Brewing and Drinking the Beer of Enlightenment in Tibetan Buddhism: The DOHĀ Tradition in Tibet Author(s): John A.
Ardussi Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 97, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1977), pp. 115124 Published by: American Oriental Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/599000 . Accessed: 30/11/2011 08:36
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1972).BREWING AND DRINKING THE BEER OF ENLIGHTENMENT IN TIBETAN BUDDHISM: THE DOHA TRADITION IN TIBET
JOHN A. The Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa.l It was especially among yogins that this tradition flourished. 175-201 (rgyud'grel. into the Indian cultic environment from which the doha originated. pat2 The canonical source for the eighty-five magiciansaints is AbhayadattaSri (Mi-'jigs-pa-sbyin-pa-dpal). however. the Saintly Tibetan Madman. Vie et chants de 'Brug-pa Kun-legs le yogin.
1 Some of the songs of the Indian magician-saint Saraha are now available in translation in Herbert V. who adapted it to suit their needs and personal inspiration. Of these. Leipzig. there is M. as is well known. by inference. Later generations of yogins.
Tibet inherited a wide variety of commentatorial and didactic literary forms characteristic of the late Buddhism sprung from the soil of India. pp. The present essay explores one such thematic innovation from Tibet. Chang. New York: University Books.2 Thus the
songs of such Indian saints as Saraha and Kanha were highly respected and much imitated by Tibetans. enabling him to devote his entire existence to the pursuit of qualified teachers and the techniques of contemplative training which they have to impart. ARDUSSI AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
Among the non-scriptural literary remains of Indian Tantric Buddhism. For Kanha. Stockholm. 2. smyon-pa) of the revival movement of yogic ideals in the 15th-16th centuries.a-68. The vast bulk of Tibetan mgur literature. and an illustrated study by Toni Schmid. A. especially the "mad" saints (Tib. 115
was they. 1928. Guenther. cf. Less well-studied. Shahidullah. Stein. An excellent translation of vol. 1972. but are translated (with some notable lapses in accuracy) in Garma C. In fact. The songs of Mi-la-ras-pa have not been critically edited. thesis "'Brug-pa Kunlegs. dohd) composed by accomplished yogic adepts have received a degree of attention by Western scholars. But for the better poets and the yogins accomplished in meditation. An edition and translation of the first half of vol. A thorough examination of these innovations may eventually provide greater insight into the kernel of their meaning and. 1969. Lu: ff. grub-thob) of India.a). is the far more voluminous literatuie produced in the genre by Tibetan Tantric yogins. 1958. [trans. the contemplative practice of brewing and drinking the "beer of enlightenment. the song of spiritual realization (doha. 84-256. 1962. Seattle & London: University of Washington Press. Grilnwedel. Les chants mystiques de Kadha et de Saraha. C. Tib. mgur) came to be of particular significance. Liiyi-pa'i sogs grub thob brgyad bcu rtsa bzhi'i yang dag lo rgyus. Paris: AdrienMaisonneuve. is available in his M. Peking Bstan-'gyur vol. The Eighty-Five Siddhas.]. 1916. and further verses of Saraha. 2 of the same autobiography. it was the great Tibetan poet-saint Mi-la-ras-pa (1040-1123) who came to embody and personify the characteristics of the ideal yogin. more than any other class of Tibetan Buddhists. as can be judged from the volume of indigenous Tibetan materials in this genre."
THE BUDDHISM THAT CAME TO BE PRACTISED in
to them. unfortunately. A. by the present writer. Maisonneuve et Larose.-P. 87. 1 of the autobiography (containing many songs) of 'Brug-pa Kun-legs (1455-1529?) is now available from R." (University of Washington. who sought to maintain and emulate in a living tradition the life style and religious approach of the great Tantric magician-saints (siddhacarya. BaesslerArchiv 5 (4/5). remains untapped and untranslated. a translation by A. Die Geschichten der vierundachtzig Zauberer. one who has abandoned all his worldly possessions and aspirations. pp. 2 vols. The same author has provided a version of the text in "Le texte tib6tain de 'Brug-pa kun-legs. enigmatic spiritual songs (Skt. Tib. The Royal Song of Saraha. these songs came to serve simply as models in a rather elastic genre allowing wide scope for adaptation and elaboration. Paris: G." Zentralasiatische Studien 7 (1973): 9-219.
Such an undertaking would involve that we examine the philosophical and contemplative assumptions underlying the songs. emotional. The "Tibetan" component of Tibetan
mgur.5 It would be premature in this essay to attempt to trace in detail the entire history of the mgur literature in Tibetan. 1972). Recherches sur l'epopee et le barde au
(pp. The Tibetan mgur. partly historical. 2 "TheTeaching
of the Dohas" of his study The Royal Song of Saraha
terned themselves after his life and activities. Murti. requires further. however. so that he is brought quickly to comprehend and unify the paradoxical thesis of the Two Truths of Madhyamika philosophy: Conventional (samvrti) and Ultimate (nirvrti). 1977]). providing us with a valuable means of studying their social relevance. but must certainly also be related to the style and symbolism of the Diamond Songs (vajra-giti. to compose songs of spiritual realization. Stein. and not merely to believe in the purely relative and dependent character of the experiential world. pp.
