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TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI

VIN IN T - VIN THNG


N
TT NGHIP I HC
ti:
CC TH TC TRUY NHP V NG B
NG XUNG TRONG LTE
Sinh vin thc hin: TRN QUC HUY
Lp T5 K53
Ging vin hng dn: TS. PHM HI NG

H Ni, 5-2013
TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI
VIN IN T - VIN THNG
B GIO DC V O TO CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM
TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI
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c lp - T do - Hnh phc
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NHIM V N TT NGHIP
H v tn sinh vin: ..... S hiu sinh vin:
Kho:.Khoa: in t - Vin thng Ngnh: .........
1. u n:
..
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2. Cc s liu v d liu ban u:
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3. Ni dung cc phn thuyt minh v tnh ton:
...

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4. Cc bn v, th ( ghi r cc loi v kch thc bn v ):
...
..
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5. H tn ging vin hng dn: ..

6. Ngy giao nhim v n: .


7. Ngy hon thnh n: ..
Ngy thng nm
Ch nhim B mn Ging vin hng dn
Sinh vin hon thnh v np n tt nghip ngy thng nm
Cn b phn bin
B GIO DC V O TO
TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI
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BN NHN XT N TT NGHIP
H v tn sinh vin: ....................................................................... S hiu sinh vin: ...........................
Ngnh: .................................................................................................. Kho: ....................................................
Ging vin hng dn:..............................................................................................................................................
Cn b phn bin: .......................................................................................................................................
1. Ni dung thit k tt nghip:
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2. Nhn xt ca cn b phn bin:
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Ngy thng nm
Cn b phn bin
( K, ghi r h v tn )
TRNG I HC BCH KHOA H NI
VIN IN T - VIN THNG
HNG DN CCH TRNH BY V
VIT N TT NGHIP
Dnh cho sinh vin Vin in t - Vin thng, HBK H ni (k t
K51)

