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Chng 1.

Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan


Chng 1. GI TR RING V VECT RING. DNG CHUN TC JORDAN.
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I. GI TR RING VECTOR RING
1.1 Gi tr ring v vect ring ca ma trn:
1.1.1 nh ngha: Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n trn trng K. Mt s K c
gi l gi tr ring ca ma trn A nu tn ti vect khc khng
n
u K , sao cho
( ) A u u
.
Khi vect u c gi l vect ring ca ma trn A ng vi gi tr ring .
1.1.2 V d:
Cho ma trn
2 3 1 1
, ,
3 6 3 2
A u v
1 1 1

1 1 1

] ] ]
Ta c:
2 3 1 7
7
3 6 3 21
Au u
1 1 1

1 1 1

] ] ]
V
2 3 1 8 1
3 6 2 9 2
Av k
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

] ] ] ]
Kt lun: u l vect ring ca ma trn A ng vi gi tr ring 7, cn v khng l vect
ring ca ma trn A v khng tn ti mt s thc k no tha Av = kv.
1.1.3 nh l: Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n trn trng K. Khi s K l gi
tr ring ca A nu v ch nu phng trnh thun nht
( ) 0
n
A I x
c nghim khng tm
thng.
Chng minh:
Gi s K l mt gi tr ring ca ma trn A. Khi , tn ti mt vect khc khng
n
u K sao cho Au u , suy ra
( ) 0
n
A I u
hay u chnh l nghim ca phng trnh thun
nht
( ) 0
n
A I x
. Vy phng trnh nht
( ) 0
n
A I x
c nghim khng tm thng.
Ngc li, nu phng trnh
( ) 0
n
A I x
c nghim khng tm thng
n
u K th
( ) 0
n
A I u
hay Au u nn u l vect ring ca ma trn A ng vi gi tr ring .
V d:
Cho ma trn vung
2 3
3 6
A
1

]
v
1 3 3
3 5 3
3 3 1
B
1
1

1
1
]
a) Chng t rng 1 l mt gi tr ring ca ma trn B v hy tm cc vect ring ng
vi gi tr ring 1 .
b) Tm vect ring ca ma trn A ng vi gi tr ring 3
Gii:
a) Xt ma trn
3
0 3 3
3 6 3
3 3 0
B I
1
1

1
1
]
. V det(B - I
3
) = 0 nn h phng trnh tuyn tnh
thun nht (B - I
3
)x = 0 (1) c nghim khng tm thng.
Gii h phng trnh (1):
i s Tuyn tnh 2 1
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
3 3 1
3 3 2 2 2 1 1
1 2
/( 3) /(3)
3
0 3 3 0 3 3 0 3 3 0 1 1
3 6 3 3 6 3 1 2 1 1 2 1
3 3 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 2 1
0 1 1
0 0 0
d d d
d d d d d d d
d d
B I
+
+

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
] ] ] ]
1
1

1
1
]
Vy h phng trnh c v s nghim ph thuc vo x
3
.
1
2
3
x t
x t
x t


'

Chn
1
1
1
u
1
1

1
1
]
, khi
x u
l cc vect ring ca B ng vi gi tr ring 1 vi
, 0
.
b) Xt ma trn
2
1 3
3
3 3
A I
1

1

]
. Xt h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht (A 3I
2
)x
= 0
Ta c
1 2 1 2 1
1 2 2 2
3 0 3 3
3 9 0
x x x x x t
x x x x t
+

' ' '



Do nu chn
3
1
u
1

1
]
th u l mt vect ring ng vi gi tr ring 3 .
1.1.4 H qu: Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n trn trng K. Khi , 0 l gi tr
ring ca A nu v ch nu A khng kh nghch.
Chng minh:
Ta c 0 l gi tr ring ca ma trn A nu v ch nu phng trnh
( 0 ) 0
n
Ax A I x
c
nghim khng tm thng. Ta bit phng trnh Ax = 0 c nghim khng tm thng khi
v ch khi ma trn A khng kh nghch. Do 0 l gi tr ring ca A nu v ch nu A
khng kh nghch.
1.1.5 nh l: Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n trn trng K. Gi s
1 2
, ,...,
r
u u u
l cc
vect ring ng vi cc gi tr ring
1 2
, ,...,
r

ca ma trn A, khi tp
1 2
{ , ,..., }
r
u u u
c
lp tuyn tnh.
Chng minh:
Gi s
1 2
{ , ,..., }
r
u u u
ph thuc tuyn tnh. Khi , tn ti ch s s nh nht sao cho
1 s
u
+

khc 0 l mt t hp tuyn tnh ca cc vector c lp tuyn tnh
1 2
, ,...,
s
u u u
ngha l tn ti
1 2
, ,..,
s
k k k K
sao cho:
1 1 1 2 2
...
s s s
u k u k u k u
+
+ + +
.
Do
i
u
l vector ring ca A ng vi gi tr ring
i

nn
i i i
Au u
vi mi i = 1, 2, , s.
T ta c
1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
... ...
s s s s s s s s
Au k Au k Au k Au u k u k u k u
+ + +
+ + + + + +
. Suy ra,
1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1
( ) ( ) ... ( ) 0
s s s s s s
k u k u k u
+ + +
+ + +
.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 2
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
V tp
1 2
{ , ,..., }
s
u u u
c lp tuyn tnh nn
1
( ) 0
i i s
k
+

do
0
i
k
vi mi i = 1, 2,
, s. iu ny dn n
1
0
s
u
+

mu thun vi
1 s
u
+
khc 0. Vy tp
1 2
{ , ,..., }
r
u u u
c lp
tuyn tnh.
Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n trn trng K v K l gi tr ring ca A. Tp tt
c cc nghim ca phng trnh
( ) 0
n
A I x
c gi l khng gian vector ring ca ma
trn A ng vi gi tr ring v k hiu l
( )
A
E
.
Vy khng gian vector ring
( )
A
E
bao gm vector khng v tt c cc vector ring ca
ma trn A ng vi gi tr ring .
1.1.6 nh l: Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n trn K v K l gi tr ring ca A.
Khi , khng gian vector ring
( )
A
E
l mt khng gian vector con ca
n
K .
Chng minh:
Do vector 0 thuc
( )
A
E
nn
( )
A
E
khc rng. Nu
, ( )
A
u v E
th Au u v Av v .
Do ,
( ) ( ) A u v Au Av u v u v + + + +
v
( ) ( ) ( ) A ku k Au k u ku
.Vy u + v v ku
u thuc
( )
A
E
vi mi
; , ( )
A
k K u v E
. Vy
( )
A
E
l mt khng gian vector con ca
n
K .
V d:
Ma trn
2 3
3 6
A
1

]
c cc gi tr ring l
3, 7
. Khng gian vector ring
(3)
A
E
v
( 7)
A
E
ca ma trn A l:
{ } (3) (3,1) |
A
E
v { } ( 7) (1, 3) |
A
E
. Ta c
1
(3,1) u
v
2
(1, 3) u
ln
lt l c s ca
(3)
A
E
v
( 7)
A
E
. Do { }
1 2
; u u
c lp tuyn tnh nn lp thnh mt c s
ca
2

Ma trn
1 3 3
3 5 3
3 3 1
B
1
1

1
1
]
c cc gi tr ring l
1, 2
. Khng gian vector ring
{ } (1) (1, 1,1) |
A
E
ng vi gi tr ring 1 . Khng gian ny c s chiu bng 1 v
c c s gm mt vector
1
(1, 1,1) u
. Khng gian vector ring
{ } ( 2) ( 1,1, 0) ( 1, 0,1) | ,
A
E +
ng vi gi tr ring v c s chiu bng 2 vi c
s gm hai vector
2 3
( 1,1, 0); ( 1, 0,1) u u
. Nhn thy
1 2 3
{ , , } u u u
c lp tuyn tnh nn l
c s ca
3
.
1.2. a thc c trng
1.2.1 nh ngha: Cho
( )
ij
A a
l ma trn vung cp n trn K. Xt ma trn vung
11 12 1
21 22 2
1 2
...
...
...
n
n
n
n n nn
a t a a
a a t a
A tI
a a a t
1
1

1

1
1

]
M M O M
a thc
( ) det( ) [ ]
A n
f t A tI K x
c gi l a thc c trng ca ma trn A. Phng
trnh
( ) 0
A
f t
c gi l phng trnh c trng ca ma trn A.
1.2.2 V d:
i s Tuyn tnh 2 3
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
1. a thc c trng ca ma trn
2 3
3 6
A
1

]
l
2
( ) 4 21
A
f t t t +
2. a thc c trng ca ma trn
1 3 3
3 5 3
3 3 1
B
1
1

1
1
]
l
3 2
( ) 3 4
B
f t t t +
3. a thc c trng ca ma trn
1 0 1 1
0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0
1 1 0 1
C
1
1
1

1
1
]
l
4 3 2
( ) 4 2 4 3
C
f t t t t t + +
1.2.3 nh l: Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n trn trng K. Khi s K l gi
tr ring ca A nu v ch nu l nghim ca phng trnh c trng
( ) 0
A
f t
.
Chng minh: l gi tr ring ca ma trn A nu v ch nu h phng trnh tuyn tnh
thun nht
( ) 0
n
A I x
c nghim khng tm thng. Mt khc h phng trnh trn c
nghim khng tm thng khi v ch khi
det( ) 0
n
A I
hay
( ) 0
A
f
. Vy l nghim
ca phng trnh c trng.
Nhn xt:
- Mun xc nh cc gi tr ring ca ma trn vung A ta ch cn gii phng trnh c
trng
( ) 0
A
f t
. Nghim ca phng trnh ny chnh l cc gi tr ring cn tm.
- Mun tm vector ring ca ma trn A ch vic xc nh cc gi tr ring ca ma trn
A ri gii h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht
( ) 0
n
A I x
. Nghim khc khng ca h
phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht ny chnh l cc vector ring ca A ng vi gi tr ring
. T y ta cng xc nh cc khng gian vector ring
( )
A
E
.
- Nu phng trnh c trng
( ) 0
A
f t
khng c nghim trong K th ma trn A s khng
c cc gi tr ring v vector ring.
1.2.4 V d:
1. Xc nh cc gi tr ring v vector ring ca ma trn
2 3
3 6
A
1

