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2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.

ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

ASM Handbook
Volume 9
Metallography and Microstructures
Prepared under the direction of the
ASM International Handbook Committee

George F. Vander Voort, Volume Editor

Steven R. Lampman, Project Editor


Bonnie R. Sanders, Manager of Production
Gayle J. Anton, Editorial Assistant
Carol Polakowski, Production Supervisor
Jill Kinson, Production Editor
Kathryn Muldoon, Production Assistant
Scott D. Henry, Senior Manager, Product and Service Development
William W. Scott, Jr., Director of Technical Publications

Editorial Assistance
Elizabeth Marquard
Heather Lampman
Beverly Musgrove
Kathleen Dragolich
Marc Schaefer

Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002


www.asminternational.org

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

Copyright 2004
by
ASM International
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner.
First printing, December 2004

This book is a collective effort involving hundreds of technical specialists. It brings together a wealth of information from
worldwide sources to help scientists, engineers, and technicians solve current and long-range problems.
Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to
be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication
is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are
outside of ASMs control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind,
whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the
purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL
BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential.
Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended.
Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in
connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright,
or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent,
copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement.
Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
ASM International
ASM Handbook
Includes bibliographical references and indexes
Contents: v.1. Properties and selectionirons, steels, and high-performance alloysv.2. Properties and selectionnonferrous alloys
and special-purpose materials[etc.]v.21. Composites

1. MetalsHandbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Metal-workHandbooks, manuals, etc. I. ASM International. Handbook Committee.
II. Metals Handbook.
TA459.M43 1990 620.16 90-115
SAN: 204-7586
ISBN: 0-87170-706-3

ASM International
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002
www.asminternational.org
Printed in the United States of America
Multiple copy reprints of individual articles are available from Technical Department, ASM International.

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

Foreword
ASM International is pleased to publish a new edition of Metallography and Microstructures, Volume
9 of the ASM Handbook series. Metallography is a longstanding core interest of ASM International
members, and this new Volume 9 reflects the continuing importance of metallography in metallurgical
analyses for production quality control, research, engineering, and educational training. Since the 1985
edition of Volume 9, substantial changes have occurred in automation, equipment, preparation methodology, alloys, manufacturing technologies, and digital imaging. The new Volume 9 addresses these
and other developments, as described in the Preface.
We commend the Volume Editor, George Vander Voort, for his vision and direction in revising
Metallography and Microstructures. His familiarity with past and present volumes of the Handbook
series has been instrumental in this project. His worldwide acquaintances with members of the metallographic community also have made this Volume an international effort with important contributions
from authors around the world. Moreover, many thanks are extended to the devoted volunteers and
ASM members, who have contributed their time and expertise as authors and reviewers. This Volume
would not have been possible without their commitment. The sharing of their knowledge and experience
is the basis for ASM International as their professional society.
Robert C. Tucker, Jr.
President
ASM International
Stanley C. Theobald
Managing Director
ASM International

iii

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

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Policy on Units of Measure


units would be presented in dual units, but the sheet thickness specified in
that specification might be presented only in inches.
Data obtained according to standardized test methods for which the standard recommends a particular system of units are presented in the units of
that system. Wherever feasible, equivalent units are also presented. Some
statistical data may also be presented in only the original units used in the
analysis.
Conversions and rounding have been done in accordance with IEEE/
ASTM SI-10, with attention given to the number of significant digits in
the original data. For example, an annealing temperature of 1570 F contains three significant digits. In this case, the equivalent temperature would
be given as 855 C; the exact conversion to 854.44 C would not be appropriate. For an invariant physical phenomenon that occurs at a precise
temperature (such as the melting of pure silver), it would be appropriate
to report the temperature as 961.93 C or 1763.5 F. In some instances
(especially in tables and data compilations), temperature values in C and
F are alternatives rather than conversions.
The policy of units of measure in this Handbook contains several exceptions to strict conformance to IEEE/ASTM SI-10; in each instance, the
exception has been made in an effort to improve the clarity of the Handbook. The most notable exception is the use of g/cm3 rather than kg/m3 as
the unit of measure for density (mass per unit volume).
SI practice requires that only one virgule (diagonal) appear in units
formed by combination of several basic units. Therefore, all of the units
preceding the virgule are in the numerator and all units following the
virgule are in the denominator of the expression; no parentheses are required to prevent ambiguity.

By a resolution of its Board of Trustees, ASM International has adopted


the practice of publishing data in both metric and customary U.S. units of
measure. In preparing this Handbook, the editors have attempted to present
data in metric units based primarily on Syste`me International dUnites (SI),
with secondary mention of the corresponding values in customary U.S.
units. The decision to use SI as the primary system of units was based on
the aforementioned resolution of the Board of Trustees and the widespread
use of metric units throughout the world.
For the most part, numerical engineering data in the text and in tables
are presented in SI-based units with the customary U.S. equivalents in
parentheses (text) or adjoining columns (tables). For example, pressure,
stress, and strength are shown both in SI units, which are pascals (Pa) with
a suitable prefix, and in customary U.S. units, which are pounds per square
inch (psi). To save space, large values of psi have been converted to kips
per square inch (ksi), where 1 ksi 1000 psi. The metric tonne (kg
103) has sometimes been shown in megagrams (Mg). Some strictly scientific data are presented in SI units only.
To clarify some illustrations, only one set of units is presented on artwork. References in the accompanying text to data in the illustrations are
presented in both SI-based and customary U.S. units. On graphs and charts,
grids corresponding to SI-based units usually appear along the left and
bottom edges. Where appropriate, corresponding customary U.S. units appear along the top and right edges.
Data pertaining to a specification published by a specification-writing
group may be given in only the units used in that specification or in dual
units, depending on the nature of the data. For example, the typical yield
strength of steel sheet made to a specification written in customary U.S.