LI M U
Thng tin di ng ngy nay tr thnh mt ngnh cng nghip vin thng
pht trin rt nhanh v mang li nhiu li nhun cho cc nh khai thc. S pht
trin ca th trng vin thng di ng thc y mnh m vic nghin cu v
trin khai cc h thng thng tin di ng mi trong tng lai. H thng di ng th
h th hai, vi GSM v CDMA l nhng v d in hnh pht trin mnh m
nhiu quc gia. Tuy nhin, th trng vin thng cng m rng cng th hin r
nhng hn ch v dung lng v bng thng ca cc h thng thng tin di ng th
h th hai. S ra i ca h thng di ng th h th ba vi cc cng ngh tiu biu
nh WCDMA hay HSPA l mt tt yu c th p ng c nhu cu truy cp
d liu, m thanh, hnh nh vi tc cao, bng thng rng ca ngi s dng
Mc d cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 3G hay 3.5G vn ang pht
trin khng ngng nhng cc nh khai thc vin thng ln trn th gii bt u
tin hnh trin khai th nghim mt chun di ng th h mi c rt nhiu tim
nng v c th s tr thnh chun di ng 4G trong tng lai, l LTE (Long
Term Evolution). Cc cuc th nghim v trnh din ny chng t nng lc tuyt
vi ca cng ngh LTE v kh nng thng mi ha LTE n rt gn. Cng
ngh LTE ny da trn k thut OFDMA trn ng xung v SC-FDMA trn
ng ln.
Tuy nhin, chng ta cng c bit rng cc h thng OFDM rt nhy cm
vi cc li ng b v thi gian v tn s, do cn yu cu s ng b chnh xc
cho vic trao i, truyn nhn d liu. Hn na, khi mt thit b ngi dng c
nhn (UE) hot ng trong mt h thng di ng, chng ta mong mun phi thit
lp c kt ni tc tht cao vi nhng trm dch v tt nht, cng nh xc
nhn chnh xc thit b u cui cng nh v tr hot ng ca thit b y.
Xut pht t nhng vn trn, em la chn ti tt nghip ca mnh
l: Cc th tc truy nhp v ng b ng xung trong LTE. ti s i vo
tm hiu tng quan v cng ngh LTE ni chung c v nhng k thut v thnh
phn c s dng trong vic ng b, thu nhn tn hiu trong mng LTE c th
hiu r thm v nhng tim nng hp dn m cng ngh ny s mang li.
Em xin chn thnh cm n thy gio TS.Phm Hi ng tn tnh ch bo
v hng dn em hon thnh n ny
Tuy nhin do LTE l cng ngh vn ang c nghin cu, pht trin v
hon thin cng nh l do nhng gii hn v kin thc ca ngi trnh by nn
n ny cha cp c ht cc vn ca cng ngh LTE v khng th trnh
khi nhng thiu st. Rt mong c s ng gp kin ca thy c v cc bn.
CHNG 1
GII THIU V CNG NGH V MC TIU THIT K
LTE
1.1 Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE
LTE l th h th t tng lai ca chun UMTS do 3GPP pht trin. UMTS th
h th ba da trn WCDMA c trin khai trn ton th gii. m bo tnh
cnh tranh cho h thng ny trong tng lai, thng 11/2004 3GPP bt u d n
nhm xc nh bc pht trin v lu di cho cng ngh di ng UMTS vi tn gi
Long Term Evolution (LTE). 3GPP t ra yu cu cao cho LTE, bao gm gim chi
ph cho mi bit thng tin, cung cp dch v tt hn, s dng linh hot cc bng tn
hin c v bng tn mi, n gin ha kin trc mng vi cc giao tip m v gim
ng k nng lng tiu th thit b u cui. c t k thut cho LTE ang c
hon tt v d kin sn phm LTE s ra mt th trng trong 2 nm ti.
Cc mc tiu ca cng ngh ny l:
- Tc nh tc thi vi bng thng 20 MHz:
o Ti xung: 100 Mbps; Ti ln: 50 Mbps
- Dung lng d liu truyn ti trung bnh ca mt ngi dng trn 1
MHz so vi mng HSDPA Rel. 6:
o Ti xung: gp 3 n 4 ln; Ti ln: gp 2 n 3 ln.
- Hot ng ti u vi tc di chuyn ca thu bao l 0 15 km/h.
Vn hot ng tt vi tc t 15 120 km/h. Vn duy tr c hot ng
khi thu bao di chuyn vi tc t 120 350 km/h (thm ch 500 km/h ty
bng tn)
Hnh 1.1 Kin trc ca mng LTE
- Cc ch tiu trn phi m bo trong bn knh vng ph sng 5km,
gim cht t trong phm vi n 30km. T 30 100 km th khng hn ch.
- di bng thng linh hot: c th hot ng vi cc bng 1.25
MHz, 1.6 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz v 20 MHz c chiu ln v
xung. H tr c 2 trng hp di bng ln v bng xung bng nhau hoc
khng.
t c mc tiu ny, s c rt nhiu k thut mi c p dng, trong
ni bt l k thut v tuyn OFDMA (a truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao),
k thut anten MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output - a nhp a xut). Ngoi ra
h thng ny s chy hon ton trn nn IP (all-IP network), v h tr c 2 ch
FDD v TDD.
1.2 So snh cng ngh LTE vi cng ngh Wimax v nhng trin vng
cho cng ngh LTE
1.2.1 So snh cng ngh LTE vi cng ngh Wimax
V cng ngh, LTE v WiMax c mt s khc bit nhng cng c
nhiu im tng ng. C hai cng ngh u da trn nn tng IP. C hai u
dng k thut MIMO ci thin cht lng truyn/nhn tn hiu, ng xung t
trm thu pht n thit b u cui u c tng tc bng k thut OFDM h tr
truyn ti d liu a phng tin v video. Theo l thuyt, chun WiMax hin ti
(802.16e) cho tc ti xung ti a l 70Mbps, cn LTE d kin c th cho tc
n 300Mbps. Tuy nhin, khi LTE c trin khai ra th trng c th WiMax
cng s c nng cp ln chun 802.16m (cn c gi l WiMax 2.0) c tc
tng ng hoc cao hn
ng ln t thit b u cui n trm thu pht c s khc nhau gia
2 cng ngh. WiMax dng OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple
Access mt bin th ca OFDM), cn LTE dng k thut SC-FDMA (Single
Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access). V l thuyt, SC-FDMA c thit
k lm vic hiu qu hn v cc thit b u cui tiu th nng lng thp hn
OFDMA.
LTE cn c u th hn WiMax v c thit k tng thch vi c
phng thc TDD (Time Division Duplex) v FDD (Frequency Division Duplex).
Ngc li, WiMax hin ch tng thch vi TDD (theo mt bo co c cng b
u nm nay, WiMax Forum ang lm vic vi mt phin bn Mobile WiMax tch
hp FDD). TDD truyn d liu ln v xung thng qua 1 knh tn s (dng phng
thc phn chia thi gian), cn FDD cho php truyn d liu ln v xung thng qua
2 knh tn s ring bit. iu ny c ngha LTE c nhiu ph tn s dng hn
WiMax. Tuy nhin, s khc bit cng ngh khng c ngha quyt nh trong cuc
chin gia WiMax v TLE.
Bng 1.1 L trnh pht trin ca LTE v cc cng ngh khc
Tuy nhin LTE vn c li th quan trng so vi WiMax. LTE c
hip hi cc nh khai thc GSM (GSM Association) chp nhn l cng ngh bng
rng di ng tng lai ca h di ng hin ang thng tr th trng di ng ton
cu vi khong 2,5 t thu bao (theo Informa Telecoms & Media) v trong 3 nm
ti c th chim th phn n 89% (theo Gartner) nhng con s trong m i
vi WiMax. Hn na, LTE cho php tn dng dng h tng GSM c sn (tuy vn
cn u t thm thit b) trong khi WiMax phi xy dng t u.
Thi th i thay, nhn thy li th ca LTE, mt s nh khai thc
mng cn nhc li vic trin khai WiMax v c nh khai thc quyt nh t
b con ng WiMax chuyn sang LTE, ng k trong s c hai tn tui ln
nht ti M l AT&T v Verizon Wireless. Theo mt kho st do RCR Wireless
News v Yankee Group thc hin gn y, c n 56% nh khai thc di ng chn
LTE, ch c 30% i theo 802.16e. Kho st cho thy cc nh khai thc di ng
Bc M v Ty u nghing v LTE, trong khi cc nc mi pht trin (c bit l
khu vc chu - Thi Bnh Dng) th ng h WiMax.
Bng 1.2 So snh LTE, Wimax R1(802.16e) v Wimax R2(802.16m)
Nhiu hng sn xut thit b i nc i, mt mt tuyn b vn ng
h WiMax, mt khc li dc tin u t cho LTE. Ngay nh Intel, u tu hu
thun WiMax, cng i ging. C Siavash M. Alamouti, gim c k thut
Wireless Mobile Group v Sean Maloney, gim c tip th ca Intel, trong cc
pht biu gn y u cho rng WiMax c th ho hp vi LTE.
Trong cuc ua 4G, WiMax v LTE hin l hai cng ngh sng gi
nht. Liu hai cng ngh ny c th cng tn ti c lp hay s st nhp thnh mt
chun chung? Hiu nng ca WiMax v LTE tng ng nhau, do vy vic quyt
nh hin nay ph thuc vo yu t sn sng v kh nng thm nhp th trng.
1.2.2 Nhng trin vng cho cng ngh LTE
- Cc i gia vin thng hng n LTE:
Nhiu nh mng trn ton th gii c l tm ra gii php chung khi
chnh thc xc nhn v vic trin khai hoc chun b cho mng LTE. Nhng nh
cung cp thit b u cui cng ha hn s gii thiu nhiu sn phm phc v h
mng 4G ny.
Telstra (c) l mt trong nhng nh mng u tin trn th gii chnh
thc xc nhn v vic trin khai LTE ca mnh mt cch rng ri. Theo nh mng
ny, h s th nghim LTE t cui nm 2011 ti khu vc trung tm cc thnh ph
ln ca c. Song song , Ericsson c th l nh sn xut thit b u tin pht
trin cc h tng phc v h thng mng trn tn s 1.800 MHz. V Sierra Wireless
cng s a ra th trng cc thit b lng tnh h tr ngi dng tng thch
ngc vi h mng 3G khi ra khi vng ph sng LTE.
i din cc nh mng vi s thu bao ln nht th gii nh China
Mobile (Trung Quc) hay Bharti Airtel (n ) lin kt thnh lp nhm pht
trin chun LTE gi tt l GTI. Ch tch Softbank (Nht) Masayoshi Son cho bit
nh mng ny cng ng h vic a LTE tr thnh chun mng th h tip theo da
trn cc u im gi thnh thp, tc mng cao v hiu sut tn s tt hn hn
cc h mng khc. ng cng ch ra rng s ng lun ng vai tr quyt nh trong
cc vn tng t v v th vi 2/3 dn s th gii, khi hu thun cho LTE, cc
nh mng Chu gn nh quyt nh xong s phn ca mt chun mng 4G
chung cho ton cu.
Song song , chun WiMAX mi mt nm trc y vn c xem
l c nhiu trin vng dng nh ang tht th hon ton. Chnh nh mng Sprint
(M) h tr chun WiMAX tha nhn ang xem xt cc xu hng cng ngh mi.
i din Sprint cho bit trong vng 4-6 thng ti nh mng ny mi c th c
nhng k hoch c th v xc nhn rng LTE c th s c trin khai. Tuy nhin,
i din ca nh mng nhn mnh rng ngay trong trng hp pht trin LTE th
chun ny s l s b tr cho h truyn dn d liu trong khi Sprint vn s trung
thnh vi chun CDMA dng cho m thoi truyn thng ca mnh.
-D bo pht trin LTE:
Theo nhn nh ca nhiu chuyn gia phn tch th trng, mc tng
trng thu bao 4G LTE tng vt d kin ban u. Ch sau 3 nm k t ngy
cng ngh ny c gii thiu, t con s 600,000 ngi dng trong nm 2010, n
nm 2012, s thu bao ca mng ny ln gn 100 triu thu bao.
Mi y, cng ty nghin cu th trng HIS iSuppli d bo, s thu bao 4G LTE
s tng gp i trong nm 2013. n nm 2016, d kin, s c 1 t thu bao mng
4G LTE trn ton cu.
Khi LTE tr thnh chun cng ngh trn ton cu, n s phi i
mt vi nhiu thch thc cng nh c hi. S thch ng nhanh chng s em n
nhng i mi, c bit i vi dng smartphone. Tuy nhin, vn t ra l s
phn b mng li 4G LTE cn phi c ch trng, ng Wayne Lam, chuyn gia
phn tch ti iSuppli nhn nh.
LTE s c li th hn so vi GSM l n c th d dng tch hp vi
3G, 2G cng nh CDMA m khng thay i nhiu h tng vin thng. Hin nay, c
gn 300 cng ty cung cp dch v mng trn ton cu ang iu hnh hoc lp k
hoch xy dng mng li LTE.
Bng1.3 D bo s lng thu bao LTE ton cu
Trc , nm 2010, gii phn tch d on, LTE c th t c
con s 300 triu thu bao vo nm 2015. Tuy nhin, trc s pht trin mnh m
ca mng li ny, iSuppli tin rng, n nm 2014, mng LTE s t c con s
trn.
S d, iSuppli lc quan trc s pht trin ca mng LTE l do ch trong nm 2012,
thu bao LTE tng 599%, t 13,2 triu thu bao trong nm 2011 ln 92,3 triu
thu bao sau 1 nm. D bo, kt thc nm 2013, s thu bao LTE s t 198,1 triu
thu bao.
Cc chuyn gia cng ngh nhn nh, khi cng ngh v ng dng trn
smartphone ngy cng tr nn ph bin v ph thuc vo tc chuyn pht, h
tng khng dy i hi cng phi nng cp c th theo kp c tc pht trin
ca cng ngh.
1.3 Mc tiu thit k LTE
Nhng hot ng ca 3GPP trong vic ci tin mng 3G vo ma xun nm
2005 xc nh i tng, nhng yu cu v mc tiu cho LTE. Nhng mc tiu
v yu cu ny c dn chng bng ti liu trong vn bn 3GPP TR 25.913.
Nhng yu cu cho LTE c chia thnh 07 phn khc nhau nh sau:
Tim nng, dung lng.
Hiu sut h thng
Cc vn lin quan n vic trin khai
Kin trc v s dch chuyn (migration)
Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn
phc tp
Nhng vn chung
1.3.1 Tim nng cng ngh
Yu cu c t ra l vic t tc d liu nh cho ng xung
l 100 Mbit/s v ng ln l 50 Mbit/s, khi hot ng trong phn b ph 20 MHz.
Khi m phn b ph hp hn th tc d liu nh cng s t l theo. Do , iu
kin t ra l c th biu din c 5 bit/s/Hz cho ng xung v 2.5 bit/s/Hz cho
ng ln. Nh s c tho lun di y, LTE h tr c ch FDD v TDD.
R rng, i vi trng hp TDD, truyn dn ng ln v ng xung, theo nh
ngha khng th xut hin ng thi. Do m yu cu tc d liu nh cng
khng th trng nhau ng thi. Mt khc, i vi trng hp FDD, c tnh ca
LTE cho php qu trnh pht v thu ng thi t c tc d liu nh theo
phn l thuyt trn.
Yu cu v tr c chia thnh: yu cu tr mt phng iu
khin (the control-plane latency requirements) v yu cu tr mt phng ngi
dng (the user-plane latency requirements). Yu cu tr control-plane xc nh
tr ca vic chuyn t cc trng thi thit b u cui khng tch cc khc nhau
sang trng thi tch cc khi thit b u cui di ng c th gi v nhn d liu.
C hai cch xc nh: cch xc nh th nht c th hin qua thi gian chuyn
tip t trng thi tm tr (camped state) chng hn nh trng thi Release 6 idle
mode, khi th th tc chim 100 ms; cch xc nh th hai c th hin qua
thi gian chuyn tip t trng thi ng chng hn nh trng thi Release 6
Cell_PCH, khi th th tc chim 50 ms. Trong c hai th tc ny, th tr ch
ng v vic bo hiu non-RAN u c loi tr. (Ch Release 6 idle l 1
trng thi m khi thit b u cui khng c nhn bit i vi mng truy nhp v
tuyn, ngha l, mng truy nhp v tuyn khng c bt c thuc tnh no ca thit