]
Gii
a thc c trng ca ma trn A l
2
( ) 4 21
A
f t t t +
. Gii phng trnh c trng
( ) 0
A
f t
c hai nghim l t = 3 v t = - 7. Do , ma trn A c hai gi tr ring phn bit l 3 v
7 .
Vi 3 cc vector ring ca A ng vi gi tr ring 3 l cc nghim khng tm
thng ca h pt tuyn tnh thun nht
3
( 3 ) 0 A I x
hay
1 2 1 2 1
1 2 2 2
3 0 3 3
3 9 0
x x x x x
x x x x

+

' ' '



.
Do ,
(3 , ) (3,1) u
l vector ring ca A ng vi cc gi tr ring 3 vi 0 .
Khng gian vector ring
(3) { (3,1) | }
A
E
ng vi gi tr ring 3 . Khng gian ny
c s chiu bng 1 v vector
1
(3,1) u
l mt c s.
Thc hin cc bc tng t ta cng xc nh c l vector ring ng vi gi tr ring
7 trong
0
. Khng gian vector ring
( 7) { (1, 3) | }
A
E
ng vi gi tr
ring 7 . Khng gian ny c s chiu bng 1 v vector
2
(1, 3) u
lm vector c s.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 4
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
2. Cho ma trn
1 3 3
3 5 3
3 3 1
B
1
1

1
1
]
. Hy xc nh cc gi tr ring v vector ring ca ma
trn B.
Sinh vin t lm nh l bi tp nh.
3. Cho ma trn
0 1
1 0
C
1

1
]
. Hy xc nh cc gi tr ring v vector ring ca ma trn
C trong v trong
Gii:
a thc c trng ca ma trn C l
2
( ) 1
C
f t t +
. Phng trnh c trng
( ) 0
C
f t
khng
c nghim trong , nhng li c nghim i v i trong . Do , nu K th ma trn A
khng c gi tr ring no. Nu K th ma trn A c hai gi tr ring phn bit l
1 2
; i i
. Khi c cc vector ring ng vi cc gi tr ring
1 2
; i i
ln lt l
( , ) a ai
v
( , ) a ai
vi a .
1.2.5 nh l: Mi ma trn vung A trn trng s phc u c gi tr ring.
Chng minh:
a thc c trng ca ma trn A l
( ) [ ]
A
f t x
. Theo nh l c bn ca i s th
phng trnh c trng
( ) 0
A
f t
lun c nghim
0

trong trng s phc. Gi tr


0

chnh l
gi tr ring ca ma trn A.
1.2.6 nh ngha: Gi s A v B l cc ma trn vung cp n trn K. Ta ni rng A v B
l hai ma trn ng dng nu tn ti mt ma trn kh nghch P sao cho
1
B P AP

v k
hiu l A B .
1.2.7 V d:
1. Cho hai ma trn
2 3
3 6
A
1

]
v
3 0
0 7
B
1

]
. Xt ma trn
3 1
1 3
P
1

]
.
V det P = -10 nn P kh nghch v
1
3/ 10 1/ 10
1/ 10 3/ 10
P

]
. Ta c:
1
3/ 10 1/ 10 2 3 3 1 3 0
. .
1/ 10 3/ 10 3 6 1 3 0 7
P A P B

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

] ] ] ]
Do A v B l hai ma trn ng dng.
2. Cho hai ma trn
1 3 3
3 5 3
3 3 1
A
1
1

1
1
]
v
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
B
1
1

1
1
]
Gi ma trn
1 1 1
1 1 0
1 0 1
P
1
1

1
1
]
v r rng P kh nghch. Ta c
1 2 2
1 2 0
1 0 2
AP
1
1

1
1
]
v
1 2 2
1 2 0
1 0 2
PB
1
1

1
1
]
Vy AP = PB nn
1
B P AP

, t hai ma trn A v B l ng dng.


i s Tuyn tnh 2 5
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
1.2.8 Mnh : Quan h ng dng l mt quan h tng ng trn
( )
n
M K
Chng minh:
Quan h ny tha cc tnh cht sau:
- Phn x: Do
n
I
kh nghch v
1
. .
n n
I AI A

nn A A
- i xng: Nu A B th tn ti ma trn kh nghch P sao cho
1
B P AP

, suy ra
( )
1
1 1 1
. . . . A P B P P B P


. Ma trn
1
Q P

kh nghch nn
1
. . A Q BQ

. Do , B A
- Bc cu: Nu A B v B C th tn ti cc ma trn kh nghch P v Q sao cho
1
B P AP

v
1 1 1 1
( ) ( ) C Q BQ Q P APQ PQ A PQ

.
Do ma trn
R PQ
kh nghch v
1
C R AR

. Do C A
1.2.9 nh l: Nu A v B l hai ma trn ng dng th
( ) ( )
A B
f t f t
.
Ch : Mnh o ca nh l 1.2.9 ni chung khng ng, ngha l hai ma trn c
cng a thc c trng cha hn l ng dng.
V d: Xt hai ma trn sau:
1 1
0 1
A
1

1
]
v
1 0
0 1
B
1

1
]
Nhn thy A v B c cng a thc c trng
2
( ) ( ) ( 1)
A B
f t f t t
. Tuy nhin A v B
khng ng dng. Tht vy, nu A v B ng dng th tn ti ma trn kh nghch P sao cho
1
B P AP

suy ra
1
2
A PBP B I


. iu ny dn n mu thun. Vy A v B khng ng
dng.
1.2.10 nh l: (nh l Caley-Halmilton) Ma trn A l nghim ca a thc c trng
( )
A
f t
hay
( ) 0
A
f A
.
Chng minh:
Gi s
[ ] ( )
ij n
A a M K
v a thc c trng ca A l
1
1 1
( ) | | ( 1) ( ... )
n n n
n n
f A I a a a

+ + + +
. Gi B l ma trn ph hp ca ma trn
A I . Khi phn t dng i ct j ca B l phn b i s ca phn t dng i ct j trong ma
trn A I nn l mt a thc
( ) [ ]
ij
b K
vi bc khng vt qu n-1. V th ta c th vit
ma trn B c di dng
1 2
1 2 1
...
n n
n n
B B B B B

+ + + +
vi
1 2
, ,...,
n
B B B
l cc hng ma
trn vung cp n.
Ta c ng thc:
( ) | | A I B A I I
(*)
Do :
1 2 1
1 2 1 1 1
(*) ( )( ... ) ( 1) ( ... )
n n n n n
n n n n
A I B B B B a a a I


+ + + + + + + +

Khai trin rt gn v ng nht h t hai v theo nh ngha a thc bng nhau ta c:
1 1
2 2 1
1 1 2
1
( 1) (0)
( 1) (1)
( 1) (2)
...
( 1) ( 1)
( 1) (n)
n
n n
n
n n n
n
n n n
n
n
a I AB
a I AB B I
a I AB B I
a I AB B I n
I B I







i s Tuyn tnh 2 6
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
Nhn bn tri hai v ca ng thc (k) vi ma trn , 0,...,
k
A k n , ri cng tt c theo v
ta c,
1
1 1
( 1) ( ... ) 0
n n n
n n
A a A a A a I

+ + + +
, hay f (A) = 0.
1.3Cho ha ma trn:
1.3.1 nh ngha: Cho A l mt ma trn vung cp n trn K. Ma trn A c gi l cho
ha c nu A ng dng vi mt ma trn ng cho.
Nhn xt: Ma trn vung A cho ha c nu tn ti mt ma trn kh nghch P v mt
ma trn ng cho D
1
A PDP

.
1.3.2 V d:
1. Ma trn
2 3
3 6
A
1

]
cho ha c v tn ti ma trn kh nghch
3 1
1 3
P
1

]
v ma
trn ng cho
3 0
0 7
D
1

]
tha mn
1
A PDP

.
2. Ma trn
1 3 3
3 5 3
3 3 1
B
1
1

1
1
]
cho ha c v tn ti ma trn kh nghch P v ma trn
ng cho D ln lt l:
1 1 1
1 1 0
1 0 1
P
1
1

1
1
]
v
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
D
1
1

1
1
]
tha mn
1
B PDP

.
1.3.3 nh l: Cho A l ma trn vung cp n trn trng K. Khi A cho ha c
nu v ch nu A c n vector ring c lp tuyn tnh. Hn na, nu
1
A PDP

vi D l ma
trn cho th cc phn t trn ng cho chnh ca D l cc gi tr ring ca ma trn A v
cc ct ca ma trn P l cc vector ring tng ng.
Chng minh: Nu P l ma trn vung cp n vi cc ct
1 2
, ,...,
n
u u u
v D l ma trn
ng cho vi cc phn t trn ng cho chnh l cc gi tr ring
1 2
, ,...,
n

th
1 2 1 2
[ ... ] [ ... ]
n n
AP A u u u Au Au Au
(1)
V [ ]
1
2
1 1 2 2
0 ... 0
0 ... 0
...
0 0 ...
n n
n
PD P u u u

1
1
1

1
1
]
M M O M
(2)
V A cho ha c nn tn ti ma trn kh nghch P sao cho
1
A PDP

. Nhn bn phi
hai v ng thc ny cho P ta c AP PD .
T (1) v (2) suy ra
1 2 1 1 2 2
[ ... ] [ ... ]
n n n
Au Au Au u u u
(3)
Khi cc ct tng ng phi bng nhau tc l:
1 1 1 2 2 2
; ;...;
n n n
Au u Au u Au u
. (4)
V ma trn P kh nghch nn cc ct
1 2
, ,...,
n
u u u
phi c lp tuyn tnh. T (4) suy ra
cc
1 2
, ,...,
n

l cc gi tr ring v
1 2
, ,...,
n
u u u
l cc vector ring tng ng vi tng gi
tr ring .
i s Tuyn tnh 2 7
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
Ngc li nu
1 2
, ,...,
n
u u u
l cc vector ring ca ma trn A c lp tuyn tnh tng ng
vi cc gi tr ring
1 2
, ,...,
n

. t
1 2
[ ... ]
n
P u u u
v
1
2
0 ... 0
0 ... 0
... ... ... ...
0 0 ...
n
D

1
1
1

1
1
]
Khi t (1) (2) v (3) ta suy ra AP = PD. Do cc vector ring
1 2
, ,...,
n
u u u
c lp tuyn
tnh nn ma trn P kh nghch suy ra tn ti
1
P