iv

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

Preface
Updated coverage on specimen-preparation techniques for both manual

This new edition of Metallography and Microstructures, Volume 9 of


the ASM Handbook series, is quite different from the 1985 edition in several ways. One difference is that the citations of micrographs are integrated
within the textual discussions on the metallography and microstructures of
materials. This is distinctly different from the previous edition, in which
the end of each article contained an atlas of many micrographs without
citation in text. The atlas method in the previous edition was effective at
that time, as micrograph collections are useful in making visual comparisons for different materials conditions and/or specimen preparation techniques. However, with the development of electronic publication, a new
approach is possible, where a large collection of micrographs can be stored
and searched electronically. This is the underlying concept of the newly
released Micrograph Center as part of the ASM International Materials
Information Online. This electronic archive provides a collection of the
previously published micrograph atlases in the 8th and the 9th Editions
Metals Handbook. As such, one objective of the new Volume 9 is to complement more closely the electronic archive of the Micrograph Center by
moving away from an atlas format and by focusing more on representative
micrographs that are visual tools in assisting experienced and new practitioners in the preparation and interpretation of micrographs.
The new Volume 9 also places more emphasis on the underlying physical metallurgy of alloys, as an important part in the interpretation and
understanding of microstructural development. In this regard, formation of
phase constituents is described in more detail in terms of the general concepts in physical metallurgy and key compositional categories of important
alloy systems. Some coverage on phase diagrams is included, although
binary phase diagrams are not collected to the same extent as in the 8th
Edition Metals Handbook, Volume 8, Metallography, Structures, and
Phases Diagrams (1973). This is because binary phase diagrams are covered extensively in other publications such as ASM Handbook, Volume 3,
Alloy Phase Diagrams, and the Desk Handbook: Phase Diagrams for Binary Alloys, ASM International, 2000. In this volume, the key emphasis
is on the concepts for using phase diagrams as a tool in metallographic
interpretation and on the presentation of important binary-phase regions
or the quasi-binary and pseudo-binary diagrams of key compositional components.
The new Volume 9 edition also provides important updates and new
information reflecting the substantial changes in automation, equipment,
consumable products, and preparation methodology, as well as new metals,
alloys, and manufacturing technologies that have emerged since 1985. Expanded and new coverage includes:

methods and semi-automatic machines

Practical coverage on sectioning and specimen extraction


Laboratory safety guide
New expanded color section

The titles of new articles on metallurgical topics include:

Metallography: An Introduction
Physical Metallurgy Concepts in Interpretation of Microstructure
Fundamentals of Solidification
Solidification Structures of Steels and Cast Iron
Solidification Structures of Aluminum Alloys
Solidification Structures of Titanium Alloys
Inter-Diffusion Structures
Plastic Deformation Structures
Textured Structures
Titles of all-new articles on metallography include:

Metallographic Sectioning and Specimen Extraction


Light and Electron Microscopy
Digital Imaging
Quantitative Image Analysis
Quantitative Characterization and Representation of Global Microstructural Geometry
Three-Dimensional Microscopy
Metallography of Archaeological Alloys
Field Metallography Techniques
Color Metallography
Selected Color Images
Laboratory Safety in Metallography

In addition, this edition of Volume 9 has all-new articles on the metallography and microstructures of the following materials:

New articles on field metallography, digital imaging, and quantitative

Cast Iron
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels
Aluminum and Its Alloys
Cobalt and Its Alloys
Precious Metals and Their Alloys
Titanium and Its Alloys
Biomedical Orthopedic Alloys
Semisolid Formed Alloys
Thermal Spray Coatings
Ceramics

With this extensive revision of Volume 9, Metallography and Microstructures continues to be a comprehensive and indispensable reference
work for anyone who specifies, performs, monitors, evaluates, or uses metallurgical analyses for production quality control, research, or educational
training.

image analysis, quantitative metallography, and color metallography

All-new articles on the metallography and microstructural interpretation

of cast irons, coated steel, carbon and low-alloy steels, aluminum alloys,
precious-metal alloys, titanium alloys, ceramics, and thermal spray
coatings
Substantially revised articles on metallography and microstructural interpretation of tool steels, stainless steels, copper alloys, P/M alloys,
and cemented carbides
New micrographs throughout
More integrated in-text citation of micrograph images with respect to
discussions on preparation techniques and alloy metallurgy

George Vander Voort, Buehler Ltd.