b u cui v thit b u cui cng khng c ch nh mt ti nguyn v tuyn
no. Thit b u cui c th trong ch ng v ch lng nghe h thng mng ti
nhng khong thi gian c th. Trng thi Release 6 Cell_PCH l trng thi khi m
thit b u cui khng c nhn bit i vi mng truy nhp v tuyn. Tuy mng
truy nhp v tuyn bit thit b u cui ang trong t bo no nhng thit b u
cui li khng c cp pht bt c ti nguyn v tuyn no. Thit b u cui lc
ny c th ang trong ch ng).
Yu cu tr mt phng ngi dng c th hin quan thi gian
truyn mt gi IP nh t thit b u cui ti nt bin RAN hoc ngc li c o
t lp IP. Thi gian truyn theo mt hng s khng vt qu 5 ms trong mng
khng ti (unloaded network), ngha l khng c mt thit b u cui no khc
xut hin trong t bo.
Xt v mt yu cu i vi tr mt phng iu khin, LTE c th
h tr t nht 200 thit b u cui di ng trng thi tch cc khi hot ng
khong tn 5 MHz. Trong mi phn b rng hn 5 MHz, th t nht c 400 thit b
u cui c h tr. S lng thit b u cui khng tch cc trong t bo khng
ni r l bao nhiu nhng c th l cao hn mt cch ng k.
1.3.2 Hiu sut h thng
Cc mc tiu thit k cng nng h thng LTE s xc nh lu lng
ngi dng, hiu sut ph, linh ng, vng ph sng, v MBMS nng cao.
Nhn chung, cc yu cu c tnh LTE c lin quan n h thng
chun s dng phin bn 6 HSPA. i vi trm gc, gi nh c mt anten pht v
hai anten thu, trong khi th thit b u cui c ti a l mt anten pht v hai
anten thu. Tuy nhin, mt iu quan trng cn lu l nhng c tnh nng cao
nh l mt phn ca vic ci tin HSPA th khng c bao gm trong tham chiu
chun. V th, mc d thit b u cui trong h thng chun c gi nh l c hai
anten thu th mt b thu RAKE n gin vn c p dng. Tng t, ghp knh
khng gian cng khng c p dng trong h thng chun.
Yu cu lu lng ngi dng c nh r theo hai im: ti s
phn b ngi dng trung bnh v ti s phn b ngi dng phn v th 5 (khi m
95% ngi dng c c cht lng tt hn). Mc tiu hiu sut ph cng c
ch r, v trong thuc tnh ny th hiu sut ph c nh ngha l lu lng h
thng theo t bo tnh theo bit/s/MHz/cell.
Yu cu v linh ng ch yu tp trung vo tc di chuyn ca
cc thit b u cui di ng. Ti tc thp, 0-15 km/h th hiu sut t c l
ti a, v cho php gim i mt t i vi tc cao hn. Ti vn tc ln n 120
km/h, LTE vn cung cp hiu sut cao v i vi vn tc trn 120 km/h th h
thng phi duy tr c kt ni trn ton mng t bo. Tc ti a c th qun l
i vi mt h thng LTE c th c thit lp n 350 km/h (hoc thm ch n
500 km/h ty thuc vo bng tn). Mt yu t quan trong c bit l dch v thoi
c cung cp bi LTE s ngang bng vi cht lng m WCDMA/HSPA h tr.
Yu cu v vng ph sng ch yu tp trung vo phm vi t bo (bn
knh), ngha l khong cch ti a t vng t bo (cell site) n thit b u cui di
ng trong cell. i vi phm vi t bo ln n 5 km th nhng yu cu v lu
lng ngi dng, hiu sut ph v linh ng vn c m bo trong gii hn
khng b nh hng bi nhiu. i vi nhng t bo c phm vi ln n 30 km th
c mt s gim nh cho php v lu lng ngi dng v hiu sut ph th li gim
mt cch ng k hn nhng vn c th chp nhn c. Tuy nhin, yu cu v
di ng vn c p ng. Khi m phm vi t bo ln n 100 km th khng thy
c c tnh k thut v yu cu hiu sut no c ni r trong trng hp ny.
Nhng yu cu MBMS nng cao xc nh c hai ch : broadcast
(qung b) v unicast. Nhn chung, LTE s cung cp nhng dch v tt hn so vi
nhng g c th trong phin bn 6. Yu cu i vi trng hp broadcast l hiu
sut ph 1 bit/s/Hz, tng ng vi khong 16 knh TV di ng bng cch s dng
khong 300 kbit/s trong mi phn b ph tn 5 MHz. Hn na, n c th cung cp
dch v MBMS vi ch mt dch v trn mt sng mang, cng nh l kt hp vi
cc dch v non-MBMS khc. V nh vy th ng nhin c tnh k thut ca
LTE c kh nng cung cp ng thi c dch v thoi v dch v MBMS.
1.3.3 Cc vn lin quan n vic trin khai
Cc yu cu lin quan n vic trin khai bao gm cc kch bn trin
khai, linh hot ph, tri ph, s cng tn ti v lm vic vi nhau gia LTE vi
cc cng ngh truy cp v tuyn khc ca 3GPP nh GSM v WCDMA/HSPA.
Nhng yu cu v kch bn trin khai bao gm: trng hp m h
thng LTE c trin khai nh l mt h thng c lp v trng hp m LTE
c trin khai ng thi vi WCDMA/HSPA hoc GSM. Do m yu cu ny
s khng lm gii hn cc tiu chun thit k.
Vn cng tn ti v c th hot ng phi hp vi cc h thng
3GPP khc v nhng yu cu tng ng thit lp ra nhng iu kin v tnh linh
ng gia LTE v GSM, v gia LTE v WCDMA/HSPA cho thit b u cui di
ng h tr nhng cng ngh ny. Thi gian gin on di nht trong lin kt v
tuyn khi phi di chuyn gia cc cng ngh truy cp v tuyn khc nhau, bao gm
c dch v thi gian thc v phi thi gian thc. C mt iu ng ch l nhng
yu cu ny khng c cht ch cho lm i vi vn gin on trong chuyn
giao v hy vng khi m trin khai thc t th s t c nhng gi tr tt hn ng
k.
Yu cu v vic cng tn ti v c th lm vic vi nhau cng xc
nh vic chuyn i lu lng multicast t phng php broadcast trong LTE
thnh phng php unicast trong c GSM hoc WCDMA, mc d khng c s
lng cho trc.
1.3.4 Kin trc v s dch chuyn (migration)
Mt vi nguyn tc ch o cho vic thit k kin trc LTE RAN
c a ra bi 3GPP c lit k:
- Mt kin trc n LTE RAN c chp nhn.
- Kin trc LTE RAN phi da trn gi (packet), tuy vy lu lng
lp thoi v thi gian thc vn c h tr.
- Kin trc LTE RAN c th ti thiu ha s hin din ca nhng h
hng cc b (single points of failure) m khng cn tng chi ph cho
ng truyn (backhaul).
- Kin trc LTE RAN c th n gin ha v ti thiu ha s lng
giao tip c gii thiu.
- Tng tc lp mng v tuyn (Radio network layer: RNL) v lp
mng truyn ti (Transport network layer: TNL) c th c loi tr nu ch
cn quan tm n vn ci thin hiu sut h thng.
- Kin trc LTE RAN c th h tr QoS end-to-end. TNL c th cung
cp QoS thch hp khi c yu cu bi RNL.
- Cc c cu QoS c th tnh ton n cc dng lu lng ang tn ti
khc nhau mang li hiu sut s dng bng thng cao: lu lng mt
phng iu khin (Control-Plane), lu lng mt phng ngi dng (User-
Plane), lu lng O&M, v.v
- LTE RAN c th c thit k theo li lm gim bin i tr (delay
variation - jitter) i vi lu lng cn jitter thp, v d TCP/IP.
1.3.5 Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn
Nhng yu cu v qun l ti nguyn v tuyn c chia ra nh sau:
h tr nng cao cho QoS end to end, h tr hiu qu cho truyn dn lp cao hn,
v h tr cho vic chia s ti cng nh l qun l chnh sch thng qua cc cng
ngh truy cp v tuyn khc nhau.
Vic h tr nng cao cho QoS end to end yu cu ci thin s gia
thch ng gia dch v, ng dng v cc iu kin v giao thc (bao gm bo hiu
lp cao hn) vi ti nguyn RAN v cc c tnh v tuyn.
Vic h tr hiu qu cho truyn dn lp cao hn i hi LTE RAN
phi c kh nng cung cp c cu h tr truyn dn hiu sut cao v hot ng
ca cc giao thc lp cao hn qua giao tip v tuyn, chng hn nh qu trnh
nn tiu IP (IP header).
Vic h tr chia s ti v qun l chnh sch thng qua cc cng ngh
truy cp v tuyn khc nhau i hi phi xem xt n vic la chn li cc c cu
nh hng cc thit b u cui di ng theo cc dng cng ngh truy cp v
tuyn thch hp c ni r cng nh l h tr QoS end to end trong qu trnh
chuyn giao gia cc cng ngh truy cp v tuyn.
1.3.6 phc tp
Yu cu v phc tp trong LTE xc nh phc tp ca ton h
thng cng nh l phc tp ca thit b u cui di ng. V c bn th nhng
yu cu ny cp n s lng nhng ty chn c th ti thiu ha vi nhng c
tnh d tha khng bt buc. iu ny cng a n vic ti gin nhng trng
hp kim th cn thit.
1.3.7 Nhng vn chung
Phn ny cp n nhng yu cu chung trong LTE v nhng kha
cnh lin quan n chi ph v dch v. R rng, mong mun t ra l gim thiu cc
chi ph trong khi vn duy tr hiu sut yu cu cho tt c cc dch v. Cc vn v
ng truyn, hot ng v bo dng cng lin quan n yu t chi ph. Nh vy
khng ch giao tip v tuyn, m vic truyn ti n cc trm gc v h thng qun
l cng phi c xc nh r. Mt yu cu quan trng v giao tip nhiu nh cung
cp (multi-vendor interfaces) cng thuc vo loi yu cu ny. Ngoi ra th cc vn
nh: phc tp thp, thit b u cui di ng tiu th t nng lng cng c
i hi.
1 CHNG 2
K THUT NG B TRONG OFDM
1.4 M u
Bt k mt h thng vin thng ni chung no cng u cn c khu ng b
gia tn hiu bn pht v tn hiu bn thu k vng c th thu c tn hiu ng
nh tn hiu gc ban u. ng b cng chnh xc th hiu nng ca h thng cng
cao. c bit, nhc im ca h thng v tuyn s dng k thut OFDM l d b
nh hng bi li do ng b, c bit l li ng b tn s do mt tnh trc giao
gia cc sng mang ph th vn ng b cng l mt vn quan trng cn xem
xt.
Chng ta s tm hiu k hn cc li gy ra s mt ng b v cc phng
php x l chng: ng b k t (symbol) nhn bit khung; ng b tn s ly
mu iu chnh sai s ly mu; ng b tn s sng mang sa cha khong
dch tn s. Chng ta s xem xt thm nh hng ca sai li ng b n hiu sut
ca h thng.
1.5 Tng quan v ng b trong OFDM
ng b l nhim v c bn ca mi h thng thng tin s ni chung v h
thng OFDM ni ring. H thng OFDM c nhiu li ch trong vic s dng hiu
qu ph tn nh tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang con v iu ch thch nghi nh
trnh by. Tuy nhin chnh nhng c im ny li lm cho h thng s dng k
thut OFDM c bit d dng b nh hng li do ng b, li v s sai lch tn
s, nh hng ca hiu ng Doopler khi di chuyn, gy ra nhiu giao tn s ICI.
Mt h thng OFDM s khng th thc hin tt nu khng c s ng b
chnh xc. Nh chng ta bit, tn hiu OFDM l tng hp ca cc sng mang ph
trc giao vi nhau, v ta ch c th thu c tn hiu chnh xc khi c cc sng
mang vn cn tnh trc giao. Cc sng mang ny ch hon ton trc giao khi
bn pht v bn thu s dng nhng tn s hon ton ging nhau. Tuy nhin, b dao
ng bn pht v bn thu s khng th hot ng cng mt tn s nh nhau
c. Hn na vi vic thc hin truyn thng v tuyn th di nh hng ca
mi trng truyn dn th cc sng mang con s kh cn m bo tnh trc giao.
Ngoi ra, v qu trnh iu ch v xuyn nhiu knh nn cc tham s tn s sng
mang v thi khong k t khng cn chnh xc. Do cn phi c lng v
ng b chng.
Vy, nu cc ng h tn s ly mu pha pht v pha thu hot ng
chnh xc th khong dch tn s sng mang v khong thi gian symbol l
nhng yu t chnh nh hng n s mt ng b. Khong dch tn s sng mang
gy ra nhiu ICI v dch khong thi gian gy ra nhiu ISI.
Tng qut, mt qu trnh ng b trong h thng OFDM s phi qua 3 bc
nh hnh 3.1:
- Nhn bit khung: tm ra im u ca khung OFDM.
- c lng v b khong dch tn s FOE: nhm b li s thay i v
tn s pha thu.
- Bm ui li thng d FOE (Frequency Offset Estimation): sa li sai
pha tn hiu.
Qu trnh nhn bit khung c thc hin bng cch s dng chui PN vi
phn min thi gian. c lng khong dch tn s, cn s dng mi tng quan
trong min thi gian ca cc symbol pilot hoc cc khong tin t lp CP. S dch
pha do c lng khong dch tn s cng nh nhiu pha c ti u bng cch
Nh
n
bit
khun
g
c
lng
khong
dch tn
s
FFT
B
m
u
i
pha
c
lng
knh
Gi
i
m
Hnh 2.1 Qu trnh ng b trong OFDM
dng kha pha s (DPLL).
1.5.1 Nhn bit khung
Nhn bit khung nhm tm ra ranh gii gia cc k hiu OFDM. Bng vic
s dng s tng quan gia nhng phn tn hiu OFDM c lp li to ra mt
s nh thi n nh.
Ta gi s lung d liu nh hnh bn di:
y c 2 im ta cn phi tm ra thc hin k thut ng b l im S
v im F. im S l im u ca khung u tin ca lung d liu thu c.
Trc im S l nhiu ca knh v tuyn do lc ny cha pht d liu. im F l
im gip ranh gia cc khung OFDM. Do s sai lch xung dao ng gia bn pht
v bn thu v nh hng ca nhiu gy nn s sai lch v thi gian gia 2 bn.
m bo ton vn d liu th cn phi ng b nhiu ln trong khi pht v thu d
liu, tc tm ra cc im F.
nhn bit khung, ngi ta s dng chui PN (Pseudo Noise) min thi
gian c m ha vi phn. Chui PN c pht nh l mt phn u ca symbol
OFDM. Loi chui PN thng c s dng l chui c di (hay chu k) cc
i cn gi l m-sequence (chui m). Chui m c to ra bng mt b ghi dch hi
tip c cu hnh Fibonacci hay Galois (hai cu hnh ny v mt ton hc th tng
Symbol Pilot
Symbol Data
im S im
F
Hnh 2.2 Nhn bit khung truyn
ng nhau), c hnh thnh theo mt a thc sinh quy nh cc u ra cc khu
nh ca thanh ghi tham gia hay khng vo mch hi tip. a thc sinh l mt a
thc nguyn thy (primitive polynomial), khi chui chip li ra s l mt chui
PN c chu k lp li ln nht, l N = 2
m
- 1, trong m l s khu nh ca thanh
ghi.
Mt c im c bn ca chui m l c hm t tng quan dang thumb-nail.
Tc l khi chui PN tnh tng quan vi mt phin bn ca chnh n th nu 2
chui ny trng kht nhau s c gi tr tng quan t nh (cc i), cn nu lch
pha nhau qu rng 1 phn t ca chui th gi tr tng quan s xp x 0. Nh
c im t tng quan, chui PN cho php tm ra v tr nh thi chnh xc. Chui
PN pha pht khi ng b vi pha thu c th suy ra ranh gii gia cc symbol
OFDM bng vic quan st nh tng quan.
Hnh 2.3 Tng quan theo chui PN
im mu cht l vic nhn bit khung c thc hin trc khi c lng
khong dch tn s nn sai lch pha khng c b gia cc mu tn hiu, khong
dch tn s s ph v tnh tng quan chui PN.
y, thut ton nhn bit nh l s dng mt b m c kch thc c
nh, lu cc gi tr Metric nh thi |M(g)|. Ta nhn bit khung thnh cng khi
- Phn t trung tm ca b m l ln nht
- T l gi tr phn t trung tm v trung bnh b m vt qu ngng
nht nh.
Metric nh thi M(g) c biu din:
1
*
0
( ) ( ). ( 1). ( )
N
i
M g y g i y g i d i