. Nhn bn bi hai v ca ng thc AP =


PD vi
1
P

ta c
1
A PDP

. Do ma trn A cho ha c.
Nhn xt:
Ma trn vung A cp n cho ha c nu v ch nu n c n vector ring
1 2
, ,...,
n
u u u

c lp tuyn tnh v lp thnh mt c s ca
n
K . C s { }
1 2
, ,...,
n
u u u
c gi l c s
vector ring ca ma trn A.
1.3.4 V d:
1. Cho ha ma trn A nu c vi
1 3 3
3 5 3
3 3 1
A
1
1

1
1
]
Gii:
Ta thc hin theo 4 bc sau:
Bc 1: Xc nh cc gi tr ring ca ma trn A. Trong bc ny ta cn xc nh a
thc c trng
( )
A
f t
v gii phng trnh c trng
( )
A
f t
= 0 tm cc gi tr ring ca A.
a thc c trng:
3 2 2
( ) 3 4 ( 1)( 2)
A
f t t t t t + +
. Gii phng trnh c trng
( ) 0
A
f t

ta c hai nghim t = 1 v t = -2. Vy ma trn A c hai gi tr ring l
1; 2
.
Bc 2: Xc nh ba vector ring ca ma trn A c lp tuyn tnh. V A l mt ma trn
vung cp 3 nn mun A cho ha c th n t phi c ba vector ring lp thnh c s ca
3
. Mun xc nh c ba vector ring ca ma trn A lp thnh c s ca
3
, ta ch cn
tm mt c s ca mi khng gian vector ring
( )
A
E
ng vi mi gi tr ring .
C s ca
(1)
A
E
l
1
1
1
1
u
1
1

1
1
]

C s ca
( 2)
A
E
l
2
1
1
0
u
1
1

1
1
]
v
3
1
0
1
u
1
1

1
1
]
Nhn thy
1 2 3
{ , , } u u u
c lp tuyn tnh do n l c s ca
3
.
Bc 3: Lp ma trn P t cc vector ring trong bc 2. Th t cc vector ring khng
quan trng. S dng th t chn trong bc 2, ta lp c ma trn kh nghch P.
1 2 3
1 1 1
[ , , ] 1 1 0
1 0 1
P u u u
1
1

1
1
]
Bc 4: Lp ma trn ng cho D t cc gi tr ring tng ng. Trong bc ny th
t ca cc gi tr ring l quan trng. N phi sp xp theo th t ca cc ct ca ma trn P.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 8
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
y ta s dng gi tr ring 2 hai ln. Mt ln cho vector ring
2
u
v mt ln cho
vector ring
3
u
ng vi gi tr ring 2 .
Do ma trn
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
D
1
1

1
1
]
Do P kh nghch nn mun kim tra xem hai ma trn P v D c tha mn
1
A PDP

. Ta
c
1 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 2
3 5 3 . 1 1 0 1 2 0
3 3 1 1 0 1 1 0 2
AP
1 1 1
1 1 1

1 1 1
1 1 1
] ] ]

v
1 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 2
1 1 0 . 0 2 0 1 2 0
1 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 2
PD
1 1 1
1 1 1

1 1 1
1 1 1
] ] ]
Vy A cho ha c.
2. Cho ha ma trn B nu c vi
2 4 3
4 6 3
3 3 1
B
1
1

1
1
]
Gii
a thc c trng ca ma trn A l
3 2 2
( ) 3 4 ( 1)( 2)
A
f t t t t t + +
.
Gii phng trnh c trng
( ) 0
A
f t
ta c cc nghim l t = 1 v t = 2. Vy ma trn
A c hai gi tr ring l
1; 2
. Khi tm c s ca cc khng gian ring
(1)
A
E
v
( 1)
A
E
ta c:
C s ca
(1)
A
E
l
1
1
1
1
u
1
1

1
1
]
v c s ca
( 2)
A
E
l
2
1
1
0
u
1
1

1
1
]
.
Mt khc mi vector ring ca ma trn A u l t hp tuyn tnh ca
1
u
hoc
2
u
. Do ,
ta khng th tm c ba vector ring ca A lp thnh c s ca
3
. Vy ma trn A
khng th cho ha c (theo nh l 1.3.2).
1.3.5 H qu: Cho A l ma trn vung cp n trn K. Khi nu A c n gi tr ring
phn bit th A cho ha c.
Chng minh:
Gi s
1 2
, ,...,
n

l cc gi tr ring phn bit ca ma trn A. Gi
1 2
, ,...,
n
u u u
l cc
vector ring ca A tng ng vi cc gi tr ring
1 2
, ,...,
n

. Khi
1 2
{ , ,..., }
n
u u u
c lp
tuyn tnh trong
n
K theo nh l 1.1.5 do ma trn A cho ha c theo nh l 1.3.3.
V d: Chng t ma trn
1 8 3
0 3 3
0 0 2
A
1
1

1
1
]
cho ha c
Gii
Ma trn A l ma trn tam gic trn c 1, - 3, -2 l cc gi tr ring phn bit. Mt khc do
A l ma trn vung cp 3 c 3 gi tr ring phn bit nn n cho ha c.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 9
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
Nhn xt:
Cho A l ma trn vung cp n trn K. Nu A c n gi tr ring phn bit
1 2
, ,..,
n

th cc
vector ring tng ng
1 2
, ,...,
n
u u u
c lp tuyn tnh. Khi ta lp ma trn kh nghch
1 2
[ ... ]
n
P u u u
v ma trn ng cho
1
2
0 ... 0
0 ... 0
... ... ... ...
0 0 ...
n
D

1
1
1

1
1
]
sao cho
1
A PDP

hay ma
trn A cho ha c. Trong trng hp ma trn A c t hn n gi tr ring phn bit th ta
vn tm c ma trn kh nghch P v ma trn ng cho D
1
A PDP

, tc l A s cho
ha c theo nh l sau y.
1.3.6 nh l: Cho A l ma trn vung cp n trn K. Gi s
1 2
, ,...,
r

l cc gi tr
ring phn bit ca A v
i
S
l c s ca khng gian vector ring
( )
A i
E
vi mi i = 1, 2, ,
r. Khi
1 2
...
r
S S S S
c lp tuyn tnh trong
n
K v A cho ha c nu v ch nu
S cha n vector.
Chng minh
Gi s
1 2
{ ; ;...; }
ki
i i i i
S u u u
vi
dim ( )
i K A i
k E
v i = 1, 2, , r.
Mun chng minh S c lp tuyn tnh, ta gi s:
1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
1
1 1 1 1 1 1
... ... ... 0
r r
r
k k r r r r rk rk
u u
a u a u a u a u a u a u + + + + + + + +
1 4 4 442 4 4 4 43 1 4 4 442 4 4 4 43
Ch rng i1 i1 i2 i2
... ( )
i i
i ik ik A i
u a u a u a u E + + +
do
i
u
l vector ring ca ma trn A ng
vi gi tr ring
i

hoc
0
i
u
. Do tp cc vector ring ng vi cc gi tr ring phn bit l
c lp tuyn tnh nn t ng thc
1 2
... 0
r
u u u + + +
ta suy ra
0
i
u
vi mi i = 1, 2, , r.
Do ,
i1 i1 i2 i2
... 0
i i
ik ik
a u a u a u + + +
. V
i
S
l c s ca
( )
A i
E
nn
0
ij
a
vi mi i = 1, 2, r v j =
1, 2, ,
i
k
. Vy
1 2
...
r
S S S S
c lp tuyn tnh trong
n
K . Nu S cha n vector ring
c lp tuyn tnh. Nhm cc vector ring ng vi gi tr ring
i

vo
i
S
. Ch rng
i j
S S
vi mi i khc j. T suy ra,
1 2
...
r
S S S S
cha n vector ring ca ma
trn A.
1.3.7 V d: Cho ha ma trn sau y (nu c)
1 0 1 1
0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0
1 1 0 1
A
1
1
1

1
1
]
Gii
Ta c a thc c trng ca ma trn A l
4 3 2 2
( ) 4 2 4 3 ( 3)( 1) ( 1)
A
f t t t t t t t t + + +
.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 10
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
Gii phng trnh c trng
( ) 0
A
f t
ta c cc nghim t = 3, 1, -1. Vy ma trn A c
ba gi tr ring
3,1, 1
. Ta s tm mt c s ca khng gian vector ring
(3), (1), ( 1)
A A A
E E E
.
C s ca
(3)
A
E
l
1
1
1
1
1
u
1
1
1

1
1
]
C s ca
(1)
A
E
gm hai vector
2 3
1 0
1 0
,
0 1
0 1
u u
1 1
1 1
1 1

1 1
1 1
] ]
C s ca
( 1)
A
E
l vector
4
1
1
1
1
u
1
1

1
1
]
Nhn thy
1 2 3 4
{ , , , } S u u u u
l h c lp tuyn tnh v do ma trn
1 2 3 4
[ ] P u u u u
kh nghch v
1
A PDP

, trong
1 1 0 1
1 1 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1
P
1
1

1
1
]
v
3 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
D
1
1
1

1
1

]
1.4. Vect ring Gi tr ring ca mt php bin i tuyn tnh
1.4.1 nh ngha: Cho V l mt khng gian vector trn trng K. Mt nh x tuyn tnh
:V V c gi l mt ton t tuyn tnh ca V. Mt ton t tuyn tnh

ca V cn
c gi l mt php bin i tuyn tnh.
1.4.2 V d:
1. Cho nh x
2 2
: xc nh bi
1 2 1 2 1 2
( , ) (2 , 2 ) x x x x x x + +
. Khi

l mt
ton t tuyn tnh trn
2
.
2. Cho nh x
2 2
: [ ] [ ] P x P x
cho bi
2 2
0 1 2 0 0 1 1 2
( ) 3 (5 2 ) ( ) a a t a t a a a t ta a t + + + + +
Khi

l mt ton t tuyn tnh trn


2
[ ] P x
.
3. Cho nh x
2 2
: ( ) ( ) M M
xc nh bi
1 2
( )
3 4
X X
1

1
]
Khi

l mt ton t tuyn tnh trn


2
( ) M
.
1.4.3 nh ngha: Cho

l mt ton t tuyn tnh ca khng gian vector V trn trng


K. Mt phn t K c gi l gi tr ring ca

nu tn ti mt vector khc khng


v V sao cho
( ) v v
. Khi vector v c gi l vector ring ca

ng vi gi tr ring
.
1.4.4 V d:
i s Tuyn tnh 2 11
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
1. Cho

l mt ton t tuyn tnh ca khng gian vector V trn trng K. Khi phn
t 0 l gi tr ring ca

khi v ch khi 0 Ker . V Khi 0 v l vector ring ca

ng
vi gi tr ring 0 khi v ch khi v Ker .
2. Mi vector khc 0 u l vector ring ca ton t ng nht hoc ton t 0. Vi ton
t ng nht, th gi tr ring bng 1, cn ton t 0 th gi tr ring l 0.
3. Cho f l ton t tuyn tnh trn khng gian
3
c xc nh nh sau:
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
( , , ) (3 3 2 , 2 , 3 ) f x x x x x x x x x x x + + +
c gi tr ring l 4 v mt vector
ring tng ng vi gi tr ring ny l
(1,1, 1) u
v f (u) = f (1, 1, -1) = (4,4,-4) = u .
1.4.5 nh l: Gi s

l mt ton t tuyn tnh ca khng gian vector v trn trng


K. Khi K l gi tr ring ca

nu v ch nu
V
Id
khng l n nh.
Chng minh:
Nhn xt
( ) v v
khi v ch khi ( ) 0
V
Id v
vi mi K . Nu l mt gi tr
ring ca

th tn ti mt vector v khc 0 sao cho


( ) v v
. Suy ra
( ) v Ker Id
, v v
khc 0 nn
( )
V
Ker Id
khc 0 do
V
Id
khng l n nh. o li, gi s
V
Id

khng l n cu. Khi tn ti mt vector v khc 0 sao cho ( ) 0
V
Id v
suy ra
( ) v v
. Do l mt gi tr ring ca

v v l vector ring tng ng.