The Two Truths are dealt with by T. we may say that the spiritual path adopted by Tibetan yogins of later centuries consisted of a practical philosophical system (Tib. he distinguishes (p. 485-506. V. as well as require that we identify recurrent themes and relate them to the religious tradition as a whole. The present study is meant to be a contribution towards that end. Rather I hope to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of the genre by studying what is an appar3 On the tradition of religious madmen in Tibet cf. though difficult obtainment of enlightenment through powerful contemplative methods designed to restructure the personal reality of the practitioner's state of mind. Stein. (New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture. have been strongly influenced by popular traditions of song and dance. 21-41). 243-55. 2. sufficient unto itself. mostly of the Bka'-brgyud-pa sect. and grounded in the rituals and contemplative techniques of Tantric literature but stressing the importance of intense individual effort. the circumstantial motives for their composition are usually given.116
Journal of the American Oriental Society 97. 4 The connection between the later "mad" saints and Mi-la-ras-pais further emphasized by their use of the spelling Dkar-brgyud-pa ("White Lineage") in place of the more commonBka'-brgyud-pa ("OralLineage")used elsewhere in the sect.as has been pointed out by E. 1959). Gene Smith.
The Central Philosophy of Buddhism (London: George
5 R. cit.
Tibet (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. A. can be considered as forming a more or less unified body of literature. Introductionby E. In particular. [ed.]. deriving ultimately from Indian siddhdcdryas. it is in its adaptation to Tibetan social modalities that the genre most clearly demonstrates a departure from the Indian model. namely songs composed by highly accomplished Tantric yogins on the contemplative practice of brewing and drinking the "beer of Enlightenment. and the reader should consult Guenther's discussion for their meaning. taking his cue from a text by the 15th century Tibetan scholar Karma Phrin-laspa. as has been ably demonstrated by the researches of R. The two terms are pronounced virtually identically.4 Whether the songs are found interspersed through their hagiographies.
Allen & Unwin. The Indian dohd seems to have arisen as an instructional technique. pp. much of which has yet to become available in printed editions. Briefly. moreover. but the former stresses their retention of the white meditation garb of Mi-la-ras-pa. and cognitive. Athough there have been isolated attempts to translate the mgur of some of the more important Tibetan yogins. grub-mtha') passed on as an oral tradition (snyan-rgyud). so that the songs of all these yogins. op. 1969). interpretation. The process aims at a rapid. and. 24) between three increasingly profound levels of doha understanding or meaning: pictorial.7 The yogin comes to realize. R. Stein. Himalayan Anthropology (The Lokesh Chandra. "The Saintly Madmanin Tibet.2 (1977) ently unique Tibetan elaboration of the Indian yogic doha. as we shall see. p. Tibetan Civilization (London: Faber & Faber. esp. Ch. The Life of the Saint of Gtsang
Hague: Mouton [in press. pp. In fact.3 This conscious emulation extended as well to the composition of spiritual songs. rdo-rje-glu) sung during the Tantric ritual of the 6 Guenther has provided a thoughtful and important analysis of the Indian dohdsin Part I. Gene Smith. there has been so far no systematic study of the genre from a comparative point of view. 259-76.. These categories can also be usefully applied to the indigenous Tibetan mgur. or collected into separate works. "6 Both the content and the context of Tibetan mgur must be understood in the light of the multifaceted complex of Indian Tantric Buddhism from which they emerged. 1955)."
in John Fisher [ed. A. Tib. and in the process gains certain magical powers such as the ability to fly.]. also John Ardussi and Lawrence Epstein.
The Life and Teaching of Naropa
wood block print $19999sl0. 35-39. Ibid. Guenther's well-known insistence on the communicative aspect of Samrbhoga-kaya ("communication-with-others") can be usefully noted here. an ability that. A. f. and compressed to the format of versified song. the spiritual song came to be a particularly important form of religious instruction. L. All readings of this text are from the British Library
. All references to the Mgur-
'bum. and I concur with his rea-
soning on the difference between translation and interpretation (p. and the practitioner at this level is regarded as partaking of Buddhahood and becomes able to produce songs of the Absolute Truth spontaneously. Compare the similar statement of Gtsang-smyon-pa in his biography by (Lha-btsun) Rin-chen rnam-rgyal.
(Oxford: Clarendon Press. 10 Gtsang-smyon-pa Sangs-rgyas rgyal-mtshan (14521507).ARDUSSI: The Doha Tradition in Tibet Circle of Hosts (gana-cakra. Mi-la-ras-pa says that when the Four Joys move upward and reach the level of longs-spyod in his neck. by implication. 2728.a: khyod 'jig rten 'di yi so nam mkhan // nga skye ba gtan gyi so nam mkhan // ston thog su mang blta yang blta // nam phugs su skyid 'gran
yang 'gran //. H. animal husbandry. f. (trans. they simply appear in his mind as mental experience (Tib. Stein. And in the end we shall compare [the amount of] joy. 1). pp. 11 Rnal 'byor gyi dbang phyug chen po kun dga' legs pa'i rnam thar gsung 'bum rgya mtsho las dad pa'i ku shas chu thigs tsam blangs pa ngo mtshar bdud rtsi'i zil mngar (cited hereafter as Autobiography of 'Brug-pa Kun-legs. Since parallelism is the key to this kind of song. Grub thob gtsang pa smyon pa'i rnam thar dad pa'i spu slong g. I am a cultivator of rebirth into Eternity. 1963). M. vol. Rnal 'byor gyi dbang phyug chen po rje btsun bzhad pa rdo rje'i rnam thar rgyas par phye ba mgur 'bum
12 Mgur-'bum.]. vol."1l
(cited hereafter as Mgur-'bum). H.8 For the songs are always symbolic and ordinarily consist of analogical expressions of the paradox of existence. f. cf. W." the cakras or mystical centers symbolically located along the axis of their bodies.a (contained in S. 13 Mgur-'bzum. f. possessed the nature of a magical attainment. Having gained control over their "subtle physiology. 32). (1) "You are a cultivator of this worldly realm." they are able to concentrate this force in the center located at their neck. his "treasury of Diamond Song spontaneously flows forth. folio 151. 2). leading the listener by the universal Buddhist pedagogical techniques of parable and simile to a more profound realization of ineffable reality. vol.). as if in a book. Tib. The Hevajra Tantra (London: Oxford University Press. yogins. Snellgrove.b-90. Bde mchog mkha' 'gro snyan rgyud (Ras chung snyan rgyud)."10 8 Cf. Like Mi-la-ras-pa.9 The process is a meditative one." cf. Much work remains to be done on the theory and practice of this key Tantric ritual. except where so stated. D. Vie et chants de 'Brug-pa kun-legs le yogin. rendered in the language of Tantric ritual thinking. longs-spyod-
sku) or "Enjoyment Body" of the Buddha. and laymen. 31-35.b: gnas lugs ngang nas glu gcig len. Conflicting theories on translating this kind of terminology have
been dealt with by R. pp. Yet there is a further component in addition to the didactic and symbolic. are to the printed version in 342 folia at the University of Washington(Far Eastern
Library: FEL-TIB-4A).yo'a ba. was once asked to sing "one of those introspective songs that arise in your heart. and household arts of the Tibetan peasantry. tshogs-'khor).
