This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PULAU SERAI, 26600 PEKAN PAHANG
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 2/2013
Index Number in Our Daily Life
MUHAMAD NAJMIL HAQIM BIN MUSTAFAR
960111 - 06 – 5543
5 ABU QATADAH
EN. NOR AZIZI FAIN
6 - 12
13 - 16
17 - 18
19 - 25
We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5. This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has prepared four tasks for us. We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest. This project can be done in groups or individually, but each of us are expected to submit an individually written report. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work, we are to gain valuable experiences and able to:
Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and nonroutine problems; Experience classroom environments which are challenging, interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills. Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking,reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected Experience classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning. Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing,and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increase interest and confidence Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics. Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics
First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah, for giving me the strength and health to do this project work. Not forgotten my parents for providing everything, such as money, to buy anything that are related to this project work and their advice, which is the most needed for this project. Internet, books, computers, and etc. They also supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it. Then I would like to thank my teacher, En. Nor Azizi Bin Fain for guiding me and my friends throughout this project. We had some difficulties in doing this task, but she taught us patiently until we knew what to do. She tried and tried to teach us until we understand what we supposed to do with the project work. Last but not least, my friends who were doing this project with me and sharing our ideas. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, we had this task done.
HISTORY OF INDEX NUMBER
Index numbers are meant to study the change in the effects of such factors which cannot be measured directly. According to Bowley, “Index numbers are u sed to measure the changes in some quantity which we cannot observe directly”. For example, changes in business activity in a country are not capable of direct measurement but it is possible to study relative changes in business activity by studying the variations in the values of some such factors which affect business activity, and which are capable of direct measurement.
Index numbers are commonly used statistical device for measuring the combined fluctuations in a group related variables. If we wish to compare the price level of consumer items today with that prevalent ten years ago, we are not interested in comparing the prices of only one item, but in comparing some sort of average price levels. We may wish to compare the present agricultural production or industrial production with that at the time of independence. Here again, we have to consider all items of production and each item may have undergone a different fractional increase (or even a decrease). How do we obtain a composite measure? This composite measure is provided by index numbers which may be defined as a device for combining the variations that have come in group of related variables over a period of time, with a view to obtain a figure that represents the ‘net’ result of the change in the constitute variables.
Index numbers may be classified in terms of the variables that they are intended to measure. In business, different groups of variables in the measurement of which index number techniques are commonly used are (i) price, (ii) quantity, (iii) value and (iv) business activity. Thus, we have index of wholesale prices, index of consumer prices, index of industrial output, index of value of exports and index of business activity, etc. Here we shall be mainly interested in index numbers of prices showing changes with respect to time, although methods described can be applied to other cases. In general, the present level of prices is compared with the level of prices in the past. The present period is called the current period and some period in the past is called the base period.
Index Numbers: Index numbers are statistical measures designed to show changes in a variable or group of related variables with respect to time, geographic location or other characteristics such as income, profession, etc. A collection of index numbers for different years, locations, etc., is sometimes called an index series.
Simple Index Number : A simple index number is a number that measures a relative change in a single variable with respect to a base.
Composite Index Number : A composite index number is a number that measures an average relative changes in a group of relative variables with respect to a base.
The price of goods sold in shop vary from one shop to another. Shoppers tend to buy goods which are not only reasonably price but also give value for their money. You are required to carry out a survey on four different items based on the following categories: food, detergent and stationery. The survey should be done in three different shop. Part 1(a) Collect picture, newspaper cuttings or photos on item that you have chosen. Design a collage to illustrate the chosen item.
Record the item and their prices systematically as such in Table 1. Since item may be differently packed, be sure to use consistent measurements for each item selected so that comparison can be done easily and accurately.
The data in the table below is only serve as a REFERENCE to you:
Item Self-rising flour Sugar Butter Eggs Total Price
Tesco 2.70 1.80 3.60 3.60 11.70 19.00 4.00 6.00 10.20 39.20 8.90 3.50 3.50 14.70 81.50
Giant 3.70 1.60 3.80 2.90 12.00 21.00 3.20 5.50 9.80 39.50 9.20 3.40 2.90 15.00 82.00
The Store 3.30 1.35 4.50 3.00 12.15 20.50 3.10 4.90 9.50 38.00 8.20 3.10 3.80 16.00 82.15
Washing Powder Dish Washer Liquid Bleach Tile Cleaner Total Price
Pencil (Shaker) Highlighter Permanent Marker Card Indexing Grand Total
Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the use of ICT is encouraged) to compare contrast the price of the item chosen.