Volume Editor
Steven Lampman, ASM International
Staff Editor

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

Officers and Trustees of ASM International (20032004)


Robert C. Tucker, Jr.
President and Trustee
The Tucker Group LLC
Andrew R. Nicoll
Vice President and Trustee
Sulzer Metco (U.S.) Inc.
Donald R. Muzyka
Immediate Past President and Trustee
Special Metals Corporation (retired)
Paul L. Huber
Treasurer
Seco/Warwick Corporation

Stanley C. Theobald
Secretary and Managing Director
ASM International

Trustees
Reza Abbaschian
University of Florida
Rodney R. Boyer
Boeing Commercial Airplane Group
Dianne Chong
The Boeing Company

Roger J. Fabian
Bodycote Thermal Processing
William E. Frazier
Naval Air Systems Command
Richard L. Kennedy
Allvac
Richard D. Sisson, Jr.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
George F. Vander Voort
Buehler Ltd.
Lawrence C. Wagner
Texas Instruments

Members of the ASM Handbook Committee (20032004)


Henry E. Fairman
(Chair 2002; Member 1993)
Cincinnati Metallurgical Consultants
Jeffrey A. Hawk
(Vice Chair 2002; Member 1997)
U.S. Department of Energy
David E. Alman (2002)
U.S. Department of Energy
Bruce P. Bardes (1993)
Cincinnati Metallurgical Consultants
Lichun Leigh Chen (2002)
Engineered Materials Solutions
Craig V. Darragh (1989)
The Timken Company

Larry D. Hanke (1994)


Materials Evaluation and Engineering Inc.
Michael A. Hollis (2003)
Delphi Corporation
Dennis D. Huffman (1982)
The Timken Company (retired)
Dwight Janoff (1995)
FMC Corporation
Kent L. Johnson (1999)
Engineering Systems Inc.
Paul J. Kovach (1995)
Stress Engineering Services Inc.
Donald R. Lesuer (1999)
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Huimin Liu (1999)


Ford Motor Company
Alan T. Male (2003)
University of Kentucky
William L. Mankins (1989)
Metallurgical Services Inc.
Srikanth Raghunathan (1999)
Nanomat Inc.
Karl P. Staudhammer (1997)
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Kenneth B. Tator (1991)
KTA-Tator Inc.
George F. Vander Voort (1997)
Buehler Ltd.

Previous Chairs of the ASM Handbook Committee


R.J. Austin
(19921994) (Member 1984)
L.B. Case
(19311933) (Member 19271933)
T.D. Cooper
(19841986) (Member 19811986)
C.V. Darragh
(19992002) (Member 1989)
E.O. Dixon
(19521954) (Member 19471955)
R.L. Dowdell
(19381939) (Member 19351939)
M.M. Gauthier
(19971998) (Member 1990)
J.P. Gill
(1937) (Member 19341937)
J.D. Graham
(19661968) (Member 19611970)

J.F. Harper
(19231926) (Member 19231926)
C.H. Herty, Jr.
(19341936) (Member 19301936)
D.D. Huffman
(19861990) (Member 1982)
J.B. Johnson
(19481951) (Member 19441951)
L.J. Korb
(1983) (Member 19781983)
R.W.E. Leiter
(19621963) (Member 19551958,
19601964)
G.V. Luerssen
(19431947) (Member 19421947)
G.N. Maniar
(19791980) (Member 19741980)
W.L. Mankins
(19941997) (Member 1989)

vi

J.L. McCall
(1982) (Member 19771982)
W.J. Merten
(19271930) (Member 19231933)
D.L. Olson
(19901992) (Member 19821988,
19891992)
N.E. Promisel
(19551961) (Member 19541963)
G.J. Shubat
(19731975) (Member 19661975)
W.A. Stadtler
(19691972) (Member 19621972)
R. Ward
(19761978) (Member 19721978)
M.G.H. Wells
(1981) (Member 19761981)
D.J. Wright
(19641965) (Member 19591967)

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

Authors and Contributors


Brent L. Adams
Brigham Young University
Debbie Aliya
Aliya Analytical, Inc.
David Alman
Albany Research Center, U.S. Dept. of
Energy
Roland Aubin
Amsco Cast Products (Canada) Inc.
Steven Axdal
Seagate Technology Inc.
William Baldwin
ChevronTexaco
Bruce Bardes
Cincinnati Metallurgical Consultants LLC
Bob Barth
Olin Brass
Kurt W. Batson
The Boeing Company
Peter Bauer
Leica Microsystems
Arlan O. Benscoter
Lehigh University
Michael Blum
Materials Technology Associates Inc.
Richard Bodnar
International Steel Group, Inc.
Rodney R. Boyer
The Boeing Company
Bruce L. Bramfitt
International Steel Group, Inc.
Amarjit S. Brar
Seagate Technology Inc.
Robert D. Briggs
The Boeing Company
Thomas Calahan
Carl Zeiss, Inc.
Veronika Carle
Max-Planck Institut fur Metallforschung
R.N. Caron
Olin Brass
Lichun Leigh Chen
Engineered Materials Solutions
Richard C. Compton
Zimmer, Inc.