1.4.6 nh l: Gi s

l mt ton t tuyn tnh ca khng gian vector V trn trng


K. Khi nu c l cc vector ring ca

ng vi cc gi tr ring phn bit


1 2
, ,...,
r

th
1 2
{ , ,..., }
r
v v v
c lp tuyn tnh.
Chng minh: Gi s
1 2
{ , ,..., }
r
v v v
ph thuc tuyn tnh. Khi , tn ti ch s s nh nht
sao cho
1 s
v
+
l t hp tuyn tnh ca cc vector c lp tuyn tnh
1 2
, ,...,
s
v v v
hay tn ti cc
s
1 2
, ,...,
s
k k k K
sao cho
1 1 1 2 2
...
s s s
v k v k v k v
+
+ + +
.
Do
i
v
l cc vector ring ca ton t

ng vi gi tr ring
i

nn
( )
i i i
v v
vi mi i =
1, 2,..,s.
T ta c
1 1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ... ( )
s s s
v k v k v k v
+
+ + +
hay
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
...
s s s s s
v k v k v k v
+ +
+ + +
.
Suy ra
1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1
( ) ( ) ... ( ) 0
s s s s s s
k v k v k v
+ + +
+ + +
. V tp { }
1 2
, ,...,
s
v v v
c lp
tuyn tnh nn
1
( ) 0
i i s
k
+

suy ra 0, 1,
i
k i s . Do
1
0
s
v
+

, mu thun vi
1
0
s
v
+

.
Vy
1 2
{ , ,..., }
r
v v v
c lp tuyn tnh.
1.4.7 nh l: Cho

l mt ton t tuyn tnh ca khng gian vector V trn trng K.


Gi s K l mt gi tr ring ca

. Khi tp
( ) { | ( ) } V V v v


l mt khng
gian vector con ca V.
Chng minh:
Do vector 0 thuc
( ) V


nn
( ) V


. Nu
, ( ) u v V


th
( ) ; ( ) ( ) u u v v
. Khi
,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
u v u v u v u v
ku k u k u ku


+ + + +

Vy u + v v ku u thuc vo
( ) V


vi mi
, ( ) u v V


v vi mi k thuc K. Do
( ) V


l mt khng gian vector con ca V.
Khng gian vector con
( ) V


c gi l khng gian vector ring ca

ng vi gi tr
ring . Khng gian vector ring
( ) V


bao gm cc vector ring ca

ng vi gi tr
ring v vector 0.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 12
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
Nhn xt:
Nu dim V = n v

c ma trn biu din A theo c s S th


a) l gi tr ring ca

khi v ch khi l nghim ca a thc c trng


( ) ( ) | |
A n
f t f t A tI


ca

.
b) Mi ton t tuyn tnh ca khng gian vector n chiu c ti a n gi tr ring khc
nhau.
c) K hiu
[ ]
S
v
l ta ca vector v trong c s S. Khi l gi tr ring ca

khi
v ch khi h phng trnh tuyn tnh thun nht
.[ ] [ ]
S S
A v v
c nghim khng tm
thng. Tp cc nghim khng tm thng ca h ny l ta ca tt c cc vector ring
ca

ng vi gi tr ring .
Thut ton tm gi tr ring v vector ring ca mt ton t tuyn tnh:
1. Tm ma trn biu din A ca ton t

theo mt c s no ( c ma trn cha


cng nhiu s 0 cng tt).
2. Tm a thc c trng
( )
A
f t
.
3. Tm nghim ca a thc c trng trn trng K cho. l tp cc gi tr ring.
4. Vi mi gi tr ring , lp h phng trnh thun nht
11 1 12 2 1
21 1 22 2 2
1 1 2 2
( ) ... 0
( ) ... 0
... ( ) 0
n n
n n
n n nn n
a x a x a x
a x a x a x
a x a x a x

+ + +

+ + +

'

+ + +

M
ri gii tm h nghim c s. chnh l c s ca
khng gian ring ng vi gi tr ring .
V d:
1. Cho ton t tuyn tnh

ca
n
c ma trn biu din trong c s chnh tc l
0 2
1 0
A
1

1
]
. Hy tm cc gi tr ring v vector ring ca ton t

.
Gii
a thc c trng ca ma trn A l:
2
( ) 2
A
f t t
Nhn thy
( )
A
f t
c hai nghim l 2 t hay

c hai gi tr ring l 2 t .
Khi ta c hai h phng trnh tuyn tnh tng ng sau y
1 2
1 2
2 2 0
2 0
x x
x x

'

v
1 2
1 2
2 2 0
2 0
x x
x x

'
+

Gii ln lt cc h ta c
Tp cc vector ring ng vi gi tr ring 2 l ( 2,1), 0 c c . Tp cc vector ring
ng vi gi tr ring 2 l ( 2, 1), 0 c c
2. Cho ton t tuyn tnh
2 2
: xc nh bi
1 2 1 2 1 2
( , ) (2 , 2 ) x x x x x x + +
. Hy xc
nh tt c cc gi tr ring ca

v tt c cc vector ring ng vi cc gi tr ring tm


c.
Gii:
Xt ma trn A ca

trong cp c s chnh tc ca
2
. Ta c ma trn A nh sau:
i s Tuyn tnh 2 13
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
2 1
1 2
A
1

1
]
Xt a thc c trng ca ma trn A.
2 2 2
2 1
( ) (2 ) 1 4 4 1 4 3
1 2
A
t
f t t t t t t
t

+ +

.
Xt phng trnh c trng ca ma trn A ta c c hai nghim t = 1 v t = 3. Khi
1 v 3 l hai gi tr ring ca A.
Xt h phng trnh
1
2
2
1 1
( ) 0 0
1 1
x
A I X
x
1 1

1 1
] ]
ta c
1
2
x t
x t

'

Khi vector u
1
= (-1, 1) l mt vector ring ca A.
Xt h pt
1
2
2
1 1
( 3 ) 0 0
1 1
x
A I X
x
1 1

1 1

] ]
ta c
1
2
x t
x t

'

Khi vector u
2
= (1, 1) l mt vector ring ca A.
1.4.8 nh ngha: Cho

l mt ton t tuyn tnh ca khng gian vector V trn trng


K. Mt khng gian vector con W ca V l mt khng gian bt bin i vi ton t

nu
( ) W W
, hay
( ) w W
vi mi w W .
V d: Cho

l mt ton t tuyn tnh ca khng gian vector V trn trng K. Khi


0 v V l cc khng gian bt bin ca V i vi ton t

v chng c gi l khng gian


con bt bin tm thng. Nu

khng l ng cu th ht nhn Ker 0 l mt khng gian


bt bin khng tm thng ca V i vi

.
Nu

l nh x ng nht hoc nh x 0 th mi khng gian con ca V l khng gian


con bt bin i vi ton t

.
Nu l mt gi tr ring ca

th mi khng gian con ca khng gian vector ring


ng vi u l khng gian bt bin ca

.
1.4.9 nh l: Khng gian
( ) V


l khng gian con bt bin ca V i vi

.
Chng minh: Ta c
( ) V


l mt khng gian vector con ca V. Vi mi
( ) v V


. Ta
c
( ) ( ) ( ) v v v
do
( ) v V


. Nh vy vi mi vector
( ) v V


, ta lun c
( ) ( ) v v V


. Do
( ) V


l khng gian con bt bin ca V .
Cho V l khng gian vector n chiu trn trng K v

l mt ton t tuyn tnh ca V.


Gi s
1 2
{ , ,..., }
n
S v v v
l mt c s ca V. Vi mi v V , ta s tm mi quan h gia
[ ]
S
v

v
[ ( )]
S
v
. Do S l mt c s ca V nn vector v c vit duy nht di dang
1 1 2 2
...
n n
v k v k v k v + + +
. Khi ta ca v i vi c s S l
1
2
[ ]
S
n
k
k
v
k
1
1
1

1
1
]
M
Mt khc do

l mt ton t tuyn tnh trn K nn


1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
( ) ( ... ) ( ) ( ) ... ( )
n n n n
v k v k v k v k v k v k v + + + + + +
. Do ta c
i s Tuyn tnh 2 14
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ... ( )
n n
S S S S
v k v k v k v + + +
. Gi s
1
2
[ ( )]
i
i
i S
ni
a
a
v
a

1
1
1

1
1
]
M
l ta ca
vector
( )
i
v
i vi c s S vi mi i = 1, 2, , n. Khi ta vit
[ ( )] [ ]
S S
v A v
trong
ma trn
[ ] [ ] [ ]
11 12 1
21 22 2
1 2
1 2
...
...
( ) ( ) ... ( )
... ... ... ...
...
n
n
n
S S S
n n nn
a a a
a a a
A v v v
a a a

1
1
1
1
]
1
1
]
Tnh cht:
a) Khng gian con U V l khng gian con bt bin ca

khi v ch khi nh ca mt
h sinh ca U nm trong U.
b) Nu U V l khng gian con bt bin, th nh x hn ch
|
U

l mt ton t tuyn
tnh ca U.
(SV. T chng minh nh bi tp nh).
1.4.10 nh ngha: Cho V l mt khng gian vector n chiu trn trng K v

l mt
ton t tuyn tnh ca V . Ton t tuyn tnh

c gi l cho ha c nu ma trn biu


din ca

theo mt c s S no l ma trn ng cho.