+ + +

Trong , y(i): tn hiu thu.


g: khong dch ca s trt.
d(i): chui PN dng thc hin ng b.
N: chiu di chui PN.
Do tnh tng quan b ph v nn s phn phi nh tng quan c dng Sin
nn chui PN c iu ch vi phn trn nhng tn hiu ln cn. Ti pha thu, tn
hiu c gii m vi phn v tnh tng quan vi chui PN bit.
1.5.2 c lng v b khong dch tn s FOE
Khong dch tn s (FOE) l li gy ra do s sai khc tn s sng mang gia
pha pht v pha thu. y l vn ln nht cn gii quyt trong khu ng b tn
hiu OFDM, bi tn hiu OFDM ch c th thu c chnh xc, tin cy khi cc sng
mang ph vn m bo tnh trc giao vi nhau.
c lng khong dch tn s da vo nhng khong d liu c pht i
ging nhau v vi vic da tnh cht ca php tng quan c lng. V d cc
pilot cch nhau u n nu chn theo mt quy lut c nh, cc khong tin t lp
cch nhau u n mt khong thi gian T (bng chiu di symbol FFT) th s
ging ht nhau v ch khc nhau tha s pha do chnh s sai lch gy nn
) ( 2 T f j
C
e

.
xc nh khong dch tn s, ngi ta phn khong dch ra thnh phn
nguyn v phn thp phn:
c
f T A +
Trong , A : phn nguyn
: phn thp phn thuc (-1/2 ; 1/2)
Phn thp phn c c lng bng cch tnh tng quan gia cc mu tn
hiu cch nhau mt khong thi gian T. Phn nguyn c tm bng cch s dng
chui PN c m ha vi phn qua cc sng mang ph.
1.5.2.1 c lng phn thp phn
Khi khng c nhiu ISI, cc mu tn hiu thu c biu din:
2 ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
C
l
j f T
N
y l s l .e z l +
Trong , l : ch s mu (min thi gian).
y(l) : mu tn hiu thu.
N : tng s sng mang ph.
z(l) : nhiu.
Tn hiu s(l) c biu din nh sau:
1
2
0
1
( ) ( ) ( )
l
N
jk
N
l
s l U k C k e
N


Trong , k : ch s sng mang ph (min tn s).
U(k) : d liu iu ch trn sng mang ph.
C(k) : p ng tn s sng mang ph.
Tnh tng quan gia cc mu cch nhau khong T (tc N mu) ta c:
1
0
( ) ( )
N
l
J y l .y l N



V phn thp phn ca khong dch tn s c c lng nh sau:
1
arg
2
J

1
]

Nu SNR cao v b qua mi xuyn nhiu nh (3.4). J c th c trin khai
sp xp li thnh phn tn hiu v phn nhiu Gaussian. nh ngha phn li c
lng phn thp phn:


lch chun c tnh nh sau:
2
1
[ ]
2
E
N SNR

1.5.2.2 c lng phn nguyn


i vi c lng phn nguyn, 2N mu tn hiu lin tip ca k hiu FOE
di l phn thp phn u tin c b:
) ( ) ( '
2
l y e l y
N
l
j


) 2 , 0 [ N l
Gi s s c lng phn c lng thp phn l hon ho, cc mu tn hiu
c b c th c tch thnh hai k hiu FFT:
[ ]
1 1
) 1 ( ' ..., ), 0 ( ' z s N y y y +
[ ]
2 2
) 1 2 ( ' ..., ), ( ' z s N y N y y +
Vector c cc thnh phn:
N
l
A j
e l s
2
). (
,
) , 0 [ N l
V hai k hiu FFT c cng vector tn hiu, mt k hiu FFT mi c th
c to ra bng cch cng chng vi nhau tng SNR ln gn 3dB, tc l:
2 1 2 1
2 z z s y y y + + +
S dng y/2 v nhiu cng t l theo . FFT cho y/2:

1
1
1
]
1

+
1
0
2 2
) ( ). (
1
) (
N
l
N
l
n j
N
l
A j
e l z e l s
N
n Y

= { U(k) C(k)}
) , mod( N A n k
+ Z(n)
Mt chui PN c m ha vi phn qua cc sng mang ph ln cn c
lng xoay quanh phn nguyn A. Gii m vi phn cc Y(n) ri tnh tng quan
gia kt qu vi cc phin bn xoay vng ca chui PN ta s tm c mt nh
bin duy nht xc nh A.
1.5.3 Bm ui li thng d
Xt mt h thng OFDM vi mt chu k k hiu: T
S
= T
g
+T hoc N
S
=N
g
+N
biu din s mu tn hiu.
T
g
: chiu di khong bo v.
T : chiu di FFT.
Tha s pha ca khong dch tn s trong N mu tn hiu FFT ca k hiu
OFDM c biu din:
(2 )( ) 2 ( )( )
S S
C
N N l l
j f T m j A m
N N N N
e e
+ + +

Trong , m : ch s symbol,
l : ch s mu.
A : phn nguyn khong lch tn s.
: phn thp phn khong lch tn s.
Nu cho FOE ng, khi tha s pha sau khi b khong dch tn s l:
2 ( ) 2 2
.
S S
N N l l
j m j m j
N N N N
e e e

+

: phn li c lng phn thp phn.


.
Gi tr
2
S
N
j m
N
e


gy ra li pha do sai s ly mu,
cn s hng
N
l
j
e

2
gy ra nhiu ICI do sai s tn s sng mang.
Tn hiu sau bin i FFT c biu din:
2
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , )
S
N
j m
N
Y m k e U m k C m k Z m k


+
Li pha do sai s ly mu (
2
S
N
m
N


) tng tuyn tnh trn cc symbol.
C th bm ui li pha bng cch dng vng kha pha s DPLL. Hm
truyn t ca DPLL l:
2
2 2
2 ( 1)
( )
( 1) 2 ( 1)
n n
n n
z
H z
z z


+

+ +
Trong ,

: h s tt dn
n

: tn s ca DPLL
1.6 ng b k t
ng b k t cng chnh l ng b thi gian v n khc phc c li thi
gian. Nhim v ca ng b k t l phi xc nh c thi im k t bt u.
Hin nay vi vic s dng tin t lp CP (Cyclic Prefix) th vic ng b k t tr
nn d dng hn nhiu.
Hai yu t cn quan tm khi thc hin ng b k t l li thi gian v nhiu
pha sng mang.
1.6.1 Li thi gian v thc hin ng b
Li thi gian gy ra do s sai lch trong vic ly mu symbol OFDM do s
tri nhp v li nh thi do symbol t gy ra do s sai lch thi gian thi im bt
u k t thu. D ng h ly mu c chnh xc cao th no i na th vn s c
sai s v gy ra li v thi gian ly mu.
Li thi gian gy ra s sai lch thi gian ca thi im bt u ca k t thu
c. Nu li thi gian nh sao cho p ng xung ca knh vn cn nm trong
thi khong ca thnh phn CP trong tn hiu OFDM th n s khng gy nh
hng n cht lng h thng. Trong trng hp ngc li, nu li thi gian ln
hn thi khong ca CP, nhiu ISI s xy ra. Khi , yu cu v ng b phi cht
ch hn.
C 3 phng php thc hin ng b k t l ng b da vo tin t lp CP,
da vo pilot v ng b khung da trn m ng b khung.
1.6.1.1 ng b k t da vo tin t lp CP
Hnh 3.4 cho ta thy c im cu trc 1 khung OFDM, l s dng mt
khong tn hiu copy t cui k hiu OFDM ln u k hiu. Khong tn hiu ny
va c chc nng c bn l lm khong bo v chng nhiu ISI va c chc nng
ng vai tr gip thc hin ng b k t. T y ta c nhng thut ton tng t
nhau gip cho vic ng b k t.
Copy
N
symbol
N
IFFT
IFFT IFFT
Khon
g bo
v
Khon
g
copied
Ging nhau
CP
Hnh 2.4 Cu trc khung OFDM thc hin ng b
Hnh 3.5 ch ra nhng phn tn hiu ging nhau ca lung d liu v c th
s dng n thc hin ng b.
L thuyt v cc hm tng quan ca cc qu trnh xc sut
Hm tng quan nh gi s tng quan (c th hiu l s lin h vi nhau,
so snh s tng t, ging nhau n mc no) ca 2 qu trnh xc sut.
- nh ngha hm tng quan cho ca 2 qu trnh xc sut
( ) [ ( ). ( )]
xy
R E x t y t +
- Hm t tng quan ca mt qu trnh xc sut
( ) [ ( ). ( )]
xx
R E x t x t +
Tnh cht ca hm t tng quan:
( ) ( )
xx xx
R R
2 2 2
(0) [ ]=
xx x x
R E x m +
2
(0)
xx x
R m
Copy
Copy
im u
khung
Hnh 2.5 c im lung d liu
Trong , E[x]: k vng ca bin ngu nhin x.
m
x
: momen bc 1 ca bin ngu nhin x l k vng ca
bin xc sut .
2
x

: phng sai ca bin ngu nhin x.


- H s t tng quan
2
2
( )
( )
xx x
xx
x
R m

- H s tng quan cho


( )
( )
xy x y
xy
x y
R m m

Hai qu trnh c gi l khng tng quan nu h s tng quan cho ca


chng bng 0. Hai qu trnh c lp xc sut th bao gi cng khng tng quan.
Trng hp ngc li khng lun lun ng.
Mi quan h gia mt ph nng lng v hm t tng quan ca mt qu
trnh xc sut
( ) ( )
j
xx xx
S R e d

ng b da vo tnh tng quan


Theo c tnh ca hm tng quan cho l mt hm s nh gi s tng
quan, s ging nhau ca 2 mu tn hiu c em ra so snh. Nu 2 chui tn hiu
ny cng ging nhau th gi tr nh tng quan ca php nhn tng quan cho ny
cng ln. l khi 2 chui tn hiu ging hon ton nhau v php nhn tng quan
cho tr thnh t tng quan.
Do ta s thc hin nhn tng quan chui s c di ng bng chiu
di chui bo v. Ta s dng 1 ca s trt c chiu di bng chiu di chui bo
v th khi ca s nm ng ti im u khung OFDM ta s t c nh tng
quan ln nht. Bng cch i tm nh ln nht ny ta s xc nh c im u
khung d liu.
Gii thut nhn bit nh s dng 1 b m c kch thc c nh lu kt
qu tnh ton tm thi l gi tr cc nh tng quan khi cho ca s trt trong khi
thu tn hiu. S nhn bit khung thnh cng khi:
- Phn t trung tm ca b m ln nht
- T l ca gi tr phn t trung tm v trung bnh b m vt qu ngng
nht nh.
Hnh 2.6 Tn hiu nhn tng quan
Hnh 3.6 l hnh nh khi ta thc hin nhn tng quan tn hiu thu c ti
bn thu vi ca s trt chnh bng khong tin t lp CP v 2 mu tn hiu nhn
tng quan cch nhau chiu di bng chiu di symbol khi cha thm khong bo
v l N
FFT
.
Sau khi thc hin nhn tng quan, ta s thu c kt qu c cc nh tng
quan ln nht nm nhng v tr chnh l im u ca mi khung OFDM.
ng b da vo gi tr trung bnh bnh phng ti thiu
Xt 2 khong tn hiu thu cch nhau N (NFFT) bc.
( ) ( ) ( ) d m r m r m N +
Vi N l s sng mang ph bng N
FFT
. N bng s im ly mu tng ng
vi phn c ch ca symbol OFDM, chng phi l bn sao ca nhau nn d(m) thp.
Nu r(m) v r(m-N) tng ng vi cc mu pht nm trong thi khong ca cng
mt symbol OFDM, d(m) l hiu ca hai bin ngu nhin khng tng quan. Cng
sut ca d(m) l |d(m)|
2
trong trng hp ny bng hai ln cng sut trung bnh ca
symbol OFDM.
Nu s dng mt ca s trt c rng thi gian bng khong thi gian
ca CP (im cui ca ca s trng vi im bt u ca symbol OFDM) th khi
ca s ny trng vi thnh phn CP ca symbol OFDM s c mt cc tiu v cng
sut trung bnh ca cc mu d(m) trong ca s ny. Do , c th c lng c
thi im bt u ca symbol OFDM, v ng b k t c thc hin.
1.6.1.2 ng b k t da vo Pilot
Pilot c th c hiu nh nhng mu k t dn ng, lm hoa tiu. Tn
hiu bn pht khi truyn qua knh v tuyn th bin v pha b thay i.
OFDM s dng pilot c lng v cn bng knh truyn. Nh c th thu li
tn hiu c hnh dng ging nh bn pht. Bn cnh chc nng chnh , ngi ta
cng c th s dng lun pilot cho khu ng b. Bn pht v bn thu u bit
trc v pilot, bit trc v cch chn pilot, m hnh pilot. Hnh 3.4 l hnh nh
thc t trong h thng m phng chn pilot vo lung d liu tun t sau vi
khung d liu.
Hnh 2.7 Hnh dng d liu thc t
Thut ton ng b gm 3 bc: Nhn bit cng sut (Power Detection),
ng b "th" (Coarse Synchronization) v ng b "tinh" (Fine Synchronization).
Nhim v ca vic nhn bit cng sut l xc nh xem tn hiu truyn c
phi l OFDM hay khng bng cch o cng sut thu v so snh vi mc ngng.
Trong bc ng b "th", tn hiu s c ng b lc u vi chnh xc
thp bng mt na khong thi gian ly mu. Mc d chnh xc trong bc ny
khng cao nhng n s lm n gin thut ton d tm ng b trong bc tip
theo. thc hin c s ng b "th", ngi ta tnh tng quan gia tn hiu
thu c vi pilot m bn thu v bn pht c nh t trc ri tm nh tng
quan. Tn s c lng ca cc im phi gp khong 4 ln tc tn hiu m
bo tnh chnh xc trong c lng nh tng quan.
Trong bc ng b "tinh", do thi gian ng b chnh xc nh hn mu tn
hiu nn nh hng ca li ng b v p ng xung knh chc chn nm trong
khong ca CP (v khong thi gian ca CP phi ln hn khong thi gian p ng
xung knh t nht l mt mu). V vy, li pha cc sng mang ca cc knh ph
chc chn l do li thi gian gy nn. Li ny c th c c lng bng cch s
dng hi quy tuyn tnh. Khi , tn hiu ti cc knh pilot s c cn bng.
Cc symbol pilot c chn vo tn hiu OFDM theo mt trt t hp l.
1.6.1.3 ng b k t da trn m ng b khung FSC
Bn trn l cc thut ton ng b khung symbol truyn thng (dng symbol
pilot, dng CP,) da vo quan h gia khong bo v GI v phn sau ca symbol,
hay da vo s bit trc symbol pilot c bn pht v bn thu. Tuy nhin, cc
thut ton c nhc im l ch pht hin chnh xc im u k t vi iu kin
l t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR l cao. Nu t s m thp qu th bin php
ng b s khng hiu qu. Cc thut ton ny khng th pht hin chnh xc v tr
bt u ca k t do nhiu ISI trong knh fading a ng. Chng ta s tm hiu
phng php ng b s dng m ng b khung.
Ta s truyn d liu cng thm mt khung d liu ng b b sung vo u
ca lung d liu OFDM. Cu trc khung c th c chia thnh vng m ng b
khung FSC cho ng b khung symbol v vng d liu cho truyn dn symbol
OFDM.
C th biu din tn hiu khung OFDM nh sau:
( ) ( ) ( )
FSC data FSC
S t S t S t T +
Trong
, T
FSC
: Khong thi gian symbol FSC
Ti pha pht, chui cc mu dng s c pht gm c chui C
A
(n) ca
FSC v khong bo v GI v cc mu d liu khng c GI qua FFT l:
D liu
truyn
GI
GI
GI
F
S
C
F
S
C
dat
a
dat
a
dat
a
dat
a
GI
Khung ng
b
Hnh 2.8 Cu trc khung OFDM s dng khung ng b FSC
1
2
0
( ) ( ) 1, 2, ..., :
1
( ) ( ) 0, 1, ..., 1:
A
L
nk
N
j
N
m m
k
s n C n n C FSC
s n X k e k N data
N

