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AP Eng Lang and Comp, Grammar - Marking Sentences

AP Eng Lang and Comp, Grammar - Marking Sentences

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Published by Julie
A guide to marking sentences, including types of phrases and their functions, sentence structure, the seven sentence patterns, and reminders about parts of speech.
A guide to marking sentences, including types of phrases and their functions, sentence structure, the seven sentence patterns, and reminders about parts of speech.

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Published by: Julie on Apr 24, 2009
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com/ AP English Language and Composition Grammar – Marking Sentences Phrases phrase: Prepositional phrase: begins with a preposition and has 2 functions – adjective or adverb. Participle phrase: Pa rticiple phrase: usually begins with a verb ending in –ing or –ed (also possible for –en or –n) and has 1 function – adjective. Remember: if a participle has a noun subject, it is the main verb rather than the headword of a participle phrase. phras Gerund phras e: begins with a verb ending in –ing and has 1 function – noun. Do not confuse gerunds with participles – participle phrases function as adjectives, while gerund phrases function as nouns. This phrase does not require an arrow of modification. phrase: Infinitive phrase: usually begins with “to” and has 3 functions – adjective, adverb, and noun. Do not see “to” and automatically think it begins an infinitive – if the “to” is followed by a noun, then that is a prepositional phrase rather than an infinitive phrase. for such cases. Appositive phrase: an appositive and all its modifiers – it renames a phrase: noun. This phrase does not require an arrow of modification. Reminders about Parts of Speech A linking verb is linking if and only if, in a series of verbs, the linking verb is the last in the series. if a linking verb is appropriate. A helping verb (auxiliary verb) is any verb that is in a series except the last one in that series. If the word “regarding” can be replaced with “with regards to,” then it is acting as a preposition. If it is acting as a verb meaning “observing,” then it can be a gerund or participle. Check with the sentence patterns to see Additionally, the “to” in an infinitive phrase is sometimes omitted, so be on the lookout

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http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP English Language and Composition Grammar – Marking Sentences Sentence Patterns 1. NSVint(adv) – An intransitive verb does not have an object. This is the simplest sentence pattern, requiring only two elements. Include the optional (adv) when writing out the sentence pattern even if there is not an adverb in the actual sentence. 2. NSVTNDO – A transitive verb has a direct object. This sentence pattern requires three elements. A passive voice sentence can either be S.P. 2 or S.P 5. 3. NSVLNpred.nom. – A linking verb will connect the subject to a noun that renames it. 4. NSVLAdjpred. – A linking verb will connect the subject to an adjective that describes it. 5. NSVgNIONDO – A verb ‘giving’ is often a just a verb with a synonymous meaning to “giving,” such as endowing, passing, or giving. In any case, you can identify a Vg by looking for a noun indirect object and noun direct object. A direct object receives the action of the verb, while an indirect object answers the questions “For whom? To whom?” For example, in the sentence “Layla passed Sam the report,” the report is the item being passed, while Sam is the person the report is for/to. This sentence pattern may also become passive. 6. NSVconNICNOC – A verb ‘consider’ can be seen as a verb in which the subject is giving their opinion about two things and equating them. These two things are known as the Noun Inner Complement and the Noun Outer Complement. For example, “The workers deemed the area a private zone.” “Area” and “private zone” are the same thing, thus “area” is the NIC and “zone” is the NOC. 7. NSVconNICAdjOC – In this sentence pattern, the subject is equating two things by first giving what the thing is and then describing it. For example, “The workers deemed the area hazardous.” “area.” “Area” is still the NIC, but now “hazardous” is the AdjOC, since “hazardous” describes the

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http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP English Language and Composition Grammar – Marking Sentences *When writing out the sentence pattern for a passive voice sentence, write it as normal. For example, if the sentence was a passive transform of S.P. 2, then write out NSVTNDO as normal. Reminders about Marking Sentences The FIRST thing to do is to determine whether any clauses are passive – is the subject doing the “verbing”? If any are passive, simply mark the elements that would not change, such as any prepositional phrases. However, instead of delineating a NS and a type of verb, merely mark N and V and write “Passive Transform” over the clause. See the above note about writing S.P. for passive clauses. It is possible that some sentences will require you to add certain elements in order to make it possible to mark. A common example is imperatives, where it is necessary to insert (You). Expletives are sometimes present and serve to “push” the subject towards a later element of the sentence. These elements add no real meaning. See Noun Clauses, Sentence #7. Sentence Structure A s imple s entence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses. A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses joined together by a coordinating conjunction, semicolon, or semicolon with a conjunctive adverb. A complex s en tenc e has one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. A compound -comp lex sentence has two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. Parallelism Such comments can only be made in sentences with more than one clause. Make your decisions based on the similarity of the sentence patterns of the clauses.

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