Lesley Cornish
MINTEK
W. Raymond Cribb
Brush Wellman Inc.
Paul Crook
Haynes International
Paul E. Danielson
Albany Research Center, U.S. Dept. of
Energy
Joseph R. Davis
Davis & Associates
M. Dayananda
Purdue University
Ryan M. Deacon
Lehigh University
Raymond L. Decker
Thixomat, Inc.
Robert T. DeHoff
University of Florida
Omer Dogan
Albany Research Center, U.S. Dept. of
Energy
Roger Doherty
Drexel University
Charles W. Domby
The Boeing Company
Timothy Eck
Alcoa Mill Products
Mario Epler
Lehigh University
Craig Eucken
Wah Chang
H.E. Exner
Darmstadt University of Technology
Henry E. Fairman
Cincinnati Metallurgical Consultants LLC
David P. Field
Washington State University
Luther M. Gammon
The Boeing Company
Frank C. Gift, Jr.
Lehigh University
Arun Gokhale
Georgia Institute of Technology
Peter J. Goodhew
University of Liverpool

vii

Martha Goodway
Smithsonian Institution
Stewart Grice
Hoover & Strong Inc.
Amitava Guha
Larry Hanke
Materials Evaluation & Engineering Inc.
Niels Hansen
Ris National Laboratory
John C. Harkness
Brush Wellman Inc.
Craig S. Hartley
Air Force Office of Scientific Research
Jeffrey A. Hawk
Albany Research Center, U.S. Dept. of
Energy
Dennis W. Hetzner
The Timken Company
Michael J. Hoffmann
Universitat Karlsruhe
Frauke Hogue
Hogue Metallography
Michael Holt
Frog, Switch and Manufacturing Company
Dennis D. Huffman
The Timken Company (retired)
Darcy Hughes
Sandia National Laboratories
Gene Ice
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Kent L. Johnson
Engineering Systems Inc.
John Jorstad
J.L.J. Technologies, Inc.
Ann Kelly
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Dwaine L. Klarstrom
Haynes International
Jacek Komenda
Swedish Institute for Metals Research
Paul Kovach
Stress Engineering Services, Inc
Milo Kral
University of Canterbury (Australia)
George Krauss
Colorado School of Mines

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

Krzysztof J. Kurzydowki
Warsaw University of Technology
Selcuk Kuyucak
CANMET
Samuel J. Lawrence
International Steel Group, Inc.
Todd A. Leonhardt
Rhenium Alloys Inc.
Heiner Lichtenberger
Williams Advanced Materials Inc.
Huimin Liu
Ford Motor Company
Gabriel M. Lucas
Buehler Ltd.
Elena P. Manilova
Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine
Institute (Russia)
William L. Mankins
Metallurgical Services, Inc.
Arnold R. Marder
Lehigh University
Dana J. Medlin
Zimmer, Inc.
M.K. Miller
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
John E. Morral
The Ohio State University
Yellapu V. Murty
CMI, Inc.
Brian Newbury
Lehigh University
Rick Noecker
Lehigh University
Michael Notis
Lehigh University
James J. Oakes
Metalworking Products
Sidnei Paciornik
DCMM PUC-Rio
John M. Packard
The Boeing Company

www.asminternational.org

Toby V. Padfield
ZF Sachs Automotive of America

Richard C. Sutherlin
Wah Chang

Shane Para
Lehigh University

Janusz Szala
Silesian University of Technology

Leander F. Pease, III


Powder-Tech Associates, Inc.

Jerzy A. Szpunar
McGill University

Matthew J. Perricone
Lehigh University

Ulrike Taffner
Max-Planck Institut fur Metallforschung

Samuel M. Purdy

Keith Taylor
International Steel Group Inc.

Janina M. Radzikowska
The Foundry Research Institute (Krakow)
Brian Ralph
Brunel University

Stefanie Taylor
MINTEK
Derek E. Tyler
Olin Metals Research Laboratory

Jonathan Regina
Lehigh University
Maria Richert
University of Mining & Metallurgy
(Krakow)

M.D. Uchic
Air Force Research Laboratory
Elma van der Lingen
MINTEK

R.O. Rosenberg
Naval Research Laboratory

George Vander Voort


Buehler Ltd.

Roxana Ruxanda
The University of Alabama

Edward J. Vinarcik
Robert Bosch Corporation

A.T. Santhanam
Kennametal Inc.

Fran Warmuth
Wyman-Gordon Forgings

John P. Sauer
Sauer Engineering

Magorzata Warmuzek
Foundry Research Institute (Poland)

Ute Schafer
Max-Planck Institut fur Metallforschung

Michael L. Wayman
University of Alberta

Shahram Shebany
Pacific Metallurgical Company

S. Weinbruch
Darmstadt University of Technology

Robert C. Solbach

Matthew A. Willard
Naval Research Laboratory

Karl P. Staudhammer
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Doru M. Stefanescu
The University of Alabama

Richard D. Wilson
Albany Research Center, U.S. Department
of Energy

Jeff Stewart
Stern Leach Company

Leczek D. Wojnar
Krakow University of Technology

Rainer Suss
MINTEK

J. Wu
Deloro Stellite Group Limited

viii

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

Contents
Introduction ...................................................................... 1

Dendritic Microstructure ........................................ 109


Microsegregation ................................................. 111
Macrosegregation ................................................ 111
Defects ............................................................. 112
Solidification Structures of Titanium Alloys .............................. 116
Classification of Titanium Alloys .............................. 116
Phase Transformation in Titanium-Aluminum-Base
Alloys ........................................................... 117
Solidification Structures of Titanium-Aluminum-Base
Alloys ........................................................... 118
Peritectic Reactions of p and cp Phases ..................... 118
Directional Solidification ....................................... 118
Grain Refinement ................................................ 121
Microstructures Produced through Various Near-Net
Shape Manufacturing Processes ............................ 122
Computer Modeling of Solidification Structures ......................... 127
Standard Transport Models ..................................... 127
Phase-Field Models .............................................. 128
Monte Carlo (MC) Models ..................................... 129
Cellular Automaton (CA) Models ............................. 129