Guenther. resulting from their high level of yogic realization and from the great merit they had accumulated during their previous lives. usually identified with the Sambhoga-kaya (Tib. Lalou." Studies of Esoteric Buddhism and Tantrism (Koya-
Similarly 'Brug-pa Kun-legs. 267. and the "winds" or forces which move along the mystical "veins. Tashigangpa.b: dga' ba bzhi mgrin pa longs spyod kyi gnas su phyin pas rdo rje'i glu'i mdzod dang shugs su rdol ba. "Pr6liminairesd'une Etude des Ganacakra. nyams) natural to one who has achieved the longs-spyod level of Buddhahood.l2 In Tibet.b: nyams dbyangs thugs la shar ba."ll Mi-la-ras-pa further adds that "the little songs which come to my mouth just appear. 103. 1959). Leh. At harvest time we shall see [whose crops are] more. at the court of the 2nd Dalai Lama. p. 112. 1965).. 1.b: kha ru glu chung len pa de / / snang ba dpe char shar ba yin //. the tight compositional structure is itself an essential part of the instructional message. 41-46. 89. directed as well at monks. 1971. [ed. 38. 9 On the interpretation of this contemplative "psychophysiology. Thus. the famous Tibetan yogin 'Brug-pa Kun-legs (1455-1529?) had a gift for song. pp. It thus evolved into special forms." and also that he sings his songs from the realm of the Absolute. many of which consist of a complex of analogies between the processes and stages of yogic contemplation and the processes of the farming. folio lO.
364B-2643. The following translation is based on readings from Mgur-'bunz. desiring to see the sights of the mountain.2 (1977) the vicinity of Mt. 17 There is here a deliberate play on the words Itas and Itad. His powers have weakened. song j#102. is common in Tibetan Buddhist writing. food and clothing. the refined essential
beg you not to go as you are old and probably won't
make it I' 'It is okay for me to do something as easy as this. both the preparation and the drinking serve as symbols of yogic endeavour. etc. as well as two separate editions from the Toyo Bunko collection of Tibetan
to call to mind Itad. Then it straightened back up again. My drink was the ambrosialbeer of mindfulmindfulness. however. ff.' or 'prognostic. Group them into divisions. pictorial. "At that time many other disciples had also come. 'If you would reach the mountain peak. are mostly The earlier translation by Chang (The insignificant.b. Now I have no feat of hunger.' but is meant
15 Tibetan beer (chang) is technically an infusion of fermented barley.
works on history (364A-2642. contains a detailed recipe which clears up most of the difficulties. The text has Itas which means 'sight' in the sense of 'insight. much as Sanskrit surd came to be used. 16 There are also oral versions. a 'view' as of a landscape. The first example. level of symbolism. La-phyi.' he said. 1893). a favorite meditation site of Mi-la-raspa. pp. The
entire stanza 4 compares the climbing of a mountain and viewing of the sights with a kind of contemplative sddhana in which the visualizations are described in terms of grasping. Now I have no feat of thirst. There on the mountain peak he sat for some time encloaked in a rainbow. seems also to be the earliest to come down to us in writing. and sang this song: (3) 'I bow down to all my Lamas.
ff.a-b." Transactions of the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists (London. from the "Collected Songs" (Mgur-' bum) of Mi-la-ras-pa. But Mi-la-ras-pa is old. the Reverend H.' replied Mi-la-ras-pa. so he cannot go. the pedagogical parallels could only have been intelligible to persons acquainted with the terminology and technique of the household art of brewing beer. Fortunately.a-292. I plan to deal with this unique recipe in a separate article. Lie down. adapt it to more uniquely Tibetan conditions.16 The setting is in
Mgur-'bum. however. and
the Reverend [Mi-la-ras-pa] said.a: ngas Itogs kyis dogs nas zas cig btsal // zas ni chos nyid ting 'dzin zas // da Itogs kyis dogs pa nga la med // ngas skom gyi dogs nas btung ba btsal // btung ba dran shes bdud rtsi'i chang // da skom gyis dogs pa nga la med //. vol. 2.a). which are pronounced the same but have different meanings. while the motif of the songs has probably been adapted from peasant-agricultural folk themes. 40. Since it was a popular prejudice among some groups of monastic Buddhists that yogins spent all their time in meditation and begging. Cf. of unknown age. f. but the name is also loosely applied to any kind of alcoholic beverage. ff. 9. La-phyi on the Nepal-Tibet frontier. vol. "The Folk-Songs of Ladak and
Baltistan. 572-75) is defective largely because he was ignorant of the technical terms used in brewing beer.14 (2) "Fearing hunger I sought for food. while doing nothing to earn a livelihood. 2. we
Other songs. 'Please.15 In the case of the following beer-drinking songs. The fermented beverage has been shifted to a different. ff. Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa. 'Up there on the mountain peak someone came and served me beer. Then he flew back down again and said to the disciples.