40 35 30
20 15 10
Tesco Giant The Store
0 Food Detergent Stationery
45 40 35
25 20 15 Tesco Giant The Store
Part 1 (d):
Based on the graphical representations that you have constructed in part 1(c), interpret, discuss and draw consclusion. Comment on your findings.
Based on the graphical representations that I have constructed in Part 1(c), it is shown that there are large and small differences among the prices of items in each category between the shops. In the food category, the smallest price difference are of those of sugar, while the highest is the price of eggs. Besides food, detergent also shows a large price difference between its items. Among them is the price of liquid dishwasher and clothes detergent. On the other hand, stationery items doesn’t have any obvious price difference. The graph also show that most of the items that are high priced comes from the Boulevard Supermarket, while the lowest price items come from the Discount Store. The graph 1(d) will show the conclusion of the difference among the shops based upon the shops grand total.
40 35 30
Tesco Giant The Store
Food Detergent Stationery
The item that has a large price difference = washing powder
Mean , X =
∑ 𝑥 𝑁
= 20.20 (2dp)
=√ =√ =√
∑ 𝑥 2 𝑁
192 −212 +20 .52
121 2 ) 6
121 2 ) 6
Reason of difference in price : Bulk buying from the retailer gives the lower cost resulted in lower relling price. Hypermarket own brands are much cheaper than the expansive brand-don’t involve in advertiving resulted in lower – selling price Sales and discount offer by the supermarket.
Every year SBP Integrasi Tun Abdul Razak organises a carnival to raise funds for the school. This year the school plans to install CCTV in order to enchance its security. Last year, during the carnival, your class made and sold nasi lemak. Due to the popularity of this local food, your class has decided to carry out the same project for this ye ar’s carnival.
I. Complete Table 2 with the prices of the given items for the year 2013
Calculate the price index for each of the items in Table 2 for the year 2013 based on the year 2012.
Calculate the composite index for the cost of a packet of nasi lemak in the year2013 based on the year 2012. Discuss how you obtained your answer.
In the year 2012, the nasi lemak was sold at RM2.00 each. Suggest a suitable selling price for a packet of the nasi lemak in the year 2013. Give reasons for your answer.
In order to upgrade the security, my school has decided to install closed-circuit TV (CCTV).
Suggest a suitable number of cameras to be installed and their placement. Give your reasons. Illustrate with a plan.
I suggest 4 cameras to be installed at my school. The cameras will be installed at the staff rooms and the office. This action will be done to avoid any robbery case from happen.
Find out the cost of installation of the CCTV. A set of CCTV with 4 cameras : RM2100
If your class intends to sponsor 10% of the cost, how many packets of nasi lemak must your class sell?
10% X RM2100 = RM210 Cost for a packet of nasi lemak = Selling price = RM2.10 Profit = RM2.10 – RM1.40 = RM0.70 Packets of nasi lemak must be sell =
RM210 RM0.70 RM13.22 10
= 300 packets
Can your class achieve the 10% target? Do you think your class should carry out a different project instead? Yes because many visitors from Pekan will come and visit our school during the carnival.This phenomenon will increase the selling of our nasi lemak. Last year, we had sold about 400 packets of nasi lemak. So, this year our target is 600 packets of nasi lemak will besold. From the selling, we can sponsor 10% for the cost of installation of the CCTV andwe will get profit of about RM210. I think my class should not carry out different projectas we can get a lot of profit from the selling of nasi lemak. We need to focus on sellingnasi lemak only so we can achieve our target. Great efforts will led to great outcomes
Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations, for example air pollution index, stock market index, gold index and property index. Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on the importance of two different types of index number of your choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of these index numbers in daily life.
Air Pollution Index
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.
The Air Quality Index (AQI) (also known as the Air Pollution Index (API) or Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) is a number used by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a given location. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and is different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each range is assigned a descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories are associated with each AQI range. An agency might also encourage members of the public to take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high.
Limitations of the AQI Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI. Many countries monitor groundlevel ozone, particulates, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and calculate air quality indices for these pollutants.
Causes of Poor Air Quality The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution of air emissions by fresh air. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone or temperature inversion, or other lack of winds lets air pollution remain in a local area.
Indices by location
South Korea The Ministry of Environment of South Korea uses the Comprehensice Air-quality Index (CAI) to describe the ambient air quality based on health risk of air pollution. The index aims to help the public easily understand air quality level and protect the health of people from air pollution. - The CAI has values of 0 through 500, which are divided into six categories. The higher the CAI value, the greater the level of air pollution. - Of values of the five air pollutants, the highest is the CAI value.