Metallography: An Introduction ............................................... 3


The Origins of Metallography .................................... 4
Macroanalysis ....................................................... 5
Microscopic Examination .........................................10
Image Analysis .....................................................15
Metallurgy and Microstructure .............................................21
Introduction to Structures in Metals ..........................................23
General Features of Structure ....................................23
Origins of Structures ...............................................23
Single-Phase Microstructures ....................................24
Substructure .........................................................26
Multiphase Microstructures .......................................26
Macrostructure ......................................................27
Crystal Structure ................................................................29
Crystallographic Terms and Concepts ..........................29
Metallurgically Important Crystal Types .......................41
Crystal Defects .....................................................41
Physical Metallurgy Concepts in Interpretation of Microstructure ......44
Structure and Properties ...........................................45
Equilibrium Phase Diagrams .....................................48
Nonequilibrium Phase Nucleation and Growth ................53
Solidification ........................................................57
Solid-State Phase Transformations ..............................59
Transformation Kinetics ...........................................65

Solid-State Transformation Structures


Introduction to Transformation Structures ................................ 132
Multiphase Microstructures ..................................... 132
Substructures ...................................................... 132
Crystallography ................................................... 132
Structures by Precipitation from Solid Solution .......................... 134
Nucleation and Growth .......................................... 135
Precipitation Modes .............................................. 137
Precipitation Sequences ......................................... 138
Spinodal Transformation Structures ........................................ 140
Theory of Spinodal Decomposition ........................... 140
Microstructure .................................................... 141
Ordered Structures ............................................................ 144
Antiphase Boundaries ........................................... 144
Long-Range and Short-Range Order .......................... 144
L10 Superlattice (CuAuI Structure) ............................ 145
L12 Superlattice (Cu3Au Structure) ........................... 145
B2 Superlattice (FeAl Structure) ............................... 145
D03 Superlattice (Fe3Al Structure) ............................ 146
Dislocation-Generated Antiphase Boundaries ............... 146
Massive Transformation Structures ......................................... 148
Pure Metals and Congruent Points ............................ 149
Two-Phase Regions .............................................. 149
Nucleation and Growth Kinetics ............................... 150
Feathery Structures .............................................. 150
Single-Crystal Growth ........................................... 150
Recent Developments ........................................... 151

Solidification Structures
Fundamentals of Solidification ................................................71
Length Scale of Solidification Structures .......................71
Undercooling .......................................................72
Nucleation ...........................................................74
Growth and Interface Stability ...................................74
Basic Solidification Structures of Pure Metals ................75
Solidification Structures of Solid Solutions ....................77
Solidification Structures of Eutectics ............................81
Solidification Structures of Peritectics ..........................84
Solidification Structures of Monotectics ........................86
Solidification Structures of Pure Metals .....................................93
Polycrystalline Metals .............................................93
Grain Boundaries ...................................................94
Solidification Structures of Steels and Cast Iron ...........................97
Steel ..................................................................97
Cast Iron .............................................................99
Solidification Structures of Aluminum Alloys ............................ 107
Basic Microstructures of Aluminum-Base Alloys .......... 107
Grain Structure ................................................... 108
Eutectic Microstructure of Aluminum-Silicon Alloys ...... 109

ix

2004 ASM International. All Rights Reserved.


ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

Certification Work ............................................... 238


Process Control and Troubleshooting ......................... 239
Component Failure Analysis ................................... 240
Mounting of Specimens ...................................................... 242
Cleaning ........................................................... 242
Mechanical Clamps .............................................. 242
Plastic Mounts .................................................... 243
Mount Size and Configuration ................................. 247
Compression Molded Mounts .................................. 248
Cast Mounts ...................................................... 251
Special Mounting Techniques .................................. 254
Mount Marking and Storage ................................... 256
Mechanical Grinding and Polishing ........................................ 257
Surface Preparation .............................................. 257
Abrasion Damage and Abrasion Artifacts .................... 259
Polishing Damage ................................................ 265
Final-Polishing Processes ....................................... 266
Edge Retention ................................................... 268
Special Techniques for Unusual Materials ................... 271
Semiautomatic Preparation Systems .......................... 273
Chemical and Electrolytic Polishing ....................................... 281
Chemical Polishing .............................................. 281
Electrolytic Polishing ............................................ 281
Contrast Enhancement and Etching ........................................ 294
Etching Nomenclature ........................................... 294
Optical Enhancement of Contrast .............................. 294
Contrast Enhancement by Film Deposition .................. 294
Etching ............................................................. 304
Etching for Effect ................................................ 306
Etchants and Etching Practice .................................. 307
Preparation and Handling of Etchants ........................ 308
Macroetching .................................................................. 313
Procedures ......................................................... 313
Apparatus .......................................................... 313
Etching Solutions ................................................ 314
Etching Operations ............................................... 315
Macroetching of Iron and Steel ................................ 316
Macroetching of High-Alloy Steels, Stainless Steels,
and High-Temperature Alloys ............................... 319
Macroetching of Titanium ...................................... 319
Macroetching of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys ........ 320
Macroetching of Copper and Copper Alloys ................ 323
Other Metals and Alloys ........................................ 324