of teachings or contemplative experiences. in fact. bdud-rtsi).b. Now Mi-la wants to climb that mountain peak. oh inanimate mountain I' Immediately as he sang that verse the mountain bent down its head and on its peak the Reverend planted his feet. The differences.' and he sang this song: (4) 'Oh disciples of mine. 249. Tib. Hanlon. binding. the Autobiography of 'Brug-pa Kun-legs.
. The food I ate was deep meditation of the Absolute.' 'Please tell us the method we too can use to get there. while yet retaining some of the symbolism of the Indian doha and vajragiti. 289. as you would in a catalogue.a-250.17 Grasp them as you would with the Clear Light of the self-mind [in meditation].a-291. 291. and the present translation is based on it. and initially derives from Indian usage. Here.' But the disciples said.118
Journal of the American Oriental Society 97." Beer or alcoholic drink as a symbol for nectarous
essence (amrta. Mi-la-ras-pa once replied in the following way to the argument of his disciples that even he needed a home. 'Let us go for fun to the top of the high mountain which is there in front of Mt. 'you must meditate according to these instructions. and how we can obtain the beer I' they requested. Fearing thirst I soughr for drink.
The cooked barley is spread out onto a large rug (often called a brdal-phyar) or winnow to cool. the endless flow of nectar.23 When it has risen and become the ferment of Manywith-one-flavor. where a Bodhisattva is depicted with a miniature image upon his forehead of the Buddha of which he is an emanation. Phyar-bar bdal does not mean to raise a flag (Chang. Within the copper pot of Emptiness Pour the barley of Purest Faith.. and also to 'achieve liberation. fn. Its raw material is the Pure Heruka. below. 20 This recalls the practice in Buddhist iconography. Then cook to a mash of Dimensionless Uniformity. Its touch is the Heruka of sensuous beauty.' and he sang this song: (6) 'I bow down to the feet of Mar-pa the Translator. contains not only yeast but also mold spores (Aspergillus oryzae). With the first [drink] he clarifies and purifies himself as Diamond Body. With the second he perfects his Buddhahood as Enjoyment Body. If you meditate thus. It is then infused with water (bsings) in a large pot.
Pour in also the water of Mindful Compassion. thereby becoming 'strengthened into beer' (chang du ngar). Light the fire of Great Wisdom. Pour it into the pot of the [five] Impulses. Can you not at least strive for a superior birth?' Then Ras-chung-pa [his principal disciple] said. and I pray you allow me to drink the beer as well. before adding the starter. then Keep it warm in the bed of the Four Immeasurables.
. Though you are unable to drink the beer which is pure. on which cf. Its color is the Lotus Heruka. you will arrive. Can you not at least drink the [material] weak beer? Though you cannot strive for Enlightenment. like sun and moon.18 And reaching the mountain peak. 23 Tibetan beer starter. like that for sake. Its smell is the Various Heruka.' The Reverend replied. With the third he appears visibly as Emanation Body. And will drink the beer of this experience.20 (7) Chief among the six classes of beings are humans. Hold them firm as you would with a great hook. This man from Lho-brag is the Lord Buddha. p. the source of all desires. Its flavor is the Diamond Heruka. Omnipresent is he. Ibid. 574).21 18 Again a double meaning. (8) We.' 19 Probably a subtle suggestion of the gana-cakra. but rather to spread out on a rug." but the texts clearly have the common formula dkar-mo-dad-pa. 24 The practitioner here contemplates himself in the maid1ala of Heruka. The usual translations of phabs and chang-rtsi as 'yeast' must therefore be rejected. p. not -dang-ba. brew a batch of beer and drink. Yet every spring and every autumn They busy themselves first with their useless crops. Beyond measure in stature is he. you will see the view. Phabs is stirred into the cooled barley. too. (9) From the spiggot. 21 Chang (Ibid. 122. p. These are the marks of him. This fact was confirmed by clinical analysis performed for me on a sample of phabs (graciously supplied by Dr. my [spiritual] father: Like the sky. inseparable from me. Speech and Mind. Tap the beer.19 You unsuitable ones who remain without. 'This is how we drink the beer: according to the system of our dear Mar-pa [Mi-la-ras-pa's guru]. Who dwells in the unbroken flow of innate reality. Now to explain our method for the brewing of beer: Set out the hearth stones of Body. The suitable man will drink of this unending flow of beer. Howard Douglas of the University of Washington School of Medicine. experiencing within himself the aspects of the various Buddha families.ARDUSSI: The Doha Tradition in Tibet
Bind them firm as you would with a great knot. 'Yes. Residing as the adornment of my head. where it absorbs the alcohol.. And then with the making of beer from yellow barley. by Dr. you suitable men and women 1 The sights and feast will fully satisfy you. which becomes [for him] nectar.22 Add the starter of Sacred Instructions. Its other ingredients are the Heruka of the Dharmarealm. Spread it out in the central plain of Sameness. The master of spiritual truth.) gives "the pure White Element. There is no chance for the unsuitable to drink it. Infuse it with water to a union of Wisdom and Means. which is then kept warm for several days while it ferments as a kind of damp mash (glum).24 (10) And now one drinks the beer of yoga. 575. like a thicket of reeds. chemically essential for fermentation. Melvyn Goldstein). I can strive for Enlightenment. he is clear and pure. (5) But come within. Upon the rug of Great Joy. Strengthen it into the beer of the Five Knowledges. for the verb thar-pa mean both 'to reach' the mountain top.
