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By: Douglas A. Ruby Class: Pre-Calculus II INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of this lesson, the student will be able to: 1. Given a real number that is an integral multiple of halves, thirds, fourths, or sixths of , find the point on the unit circle determined by it. 2. Given a point on the unit circle that is an integral multiple of fourths, sixths, eighths, or twelfths of the distance around the circle, find the real numbers between -2 and 2 that determine that point. 3. Given any arbitrary point on the unit circle with (x, y) coordinates satisfying the equation for the circle x2 + y2 = 1, identify the 6 trigonometric functions for the angle in standard position described by a ray drawn from the origin to that point. 4. Given any arbitrary point on the unit circle with (x, y) coordinates satisfying the equation for the circle x2 + y2 = 1, find the angle in standard position described by a ray drawn from the origin to that point. Relevant Massachusetts Curriculum Framework PC.M.1 – Describe the relationship between degree and radian measures, and use radian measure in the solution of problems, particularly problems involving angular velocity and acceleration. PC.P.3 - Demonstrate an understanding of the trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent). Relate the functions to their geometric definitions. MENTAL MATH – (5 Minutes) Question 1: What are the values of the following Trigonometric Functions: a) cos - /4 - Solution: b) cos 9 /4 - Solution: c) tan 12 - Solution: 0 Date: 10/10/2002 Grades: 11/12

2 2

2 2

Question 2: What does the mnemonic All Students Take Calculus stand for? All Students Take Calculus means that for the four quadrants (in oprder) All functions, Sine, Tangent, and Cosine and their reciprocals are positive.

Page 1

0) x so that the length of the ray r is also the radius r of the circle. the same six trigonometric identities discussed above. y) r (0. This would look like: II y I Notice also. y.Unit Circle – Mr. that the equation of this circle is: x2 + y2 = r2 (0. we used the diagram to the left. Ruby CLASS ACTIVITIES – (Note: 45 Minute Lesson Plan) II y I 1 Review If you will remember to a few days ago when we discussed Angles in Standard Position. III IV Page 2 . y) (x. y) (x. whose center is the origin that intersects the ray r at point (x. We defined an angle in standard position and the six trigonometric functions related to . y). So for any point (x. Therefore. The trig functions are related to the triangle formed by using the x. and y coordinates of the ray r drawn from the origin to the point (x. that we can modify this diagram. y) r (0. by drawing a circle. and r. 0) (x. 0) (x. still holds with respect to x. the six trig functions are: (0. y). 0) x III IV sin = side _ opposite _ hypotenuse side _ adjacent _ hypotenuse side _ opposite _ side _ adjacent _ y r x r y x csc = hypotenuse side _ opposite _ hypotenuse side _ adjacent _ side _ adjacent _ side _ opposite _ r y r x x y cos = sec = tan = cot = Notice. y) anywhere on this circle.

y) 1 (0. the six trigonometric functions are: y 1 sin = y csc = 1 y x 1 cos = x sec = 1 x y x tan = cot = x y Notice. 0) 1 x IV 5 4 Let’s apply this knowledge. with this simple diagram. y) (x. Ruby 2. The unit circle has a radius r of 1 and is defined by the equation: x2 + y2 = 12=1 So in our above looks like the diagram below. y) point in any four quadrants of the Cartesian plane that satisfies the equation x2 + y2 =1 for the unit circle. 0) (x. Introduction to the Unit Circle Now suppose that instead of an arbitrary circle with a radius of r. and any (x. we have completed establishing the fundamental relationship between a triangle. 0) x For the unit circle. Example: Let’s use the unit circle and our knowledge from our prior lesson on Radians and Degrees to draw out the points on the unit circle that match certain angles. y II I (0. it becomes clear that: III IV tan = y x sin cos and cot = x y cos sin Thus. that since the radius 5 r = 1. This would look like: the drawing to the left: Notice. since tan = y/x. Finding Points on the Unit Circle. a circle. the point we marked for = is also 5 /4 of the 4 Page 3 . For example: If we want 5 to see where the angle = is on the unit circle. we had what is called the unit circle.Unit Circle – Mr. the six trigonometric functions. we 4 first draw the circle. 3. II y I (0. that the cos and sin are just the x and y coordinates of any point on the circle! Further. then we mark the point on the circle corresponding to without actually drawing the ray marking the angle in standard position.