Invariant Transformation Structures ........................................ 152


Eutectoid Structures .................................................... 153
Pearlite Colony Orientation and Nucleation ................. 153
Nucleation of Pearlite on Proeutectoid Ferrite or
Cementite ....................................................... 154
Pearlite Growth ................................................... 154
Alloy Effects ...................................................... 155
Peritectic and Peritectoid Structures ................................. 156
Peritectoid Structures ............................................ 157
Peritectic Structures .............................................. 157
Martensitic Structures ........................................................ 165
Ferrous Martensite ...................................................... 165
Crystallographic Theory ........................................ 166
Orientation Relationships and Habit Plane ................... 167
Morphology ....................................................... 168
Transformation Temperatures .................................. 169
Tempering of Martensite ........................................ 170
Nonferrous Martensite ................................................. 172
Metallic Systems ................................................. 173
Ceramic Systems ................................................. 174
Other Systems .................................................... 175
Shape Memory Materials .............................................. 176
Bainitic Structures ............................................................ 179
Upper Bainite ..................................................... 179
Surface Relief ..................................................... 181
Lower Bainite ..................................................... 182
Inverse Bainite .................................................... 182
Granular Bainite .................................................. 182
Columnar Bainite ................................................ 183
Bainite in Nonferrous Systems ................................. 183
Recent Developments ........................................... 184
Other Structures
Interdiffusion Structures ..................................................... 186
Analysis of Interdiffusion Microstructures ................... 186
Examples of Interdiffusion Microstructures .................. 188
Conclusions ....................................................... 190
Plastic Deformation Structures .............................................. 192
Microstructural Evolution by Grain Subdivision ............ 192
Microstructure Parameters: Quantitative and Theoretical
Analysis ........................................................ 198
Macroscopic Properties ......................................... 203
Conclusion ........................................................ 205
Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth Structures ............. 207
The Deformed State ............................................. 207
Recovery .......................................................... 208
Recrystallization .................................................. 209
Grain Growth ..................................................... 212
Textured Structures ........................................................... 215
Texture Evolution and Control ................................. 216
Texture Characterization and Experimental
Determination .................................................. 218
Microtexture, Grain-Boundary Character, and Texture
Gradients ....................................................... 223
Modeling of Texture Evolution ................................ 224

Microscopy and Image Analysis


Light and Electron Microscopy ............................................. 325
Methods of Image Formation .................................. 325
Pixels ............................................................... 325
The Light-Optical Microscope ................................. 325
Magnification ..................................................... 327
Resolution ......................................................... 327
Depth of Field and Depth of Focus ........................... 329
Aberrations in Optical Systems ................................ 330
Electrons versus Light ........................................... 330
Light Microscopy ............................................................. 332
Microscope Components ........................................ 332
Optical Performance ............................................. 337
Examination Modes .............................................. 338
Auxiliary Techniques ............................................ 346
Photomicroscopy ................................................. 348
Macrophotography ............................................... 352

Metallographic Techniques ................................................ 227


Metallographic Sectioning and Specimen Extraction .................... 229
Process and Practices ............................................ 230
Abrasive Cutting ................................................. 233
Other Cutting Methods .......................................... 237

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ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

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Special Applications and Methods


Metallography of Archaeological Alloys .................................. 468
Metallography and the Archaeometallurgist ................. 469
Case Studies ...................................................... 470
Field Metallography Techniques ............................................ 478
Background ....................................................... 479
Advantages and Disadvantages ................................ 479
Basic Equipment and Supplies ................................. 480
Planning for Field Metallography ............................. 480
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 482
Using Field Metallography in the Laboratory ............... 488
Case Studies ...................................................... 488
Conclusions ....................................................... 491
Color Metallography .......................................................... 493
Optical Methods for Producing Color ........................ 493
Film Formation and Interference Techniques ................ 496
Conclusions ....................................................... 507
Selected Color Images ........................................................ 513