1.4.11 nh l: Cho V l mt khng gian vector n chiu trn trng K v

l mt ton
t tuyn tnh ca V. Khi

cho ha c nu v ch nu

c n vector ring c lp
tuyn tnh. Hn na cc phn t trn ng cho chnh ca ma trn biu din l cc gi tr
ring ca

.
Chng minh:
Gi s A cho ha c v A l ma trn biu din ca

theo c s
1 2
{ , ,..., }
n
S v v v
. Khi

1
2
0 ... 0
0 ... 0
... ... ... ...
0 0 ...
n
A

1
1
1

1
1
]
v
( )
i i i
v v
.
V S l c s ca V nn
i
v
khc vector 0 vi mi i = 1, 2, , n. Do ,
1 2
, ,...,
n

l cc
gi tr ring ca

v
1 2
, ,..,
n
v v v
l cc vector ring tng ng. o li nu

c n vector
ring
1 2
, ,..,
n
v v v
c lp tuyn tnh th
1 2
{ , ,..., }
n
S v v v
l c s ca V. V
i
v
l vector ring
ca

nn tn ti
i
K
sao cho
( )
i i i
v v
vi mi i = 1, 2, , n. Khi
1
2
0 ... 0
0 ... 0
... ... ... ...
0 0 ...
n
A

1
1
1

1
1
]
chnh l ma trn ca

theo c s S. Ma trn biu din A ca

l
ma trn ng cho nn

cho ha c.
Hai ma trn ca cng mt ton t tuyn tnh theo hai c s khc nhau l ng dng v do
chng c cng a thc c trng. Nu ta ng nht v V vi
[ ]
S
v
th ton t tuyn tnh

c xc nh bi
( ) v Av
trong A l ma trn biu din ca

.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 15
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
Gi s K l mt gi tr ring ca A. Khi tn ti vector v khc 0 sao cho
( ) ( ) A v v v
. iu ny ng ngha vi cng l gi tr ring ca ton t tuyn tnh


v ngc li. Do A v

c cng tp cc vector ring v tp cc gi tr ring. Vy mun


xc nh cc gi tr ring v cc vector ring ca mt ton t tuyn tnh

ta ch vic xc
nh cc gi tr ring v cc vector ring ca ma trn biu din A ca

theo mt c s no
.
1.4.12 H qu: Cho V l mt khng gian vector n chiu trn trng K,

l mt ton t
tuyn tnh ca V v A l ma trn biu din ca

theo c s S. Khi ,

l cho ha c
nu v ch nu A cho ha c.
V d:
1. Cho php bin i tuyn tnh
2 2
: xc nh bi
( , ) (5 4 ,8 9 ) x y x y x y + +
a) Tm cc gi tr ring v vector ring ca php bin i

b) Hi php bin i

c cho ha c khng?
Gii
Ma trn ca

i vi cp c s chnh tc ca
2
l
5 4
8 9
A
1

1
]
a thc c trng ca php bin i

l
2
5 4
( ) 14 13
8 9
t
f t t t
t

Xt phng trnh c trng


2
( ) 0 14 13 0 1 13 f t t t t t

+
. Vy php bin i

c hai gi tr ring l
1, 13
ng vi gi tr ring 1 . Xt h pt thun nht
4 4 0
8 8 0
x y
x y
+
'
+

Vy h c nghim u =( s, -s) vi
, 0 s s
. Do tp cc vector ring ng vi gi tr
ring 1 l u =( s, -s) vi
, 0 s s
.
Chn s = 1, ta c 1 vector ring
1
(1, 1) u
ng vi gi tr ring 1
Tng t i vi gi tr ring 13 . Xt h pt thun nht
8 4 0
8 4 0
x y
x y
+
'

. H c nghim u =( s, 2s) vi
, 0 s s
. Do tp cc vector ring ng
vi gi tr ring 13 l u =( s, -s) vi
, 0 s s
.
Chn s = 1 ta c 1 vector ring u
2
= ( 1, 2) ng vi gi tr ring 13 .
Do

c hai vector ring c lp tuyn tnh nn

cho ha c v ng vi c s
1 2
{ , } S u u
th ma trn ca

c dng cho nh sau:


1 0
'
0 13
A
1

1
]
2. Cho T l ton t tuyn tnh trn
3
xc nh bi
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
( , , ) (3 , 2 2 , 2 2 ) T x x x x x x x x x x x + + +
a) Hy xc nh cc gi tr ring v vector ring ca T.
b) Hi T c cho ha c khng? Nu c tm c s ma trn ca T trong c s
c dng cho.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 16
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
3. Cho ton t tuyn tnh
2 2
: xc nh bi
1 2 1 2 1 2
( , ) (2 , 2 ) x x x x x x + +
.
a) Tm cc gi tr ring v vector ring ca

.
b) Chng t rng

cho ha c. Hy tm mt c s S ma trn ca

theo S theo
ma trn ng cho
(Sinh vin t lm nh bi tp nh).
nh l 1.4.13: Cho

l mt ton t tuyn tnh trn khng gian vector hu hn chiu


V. Gi
1 2
, ,...,
k

l tt c cc tr ring khc nhau ca T v
( )
i
E
l khng gian ring ng
vi gi tr ring
i

v
dim ( )
i i
n E
. Khi cc iu sau y tng ng:
i) T cho ha c;
ii) a thc c trng ca T c dng
1 2
1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ...( )
k
n n n
T k
f t t t t
iii)
1 2
.. dim
k
n n n V + + +
.
Nhn xt:
Gi s l mt gi tr ring ca T,
dim ( ) E k
v a thc c trng ca T c dng
( ) ( ) ( )
m
T
f t t g x
, vi
( ) 0 g
, nu m > k th T khng cho ha c.
II. Dng chun tc Jordan:
2.1 nh ngha:
Mt ma trn
( )
n
J M K
gi l ma trn chun tc Jordan nu n c dng:
1 1
2 2
3
1 1
0 ... 0 0
0 ... 0 0
0 0 .... 0 0
0 0 0 ...
0 0 0 ... 0
n n
n
J


1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
]
M M M O M M
Trong :
, 1,
{0,1}, 1, 1
j
i
K j n
j n



{1,..., 1} j n
nu
1
j

th
1 j j

+

V d:
- Cc ma trn cho (ni ring: ma trn khng, ma trn n v) u l cc ma trn chun
tc Jordan.
- Ma trn
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
A
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
]
l mt ma trn chun tc Jordan.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 17
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
2.2 nh ngha: Ma trn Jordan dng c bit
1 ... 0 0
0 ... 0 0
0 0 ... 1
0 0 ... 0
k
k
k
k
k
J

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
M M O M M
c gi l
mt khi Jordan thuc gi tr
k

.
Nhn xt: Mi ma trn Jordan J gm nhu khi Jordan to nn:
1
2
k
J
J
J
J
1
1
1

1
1
]
O
, trong
1 2
, ,...,
k
J J J
l cc khi Jordan.
Trong v d trn th ma trn A gm cc khi Jordan sau:
1 2 3 4
3 1 0
1 1 0 1
, , [2], 0 3 1
0 1 0 0
0 0 3
J J J J
1
1 1
1

1 1
1

] ]
1
]
Ta cn tm iu kin mt ma trn A ng dng vi mt ma trn Jordan. C hai cch
tm dng chun tc ca mt khi Jordan, da vo khi nhim a thc ti tiu hoc da vo
khi nim ma trn. Ta cn cc khi nim sau y.
2.3 nh ngha: Ta gi - ma trn vung cp n trn trng K l ma trn c dng.
11 12 1
21 22 2
1 2
( ) ( ) ... ( )
( ) ( ) ... ( )
( )
... ... ... ...
( ) ( ) ... ( )
n
n
n n nn
a a a
a a a
A
a a a


1
1
1

1
1
]
, trong
[ ], , 1,...,
ij
a K i j n
.
Mt ma trn
( ) A
gi l c dng chnh tc nu n c dng sau:
1
2
1
( ) 0 ... 0 0
0 ( ) ... 0 0
( ) ...
0 0 ... ( ) 0
0 0 ... 0 ( )
n
n
e
e
A
e
e

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
M M M M
trong
( ) [ ]
j
e K
l nhng a thc, c h s cao nht l 1 nu khc a thc 0, 1,..., j n
( )
j
e
chia ht cho
1
( ), 2,...,
j
e j n


V d:
2
2
2
1 0 2 1 3 8 2 3 8
0 2 3 0 1 3 3 1 2 3



1 + + 1 1 1
+ +
1 1 1 1
+ +
] ] ] ]
Ma trn n v, ma trn khng l nhng ma trn chnh tc
i s Tuyn tnh 2 18
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
2
3
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
( ) 0 0 ( 1) 0 0
0 0 0 ( 1) 0
0 0 0 0 0
A

1
1

1
1
1

1
1
]
l mt ma trn chnh tc
Nhn xt:
- Nu - ma trn vung cp n
( ) A
c bc ln nht i vi cc
( )
ij
a
l m th ta c th
vit
( ) A
di dng
1
0 1 1
( ) ...
m m
m m
A B B B B

+ + + +
vi
0 1
, ,.., ( )
m n
B B B M K
- Hai ma trn A, B thuc M
n
(K) l ng dng nhau khi v ch khi hai ma trn
n
A I
v
n
B I
l tng ng.
2.4 nh ngha: Cho a thc
1
0 1 1
( ) ... [ ]
m m
m m
f a a a a K

+ + + +
v ma trn
[ ] ( )
ij n
A a M K
.
Khi ma trn vung cp n,
1
0 1 1
...
m m
m m n
a A a A a A a I

+ + + +
c gi l gi tr ca a
thc
( ) f
ti ma trn A, k hiu l
( ) f A
hay
1
0 1 1
( ) ...
m m
m m n
f A a A a A a A a I

+ + + +
Nu
( ) 0 [0]
nxn
f A
th A c gi l nghim ca a thc
( ) f
.
2.5 nh l: Mi ma trn u c th a v dng chnh tc mt cch duy nht nh
mt s hu hn cc php bin i s cp.
Chng minh:
1) S chnh tc ha c.
Cho ma trn
( ) A