'



Trong , C
L
: di bit ca FSC.
s
m
(n) : Chui cc mu ca symbol OFDM th m trong min
thi gian khi khng thm GI.
x
m
(k) : Symbol truyn dn phc th m trong min tn s.
N : S sng mang con.
Cc mu C
A
(n) c ng dng trc tip s(n) l s bt u khung
Tn hiu FSC l mt chui tun t cc mu, ) ( ) ( n C n s
A
, vi n = 1,2, C
L
c to thnh t vector FSC C(n) = {C(1), C(2),..., C(
L
C
)} gm cc C
L
gi tr nh
phn. i vi m C(n) c gi tr "1", chng ta thc hin o cc tnh lun phin
to ra tn hiu 3 mc ) (n C
A
. V d: Cho C(n) = {1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1} th ) (n C
A
=
{1, 0, 0, -1, 1, -1, 0, 1}. Bng cch ny, ta c th duy tr s gi tr '1' v '-1' bng
nhau ti pha pht hn ch khong dch DC v duy tr mt mc c nh cho di
ng.
Cu trc ng b khung symbol OFDM gm: B nhn bit cng sut, b
nhn bit bit '0' hay '1', thanh ghi dch C
L
, b cng Modulo -2 c gim bt, b
tng, b nhn bit nh.
Thut ton ng b khung symbol nh FSC gm c 3 bc: Nhn bit FSC,
xc nh cc mc ngng ti u Th1 v Th2 tng cng xc sut nhn bit v tr
u khung symbol.
Hnh 2.9 ng b khung k t dng FSC
Xc nh mc ngng Th1
Mc ngng Th1 nhm xc nh ra nhng bit nh phn 0 v 1 t tn hiu
tng t thu c. i vi mi mi trng khc nhau th nh hng ca mi
trng ln tn hiu s khc nhau v s khc bit gia nhng tn hiu mc cao v
mc thp s t hn. Do , i vi mi mi trng th mc ngng Th1 s khc
nhau. i vi mi trng cng tt th t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR cng cao, tn
hiu c cht lng cng n nh v s phn bit gia nhng gi tr mc cao v mc
thp cng r rt. Khi mc ngng Th1 c th chn thp hn. Th1 phi ti u
sao cho khng nhm ln gia nhiu v tn hiu mc cao. thu c mt mc
ngng ti u trong mi trng a ng l rt kh.
Hnh 3.10 Quan h gia ngng ti u Th1 v SNR
Hnh 3.10 th hin mi quan h gia gi tr ngng ti u Th1 v t s tn
hiu trn tp m SNR. Th1 c th chn cng nh khi SNR cng cao. Theo l thuyt,
Th1 ti u c th tnh theo cng thc:
{ }
2
4
2
/
1
1 0
( )
2
P
Th I e
P

(.)
1
0

I
: Hm ngc ca Bessel bc 0:
(.)
0
I
2

: Phng sai ca cc bin ngu nhin Gaussian trong cc knh I v Q


P : Gi tr bin c nh ngha trong tn hiu
u ra ca b cng modul c kt qu l 1 nu cc bit ging nhau v l -1
nu cc bit khc nhau. Cc gi tr ny s c tnh tng v a ra so snh vi mc
ngng Th2 xc nh chnh xc FSC.
Xc nh mc ngng Th2
Gi tr tng sau khi thc hin bc trn s c em ra so snh vi mc ngng
Th2 tm ra v tr chnh xc ca khung FSC. Qua bc tnh tng v xt cng
modul trn th nu khung em ra so snh vi khung FSC bit trc m ging
nhau nht th gi tr tng s cao nht. Vic ca ta l phi t ra mc ngng Th2 sao
cho khi gi tr tng kia vt qua ci ngng Th2 th chc chn chnh l khung
FSC truyn pha pht. y gi l s nhn bit trt. Nu thit lp Th2 thp, tng
quan u ra ca cc vng d liu khc c th trn Th2 v c xem nh l FSC,
tc l nhn bit nhiu chnh l FSC, gi l xc sut d phng sai P
F
.
Chiu di C
L
ca khung FSC cng di th xc sut nhn bit trt gim, tc l kh
nng nhn bit ng tng. Nh vy, thut ton ng b khung symbol c th chn
chiu di v kiu FSC. iu ny ph thuc vo mi trng knh v hiu sut h
thng. Khi mi trng knh xu, ta c th m rng chiu di v thay i cc mc
ngng sao cho hp l.
1.7 ng b tn s
Nh chng ta bit, k thut OFDM rt nhy cm vi nhng sai li v s
sai dch tn s. Li tn s y l s lch tn s c nguyn nhn do s sai khc
gia hai b to dao ng bn pht v bn thu, dch tn do hiu ng Doppler v
nhiu pha do knh khng tuyn tnh. Hai nh hng li tn s lm gim bin tn
hiu (do tn hiu c dng hnh sinc) c ly mu khng phi ti nh v to ra
xuyn nhiu knh ICI gia cc knh ph do mt tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang
ph. V cc sng mang con t b sai lch tn s do mi trng tc ng v cng
khng cn m bo tnh trc giao v c mt s quay pha theo bin thi gian ca tn
hiu nhn. Chng ta c th nhn thy iu ny qua hnh 3.11 bn di. Hnh 3.11
ch ra s khc bit ca 2 trng hp:
- Gi s l tng khng c s sai khc tn s gia bn pht v bn thu.
- C s sai khc tn s gia bn pht v bn thu.
Hnh 2.11 Sai lch tn s tn hiu gy mt ng b
Mt iu hin nhin l khng th c 2 b dao ng pha pht v pha thu
hon ho ging ht nhau nn chc chn s c s sai lch trong vic ly mu tn hiu
v gy ra s sai lch v tn s ly mu. Do h thng thc hin truyn thng qua mi
trng v tuyn, l mi trng c iu kin xu v bt n nht nn chc chn cc
sng mang s phi chu nh hng t v dn n s sai khc v tn s sng
mang v gy ra mt ng b.
1.7.1 ng b tn s ly mu
Hnh 2.12 S sai lch tn s sng mang gy ra s mt ng b
Ta chc chn s c s sai khc v tn s ly mu gia bn pht v bn thu v
khng th c 2 b dao ng ging nhau 100%. S sai lch tn s ly mu ny s
nh hng ln tt c cc sng mang con, nhng vi mi sng mang khc nhau th
nh hng s khc nhau. i vi sng mang c tn s hot ng cng ln th s sai
lch v tn s ly mu cng ln. S sai khc tn s ly mu gia bn pht v bn
thu:
( ans ) ( ece ) tr miter r iver
S S S
F F F
S chnh lch nhp ng h gia my pht v my thu gy ra xoay pha, suy
hao thnh phn tn hiu c ch, to ra xuyn nhiu knh ICI.
khc phc vn ny, gii php th nht l s dng thut ton iu khin
b dao ng iu chnh bi in p VCO; gii php th hai l thc hin x l s
ng b tn s ly mu trong khi gi c nh tn s ly mu.
t lch tn s chun ha trn symbol th l:
( ece )
/
r iver
S S S
F F

Vi N >>:
2 2 [k(1+ )-l]
2 [k(1+ )-l]
1 1
2
S S
S
j l j
l l k j
k l
S
e e
y x x
j l


Vi
S
<<:
.
_ _ _ nhi _
(1 )
S
k
l l S k k l
k l
nguy n nh n g y u ICI
y x j l x

+

142 43

Trong , k l cc sng mang con, l sng mang con ang xt.
x
k
v tr sng mang th k.
1.7.2 ng b tn s sng mang
Mi sng mang con trong symbol OFDM s b lch mt khong tn s l
F
C
so vi pha pht khi ti pha thu do c s nh hng ca mi trng. V th m
s trc giao gia cc sng mang con b ph v. c th thu c thng tin chnh
xc chng ta phi b li khong dch tn s ny.
Nu vic thc hin ng b khng bo m, hiu sut ca h thng cng nh
u im ca h thng ny so vi h thng thng tin n sng mang gim i ng
k.
Hnh 2.13 S sai lch tn s sng mang gy nn s mt ng b
Hnh 3.13 cho thy, tt c cc sng mang con u chu nh hng ca s sai
lch tn s sng mang c th coi l nh nhau v mi trng truyn l nh nhau.
t lch tn s chun ha l:
/ ( / )
C C S
F F N
Khong dch tn s cho symbol th l
( )
_ _ _ _
.sin ( ) sin ( ).
C C
j j k l
l l C k C
k l
nguy n nh n g y nhi u ICI
y x c e x c k l e
+

+ +

1 4 4 4 4 42 4 4 4 4 43
Qua cng thc ta c th thy ng b tn s sng mang trong k thut
OFDM l ht sc quan trng, v nu khng thc hin ng b chnh xc v F
C
vn
khc 0 th 1 sng mang s chu nh hng ca rt nhiu cc sng mang khc v gy
ra li nghim trng.
c th ng b ta phi c lng khong dch tn s sng mang CFO
(Carrier Frequency Offset).
Chng ta s tm hiu 3 phng php c lng khong dch tn s sng
mang CFO l c lng da vo k hiu dn ng pilot, da vo tin t lp CP v
da vo chnh d liu.
1.7.2.1 c lng khong dch tn s sng mang CFO da vo
pilot
Mt s sng mang c s dng truyn dn tn hiu pilot thng c
chn l cc tn hiu gi ngu nhin PN. Tnh cht tng quan cao ca chui PN th
chng ta bit, da vo ta s thc hin ng b.
Nguyn l ng b gm 2 giai on: acquisition v tracking.
a) Giai on Acquisition
Khi bt u qu trnh ng b, do chui PN hm cha trong tn hiu thu
c (do qu trnh nhn trc tip dy d liu d(t) vi chui PN khi tri ph phn
pht) v chui PN my thu lch pha nhau, sai pha ny l mt gi tr ngu nhin,
phn b u trong khong t 0 ti (N.Tc) (Tc l rng mt chip), do vy kh nng
rt cao l sai pha ln hn Tc. Khi qu trnh acquisition din ra vi mc tiu l
ko cho sai pha gia chui PN ca my thu v chui PN trong tn hiu thu gim
xung cn di mt Tc. V bn cht, qu trnh ny thc hin tnh tng quan gia
Hnh 3.14 S khi ng b sng mang s dng b dao ng VCO
e
-j(2(f
c
-f
frac
)t+ )
f=f(f
frac
)
P/S
Loi b CP
v thc hin
FFT
A/D v
S/P
Pht hin
lch tn s
sng mang
f
frac
Dao ng
ti ch c
PLL (VCO)
Tn
hiu
cao tn
X l s
S
liu
ra
chui PN ca my thu vi chui PN c trong tn hiu thu c. Nu gi tr tng
quan cho ny (v cng l gi tr hm t tng quan vi bin tau chnh l lng sai
pha) vn cn bng 0 hoc rt nh th my thu tip tc dch m PN ca mnh cho ti
khi gi tr tng quan cho tnh c vt qu mt mc cho trc (mt in p
ngng no , n nh rng tau nh hn Tc) th dng qu trnh acquisition,
chuyn sang qu trnh tracking (tinh chnh sai pha tau c ko v 0).
b) Giai on Tracking
thc hin iu chnh tinh, mt mch ng b sm-mun gm 2 nhnh
thng c s dng. V bn cht, y l 2 vng kha pha PLL nhn cng mt tn
hiu li vo, song trn hai nhnh th tn hiu li vo c tnh tng quan vi hai
chui PN to ra cng t cng mt b to m PN song c pha u c lm lch i
+Tc/2 v -Tc/2 mt cch tng ng. Trn u ra ca 2 b tnh tng quan trn hai
nhnh s c cc in p kh ln (do sai pha tau lc ny nh di mt Tc) v
khc nhau. Hiu ca 2 in p ny, sau b lc mch vng, s c s dng iu
khin dch m PN (tc l s iu chnh chnh b to m PN ni trn ca my thu),
cc tnh ca in p hiu s quyt nh chiu dch m nhanh pha ln hay chm pha
i. Trong sut qu trnh iu chnh ny, gi tr tuyt i ca hiu in p ni trn s
gim dn, gim cho ti 0 th chui PN ca my thu hon ton ng b vi chui
PN trong tn hiu thu c. Kt thc qu trnh ng b m PN (hay ng b chip).
1.7.2.2 c lng CFO da vo tin t lp CP
Da vo c im ca tin t lp CP l khong d liu c copy t cui
chui d liu ln u chui, ngi ta a ra gii php c lng khong dch tn s
sng mang da vo khong CP ny.
Gi T l chiu di ca 1 symbol.
0 n
1 N n
CP CP
1 + L n
Hnh 2.15 V tr tin t lp CP
t
.
c
f T
.
Gi tr tng tng quan xt cho 1 khong d liu c chiu di L (chnh l
chiu di ca khong tin t lp CP) v 1 khong d liu khc cch khong u tin
l chiu di N (l chiu di d liu sau khi IFFT).
1 1
* 2 2
0 0
( ). ( ) | ( ) |
L L
j
i i
J y i y i N e y i


+

Vy, ta c gi tr c lng:
*
1
arg
2 | |
J
J

1
]
Trong , J
*
l gi tr lin hip phc ca J.
Arg[.]: l gi tr bin .
c lng th:
Thc hin ging nh trn vi mt khong d liu ngn hn, y ta chn
vi mt phn t chiu di khong CP, l L/4. Gi tr c lng:
/4 1 /4 1
* 2 /4 2
0 0
( ). ( ) | ( ) |
L L
j
i i
K y i y i N e y i


+

T y, ta cng s c cng thc c lng:
*
1
arg
4 2 | |
K
K

1
]
Gi tr /4 l khng xc nh ra c lng . Mt khc, do chiu di
L/4 l qu ngn v s khng chnh xc. V vy, c lng th ch chng ta gi tr
ng ca phn nguyn ca . Kt hp gia c lng th v c lng tinh trn,
ta s thu c c lng khong dch tn s sng mang:
* *
4 1
arg arg
2 | | 2 | |
K J
K J


1 1 1
+
1 1 1
] ] ]
Trong ,
.
1
]
l php ly phn nguyn, lm trn xung.
1.7.2.3 c lng khong dch tn s da trn chnh d liu
Tn hiu pha thu c biu din


+
1 2 , 1 , 0 ; ) (
1
) (
/ ) ( 2
N n e H k S
N
n y
N k n j
k m

H
k
: p ng xung ca hm truyn t.
Tn hiu thu s c chuyn t min thi gian sang min tn s vi php
bin i FFT:
1
2
0
.
n
N
j k
N
k n
n
Y y e

Ta c th tch hai phn sau khi qua FFT:

1
0
2
1
) (
1
) (
N
n
N
nk
j
m
e n y
N
k Y

1 2
2
2
) (
1
) (
N
N n
N
nk
j
m
e n y
N
k Y

N
nk
j
N
n
m
e N n y
N
2
1
0
) (
1

+
=

1
0
2
2
) (
N
n
N
nk
j
m
j
e n y
N
e

Hm c lng:
1
*
2 1
1
0
1
2 1
0
Im[ ( ) ( )]
1
tan
2
Re[ ( ) ( )]
N
k
N
k
Y k Y k
Y k Y k

' )


Gi tr ch tha mn c lng khi


5 , 0
, khi
5 , 0 >
phi c
thc hin ti mt gi nh ban u.
1.8 nh hng ca sai li ng b ti ch tiu cht lng h thng
Ngi ta nh gi nh hng ca s sai li ng b da trn vic xc nh
CP
1 N n
1 N n
S
1 2 N n
Hnh 2.16 Khung OFDM
suy gim ca t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR.
Bng 3.1 Suy hao SNR theo li ng b
Loi/ lng li ng b suy gim SNR (dB)
Li tn s sng mang
1
, knh AWGN

2
10
( )
3ln10
S
O
E
D
N

Li tn s sng mang
1
, knh fading
2
1 0.5947 sin( )
10 log
sin
S
O
E
N
D
e

_
+




,
Nhiu pha sng mang, rng
2

11
(4 )
6ln10
S
O
E
D
N

Li ng b tn s ly mu
3
s
f
, ti sng
mang ph th n
1
]
1

+ ) (
3
1
O
S
N
E
D 10 log
Li thi gian Khng ng k
Trong , E
s
/N
0
: l nng lng mi symbol tn hiu trn mt ph
cng sut nhiu.
: l sai lch tn s sng mang.
Da vo bng c th a ra mt s nhn xt:
- S ng b tn s sng mang gia my pht v my thu nh hng
n ch tiu cht lng h thng nhiu nht (k c knh fading a ng ln
knh nhiu trng AWGN). Suy hao SNR [dB] t l bnh phng vi sai
lch tn s sng mang.
- rng nhiu pha sng mang t l thun vi s lng sng mang. V
vy, suy hao SNR [dB] theo nhiu pha tng ln khi tng s lng sng mang.
- Suy hao SNR [dB] theo li ng b tn s ly mu ph thuc vo bnh
phng dch tn s ly mu tng i. Ta c th gim thiu li ny bng
vic s dng tn s ly mu pha thu ln gp 4 ln tn s ly mu pha
pht.
- nh hng ca li thi gian s b trit tiu nu dch thi gian
nh sao cho khng lm p ng xung ca knh vt ra ngoi khong thi
gian ca CP.
nh hng ca li ng b thi gian
OFDM chu c li thi gian v c khong bo v gia cc symbol min l
khong bo v di hn tri tr cc i ca hin tng fading a ng. i vi
knh khng c multipath, lch thi gian c th bng khong bo v m khng
lm mt tnh trc giao, ch c s quay pha trong cc ti ph. S quay pha c sa
nh vo s c lng v cn bng knh do vy khng dn n suy gim hiu sut.
nh hng ca li ng b tn s
OFDM nhy cm vi sai li offset v mt tn s. V c bit l li tn s
sng mang do lm mt tnh trc giao nghim trng gia cc sng mang con, dn
n can nhiu gia cc sng mang con, gy nhiu ICI.
Cc li tn s thng do 2 nguyn nhn chnh: do li ca b tao dao ng
bn pht v bn thu khng khp nhau hon ton v do hiu ng Doppler gy lch
tn s khi tn hiu truyn qua knh v tuyn.
Mt lch bt k dn n s quay pha cc vector ti ph thu c. lch
tn cng ln th s quay pha cng ln. Nu knh ch thc hin u mi frame th
cc li tn s s khng c gii quyt, do hiu sut ca h thng s gim dn.
Symbol u tin sau khi b knh s c SNR hiu dng cc i, SNR s gim b
cui frame.
Trong mi trng di ng nhiu ngi s dng th vn ny cng phc tp
hn v tn hiu truyn t mi ngi s dng c tn s offset khc nhau. Nu ngi
s dng c ng b tt vi mt BS th vn c lch tn do lch tn Doppler.
lch tn trong kt ni OFDM mt ngi s dng khng phi l vn quan
trng v n c th c b vi s gia tng ti thiu phc tp ca my thu. Tuy
nhin, trong trng hp nhiu ngi s dng th vn sa li tn l khng n
gin.
1.9 Kt lun
Chng ta va im qua nhng k thut ng b truyn thng trong cc h
thng s dng k thut OFDM. Khu ng b trong mt h thng truyn thng ni
chung v trong h thng truyn thng v tuyn ni ring l mt trong nhng nhim
v v cng quan trng v cn nghin cu thc hin k lng. c bit l i vi h
thng s dng k thut OFDM th k thut ng b hon ho s quyt nh hiu
sut ca c h thng. Chng ta c rt nhiu k thut thc hin ng b trong h
thng OFDM. Tuy nhin, mi trng truyn thng v tuyn l rt phc tp v
mi mi trng khc nhau th tn hiu s chu nh hng khc nhau. V th, nu
nghin cu v p dng c k thut ng b cng tt th ta s c th to c h
thng c mc p ng nhu cu tt hn cho thc t.
2 CHNG 3
K THUT NG B TRONG OFDMA
1.10 M u
Trong chng ny, chng ta s tm hiu nhng vn c bn, cc c im
v tnh cht ni bt ca k thut a truy nhp phn tn trc giao OFDMA. ng
thi nghin cu c bn vn ng b trong h thng hot ng theo k thut ny.
Qua chng ta c th thy c nhng u im v nhng tn ti ca k thut ny
trong h thng truyn thng v tuyn. T c th ng dng n mt cch ng
n.
1.11 C bn v k thut OFDMA
Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) l k thut a
truy nhp phn chia theo tn s sng mang trc giao. y l cng ngh a sng
mang pht trin da trn nn k thut OFDM. Trong OFDMA, mt s cc sng
mang con, khng nht thit phi nm k nhau, c gp li thnh mt knh con
(sub-channel) v cc user khi truy cp vo ti nguyn s c cp cho mt hay
nhiu knh con truyn nhn ty theo nhu cu lu lung c th.
a truy nhp ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDMA) l mt k
hoch ghp knh/a truy nhp cung cp hot ng ghp knh ca lung d liu
t nhiu ngi s dng trn cc knh con ng xung v a truy nhp ng ln
bi cc knh con ng ln. Nhiu ngi dng cng chia s mt bng tn nn c
gi l OFDMA. Mi ngi dng c th dng mt s sng mang con nh trc
hoc thay i ty theo thng tin cn truyn (s iu khin ny ph thuc vo lp
MAC).
OFDMA s dng ging vi k thut OFDM, nhng thm vo chc nng
chia tng s sng mang bng cch s dng tn hiu OFDM gp thnh cc nhm ca
cc sng mang khng k nhau, m nhng user khc nhau c ch nh cc sng
mang khc nhau. iu ny l cn thit vi vic chia tng s sng mang OFDM
cho nhiu hn mt ngi s dng mt thi im.
OFDMA cho php nhiu ngi dng cng truy cp vo mt knh truyn
bng cch phn chia mt nhm cc sng mang con (subcarrier) cho mt ngi dng
ti mt thi im. cc thi im khc nhau, nhm sng mang con cho mt ngi
dng cng khc nhau. OFDMA c dng trong cng ngh mng 802.16e
(WiMAX di ng), 3G LTE,
T hai hnh trn ta thy im khc nhau l OFDMA chia cc subcarrier thnh
tng nhm gi l subchannel (mu sc khc nhau). V mi mt subchannel s dnh
ring cho 1 ngi dng user.
1.11.1 Cc giao thc OFDMA
a) Phn ha knh con
Trong wimax, cc user c cp cc khi sng mang con hn l cc sng
mang con ring bit gim s phc tp cho thut ton cung cp sng mang con v
Hnh 3.1 OFDM
Hnh 3.2 OFDMA
lm n gin vic nh x cc bn tin. Gi s rng mt user k c cp mt khi L
k
cc sng mang con, cc sng mang con ny c th c phn b trn ton bng
thng theo m hnh sp xp sng mang con phn phi, hoc cng mt dy tn s
theo m hnh sp xp sng mang con k cn. u im ca m hnh sp xp sng
mang con phn phi l tng tnh a dng v mnh m ca bng thng; u im ca
m hnh sp xp sng mang con k tip l tng tnh a dng ca nhiu user.
b) S nh x cc bn tin
cho mi MS bit l nhng sng mang con no c dnh cho n BS pht
qung b thng tin ny trong cc bn tinh DL MAP. Cng nh BS cho mi MS bit
nhng sng mang con no cho n truyn bn tin UL MAP. Ngoi vic cp cc sng
mang con truyn thng UL v DL cho MS th MS cng phi hiu cc burst profile
c s dng cho UL v DL. Burst profile da trn vic o SINR v BLER cho c
hai ng v nhn dng mc thch ng ca s m ha v iu ch.
c) S sp xp
Khi mi MS xc nh khong cch n BS. N quyt nh s ng b cc k
hiu v cn bng mc cng sut thu gia cc MS. Qu trnh ny c gi l s sp
xp. Khi khi u, vic sp xp yu cu BS d on mnh ca knh v thi gian
n ca MS. S ng b ng xung th khng cn thit khi ng ny lun c
ng b trc. Nhng trong ng ln, cc user cn c ng b ti thiu trong
mt chu k khong thi gian chn. Nu khng th nhiu xuyn k t v nhiu gia
cc sng mang s xy ra. Tng t, thng qua iu khin cng sut ng xung
c yu cu gim s can nhiu qua cell khc. iu khin cng sut ng ln
tng thi gian sng ca pin v gim xuyn nhiu gia cc cell.
Trong wimax gm c 4 loi th tc sp xp: khi to, khong chu k, yu
cu bng thng v chuyn giao. Sp xp c thc hin trong 2 hoc 4 k t lin
tc m khng c s kt hp pha, iu ny cho php BS bit mt MS mt ng
b, mt kt ni nh thi rng hn so vi tin t vng. Nu th tc sp xp thnh
cng BS gi mt bn tin p ng sp xp ch th MS iu chnh thi gian offset
thch ng, lm ng tn s offset v thit lp cng sut. Nu sp xp khng thnh
cng, MS s tng mc cng sut v gi mt bn tin sp xp mi tip tc qu
trnh ny n khi thnh cng.
1.11.2 Cu trc k hiu OFDMA v phn knh con
Hnh 3.3 Cu trc sng mang con OFDMA
Cu trc symbol OFDMA gm 3 loi sng mang con nh hnh trn
- Sng mang con d liu (data) cho truyn d liu.
- Sng mang con dn ng (pilot) cho mc ch c lng, cn bng knh
v ng b.
- Sng mang con v dng (null) khng truyn dn; c s dng cho cc
bng bo v v cc sng mang DC.
Cc sng mang con tch cc (d liu v dn ng) c nhm thnh cc tp
con gi l cc knh con. Lp vt l OFDMA 802.16e h tr knh con trong c DL
v UL.
C hai loi hon v sng mang con phn cho knh con: phn tp v lin k.
- Hon v phn tp a cc sng mang con gi ngu nhin vo dng mt knh
con. N cung cp phn tp tn s v trung bnh ho nhiu gia cc t bo.
Cc hon v phn tp bao gm DL FUSC (sng mang con c s dng hon
ton), DL PUSC (sng mang con c s dng mt phn), UL PUSC v cc
hon v khng bt buc.
Vi DL PUSC, mi cp k hiu OFDM, cc sng mang con kh dng hoc
thch hp c nhm thnh cc cm bao gm 14 sng mang con lin k trn mt
chu k k hiu, c cp pht pilot v d liu mi cm trong cc k hiu l v chn
c biu din nh trong hnh 4.4.
Hnh 3.4 Knh con phn tp tn s DL
K hoch sp xp li c s dng nhm cc cm sao cho mi nhm
c cu thnh t cc cm c phn b khp khng gian sng mang con. Mt
knh con trong mt nhm gm hai cm v c cu thnh t 48 sng mang con d
liu, 8 sng mang con pilot. Cc sng mang con d liu trong mi nhm c hon
v to ra cc knh con trong nhm. Cc sng mang con d liu trong cm c
phn b cho nhiu knh con.
Tng t vi cu trc cm DL, mt cu trc tile c nh ngha cho UL
PUSC c dng nh hnh 4.6.
Khng gian sng mang con kh dng c chia thnh cc tile v 6 tile c
chn qua ton b ph bi k hoch hon v/sp xp li, c nhm li hnh thnh
mt khe. Khe gm c 48 sng mang con d liu v 24 sng mang con pilot trong 3
k hiu OFDM
Hon v lin k nhm mt khi cc sng mang con lin k hnh thnh mt knh
con. Hon v lin k bao gm DL AMC (m ha v iu ch thch ng ng
xung) v UL AMC (m ha v iu ch thch ng ng ln), v c cu trc tng
t.
Hinh 3.5 mo hinh AMC
+) Mt bin gm 9 sng mang con lin k trong mt k hiu, vi 8 sng
gn cho d liu v 1 sng gn cho pilot.
+) Mt khe trong AMC c nh ngha nh mt tp hp cc bin ca
kiu (NxM=6), trong N l s bin lin k v M l s k hiu lin k. V vy
cc t hp c php l (6 bin / 1 k hiu), (3 bin / 2 k hiu), (2 bin / 3 k
hiu), (1 bin / 6 k hiu). Hon v AMC cho php phn tp a ngi s dng
bi la chn knh con c p ng tn s tt nht. AMC c s dng cho c
ng ln v ng xung.
Hnh 3.6 Cu trc tile cho UL PUSC
Nhn chung, phn tp hon v sng mang con thc hin tt trong cc ng
dng di ng cn hon v sng mang con lin k ph hp trong cc mi trng c
nh hoc tnh di ng thp. Cc s la chn ny cho php nh thit k h thng cn
bng tnh di ng cho thng lng.
1.11.3 c im
Trong OFDMA, vn a truy nhp c thc hin bng cch cung cp cho
mi ngi dng mt phn trong s cc sng mang c sn. Bng cch ny, OFDMA
tng t nh phng thc a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s thng thng
(FDMA); im khc vi chun FDMA l cc sng mang OFDMA cho cc user
khc nhau l rt gn vi nhau v cho php cc sng mang vt l c th thay i t
symbol ny n symbol khc. V n khng cn thit c di phng v ln cn rng
nh trong FDMA tch bit nhng ngi dng khc nhau.
Hnh 4.7 m t mt v d v bng tn s thi gian ca OFDMA, trong c
7 ngi dng t a n g v mi ngi s dng mt phn xc nh ca cc sng
mang ph c sn, khc vi nhng ngi cn li.
Th d ny thc t l s hn hp ca OFDMA v TDMA bi v mi ngi
t
f
Hnh 3.7 Th d v OFDMA
s dng ch pht mt trong 4 khe thi gian, cha 1 hoc vi symbol OFDM. 7
ngi s dng t a n g u c t c nh (fix set) cho cc sng mang theo
bn khe thi gian.
OFDMA c mt s u im nh l tng kh nng linh hot, thng lng v
tnh n nh c ci thin.Vic n nh cc knh con cho cc thu bao c th, vic
truyn nhn t mt s thu bao c th xy ra ng thi m khng cn s can thip
no, do s gim thiu nhng tc ng nh nhiu a truy xut (Multi access
Interfearence- MAI). Hn na, hin tng cc knh con cho php tp trung cng
sut pht qua mt s lng cc sng mang con t hn. Kt qu ny lm tng s
ng truyn dn n tng phm vi v kh nng ph sng.
Hnh 3.8 ODFM v OFDMA
Trn hnh ch ra s khc nhau c bn gia OFDM v OFDMA l s sp xp
nhiu ngi s dng trong OFDMA vo cc sng mang. S sp xp gn ging vi
FDMA. im khc vi chun FDMA l cc sng mang OFDMA cho cc user khc
nhau l rt gn vi nhau v cho php cc sng mang vt l c th thay i t
symbol ny n symbol khc.
Trong DL c 4 thnh phn m n mang thng tin cho php my thu gii iu
ch tn hiu: preamble, FCH, DL-MAP v UL-MAP.
Preamble
Preamble l bt u ca mi khung downlink. N bao gm cc sng mang
iu ch (BPSK,QAM, ) v c di 1 symbol OFDMA.
Preamble c s dng vo hai mc ch:
- B tr tun t pilot vo trong preamble lm cho n d dng hn cho
my thu trong vic nh gi li tn s v pha v ng b vi my pht. Chng
c s dng nh gi v cn bng knh.
- S sng mang preamble s dng ch ra 3 segment c s dng. Cc
Sng mang 0,3,6... ch ra rng segment 0 l c s dng, cc sng mang 1,4,7...
ch ra segment 1 c dng, v cc sng mang 2,5,8,.. ch ra segment 3 c dng.
FCH
Frame control header(FCH) c iu ch (QPSK, ) v c di 2
symbol OFDMA. V tr vt l ca trng FCH l c nh, khi trong preamble
khng c thng tin th n s m t a ch.
Ni dung ca FCH m t Subchannel s dng, di ca DL-MAP v cc
tham s truyn dn khc s c cho bn di.
DL-MAP /UL-MAP
DL-MAP (downlink map) m t v tr ca cc burst cha trong Downlink
Zones. N gm s cc downlink burst, di ca chng theo c hng thi gian
(=symbol) v tn s (= subchannel).
UL-MAP (uplink map) c truyn nh burst u tin trong ng
xung(downlink) v gm cc thng tin v v tr ca UL burst cho cc ngi s dng
khc nhau.
Trong OFDM-TDMA v OFDMA, s lng sng mang con thng c
gi bng nhau vi ph c sn. S sng mang con khng thay i dn n khng
gian sng mang con thay i trong cc h thng khc nhau. iu ny lm cho vic
chuyn giao gia cc h thng gp kh khn. Ngoi ra, mi h thng cn mt thit
k ring v chi ph cao. OFDMA theo t l (SOFDMA) gii quyt cc vn ny
bng cch gi cho khng gian sng mang con khng thay i. Ni cch khc, s
sng mang con c th tng hoc gim vi nhng thay i trong mt bng tn cho
trc. V d, nu mt bng tn 5MHz c chia thnh 512 sng mang con, mt
bng tn 10MHz s c chia thnh 1024 sng mang con.
1.11.4 Phng php ghp (Duplexing)
C hai phng php song cng: song cng phn chia theo thi gian TDD
(Time Division Duplexing), song cng phn chia theo tn s FDD (Frequency
Division Duplexing). Trong FDD, qu trnh truyn trao i hai hng hai tn s
khc nhau trong khi TDD th ch s dng mt tn s duy nht nhng li nhng
thi gian khc nhau.
- Khung TDD gm hai phn: downlink subframe v uplink subframe
- FDD cn c 2 knh, mt ng ln (uplink), mt ng xung (downlink).
Vi TDD ch cn 1 knh tn s, lu lng ng ln v ng xung c phn
chia theo cc khe thi gian.
1.12 Phn tch khung Downlink v phng thc ng b OFDMA
OFDMA rt nhy vi s dch v tn s v thi gian ging nh OFDM vy.
Hnh 3.9 M t v FDD v TDD
Chng ta s phn tch s ng b khung Downlink s dng k hiu Preamble.
Phn tch r rng v gi tr trung bnh v phng sai ca biu thc Metric nh thi.
t gi tr nhng mu Preamble v d liu trong min thi gian tng ng l x
p
(n)
v x
d
(n). Khi , tn hiu truyn x(n) c vit li:
( ) ( ); 0 1
p
x n x n n N L +
( );
d
x n n N L +
Tn hiu OFDMA c truyn qua knh la chn tn s. Gi h(n) l p ng
xung ca knh c chiu di L
1
.
Tn hiu sau khi truyn qua knh:
1
1
0
( ) ( ) ( )
L
m
y n h m x n m

Gi s c 1 s dch tn s gia cc b giao ng bn pht v bn thu.