Scanning Electron Microscopy .............................................. 355


Beam/Sample Interactions ...................................... 355
Basic Design of the Scanning Electron Microscope ........ 356
Types of Contrast ................................................ 357
Special Instrumentation and Accessory Equipment ......... 360
Sample Preparation .............................................. 362
Applications in Materials Science and Technology ......... 365
Digital Imaging ................................................................ 368
Image Acquisition ................................................ 368
Image OutputPrinting ......................................... 380
Image Processing and Analysis ................................ 382
Case Studies ...................................................... 400
Conclusions ....................................................... 401
Quantitative Image Analysis ................................................ 403
Digital versus Manual Methods ................................ 403
Basic Definitions ................................................. 404
Specimen Preparation and Image Acquisition ............... 407
Image Processing Necessary for Quantitative Image
Analysis ........................................................ 411
Digital Measurements ........................................... 412
Counting Objects and Size Distributions ..................... 413
Evaluation of Basic Stereological Parameters ............... 416
Shape Analysis ................................................... 416
Spatial Distribution and Three-Dimensional Analysis ...... 418
Quantification and Minimizing the Bias of
Measurements ................................................. 418
Examples of Automatic Quantitative Image Analysis ...... 422
Quantitative Characterization and Representation of Global
Microstructural Geometry ................................................ 428
Numerical Extents of Microstructural Features (How
Much?) .......................................................... 429
Number Density of Microstructural Features (How
Many?) .......................................................... 436
Derived Microstructural Properties ............................ 438
Feature-Specific Size, Shape, and Orientation
Distributions ................................................... 440
Spatial Clustering and Correlations ........................... 442
Three-Dimensional Microscopy ............................................ 448
Serial Sectioning ........................................................ 448
Serial-Sectioning Experimental Techniques .................. 449
Serial-Sectioning Case Study Examples ...................... 450
Focused Ion Beam Tomography ..................................... 458
Sectioning ......................................................... 458
Case Study ........................................................ 459
Atom Probe Tomography .............................................. 459
Principles of Atom Probe Tomography ....................... 460
Methods of Representation ..................................... 460
X-Ray Microtomography .............................................. 461
General Concepts ................................................ 461
Transmission Tomography ...................................... 461
Phase Contrast Imaging ......................................... 462
Edge Contrast Tomography ..................................... 463
X-Ray Fluorescence Tomography ............................. 463
Direct-Imaging Methods ........................................ 463
Computer Reconstruction and Visualization of
Three-Dimensional Data ............................................ 464
Preprocessing ..................................................... 464
Segmentation ..................................................... 465
Algorithms ........................................................ 465
Virtual Reality .................................................... 465

Metallography and Microstructures of Ferrous Alloys .............. 563


Metallography and Microstructures of Cast Iron ......................... 565
Preparation for Microexamination ............................. 565
Microexamination Methods .................................... 570
Microstructures ................................................... 581
Metallography and Microstructures of Low-Carbon and
Coated Steels ............................................................... 588
Microstructural Constituents ................................... 589
Metallographic Procedures ..................................... 590
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 591
Manual Preparation of Coated Steel Specimens ............. 601
Metallography and Microstructures of Carbon and Low-Alloy
Steels ......................................................................... 608
Microstructural Constituents ................................... 609
Metallographic Procedures ..................................... 614
Metallography and Microstructures of Case-Hardening Steel .......... 627
Carburized and Carbonitrided Steels .......................... 628
Nitrided Steels .................................................... 632
Metallographic Techniques for Tool Steels ............................... 644
Macroexamination ............................................... 644
Microexamination ................................................ 645
Microstructure of Tool Steels .................................. 649
Metallography and Microstructures of Stainless Steels and
Maraging Steels ............................................................ 670
Macroexamination ............................................... 670
Microexamination ................................................ 670
Microstructures of Stainless Steels ............................ 682
Austenitic Manganese Steel Castings ...................................... 701
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 701
Macroexamination ............................................... 702
Microexamination ................................................ 704
Microstructure .................................................... 705
Metallography and Microstructures of Nonferrous Alloys ......... 709
Metallography Techniques for Aluminum and Its Alloys ............... 711
Composition and Phases ........................................ 711
Examination of Macrostructure ................................ 721
Examination of Microstructure ................................. 723
SEM Examination ................................................ 733
Metallography and Microstructures of Beryllium,
Copper-Beryllium, and Nickel-Beryllium Alloys ..................... 752
Health and Safety ................................................ 752

xi

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ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

Macroexamination ............................................... 905


Microexamination ................................................ 907
Other Techniques ................................................. 913
Metallography and Microstructures of Uranium and Its Alloys ....... 918
Principles of Uranium Alloy Metallurgy ..................... 918
Structures of Uranium and Uranium Alloys ................. 920
Sample Preparation .............................................. 928
Macroetching and Macroexamination ......................... 930
Microetching and Microexamination .......................... 931
Metallography and Microstructures of Zinc and Its Alloys ............. 933
Microstructures of Zinc and Zinc Alloys ..................... 933
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 937
Preparation of Zinc Coating Specimens ...................... 939
Microexamination ................................................ 939
Metallography and Microstructures of Zirconium,
Hafnium, and Their Alloys ............................................... 942
Metallurgy of Zirconium and Hafnium Alloys .............. 942
History of Zirconium Metallography ......................... 943
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 944
Examination and Interpretation ................................ 951