Nu
( ) 0 A
th n co dng chnh tc. gi s rng
( ) 0 A
(suy ra mi ma trn
tng ng vi
( ) A
u khc 0).
Chng minh theo quy nap theo cp ca k ca
( ) A
.
Khi k = 1 th
11
( ) [ ( )] A a
c dng chnh tc (nu cn th nhn mt s thch hp
11
( ) a
c h s cao nht l 1.
Gi s mnh ng cho mi ma trn c cp k = n 1 v xt trng hp
( ) A
c
cp k = n. Khi , trong tt c cc ma trn tng ng vi
( ) A
c th tm c mt
ma trn
11 12 1
21 22 2
1 2
( ) ( ) ... ( )
( ) ( ) ... ( )
( )
... ... ... ...
( ) ( ) ... ( )
n
n
n n nn
b b b
b b b
B
b b b


1
1
1

1
1
]
sao cho
11
( ) 0 b
v c bc nh nht. Ngoi ra ta c
th gi s
11
( ) 0 b
v c h s cao nht bng 1.
Trong ma trn
( ) B
ny ta chng minh
11
( ) b
chia ht mi phn t cng dng 1 v cng
ct 1. Tht vy, gi s
{2,.., } k n
sao cho
1
( )
k
b
khng chia ht cho
11
( ) b
.
Trong
[ ] K
ta c
1 11
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
k k k
b b q r +
vi
( ), ( ) [ ]
k k
q r K
v
11
deg ( ) deg ( )
k
r b <
. Khi bin i
( ) B
bng cch:
- Nhn ct 1 vi
( ) q
ri cng vo ct k.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 19
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
- i ch ct 1 v ct k cho nhau:
Khi ,
( ) ... ...
( ) ( ) ... ... ...
... ... ...
r
A B


1
1

1
1
]
:
. Mt khc do
11
deg ( ) deg ( )
k
r b <
nn mu thun
vi cch chn
( ) B
. Vy
11
( ) b
chia ht mi phn t cng dng 1. Chng minh tng t cho
trng hp ct. Nh s chia ht ny ta c th bin i.
11
22 2
2
( ) 0 ... 0
0 ( ) ... ( )
( )
... ... ... ...
0 ( ) ... ( )
n
n nn
b
c c
B
c c


1
1
1
1
1
]
:
Ma trn
22 2
2
( ) ... ( )
( ) ... ... ...
( ) ... ( )
n
n nn
c c
C
c c


1
1

1
1
]
c cp n-1 nn theo gi thit quy np c th a v
dng chnh tc. Do :
11
2
( ) 0 ... 0
0 ( ) ... 0
( ) ( )
... ... ... ...
0 0 ... ( )
n
b
e
A B
e

1
1
1

1
1
]
:
Ta cn chng minh
11
( ) b
chia ht
2
( ) e
l . Tht vy, gi s ngc li
2
( ) e
khng
chia ht cho
11
( ) b
. Khi khi chia
2
( ) e
cho
11
( ) b
ta c d
( ) r
khc 0 v bc cao nht
ca
( ) r
nh hn bc ca
11
( ) b
. Do
11
11
( ) 0 ... 0
( ) ... ...
0 ( ) ( ) ( ) ... 0
( ) ( ) ... ... ...
... ... ... ...
... ... ...
0 0 ... ( )
n
b
r
b q r
A B
e

1
1
1
+
1
1

1
1
1
1
]
]
: :
mu thun vi cch
chn
( ) B
. Vy
2
( ) e
chia ht
11
( ) b
. ( chng minh xong).
Chng minh tnh duy nht:
Vi mi k = 1, , n k hiu
,
( )
k A
D
l c chung ln nht c h s cao nht bng 1 ca
tt c cc nh thc con cp k ca
( ) A
. Ta s s dng b c pht biu sau y.
B : Php bin i s cp thc hin trn
( ) A
khng lm thay i
,
( )
k A
D
, vi mi k
= 1, , n.
Gi s
( ) A
c a v dng chnh tc:
1
2
( ) 0 ... 0
0 ( ) ... 0
( )
... ... ... ...
0 0 ... ( )
n
e
e
E
e

1
1
1

1
1
]
. Do
( ) ( ) A E :
. Theo trn ta c
, ,
( ) ( ), 1,
k A k E
D D k n
.
Do ,
i s Tuyn tnh 2 20
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
1, 1, 1
2, 2, 1 2
, , 1 2
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
...
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )... ( )
A E
A E
n A n E n
D D e
D D e e
D D e e e






Suy ra
1 1,
2,
2
1,
,
1,
,
1,
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
...
( )
( )
( )
...
( )
( )
( )
A
A
A
i A
i
i A
n A
n
n A
e D
D
e
D
D
e
D
D
e
D

iu ny th hin tnh duy nht ca dng chnh tc ca


( ) A
. Cc a thc
( )
i
e
c
gi l cc nhn t bt bin ca ma trn
( ) A
.
V d: a ma trn sau v dng chnh tc bng cc php bin i s cp
0
( )
0 3
A

1
+
]
Gii
Ta c
( ) ( )
1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1
2 1 2
2 1 2 2 2
/3
( 1)
( 3) 3
3
0 3 3 3 1 1
( ) 3
0 3 0 3 3 3
3 3
1 1 1 1
3 3
0 3 0 3
3 3
d d d c c c d d
c c c
d d d c c
A






+
+
+ +
1
+ + + 1 1 1
1

1 1 1
1
+ + + +
] ] ]
+ +
]
1 1
+ +
1 1
1 1

1 1
+ +
1 1
] ]
( )
1 1
3
0 3


1
+
1

1
+
1
]
Nhn xt:
Trong dng chnh tc ca mt ma trn nu c:
( ) 1
j
e
th chng phi ng v tr u ca cc ng cho chnh.
( ) 0
j
e
th chng phi ng cc v tr cui ca ng cho chnh.
Mt cch tng qut, dng chnh tc ca mt ma trn l nh sau:
i s Tuyn tnh 2 21
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
1 .... 0 0 ... 0 0 ... 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
0 ... 1 0 ... 0 0 ... 0
0 ... 0 ( ) .... 0 0 ... 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
0 ... 0 0 ... ( ) 0 ... 0
0 ... 0 0 ... 0 0 ... 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
0 ... 0 0 ... 0 0 ... 0
k
j
e
e

1
1
1
1

]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Xt khi Jordan
1 ... 0 0
0 ... 0 0
0 0 ... 1
0 0 ... 0
k
k
k
k
k
J

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
M M O M M
. Khi ma trn
1 ... 0 0
0 ... 0 0
0 0 ... 1
0 0 ... 0
k
k
k n
k
k
J I



1
1

1
1
1

1
1

]
M M O M M
c UCLN ca cc nh thc con l
,
,
( ) ( )
( ) 1
k
k
m
m J k
m J
D
D


v
k
J I
c 1 trong cc nh thc con cp m-1 l nh thc
1
1 0 ... 0 0
1 ... 0 0
... ... ... .. .. 1
0 0 ... 1 0
0 0 ... 1
k
m
k
D

. Mt khc
,
( )
i A
D
chia ht
1,
( )
i A
D
+
nn
1, 2, 1,
( ) ( ) ... ( ) 1
k k k
m J m J J
D D D


Do
k
J I
c a v dng chnh tc sau:
( )
1 0 ... 0 0
0 1 ... 0 0
0 0 ... 1 0
0 0 ... 0
m
k

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

]
M M O M M
V d: a ma trn c trng
1
J I
sau y v dng chnh tc
i s Tuyn tnh 2 22
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
1
3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
J I

0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
]
Dng dng chnh tc ca khi Jordan ta c
2
2
2
1 2
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 ( 3)
1 0

0 ( 2)
1 0

0 ( 3)
1 0

0 ( 1)
0 J I P

:
3

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 ( 2)

0

4
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0
0 0 0 ( 3)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

]
V
1
3 2 2 2 3 4
17, 17,
( ) ( ) ( 3) ( 1)( 2) ( 1) ( 3) ( 2) ( 3)
J I P
D D


(*)
1
17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17,
16, 16, 17, 3 2 2 2 3 4
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ), , , , , , ,
( 3) ( 1) ( 2) ( 1) ( 3) ( 2) ( 3)
P P P P P P P
J I P P
D D D D D D D
D D UCLN D



' ;


Suy ra
1
2 2 3
16,
( ) ( 1)( 2) ( 3) ( 3)
J I
D


Nhn xt: So vi dng (*) ca
1
17,
( )
J I
D

, th
1
16,
( )
J I
D

mt i cc nhn t c s m
ln nht, l
2 3 4
( 1) , ( 2) , ( 3)
Tng t
1
2
15, 15,
( ) ( ) ( 3)
J I P
D D


(so vi 16,
( )
P
D
mt i cc nhn t c s m
ln nht l
2 3
( 1), ( 2) , ( 3)
1
14, 14,
( ) ( ) 1
J I P
D D


Suy ra,
14, 13, 12, 1,
( ) ( ) ( ) ... ( ) 1
P P P P
D D D D
i s Tuyn tnh 2 23
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
Do cc
( ) e
j

trong dng chnh tc ca
1
J I
l
( )
17, 2 3 4
( ) ( 1) ( 2) ( 3)
17
( )
16,
D
P
e
D
P


2 3
( )
16,
( ) ( 1)( 2) ( 3)
16
( )
15,
D
P
e
D
P


2
( )
16,
( ) ( 3)
15
( )
15,
D
P
e
D
P


( ) ( ) ... ( ) 1
14 13 1
e e e
Dng chnh tc ca
1
2
2 3
2 3 4
1 0 ... 0 0 0 0
0 1 ... 0 0 0 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ...
0 0 ... 1 0 0 0
0 0 ... 0 ( 3) 0 0
0 0 ... 0 0 ( 1)( 2) ( 3) 0
0 0 ... 0 0 0 ( 1) ( 2) ( 3)
J I



1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1

1
1

]
V d 2: Tm dng chnh tc ca ma trn
2
J I
nh sau:
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1


]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Ta c
2
2
2
2
3 2 2 3 2 0
12,
2 2 2 0
11,
2 0
10,
0 0
9,
( ) ( 1) ( 2)
( ) ( 1) ( 2)
( ) ( 1) ( 2)
( ) ( 1) ( 2) 1
I
I
I
I
J
J
J
J
D
D
D
D