To taste its flavor is to achieve liberation.plow the ground of the fields of faith. but extended to include parallelism. II . Chos rje lo ras pa' i rnam par thar pa bdud rtsi' i phreng ba. not for everybody. One pleases the various deities of the mandala. making a second. In due time. Tapped in the Dharma-realm. (12) In the beer ladle of the Six Adornments Is the beer of the pure oral teachings. the profound instructions to his disciples. how happy am II" In another beer-drinking song. Tashijong. Having vomited and become free from drunkenness. often called 'vessels' in Tibetan. too. 26 The Six Adornments (mdzes-pa drug) are probably not the adornments of a Tantric yogin. It is a wondrous and astonishing practice. The yogin. With the second beer of Wisdom and Means. possessed of the three [vows].fertilize with the water and manure of the practices. analogical This song was sung to agriculture and plowing. p. which I have changed to the more proper bzi-ba. has asked him if he. 1972. He replies tsho legs // legs pa'i legs lugs bshad tsa na // gzhi dad pa'i sa zhing bshim dang gcig // gdams ngag gi sa bon thebs dang gnyis // nyams len gyi chu lud 'dzom dang gsum // khong de gsum ' dzom pa' i dus tshod na // byang chub kyi myu gu ban ma bun mar skye bar gda' ste // lo la sad dang ser ba mi yang (sic. When the glum is first infused. One satisfies the desires of self and all others. [India]. The master 'ladles out.' the principal oral teachings of the Bka'-brgyud-pa sect.2
Here is another parable of drinking: (11) With the first beer of purest experience. weaker infusion. III . the imagery of brewing the beer of Tantric yoga is combined with an even clearer moralistic the listener that element. Nirvana. of high and ordinary. ff. and the lesser ones such as the ability to fly. III . has his good crops. [ed. vol. this one by 'Brugpa Kun-legs. II . The sprouts of Enlightenment will grow up little by little.b-63.27 High and ordinary: the two kinds of magical attainment.120
of the American
97. So nam byed pa de rgyal khams phyogs med na byed kyang // lo legs pa rnal 'byor rang re
(14) "While agriculture is practiced everywhere in the world. More water is added and stirred in.) but rather the Nd-ro chos-drug. when these three are in abundance. too.intoxication on the beer of the dance of the instructions.
. One spews out the vomit of disgust with Samsara. With the weakest beer. become intoxicated from beer.]. (15) While the beer is tasty in Dol Ma-ma-gser-stengs. and the hostess. chide some monks who had been engaging in drinking and merriment during the harvest season in the province of Gtsang.' as it were. fn. instructing affairs should take priority over the spiritual is worldly. The text of this and the next song are given here on account of their relative scarcity in western libraries. Yogins. 'Brug-pa Kun-legs staying at an inn in Lhasa. In due time. Summoning them through one's sacral pledges. too.25 Keeping it within the realm of sensory experience. perhaps in the region of Dol Ma-ma-gser-stengs as suggested by the second stanza. Palampur. 62. as Chang implies (Ibid. (13) This is the technique for drinking the beer of the yogin. the 'six teachings of Naropa. is it not the greatest of miracles?'" A different kind of beer-drinking song. yong) ba de blo re rang bde // chang zhim po de dol gyi ma ma gser stengs na zhim kyang // chang bzi ba de rang re rnal 'byor tsho bzi // chang gis bzi ba' i bzi lugs de bshad tsa na // gzhi dad pa' i nas 'bru bzang ba dang gcig // ye shes mkha' 'gro'i lag len thon dang gnyis // gdams ngag gi gar chang bzi dang gsum // khong de gsum 'dzom pa'i dus tshod na // 'khor ba la zhen log gi skyugs pa chal ma chil // skyugs kyang skyur 'gong med pa de nyams su dga' //. A third infusion will be very weak in alcohol. Bka 'brgyudpa Hagiographies. To explain a bit about this system of goodness: I .. One makes offerings to the Buddha and Lamas. who ordinarily would be skilled in making beer herself. Happy am I when neither frost nor hail touches these crops. 2. the beer which is strained off is the first or strongest beer. The text consistently has gzi-ba. Indeed. 575.plant the seeds of the oral instructions. by the Tibetan famous yogin Lo-ras-pa Dbang-phyug shows the same kind of brtson-'grus (1187-1250).that from the excellent barley grains from the fields of faith. knows how to brew. Here. To explain a bit about this system of intoxication from beer: I .that from the practices of the Wisdom-Dakinis. P.26 To drink that beer is to radiate joy. A special teaching. section 2).a (Khams-sprul Don-brgyud-nyi-ma. when these three have been brought together. H. 27Rgod-tshang ras-pa Sna-Tshogs-rang-grol(1494-1570).
ARDUSSI: The Doha Tradition in Tibet
in the affirmative with the recipe mentioned above. can be seen to stem partly from the particular character in India the of Tibetan Whereas culture. And ripened barley of the Three Bodies. Assured of this. 'Brug-pa Kun-legs has allowed to become completely cold and unsalvageable. The Cult of Tdrd (Berkeley: University of California Press. 1808).30 Here the peasant-agriculturalist of brewing and drinking beer the appropriateness which as a symbolic parallel to yogic meditation. What is achieved by doing everything one knows how? I even know how to kill goats [but don't do so] !' And I sang this song: (16) 'Oh hostess. The time has passed and I have forgotten to brew the hostess' beer. 'Brew a batch with this.