A level that will not impact patients suffering from diseases related to air pollution.
A level which may have a meager impact on patients in case of chronic exposure.
Unhealthy for sensitive groups
A level that may have harmful impacts on patients and members of sensitive groups.
A level that may have harmful impacts on patients and members of sensitive groups (children, aged or weak people), and also cause the general public unpleasant feelings.
A level which may have a serious impact on patients and members of sensitive groups in case of acute exposure.
A level which may need to take emergency measures for patients and members of sensitive groups and have harmful impacts on the general public.
Malaysia The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API or Air Pollution Index. Four of the index's pollutant components (i.e., carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide) are reported in PM10 particulate matter is reported in μg/m³. Unlike the American AQI, the index number can exceed 500. Above 500, a state of emergency is declared in the reporting area. Usually, this means that non-essential government services are suspended, and all ports in the affected area closed. There may also be a prohibition on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the reporting area excluding the food sector.
Stock Market Index
A comparison of three major U.S. stock indices: the NASDAQ Composite, Dow Jones Industrial Average, and S&P 500. All three have the same height at March 2007. Notice the large dot-com spike on the NASDAQ, a result of the large number of tech. companies on that index.
A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of the stock market. Many indices are cited by news or financial services firms and are used as benchmarks, to measure the performance of portfolios such as mutual funds.
Types of indices Stock market indices may be classed in many ways. A 'world' or 'global' stock market index includes (typically large) companies without regard for where they are domiciled or traded. Two examples are MSCI World and S&P Global 100. A national index represents the performance of the stock market of a given nation —and by proxy, reflects investor sentiment on the state of its economy. The most regularly quoted market indices are national indices composed of the stocks of large companies listed on a nation's largest stock exchanges, such as the American S&P 500, the Japanese Nikkei 225, and the British FTSE 100.
The concept may be extended well beyond an exchange. The Dow Jones Total Stock Market Index, as its name implies, represents the stocks of nearly every publicly traded company in the United States, including all U.S. stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange (but not ADRs) and most traded on the NASDAQ and American Stock Exchange. Russell Investment Group added to the family of indices by launching the Russell Global Index. More specialised indices exist tracking the performance of specific s ectors of the market. The Morgan Stanley Biotech Index, for example, consists of 36 American firms in the biotechnology industry. Other indices may track companies of a certain size, a certain type of management, or even more specialized criteria — one index published by Linux Weekly News tracks stocks of companies that sell products and services based on the Linux operating environment.
Index versions Some indices, such as the S&P 500, have multiple versions. These versions can differ based on how the index components are weighted and on how dividends are accounted for. For example, there are three versions of the S&P 500 index: price return, which only considers the price of the components, total return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment, and net total return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment after the deduction of a withholding tax. As another example, the Wilshire 4500 and Wilshire 5000 indices have five versions each: full capitalization total return, full capitalization price, float-adjusted total return, float-adjusted price, and equal weight. The difference between the full capitalization, float-adjusted, and equal weight versions is in how index components are weighted.
Uses and importance of air pollution index and stock market index As everyone can see,the air pollution index is use by the government to measure the air quality index and to detect any pollutants in our country’s air.This is to ensure the air is clean and safe for us to inhale.Besides that,an early warning can be given to us if the air pollution is to high for us to get out of our homes. This warning is given based upon readings and interpretations of the air pollution index. As for the stock market index, it is mainly for the business entrepreneurs. This type of index is used to determine the outcome of a stock market and also the conclusion of a stock market. The stock market index is important because a country’s economical state sometimes depend on it.
After doing research, answering questions, drawing graphs and some problem solving, I saw that the usage of index number is important in daily life. It is not just widely used in markets but also in interpreting the condition of the surrounding like the air or the water. Especially in conducting an air-pollution survey. In conclusion, statistics is a daily life essecities. Without it, surveys can’t be conducted, the stock market can’t be interpret and many more. So, we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of statistics.
After spending countless hours, days and night to finish this project and also sacrificing my time video games and mangas in this mid year holiday, there are several things that I can say...
Additional Mathematics... From the day I born... From the day I was able to holding pencil... From the day I start learning... And... From the day I heard your name... I always thought that you will be my greatest obstacle and rival in excelling in my life... But after countless of hours... Countless of days... Countless of nights...
After sacrificing my precious time just for you... Sacrificing my Computer Games... Sacrificing my Video Games... Sacrificing my Facebook... Sacrificing my Internet... Sacrificing my Anime... Sacrificing my Manga... I realized something really important in you... I really love you... You are my real friend... You my partner... You are my soul mate...
I LOVE U ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS...