete each paragraph. 8. Stress can be described as the reaction of the mind and the body to change. Consequently. j. It is only those changes which we have no answer to and can not adjust to which cause physical and mental suffering. 7. Europe seems to remain the motor of this industry. now making up only 4 per cent of total international enrolments. but you are not the only one who is! e. accounting for 18 per cent of the total international student body. knowing it has done harm and to say that it was stress that caused it.000 Chinese students in the US in autumn 2009. As regards intensive English language course enrolments. Consequently. the mystery and promise of travel are likely to remain alive to each new generation. we should always try to have an approach in which flexibility is a key. k. The romance of travel may not be what it was in the old days of steam or carriages. so as to have a coherent text in the end. c. As a matter of fact. The democratization of travel over the last decades has definitely been a key factor. d. It is true that nowadays we are all travellers. But this is always easier said than done. i. Then arrange then in a logical order in paragraphs and then in a text. but it is the most important industry in the world. they declined in 2008/09 by 1 per cent and fell a further 9 per cent. d. rose by 2 per cent to almost 105. f. In this respect. Total growth for 2009 was ‘primarily driven’ by a 30 per cent increase in Chinese enrolments. l. Think about your university/ faculty. f. but some also proudly declare to be passionate tourists. China. Many of these adjustments take place without our being conscious of them. h. . The intake of students from India.
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