"She put down four measures of barley and said.31 30 Most of the terms have been dealt with as they occur in the sddhanas translated by Stephan Beyer. driving their horses and servants [to the inn]. but still you didn't brew the beer I' To this I replied. Myos byed kyi btung ba'i nyes dmigs mdo rgyud bstan bcos rnams las btus pa nyes pa'i 'phreng sgrol (Sonam T. 2. I [as a yogin] must know all things. In three days time she returned and asked. 10. 'Has the beer risen yet?' 'If it has risen it has risen. no such social stigma attached to the practice
in Tibet (if done in moderation). carrying her cold weather clothing. for the Dge-lugs-pa cf. The Collected Works of Dpal-sprul O-rgyan'jigs-med-chos-kyi-dbang-po [Gangtok.' I said. which is the parallel of the tasks of movement process or progressive and the yogin. merous tracts were written to condemn its use. A study of the further that. which according to the story. the hostess has apparently decided to leave 'Brug-pa Kun-legs in charge of her affairs during a short absence. of alcohol was especially prohibited consumption as a potential for Brahmans cause for pollutive varna degradation (on account of the sins. I have laid out the hearth stones of Wisdom and Means. boiling the good tea of Emptiness. 29 The winnow (zhib-ma) is used here as a brdal-phyar for cooling the cooked barley.29 And she replied. 587-631). Kun-dga' legs-pa'.ab: nas bre bzhi bzhag // khyed dpon slob kyis 'di 'tshod bsnyol mdzod cig zer / khyag chad (sic. In the spacious vessel of Bliss-Emptiness I pour the water of indivisible Union-contemplation. pp. It's still in the winnow. 5. brewing the beer of achievement of the two goals [of self and others]. but I also must not do them. Then she went off. [ed. if it hasn't risen it hasn't risen. 66-170. Kazi.yo sta brjed de thal //. 'Hostess. where barley beer was popular with all classes. Hear without distraction the words of this melody I In the Mandala of Victory which is my own body. pp. (18) Upon the hearth.'"
For the present we need not concern ourselves
with the technical terms. Thu'u-bkwan Blo-
. calling the patrons of the six classes of sentient beings. literature hagiographical suggests in spite of their vows of abstention. concerned with yourself alone. 1973). 'You're a disaster as a teacher ! The knowledge you have. devoid of the two extremes. vol. The time his passed and I have forgotten to call the guests.
might seem unusual in a Buddhist setting. but rather with the main thrust of the songs. The time has passed and I have forgotten to prepare the tea for the crowds. Calling. I have erected the three white mats of the goals of others. the monks' fondness for beer was a frequent cause of disciand nuplinary unease in Tibetan monasteries. Boiling. ff.].
Autobiography of 'Brug-pa Kun-legs. such to which it might as illicit sexual intercourse. I have lit the fire of burning wisdom. In the spacious edifice of the Thought of Enlighten(17) ment. 31 Among Rnying-ma-pa writers may be cited Dpalsprul O-rgyan-'jigs-med-chos-kyi-dbang-po (b. chas) khur nas song ngo // zhag gsum na 'khor byung nas / chang langs e byung zer bas / langs na 'ang langs zmalangs na 'ang ma langs / zhib ma'i nang na yod byas pas / khyed dpon slob kyi thabs brdugs pa / mkhyen rab ni 'dug mi 'tshod pa zer ba la / ngas 'di byas / gnas mo bya ba thams cad shes dgos / mi byed dgos zer ba yin / shes tshad rang lag tu blangs pas ci yong / shes pa ra gsod pa yang shes byas nas / mgur 'di 'then no // ang gi gnas mo rang don can // ma yengs dbyangs kyi tshig la nyon // nga rang lus rgyal ba'i dkyil 'khor du // thabs shes gnyis kyi sgyed bu btsugs // bde stong gi khog ma yangs pa ru // zung 'jug ting 'dzin 'bral med chu // sku gsum 'bras bu'i nas cig blug // don gnyis grub pa'i chang cig tshod tshod nas / gnas mo'i chang tshod brjed de thal // nga byang sems kyi khang pa yangs pa ru // gzhan don gyi stan dkar gsum brtsegs bting // 'gro drug gi yon bdag 'bod 'bod nas / yog pa rta 'gugs kyi mgron 'bod brjed de thal // nga mtha' gnyis bral ba'i thab kha la // ye shes tsha ba'i me sbar te / stong nyid kyi ja bzang skol skol nas // rgya ja'i g. vol. 1971].