+ + + +
+ +
+
+
+
+
Suy ra
2 2
8, 1,
( ) ... ( ) 1
J I J I
D D




i s Tuyn tnh 2 24
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
Do dng chnh tc ca
2
J I
l
2
2 2
3 3
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ( 1) 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ( 1) ( 2) 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ( 1) ( 2)



1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

+
]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
V d:
Tm ma trn Jordan J ng dng vi ma trn A sau:
1 1 1 1
3 3 5 4
8 4 3 4
15 10 11 11
A
1
1

1

1
1

]
Gii
Ta a ma trn A I v dng chnh tc
3
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 ( 3)
A I

1
1

1

1 +
1
+
]
Do ma trn Jordan ng dng vi A l ma trn J:
1 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
J
1
1

1
1

]
V d: Vit ma trn Jordan ma ma trn c trng c dng chnh tc l
2
2 2
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 ( 1) 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 ( 1)( 2) 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ( 1)( 2)
J I



1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1
+
1
+ 1
]
Ma trn cn tm l:
i s Tuyn tnh 2 25
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
J
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1
]
2.6 nh l: Cho
( )
n
A M K
khi A ng dng vi ma trn Jordan khi v ch khi a
thc c trng ca A phn tch c thnh tch ca n a thc bc nht trn trng K (iu
ny tng ng vi a thc c trng ca A c n nghim, khng nht thit phn bit,
thuc K).
Chng minh:
a thc c trng ca A l:
| | A I
iu kin :
Gi s
1 2
1 2
| | ( ) ( ) ...( )
s
k k k
s
A I
vi
1 2
, ,...,
s
K
v
1 2
...
s
k k k n + + +
.
Khi trong ma trn A I c
1 2
1 2
, 1 2
, 1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ...( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ...( ) , , 1,
....
s
s
k k k
n A s
m m m
n A s i i
D
D m k i s



<
t
, 1,
1 1 1,
1, 2,
( ) ( )
( ) , ( ) ,..., ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
n A n A
n n A
n A n A
D D
e e e D
D D




Th ma trn A I tng ng vi
1
2
( ) 0 ... 0
0 ( ) ... 0
... ... ... ...
0 0 ... ( )
n
e
e
B
e

1
1
1

1
1
]
Gi J l ma trn Jordan m dng chnh tc ca J I l B th A ng dng vi J.
iu kin cn:
Gi s A ng dng vi mt ma trn Jordan J. Khi J I v A I l hai ma trn
tng ng nn c cng dng chnh tc, do : , ,
( ) ( )
n A n J
D D
V ,
( )
n J
D
phn tch c thnh tch cc a thc bc nht nn ,
( )
n A
D
phn tch c.
( chng minh xong).
2.7 B : Gi s php bin i tuyn tnh T ca khng gian vector V trn trng K c
ma trn ca T i vi c s
1 2
, ,...,
n
e e e
l mt ma trn khi Jordan J thuc gi tr
1

. Khi
1
0 ,
( ) ( )
, 0
k
V j
j k
k j
T Id e
e k j



'
<

2.8 nh l: Cho T l php bin i tuyn tnh ca khng gian vector n chiu V trn K
m ma trn ca T i vi c s
1 2
, ,...,
n
e e e
l mt ma trn khi Jordan J thuc gi tr
1

. Khi

i s Tuyn tnh 2 26
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
Cc khng gian con
0 1 1 2 1 2 1 2
{0}, , , ,..., , ,...,
n n
M M e M e e M e e e
l cc khng
gian con ca V bt bin qua T. Hn th, o li mi khng gian con ca V bt bin qua T
u c dng
.
i
M
Sinh vin tham kho thm cch tm c s Jordan ca mt ton t tuyn tnh da vo cc
khi nim a thc ti tiu nh sau
nh ngha:
a thc p(x) c h s trong trng K c gi l linh ha ton t tuyn tnh T nu
p(T) = 0. Nu p(x) l a thc c bc thp nht linh ha T th ta ni p l a thc ti tiu
ca T.
Mnh : Nu a thc g(x) linh ha ton t tuyn tnh T th g(x) chia ht cho a thc ti
tiu p(x) ca T.
nh l: Nu T l ton t tuyn tnh trn khng gian vector V c s chiu hu hn th a
thc c trng v a thc ti tiu ca T c cng nghim. Ni cch khc, nghim ca a thc
ti tiu l cc tr ring ca T.
nh l: Cho ton t tuyn tnh T trn khng gian vector V hu hn chiu. Gi s
1 2
, ,...,
n

l tt c cc tr ring khc nhau ca T v p(x) l a thc ti tiu ca T. Khi ,
nu T cho ha c th
1 2
( ) ( )( )...( )
n
p x x x x
.
nh l (Halminton Cayley): Cho T l mt ton t tuyn tnh trong khng gian vector
hu hn chiu V v f l mt a thc c trng ca T. Khi f(T) = 0. Suy ra, a thc ti tiu
l c ca a thc c trng.
nh ngha:
Cho V l mt khng gian vector trn trng s phc , T l mt ton t tuyn tnh trn
V,

l mt s phc v v l mt vector khc 0 thuc vo V.


Ta ni v l T-tun hon nu tn ti s nguyn 1 r sao cho 0
r
T v .
S nguyn dng nh nht r c tnh cht c gi l chu k ca v i vi T. Lc ,
0
k
T v , vi mi s nguyn k tha 0 k r < .
Khng gian vector V c s chiu hu hn c gi l tun hon (hay T- tun hon) nu
tn ti mt s phc

v mt vector v V sao cho v l


( ) T Id
tun hon c chu k r =
dimV.
Nhn xt:
Tp hp
1
{( ) ,..., ( ) , }
r
T Id v T Id v v

(*) l mt c s ca V.
Ma trn biu din ca T i vi c s ny c dng:
1 0 ... 0 0
0 1 ... 0 0
0 0 ... 0 0
... ... ... ... ... ...
0 0 0 ... 1
0 0 0 ... 0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
Ma trn ny cha

trn ng cho chnh, s 1 pha trn ng cho v 0 ti nhng


v tr cn li. Ma trn dng ny c gi l mt khi Jordan, k hiu l
( ) J
.
Khi ,

l tr ring, c vector ring l


1
( )
r
T Id v

. C s (*) c gi l c s Jordan
ca T.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 27
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
nh ngha: Cho cc ma trn vung
1 2
, ,...,
k
A A A
c cp tng ng l
1 2
, ,...,
k
n n n
. Khi ,
ta gi tng trc tip ca k ma trn ny l mt ma trn vung cp
1 2
...
k
n n n n + + +
c dng
1
2
0 ... 0
0 ... 0
... ... ...
0 ... ...
n
A
A
A
A
1
1
1

1
1
]
O
Ma trn A c tnh cht cc ma trn
1 2
, ,...,
k
A A A
nm trn ng cho chnh, cc v tr cn
li ca A u bng 0.
Nhn xt:
Gi s V l tng trc tip ca nhng khng gian con T- bt bin
1 2
....
m
V V V V
,
trong mi
i
V
u tun hon. Nu ta chn c s Jordan cho mi
i
V
th dy ca nhng c s
ny s to nn c s ca V, cng c gi l c s Jordan ca T. Ma trn J biu din T i
vi c s Jordan ny s l tng thc tip ca m khi Jordan. Nu
i
V
l
( )
i
T Id
tun hon,
i = 1, 2, , m th
1
2
k
J
J
J
J
1
1
1

1
1
]
O
, trong
1 2
, ,...,
k
J J J
l cc khi Jordan.
Ma trn ny c gi l dng chnh tc Jordan ca T.
Nhn xt:
Vi mi ton t tuyn tnh T trn khng khng gian vector V hu hn chiu ta u tm
c mt c s no ca V ma trn biu din T i vi c s B c dng Jordan.
Mi ma trn vung A u ng dng vi mt ma trn dng chnh tc Jordan ca A.
nh l: Ton t tuyn tnh T trn khng gian hu hn chiu V cho ha c khi v ch
khi a thc ti tiu ca T c dng
1 2
( ) ( )( )...( )
T k
P x x x x
vi
1 2
, ,...,
k

l cc gi tr ring phn bit ca T.
nh l: Gi s ton t tuyn tnh T c cc gi tr ring phn bit
1 2
, ,...,
r

. Khi , a
thc ti tiu ca T c dng
1 2
1 2
( ) ( ) .( ) ...( )
r
m m m
T r
P x x x x
khi v ch khi trong dng
chnh tc Jordan ca T, cc khi Jordan
( )
i
J
ng vi tr ring
i

c bc cao nht l
i
m
V d: Cho ton t tuyn tnh T trn V c ma trn biu din i vi mt c s (c sp) B
no ca V l
1 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
[ ]
1 2 1 1
0 1 0 1
B
T
1
1

1
1

]
Xc nh ma trn Jordan J ng dng vi ma trn
[ ]
B
T
?
Gii
Xt a thc c trng ca T l:
i s Tuyn tnh 2 28
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
3
1 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
( )
1 2 1 1
0 1 0 1
T
f x






a thc ti tiu l
2
( )
T
p x x
, T c mt gi tr ring bng 0. Do a thc ti tiu c bc 2
nn c ti a 2 khi Jordan mi khi c bc 2.
Khi dng Jordan ca T l
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
1
1
1
1
1
]
BI TP
1) Cho ma trn
7 2
4 1
A
1

]
.
a) Xc nh a thc c trng
( )
A
f t
ca A.
b) Xc nh cc gi tr ring
i

ca A.
c) Xc nh chiu v mt c s khng gian vect ring
( )
A i
E
.
d) Xc nh mt c s S ca
2

gm cc vect ring ca A.
2) Cho ma trn
1 4 2
3 4 0
3 1 3
A

1
1

1
1
]
.
a) Xc nh a thc c trng
( )
A
f t
ca A.
b) Xc nh cc gi tr ring
i

ca A.
c) Xc nh chiu v mt c s khng gian vect ring
( )
A i
E
.
d) Xc nh mt c s S ca
3

gm cc vect ring ca A.
3) Cho ma trn
11 5 5
5 3 3
5 3 3
A

1
1

1
1
]
.
a) Xc nh a thc c trng
( )
A
f t
ca A.
b) Xc nh cc gi tr ring
i

ca A.
c) Xc nh chiu v mt c s khng gian vect ring
( )
A i
E
.
d) Xc nh mt c s S ca
3

gm cc vect ring ca A.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 29
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
4) Cho ma trn
1 0 1 1
0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0
1 1 0 1
A
1
1
1