Specimen Preparation ........................................... 752


Macroexamination ............................................... 755
Microexamination ................................................ 756
Microstructures of Copper-Beryllium Alloys ................ 758
Microstructures of Nickel-Beryllium Alloys ................. 759
Beryllium .......................................................... 760
Metallography and Microstructures of Cobalt and Cobalt Alloys ..... 762
Cobalt Alloy Metallurgy ........................................ 763
Metallographic Preparation ..................................... 765
Wear-Resistant Cobalt Alloys .................................. 767
Heat-Resistant Cobalt Alloys ................................... 768
Cobalt-Base Corrosion Resistant Alloys ..................... 773
Metallography and Microstructures of Copper and Its Alloys ......... 775
Alloying Systems ................................................ 775
Microstructures of Copper and Copper Alloys .............. 775
Metallographic Examination ................................... 780
Metallography and Microstructures of Lead and Its Alloys ............ 789
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 789
Microscopic Examination ....................................... 791
Microstructures of Lead and Lead Alloys .................... 792
Lead Alloys in Sleeve Bearings ............................... 794
Metallography and Microstructures of Magnesium and Its Alloys .... 801
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 802
Macroexamination ............................................... 805
Microexamination ................................................ 808
Metallurgy and Microstructures ................................ 809
Metallography and Microstructures of Nickel and Nickel-Copper
Alloys ........................................................................ 816
Preparation for Microscopic Examination .................... 816
Preparation for Macroscopic Examination ................... 817
Microstructures of Nickel and Nickel-Copper Alloys ...... 819
Metallography and Microstructures of Heat-Resistant Alloys .......... 820
Macroetching ..................................................... 821
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 821
Microstructures of Heat-Resistant Alloys .................... 831
Phases in Wrought Heat-Resistant Alloys .................... 834
Metallography and Microstructures of Precious Metals and Precious
Metal Alloys ................................................................ 860
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 860
Microstructures of Gold and Gold Alloys .................... 860
Microstructures of Platinum and Platinum Alloys .......... 868
Other Precious Metals ........................................... 872
Metallography and Microstructures of Refractory Metals and Their
Alloys ........................................................................ 877
Niobium, Tantalum, Molybdenum, Tungsten and Their
Alloys ................................................................. 877
General Specimen Preparation ................................. 877
Alternate Preparation Procedures for Niobium and
Tantalum ........................................................ 878
Alternate Preparation Procedures for Molybdenum ......... 879
Alternate Preparation Procedures for Tungsten .............. 880
Microstructures ................................................... 880
Rhenium and Its Alloys ............................................... 882
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 885
Metallography and Microstructures of Tin and Tin Alloys ............. 889
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 889
Techniques for Tin and Tin Alloy Coatings .................. 891
Microstructures of Tin and Tin Alloys ........................ 896
Metallography and Microstructures of Titanium and Its Alloys ....... 899
Types of Titanium Alloys ....................................... 899
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 900

Metallography and Microstructures of Ceramics, Composite-Metal


Forms, and Special-Purpose Alloys ...................................... 959
Metallography of Biomedical Orthopedic Alloys ........................ 961
Implant Devices .................................................. 961
Stainless Steels ................................................... 962
Cobalt-Base Alloys .............................................. 963
Titanium and Titanium Alloys ................................. 964
Porous Coatings .................................................. 966
Emerging Materials .............................................. 967
Microstructure and Domain Imaging of Magnetic Materials ........... 969
Specimen Preparation ........................................... 969
Microstructures of Magnetically Soft Materials ............. 973
Microstructures of Permanent Magnets ....................... 977
Magnetism and Magnetic Domains ........................... 980
Metallography and Microstructures of Powder Metallurgy Alloys .... 994
Sample Preparation .............................................. 994
Automatic Grinding and Polishing ............................ 996
Manual Grinding and Polishing ................................ 997
Uncompacted Powder ........................................... 998
Compacted and Consolidated Powders ......................1003
Representative Microstructures of P/M Alloys .............1005
Metallography and Microstructures of Semisolid Formed Alloys ....1021
Semisolid Processes ............................................1021
Compositions of Common Alloys Produced Using
Semisolid Metalworking ....................................1022
Macrostructural Examination ..................................1023
Specimen Preparation, Bulk Extraction, and Etching .....1032
Microstructure of Semisolid-Processed Metals and
Alloys ..........................................................1032
Future Developments ...........................................1036
Microstructural Characterization of Thermal Spray Coatings .........1038
Process Variations ...............................................1039
Microstructural Characteristics ................................1039
Microstructural Analysis by Light Microscopy ............1042
Other Methods of Analysis ....................................1045
Metallography and Microstructures of Weldments ......................1047
Sample Preparation .............................................1047
Weld Bead Morphology ........................................1048
Solidification Structures in Welded Joints ...................1048
Solid-State Transformation Structures in Welded Joints ..1050

xii

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ASM Handbook Volume 9: Metallography and Microstructures (#06044G)

www.asminternational.org

Laboratory Safety ..........................................................1079

Defects in Welded Joints .......................................1053


Additional Welding Processes .................................1053
Preparation and Microstructural Analysis of High-Performance
Ceramics ....................................................................1057
Specimen Preparation ..........................................1057
Microscopic Examination ......................................1058
Ceramographic Etching ........................................1059
Classification and Microstructure of Frequently Used
Ceramics .......................................................1060
Metallography of Cemented Carbides ....................................1067
Metallographic Considerations ................................1067
Specimen Preparation ..........................................1067
Macroexamination ..............................................1067
Microexamination ...............................................1068
Microstructures of Cemented Carbides ......................1071
Quantitative Metallography ....................................1077

Laboratory Safety in Metallography ......................................1081


Hazard Communication Standards ...........................1081
Laboratory Equipment ..........................................1081
Personal Protective Equipment ................................1082
Chemicals, Storage, and Handling ...........................1083
Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure ...................................1087
Conclusions ......................................................1088
Reference Information .....................................................1091
Grit Sizes and Grain Size Conversions ...................................1093
Tables of Chemicals and Etchants .........................................1094
Glossary of Terms ............................................................1115
Metric Conversion Guide ...................................................1135
Abbreviations and Symbols ................................................1138
Index ...........................................................................1140

xiii

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