" "the Mandala of Victory which is my own body").].122
Journal of the American Oriental Society 97. The locus of the visualization is the practitioner's own body ("the hearth stones of Body. vol. Bodhisattvas. Variations in the symbolic details of these two processes. the actual divinity (termed
the Knowledge Being . [comp. bdag-bskyed).jnina-sattva) is summoned
from the realm of the Absolute to fuse with the visualized image.32 One technique of performing the Process of Perfection involves using the symbols of the "veins. Tib. It is here that
the analogy of drinking beer has its first application. however. the Process of Perfection (sampannakrama.bdud-rtsi. 1969].. and in addition by the performance of ritual dancing and Diamond Song (vajra-giti). 108-27. ff. Thus. 33 Beyer." to generate bdud-rtsi which the practitioner (who has become the deity) then "drinks" in an analogical representation of experiencing the Absolute.). and he is firmed in this status by a contemplative initiation involving a consecration with nectar . for monks and yogins it is clearly meant to evoke emotional. nga-rgyal). by which technique the meditator "becomes" the deity and gains its "ego" (Tib. [comp.33 We should finally recall that the contemplative act of generating oneself as the mandala of the deity and its retinue is related thematically to the Tantric practice of the Circle of Hosts (ganacakra. to nectar. 1969]). and it is particularly in this experience that the analogy of intoxication from beer is commonly used. rgyal-mtshan (1567-1662). the first of the two-fold division of Tantric meditation according to the highest Tantra class (Anuttara-yoga Tantra).2 (1977) practitioner also partakes of the offering material. 55. although their fundamental ritual structure remains the same. the overall theme of the songs and their connected stories is to introduce the subject of beer and then to discourage its use.].. pp. the meditative processes alluded to in these songs are subsumed under what is termed Generation in Oneself (Tib." The symbol can be seen to have more subtle implications. Tib. 2).a-b (Nawang Gelek Demo. Collected Works of Thu'u-bkwan Blobzang-chos-kyi-nyi-ma [New Delhi. f. Tib. In the concluding meditation. go beyond this and continue with a series of food and drink offerings contemplatively projected to all the Buddhas. by calling attention to a spiritually more proper kind of "beer. the yogin strives to fuse his now divine being with the Clear Light (Tib. rdzogs-rim). and sentient beings of the six destinies (as in stanza 17). derive from the fact of different elaboration in individual contemplative and sectarian practice. Blo-bzang chos-kyimyos pa'i . the beer symbol is again applicable (stanza 11). 19. bskyed-rim)." and "drop. and hopefully (using Guenther's terms) cognitive responses. Most sddhanas (of which these meditations are but the mental aspect). And in those contemplations the gaining of divine status is celebrated by consumption of sacramental flesh and alcohol. Here.) an image of himself (termed
the Symbolic Being . perpetually intoxicated by the beer of Clear Light" (yul 'od gsal chang gis rtag Panchen Lama I. which also appear in our songs.
. the practitioner visualizes from the realm of Emptiness ("the copper pot of of Emptiness. In both India and Tibet the extent to which the physical implements and actions of this ritual were either used or replaced by symbols was rather a matter of traditional or sectarian interpretation. Speech and Mind. Since the
bzang-chos-kyi-nyi-ma (1737-1802). the mandala of the divinity. bde-ba chen-po) of Emptiness.
We have seen that the song of Lo-ras-pa was motivated by similar reasons. In this ritual. an aspect of the Process of Generation (utpatti-krama. however. Although lay Tibetan listeners would probably have seen in its pictorial content a kind of quixotic yogic humor. yogins and their ritually purified consorts (originally lowcaste women) assemble to perform a combined physical and contemplative enactment of the Processes of Generation and Perfection. and since the offerings have all been purified to divinely pure status. 'od-gsal) and Great Bliss (Tib. The Cult of Tara.samaya-sattva) as a particular
divinity accompanied by its retinue of attendants.a (Nawang Gelek Demo. From a religious viewpoint. Having purified and empowered the visualized image by mantras. tshogs-' khor). when the songs are viewed in their original environment as grounded in Tantric ritual thinking. Chos smra ba'i dge slong blo bzang chos kyi rgyal mtshan gyi spyod tshul gsal bar ston pa nor bu'i phreng ba. aimed at the rapid obtainment of Enlightenment. Dben gnas bde chen chos gling gi bsam gtan pa rnams kyi bca' khrims bstan pa'i pad tshal rgyas pa'i nyin byed sogs bca' yig gi rim pa phyogs gcig tu bkod pa. esp." etc. since its only real significance was seen to lie in the simultaneous contemplative realiza32 See the vajra-giti of the 1st Panchen Lama where he speaks of his "perceptions. The Autobiography of the First Panchen Lama Blo-bzang-chos-kyi-rgyal-mtshan [New Delhi." "winds.
46. to a clearer awareness of spiritual modes of thought. which should prove that such analogies are primarily poetic in inspiration. guiding the listener through analogy and paradoxical juxtaposition of symbols to more subtle levels of meditative realization. especially of the bhakti mode. 1. or contributing to the better understanding of. the Buddhist Tantric yogin methodically creates it. 'Brug-pa Kun-legs felt that the brewing of tea was an equally valid analogy. There are certain traditions in the general Hindu framework. In this respect they are similar to icons or painted mandalas as meditative aids. In the Buddhist Tantric tradition.37
36 Mgur-'bum. sacramental beer was consumed by the monk participants. but I would summarize by suggesting that whereas the H1indu bhakta receives or gives way to intoxicating madness. Although in this essay I have purposefully isolated those elements of Tibetan culture and religious history which have contributed to the meaningfulness of contrasting the brewing and drinking of beer analogically with the cultivation of certain meditative experiences. Of course.35 Thus. But there it is clear that the intoxicating experience is basically dependent in character. have simply adapted the pictorial terminology of the popular practice of beer making and drinking to illustrate their meaning. The entire rite could also be. 35 Thu'u-bkwan Blo-bzang-chos-kyi-nyi-ma. if he be but a simple peasant. or. On the contrary.. its use in the gana-cakra appears designed to illustrate the practitioner's acquisition of power over experiential reality. since he provided no explanation in his autocommentary. Exploring Mysticism [Berkeley: University of California Press. 11. insofar as they are structured around these Processes. the underlying material aspect has been retained in at least a symbolic way.