1
1
]
a) Xc nh a thc c trng
( )
A
f t
ca A.
b) Xc nh cc gi tr ring
i

ca A.
c) Xc nh chiu v mt c s khng gian vect ring
( )
A i
E
.
d) Xc nh mt c s S ca
4

gm cc vect ring ca A.
5) Cho l gi tr ring ca
M ( )
n
A K
, K v k . Chng minh rng
a) l gi tr ring ca ma trn A .
b)
k
l gi tr ring ca ma trn
k
A
.
c) + l gi tr ring ca ma trn A I + .
d)
( ) f
l gi tr ring ca ma trn a thc
( ) f A
.
6) Cho l gi tr ring ca
M ( )
n
A K
, K v k . Chng minh rng
a) Nu A kh nghch th
1

l gi tr ring ca ma trn
1
A

.
b) Nu A kh nghch th
1

+ l gi tr ring ca ma trn
1
A A

+
.
7) Cho A l ma trn vung cp
n
trn K v
1 2
, , ,
n

l cc gi tr ring ca n.
Chng minh rng
1 2
det
n
A L
.
8) Cho A l ma trn vung cp
n
trn K v
1 2
, , ,
n

l cc gi tr ring ca n.
Chng minh rng
a)
1 2
det( )
n
n
A L .
b)
1 2
det
k k k k
n
A L .
c)
1 2
det( ) ( )( ) ( )
n
A I + + + + L
.
d)
1 2
det ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n
f A f f f L
.
9) Cho A l ma trn vung cp
n
trn K v
1 2
, , ,
n

l cc gi tr ring ca n.
Chng minh rng
a) Nu A kh nghch th
1 1 1 1
1 2
det
n
A

L .
b) Nu A kh nghch th
1 1 1 1
1 1 2 2
det( ) ( )( ) ( )
n n
A A

+ + + + L .
c) Nu K khng l gi tr ring ca A th ma trn A I kh nghch v
1
1
1
det( ) .
n
i
i
A I

i s Tuyn tnh 2 30
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
10) Cho ma trn A trn trng s thc nh sau
9 1 5 7
8 3 2 4
0 0 3 6
0 0 1 8
A

1
1

1
1

]
a) Tnh det A
b) Tnh
4
det( ) A I
vi .
c) Tnh
det ( ) f A
bit rng
2
( ) 1
n
f x x x + .
11) Cho ma trn
4 3
2 1
A
1

]
a) Xc nh a thc c trng v cc gi tr ring ca A.
b) Xc nh mt c s ca khng gian vector ring tng ng
c) Chng t rng A cho ha c. Tm mt ma trn kh nghch P v ma trn ng
cho D sao cho
1
A PDP

d) Tnh
k
A vi mi s nguyn dng k.
12) Cho ho ma trn
1 1
2 1
A

1

]
trn v .
13) Cho ho ma trn
4 1 1
2 5 2
1 1 2
A

1
1

1
1
]
14) Cho ha ma trn
1 0 1 1
0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0
1 1 0 1
A
1
1
1

1
1
]
15) Cho ma trn
1 7 5
2 8 6
4 16 12
A

1
1

1
1
]

a) Cho ho ma trn A.
b) Hy tnh lu tha ma trn
n
A
.
16) Cho ma trn
1 7 5
2 8 6
4 16 12
A

1
1

1
1
]
a) Hy tnh a thc ma trn
( ) f A
, trong
2
( ) 1 [ ]
n
f t t t t + .
i s Tuyn tnh 2 31
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
b) Hy tm mt ma trn B trn trng s thc sao cho
2
B A
.
17) Cho
( ), ( ), ( )
n n n
u v w
l cc dy s thc xc nh bi
0 0 0
1 u v w
v
1
1
1
7 5
2 8 6
4 16 12
n n n n
n n n n
n n n n
u u v w
v u v w
w u v w
+
+
+
+

+
'

Xc nh cc s hng tng qut


,
n n
u v
v
n
w
v chng minh rng
2
n
v
l s nguyn
chia ht cho
2
n
.
18) Cho ma trn
2 0 0
0 3 0
0 1 2
A
1
1

1
1
]
a) Cho ha A.
b) t
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
2 0 0 ( ) ( ) ( )
0 3 0 ( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 2 ( ) ( ) ( )
n
a n a n a n
a n a n a n
a n a n a n
1 1
1 1

1 1
1 1
] ]
.
Tnh
22
32
( )
lim
( )
n
a n
a n

v
3 3
1 1
( )
ij
i i
S a n

.
19) Cho A v B l cc ma trn ng dng trn K . Chng minh rng
a) det det A B .
b) rank rank A B .
c)
tr( ) tr( ) A B
.
20) Cho A v B l cc ma trn ng dng trn K . Chng minh rng
a)
k
A
v
k
B
ng dng.
b)
( ) f A
v
( ) f B
ng dng vi mi
( ) [ ] f t K t
.
c) A kh nghch khi v ch khi B kh nghich.
d) Nu A kh nghch th AB v BA ng dng.
21) Cho ma trn
2 2 1
1 3 1
1 2 2
A
1
1

1
1
]
a) Xc nh a thc c trng v cc gi tr ring ca A.
b) Xc nh mt c s ca khng gian vector ring tng ng
c) Chng t rng A cho ha c. Tm mt ma trn kh nghch P v ma trn ng
cho D sao cho
1
A PDP

d) Tnh
k
A vi mi s nguyn dng k.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 32
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
22) Cho ma trn
3 12
2 7
A
1

]
,
1 2
3 2
,
1 1
u u
1 1

1 1
] ]
. Chng minh rng
1 2
, u u
l cc vector
ring ca A. Hy tm mt ma trn kh nghch P v ma trn ng cho D
1
A PDP

.
23)Cho ma trn vung cp 4 A c cc gi tr ring l 5, 3, -2. Gi s khng gian vector
ring ng vi gi tr ring 3 c chiu l 2. Hi ma trn A c cho ha c khng?
24)Hy xc nh a thc c trng v mt c s khng gian vector ring ca cc ma trn
sau. Trong s cc ma trn sau y ma trn no cho ha c, khi hy tm ma trn kh
nghch P v ma trn ng cho D sao cho
1
A PDP

.
2 7 5 3 3 4
)
7 2 4 3 4 8
a
1 1 1
1 1 1

] ] ]
1 0 1 6 2 0 0 3 1
) 2 3 1 2 9 0 3 0 2
0 6 0 5 8 3 1 2 0
b
1 1 1
1 1 1

1 1 1
1 1 1
] ] ]
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 2 4
0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 12 1 4 9
)
1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 6 5 2 4
1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 3 4 5 10
c
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1

] ] ]
25)Xc nh a thc c trng ca ma trn sau trn
1
1
1
a b
A a c
b c
1
1

1
1
]
v
a b c d
b a d c
B
c d a b
d c b a
1
1

1
1

]
26)Cho ha cc ma trn sau (nu c).
3 1
1 5
1
1
]
5 1
0 5
1
1
]
2 3
4 1
1
1
]
4 2 2
2 4 2
2 2 4
1
1
1
1
]
1 4 2
3 4 0
3 1 3
1
1

1
1
]
7 4 16
2 5 8
2 2 5
1
1
1
1
]
0 1 1 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0
1
1
1
1
1
]
5 3 0 9
0 3 1 2
0 0 2 0
0 0 0 2
1
1

1
1
1
]
27)Hy cho ha (nu c th) cc ton t tuyn tnh
3 3
: f cho sau y:
a) f (x, y, z) = (x + y + z, 2y + z, 2y + 3z)
b) f (x, y, z) = (x + y, y + z, -2y z)
c) f (x, y, z) = (x y + z, x + y z, -x + y + z)
d) f (x, y, z) = (x y, y z, x + z)
28)Hy tm dng chnh tc ca cc ma trn sau:
1
0

1
1
]
2
2
1 1
1 2 1


1 +
1
+ + +
]
0
0 5

1
1
+
]
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 0

1
1
1
1
1
]
i s Tuyn tnh 2 33
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
29)Cc cp ma trn sau c tng ng khng? Bit rng hai ma trn tng
ng nhau khi chng c cng dang chnh tc.
2 2
2 2
3 1 4 1
1 1
2 2



+ 1
1

1
1 + + +
]
v
2
2
1 2 2
2 2 3 2
2 1 1


1 +
1

1
1

]
30)Chng minh rng nu mt trong hai ma trn vung cng cp A v B l khng suy
bin th AB v BA ng dng.
31)Hy tm tt c cc ma trn vung cp n trn trng s thc m ch ng dng vi
chnh n.
32)Chng minh cc cp ma trn sau ng dng bng cch chng minh rng A I ng
dng vi B I :
a)
3 2 5
2 6 10
1 2 3
A
1
1

1
1
]
v
6 20 34
6 32 51
4 20 32
B
1
1

1
1
]
b)
6 6 15
1 5 5
1 2 2
A
1
1

1
1
]
v
37 20 4
34 17 4
119 70 11
B
1
1

1
1
]
33)Hy tm dng Jordan ca cc ma trn sau (bng cch a A I v dng chnh tc v
suy ra ma trn J ng dng vi A).
a)
0 1 0
4 4 0
2 1 2
A
1
1

1
1
]
b)
2 6 15
1 1 5
1 2 6
1
1

1
1
]
c)
9 6 2
18 12 3
18 9 6
1
1

1
1
]
d)
1 3 0 3
2 6 0 13
0 3 1 3
1 4 0 8
1
1

1
1
1

]
34)
3 4 0 2
4 5 2 4
0 0 3 2
0 0 2 1
1
1

1
1
1

]
35) Chng minh rng:
a) Mi ma trn vung phc A u ng dng vi mt ma trn Jordan J (s ng dng
ny l duy nht nu khng k n th t ca cc Jordan.
b) Mi ton t tuyn tnh f trn khng gian phc n chiu V u c c s Jordan, tc l c
s ca V m trong ma trn ca f i vi c s ny l ma trn Jordan.
36) Chng minh rng:
a) Nu V l khng gian vector trn trng s phc th mi php bin i tuyn tnh
ca V u c t nht mt khng gian con bt bin 1 chiu.
b) Nu V l khng gian vector trn trng s thc th mi php bin i tuyn tnh ca
V u c t nht mt khng gian con bt bin hoc 1 chiu hoc 2 chiu.
i s Tuyn tnh 2 34
Chng 1. Gi tr ring v vector ring Dng chun tc Jordan
i s Tuyn tnh 2 35