/4. (Note: Show this on the board!) Now you try the same with a Unit circle. Then. Draw a unit circle.0) on the initial side of the angle in standard position. Estimating Angles on the Unit Circle Now lets move on to estimating the real numbers between -2 and 2 that represent points on a circle relative to the point (1. and /3.Unit Circle – Mr. of the way around the circle from the initial point (1. (0. as you can see. Starting at the point (1. 0) 1 2 x IV 5 4 13 4 That is terrific.0). we can represent any of the points on the circumference of the unit circle as real numbers that have the same value as the radian measure that we discussed in our Radians and Degrees lessons. mark points determined by the following real numbers: a) b) 2 5 4 II c) 2 y d) 9 4 I 9 4 e) 13 4 2 (0. Ruby way around the circle. 4. relative to the point (1. You will have three problems like this in your homework. 0) 1 x III IV Page 4 . II y I 3 4 6 Let’s assume that the first marks below represent the points that are /6.0).0).

/4. 1) So what are the values of the sine. tan = undefined) And what are the values of the reciprocal functions cosecant. and tangent? (sin = 1. cos = -sqrt3/2. eighths ( /4). What is the (x. y) coordinates on the unit circle to find the six trig functions. 5. cot = -sqrt(3)) Great! So as you can see. 45o. we can figure out the (x. counterclockwise. cos = 0. and 60o ( /6. sec = -2/sqrt(3) . y) coordinates for that point? (-sqrt(3)/2. y) coordinates of any point on the unit circle as shown below: y 1 sin = y csc = 1 y x 1 cos = x sec = 1 x y sin x cos tan = cot = y sin x cos Further. and /3) for all four quadrants. or twelfths ( /6) of the way around the unit circle. lets move on. we already know that the values of the sine and cosine for the angles in standard positions of 30o. y) values for the angles in the standard positions of fourths ( /2). cosine. in going from point A to: a) point F? /6 b) point H? 5 /6 c) point G? 4 /3 d) point J? 11 /6 Great! Now. cosine. and tangent? (sin = ½. Finally.sec = undefined . let’s think about what happens when we go /2 of the way (90o) around the unit circle. What are the (x. cot = 0) Great! Now. secant and cotangent? (csc = 2. tan = -1/sqrt(3)) And what are the values of the reciprocal functions cosecant. Using the (x. Page 5 . suppose I go 5 /6 (150o) of the way around the unit circle. ½) So what are the values of the sine. secant and cotangent? (csc = 1. We already found that the definitions to for the six standard trigonometric functions are highly related to the (x. Ruby Let’s look at the diagram below and estimate the real numbers between -2 and 2 for the indicated points: Try Now: How far will a point move on the unit circle. sixths ( /3). y) values for a point on the unit circle at = /2? (0.Unit Circle – Mr.