where the devotee's personal experience of the divine is
described in terms of intoxicating madness (David Kinsley. There is thus both a ritual-structural and a social origin for the beer symbol in this context. on the other hand. In one song 34 Cf.53) suggests a type of mystical experiencecomparable
to. f. Cf. two noted Tibetan scholars have commented on this passage. performed purely as a mental event. 37 I believe that this is an important point which deserves emphasis.b. while the various Tibetan schools came to stress more and more the purely contemplative importance of the Processes of Generation and Perfection. Whether this held true for all Dge-lugs-pa monasteries cannot yet be stated with certainty. pp. The use of intoxicants has some important ramifications in
Mi-la-ras-pa likened the Processes of Generation and Perfection to the process of building a house. f. As we have seen (stanza 18).3 Drinking alcohol to produce intoxication does not seem to have been regarded even by Tantric Buddhists as a "skilful means" of comprehending the intoxication of Enlightenment. vol. For this reason I find it difficult to agree with Frits Staal's contention that Vasubandhu's reference to magical powers deriving from the use of herbs (Abhidharmakosa
VII. experiences obtained otherwise through meditation (Frits Staal. where the practitioner cultivates his own divinity. 1975]. We do not know just what Vasubandhu meant by osadhikrta-rddhi. "Through the Looking Glass: Divine Madness in the Hindu Religious Tradition.
. I will conclude by suggesting that the main function of the spiritual song be understood as a "skilful means" (upaya) of contemplation and religious instruction. Kun-mkhyen 'Jam-dbyangs-bzhadpa'i-rdo-rje. 1974]. and both concluded that he was referring to such practices as applying herbal concoctions to the arms and legs and gaining thereby the power to fly through the air. cit. Indeed. the emphasis is on his perfect mental control of every contemplative act. 286-305). through Wisdom (prajila) and Means (upaya). though in very small quantities and only with the contemplative conviction that it was ritually purified bdud-rtsi.34 But it is interesting to note that even in certain Yellow Hat Dge-lugs-pa monasteries. op. it is mainly because of its debilitating effect on the visualizing faculties that prominent Tibetan thinkers of every sect have condemned the use of alcohol. 162-64). his own salvation. on this the noteworthy statement of Snellgrove. last paragraph. one bestowed by the deity as a kind of 'grace'. and was. nothing can be said about the differences or similarities of the final experience.b. pp.
The Hevajra Tantra. which I intend to deal with
in a separate study.ARDUSSI: The Doha Tradition in Tibet tion. 43. in effect his power to resist its intoxicating effect. However. it would be misleading to be too emphatic about any real connection between them. The Tibetan yogic beer-drinking songs. though it must be pointed out that not all are as highly symbolic or concerned with such profound aspects of religious truth as those translated above." History of Religions 13 [May. Dam pa'i chos mngon pa mdzod kyi dgongs
Tibetan Buddhist practice. during the performance of the gana-cakra. and not simply on moral grounds. p.
Journal of the American Oriental Society 97. The Collected Works of Kun-mkhyen 'Jam-dbyangs-bzhad-pa'i-rdo-rje [New Delhi. during 1970.]. . Yul Iho rgyud du byung ba'i rdzogs chen pa rang byung rdo rje mkhyen brtse'i 'od zer gyi rnam par thar pa. [comp. 9). (Nawang Gelek Demo. and that from the moment this realization arises and displaces dualistic thought. the songs and stories connected with them teach the greater importance of the spiritual over the mundane.
The present essay is based on a rather different earlier version presented before the Inner Asia Colloquium. The Collected Works of Kun-mkhyen 'Jigs-med-gling-pa [Gangtok. they teach not that
'grel gyi bstan bcos thub bstan nor bu'i gter mdzod dus gsum rgyal ba'i bzhed don kun gsal. 138." Cf. . The Collected Works of Dkon-mchog-' jigs-med-dban-po [New Delhi. cf. 24. This is clearly not the kind of mystical expe-
Precisely this point is made by the Rnying-ma-pa
scholar 'Jigs-med-gling-pa (1730-1799). between Nirvana and Samsara.. Dam pa'i chos mngon pa mdzod kyi don legs par bshad pa rin po che' i gru gzings.. But ultimately. with a predictable result. However. the words of the poetic songs .b (Nawang Gelek Demo. [ed.a (Sonam T.2 (1977) the student should abandon the mundane (which would involve making the kind of subject-object distinction condemned by Madhyamika philosophers). also 'Jam-dbyangs-bzhad-pa II. the Tibetan approach has been to incorporate an immediate social dimension. f. ".
rience Staal had in mind.. there can be no effective distinction between drinking alcoholic beer and the beer of enlightenment. 40. vol. and this seems to me the fundamental message conveyed by the analogical technique. To the more discerning and religiously trained listener they demonstrate further the process by which yogic realization can be obtained.38
At the simplest level. for their criticisms and suggestions. culling similes from peasant-agriculturalist occupations. .]. 1972]. Kazi. 'Jigs-med-gling-paRang-byungrdo-rje Mkhyen-brtse-'od-zer. [comp. f.]. . but rather that he should employ it to gain yogic insight into the total interrelationship between the spiritual and the mundane. then. vol. The student is taught that Nirvana is not other than Samsara. ProfessorT. and I would like to thank the then members and particularly the Chairman.. vol. 1972]. ff.a-b: sman las skyes pa sman gyis chyab par lag pa dang / rkang pa la bskus na nam mkhar 'gro ba Ita bit dang . Here. are a cause for the experience of
the flavor of the mutual interrelatedness of Samsara and Nirvana . that it is a natural process like building a house or brewing beer. V. Wylie. Dkon-mchog'jigs-med-dbang-po (1728-1791). more notably than with the Indian dohd. 1971]. of the proper life of the yogin over that of the householder. University of Washington. the responsibility for any errors is entirely my own.. 7).