9999999883 . x and y are positive. we know that the sin our calculators. But for the purposes of tonight’s homework and for quizzes and tests. we can find that: = . Use your calculators to validate that it satisfies the equation for the unit circle. In quadrant 4. Therefore. eighths ( /4). III. Then give me the six trigonometric functions for that point.7599342 = . The other functions (in quadrants II. we need to use something called inverse trigonometric functions.65)2 + (. This means that arcsin x is an angle whose sin is x.16913 cot = . y) coordinate on the unit circle and the six trig functions including their “sign” (i. x is negative and y is positive. x and y are both negative. lets just use the functions on our calculators.8632 radians = 49.65 sec = 1. Arbitrary Points on the Unit Circle What if the point is not one of the standard points that is a multiple of fourths ( /2).7599342). we can see that All Students Take Calculus means that for the four quadrants (in oprder) All functions. x2+ y2 = (. y) coordinates on the unit circle to find the angle The problem with knowing any arbitrary (x. in the example above. The argument x of the sin-1 x function is the value of sin . Therefore. whether they are positive or negative) is that we still don’t know the angle.e. Ruby 6.458o Page 6 . Be sure to check your “sign” of your sine carefully! (pun intended). we will cover the inverse trigonometric functions in more detail. or twelfths ( /6) of the way around the unit circle? Suppose I said that the (x.31590 cos = . that in Quadrant I. Later on.7599342)2 = . In quadrant II. and IV) will be negative. we can write the following equation: = sin-1 x Thus. Tangent.7599342 csc = 1. x is positive and y is negative. By using the sin-1 function on = sin-1 . For example. Using the (x. y) coordinate of the point on the unit circle is (.Unit Circle – Mr.close enough! sin = . In quadrant III. 7. Let’s quickly review All Students Take Calculus. do we? To solve the problem of what is the angle described by an arbitrary point on the unit circle. Sine. Remember. sixths ( /3).53846 tan = 1.7599342.65. It is also written as the sin-1 x function. the inverse sine function is called the in x function. There are six inverse trigonometric functions. and Cosine and their reciprocals are positive. .855337 So we can find the six trigonometric functions.

(0 .99) 1. (. 3 1 . In some cases. (.5234o c. 0o b. y) points.96825) 1. find the angle of rotation in radians and degrees for each of the (x.1) 0 rad. 75.4293 rad. Homework discussion (5 Minutes) Page 7 . For the following examples. you will not need your calculators! a.25.141067.89o /6 rad. 30o 8. Ruby You should see the sin-1 function on your calculators.318 rad. . 2 2 d. 81.Unit Circle – Mr. .

a) 3 y b) c) d) 13 6 y e) II 1) (0. N. M=2 /3 N=5 /6 P=5 /4 P=11 /6 Page 8 . Section 6.Unit Circle – Mr.4. and Q between -2 and 2 that determine each of the points on the unit circle. P. 0) 1 x III IV III IV 3. 0) 1 x (0. Algebra and Trigonometry. Find the real numbers M. Ruby HOMEWORK (Materials): Source: - Bittinger and Beecher. 391-404 For each of the exercises 1-3. sketch a unit circle. and mark the points determined by the given real numbers: 1. pp. a) 4 b) 3 2 5 6 I c) 3 4 11 6 II 2) d) e) 11 4 23 6 I 2.

1 / 2 ) 7.3 = -1/ 3 Page 9 . -5 /4 sin = 1 / 2 cos = 1 / 2 tan = -1 12. 5 /4 = ( 1 / 2 .4502 csc = 2.221 csc = 2 sec = 2 cot = -1 csc = sec = cot = 1 2 2 csc sec cot =2 = 2/ 3 = 3 = 1/ 3 csc sec cot = -2 = 2/ 3 =. . Ruby What are the (x. . -5 /4 = ( 1 / 2 . 1 / 2 ) What are the values of the six trigonometric functions on the unit circle for the following angles? 8./6 = ( 3 / 2 ./6 sin = -½ cos = 3 / 2 tan 10.097 cot = 2. /6 sin = ½ cos = 3 / 2 tan 9.423 radians sin = .436 sec = 1.4105 cos = . /6 = ( 3 / 2 .Unit Circle – Mr. ½) 5.9119 tan = . y) coordinates on the unit circle for the following angles? 4. 5 /4 sin = 1 / 2 cos = 1 / 2 tan = 1 11. . -½) 6.

.823.7604 cos = .56804) sin = .6041223 radians = 34.215 tan = .614o Page 10 .56804 csc = 1. (.4489 = .6902 cot =1.Unit Circle – Mr. provide the six trigonometric values and the angle (in radians and degrees) outlined on the unit circle: 13.823 sec = 1. Ruby For the following point.

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