Khong dch tn s sng mang l v s gy ra s quay pha 2n/N. Tha nhn l
ly mu hon ho khng c li v tn s ly mu. Khi , k hiu OFDM thu c
s l:
0
2
( ) ( ) ( )
j n
N
r n e y n n

1
+
1
]
+
Trong :
0
: gc pha ban u.
(n) : l gi tr trung bnh ca nhiu trng vi phng sai
2

Khng mt tnh tng qut, ta t d l khong v tr bt u tin t lp CP,


gi tr metric v mt thi gian l:
| ( ) |
( )
( )
P d
M d
R d

Vi, P(d) l gi tr tng ca biu thc nhn tng quan gia cc mu CP vi cc


mu cui k hiu:
1
0
( ) ( ) ( )
N
n
P d r n d r N n d

+ +

N : s mu trong k hiu thu.


R(d) c lng nng lng ca N mu ang xt pha thu:
1
2
0
( ) | ( ) |
N
n
R d r n d

t
1
( ) ( ) ( ) r n r n r N n


1 1
( ) ( ) s n n +
Trong ,
1
( ) ( ) ( ) s n s n s N n
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) n s n N n n s N n n N n + +
Phng thc ng b khung vn l tnh ton gi tr metric nh thi, s dng
mt b m cha gi tr tnh ton c. Ta s tm c im u khung v thc
hin ng b nu gi tr v tr trung tm ca b m l ln nht v tha mn ln
hn mt gi tr ngng nht nh. Sau y th ta s kho st s ph thuc gi tr
trung bnh (k vng) v phng sai ( phn tn) ca gi tr metric nh thi trong
OFDMA vo SNR.
Xem xt gi tr trung bnh v phng sai ca M(d)
Phng sai l i lng nhm o lng phn tn.
tm gi tr trung bnh v phng sai ca M(d) ta s i tm gi tr trung
bnh v phng sai ca |P(d)| v R(d).
T biu thc :
1 1
1 1
0 0
( ) ( ) ( )
N N
n n
P d s n d n d


+ + +

Gi tr ln ca P(d) s l:
1
2 2
2
1 1 1
1 1 1
0 0 0
| ( ) | ( ) ( ) ( )
N N N
n n n
P d s n d inphase n d quadphase n d





1 1

+ + + + +
' ' ) ' ) )
1 1
] ]



Trong ,
( ) inphase T
v
( ) quadphase T
i din cho gi tr pha ca thnh phn
T theo thnh phn l gc ca
1
1
0
( )
N
n
s n d

. Thnh phn
( ) quadphase T
l rt
nh so vi thnh phn
( ) inphase T
nn c th b qua. V:
1 1
1 1
0 0
| ( ) | ( ) ( )
N N
n n
P d s n d inphase n d




1

+ + +
' )
1

]

Gi tr trung bnh Mean ca |P(d)|
1 1
1 1
| |
0 0
( ) ( ) ( )
2
L L
P I
l m
l m
d E h l h m P d


1
+
_

1
,
]

Trong , P
I
(d) l P(d) i vi knh l tng khng c nhiu v khng c s lch
tn s.
1
0
( ) ( ) ( )
N
I
n
P d x n d x N n d

+ +

1
0
( ) ( )
2
N
I
n
l m
P d x n d l x N n d m

+ _
+ +

,

Vy, gi tr trung bnh ca metric nh thi ph thuc vo p ng xung ca knh.
Nu p ng xung ca knh u tin l tri nht, h(0) l ln nht th:
2
| |
( ) (0)
P p
h
L
Trong , p

l nng lng ca k hiu Preamble:


1
2
0
| ( ) |
N
p p
n
x n L

Gi tr trung bnh ca |P(d)| s cho ta gi tr chnh xc ca im u khung v tr


d=L.
- Phng sai ca |P(d)|
Phng sai ca knh la chn tn s c th vit gn li:
2
1
2
| |
0
1 1
2 2
2 2
0 0
2
1
4
0
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
N
P
n
N N
n n
N
n
d E y n d y N n d
E y n d E y N n d
N E y n d y N n d

1
+ + 1
1
]
1 1
+ + + +
1 1
] ]
1
+ + +
1
]

Cui cng ta s thu c biu thc:


( ) 4 2 2
2
2 2 4 4 2 2
| |
| | | | | |
( ) (0) (0) 2 (0)
P x x
h h h
L N N


1
1
+ +
] 1
]
- Gi tr trung bnh ca R(d)
2
( )
R p
d N

+
- Phng sai ca R(d)
2 2
( ) 2
R p
d


Thc t, gi tr SNR s quyt nh gi tr
2
/
p
N


.
Cui cng ta s thu c, ti im u khung, gi tr trung bnh ca Metric
nh thi s l:
2
| |
( ) (0)
1
M
h
L


+
,
Phng sai ca gi tr Metric i vi cc knh la chn tn s:
2 4 2 2 2
1
2
2 2
( ) 2 ( ) ( ) 2
( )
( ) 2
p M R p
M
R p
M d N d d
d
d


1 + + +
]

+
Trong ,
1 1
2
1 1
2 2
1
0 0
( ) ( ) ( )
2
L L
I
l m
l m
d E h l h m P d


1
+
_
1

,
1
]

3 CHNG 4
CC TH TC TRUY NHP LTE
1.13 Tm t bo:
Tm t bo l th tc m mt u cui di ng tm mt t bo tim nng
kt ni. Mt phn ca th tc tm t bo l u cui nhn c s nhn dng
v c tnh nh thi khung ca t bo c nhn dang. Th tc tm t bo
cng cung cp c tnh cc thng s cn thit thu thng tin h thng trn
knh qung b. Thng lin h thng cha cc thng s cn thit truy nhp h
thng.
khng lm phc tp qu trnh quy hoch t bo, s lng cc nhn
dng t bo lp vt l phi ln. LTE h tr 504 nhn dng t bo khc nhau.
Cc nhn dng ny c chia thnh 168 nhm nhn dng t bo vi ba nhn
dng trong mi nhm.
gim phc tp tm t bo, tm t bo trong LTE thng c thc
hin theo mt s bc ging nh th tc tm t bo ba bc ca WCDMA.
h tr u cui trong th tc ny, LTE cung cp tn hiu ng b s cp v tn
hiu ng b th cp trn ng xung. Cc tn hiu ng b s cp v ng
b th cp l cc chui c bit c chn vo hai k hiu OFDM cui cng
trong khe u tin ca khung con khng v nm nh minh ha trn hnh 15.1 .
Ngoi cc tn hiu ng b, th tc tm t bo cng c th s dng cc tn hiu
tham kho.

Hnh 4.1. Cc tn hiu ng b s cp v th cp.
1.13.1 Th tc tm t bo:
Trong bc u tin ca th tc tm t bo, u cui di ng s dng tn
hiu ng b s cp nh thi theo 5ms. Lu rng tn hiu ng b c
pht hai ln trong mt khung. L do l n gin chuyn giao t cc cng
ngh truy nhp khc nh GSM n LTE. V th tn hiu ng b s cp ch c
th m bo ng b khung vi sv khng r rng 5ms.
Thc hin gii thut c tnh l c th ca nh khai thc, nhng mt
gii php l s dng lc phi hp gia tn hiu thu c v cc chui c c
t cho tn hiu ng b s cp. Khi u ra ca b lc phi hp t gi tr cc
#0#1#2#3#4#5#6#7#8#9
01234560123456 01234560123456
K hiu
OFDM
Tn hiu ng
b th cp
Tn hiu ng
b s cp
Khung v tuyn 10 ms
Khung con
1ms
Khe 0,5ms Khe 0,5
ms
Khe 0,5ms Khe
0,5ms
7
2

s

n
g


m
a
n
g

c
o
n
B

n
g

t
h

n
g

h


t
h

n
g
i, th c ngha l u cui tm c nh thi theo 5ms. Bc th nht
cng c th c s dng kha tn s b dao ng ni ca u cui di ng
n tn s sng mang ca trm gc. Kha tn s ca b dao ng ni n tn s
sng mang trm gc cho php gim bi yu cu chnh xc i vi b dao
ng ni ca u cui di ng v nh vy gim gi thnh.
V cc l do s xt di y, ba chui khc nhau c th c s dng
cho tn hiu ng b s cp. Tn ti nh x (chuyn i) mt mt gia tng
chui ca ba chui ny v nhn dng t bo trong nhm nhn dng t bo. V
th sau bc th nht, u cui tm c nhn dng ny trong nhm nhn
dng t bo. Ngoi ra do c s chuyn i mt mt gia tng nhn dng t bo
trong nhm nhn dng t bo v tng chui trong s ba chui trc giao c s
dng khi to ra tn hiu tham kho. u cui di ng cng s bit c mt
phn thng tin v cu trc tn hiu tham kho trong bc ny. Tuy nhin sau
bc ny, u cui vn cha bit nhm nhn dng t bo.
Trong bc tip theo, u cui tm nhm nhn dng t bo v xc nh
ng b khung. iu ny c thc hin bng cch quan st cc cp khe ni
m tn hiu ng b th cp c pht. V nguyn l, nu (s
l
, s
2
) l cp chui
c php, trong s
l
, s
2
th hin tn hiu ng b th cp trong khung con
khng v nm, th cp o (s
2
, s
l
) khng phi l cp chui hp l. Khai thc
thuc tnh ny, u cui di ng cng gii quyt c s khng r rng nh
thi 5ms t bc th nht trong th tc tm t bo v xc nh c nh thi
khung. Ngoi ra mi t hp (s
l
, s
2
) th hin mt trong s cc nhm nhn dng t
bo, v th t bc tm t bo th hai nhm nhn dng t bo cng c tm
thy. T nhm nhn dng t bo, u cui cng nhn c thng tin v chui
gi ngu nhin c s dng to ra tn hiu tham kho trong t bo.
Sau khi hon thnh th tc tm t bo, u cui di ng nhn c thng
tin h thng pht qung b v t nhn c cc thng s cn li nh bng
thng c s dng trong t bo.
1.13.2 Cu trc thi gian/tn s ca cc tn hiu ng b:
Cu trc thi gian-tn s tng qut c minh ho nh hnh 1.2. T hnh
ny ta thy cc tn hiu ng b s v th cp c pht trong hai k hiu
OFDM ni tip. Cu trc ny cng c chn c th x l nht qun tn
hiu ng b th cp ti u cui di ng. Sau bc th nht tn hiu ng b
s cp bit v v th c th s dng n c tnh knh. c tnh knh ny
s c s dng tip theo x l nht qun tn hiu cho bc th hai ci
thin hiu nng, tuy nhin vic t cc tn hiu ng b s cp v th cp cnh
nhau cng c ngha l trong bc th hai u cui phi c tnh m di CP.
Tuy nhin y l khai thc t phc tp.
Hnh 4.2 Lp biu ph thuc ng xung trong min thi gian v tn s.
Trong nhiu trng hp, nh thi trong nhiu t bo c ng b sao
cho khi u khung trong cc t bo cng nhau trng nhau v thi gian. L do
l cho php khai thc MB SFN. Tuy nhin khai 'thc ng b cng c ngha
l pht cc tn hiu ng b s cp trong cc t bo khc nhau phi xy ra tai
cng mt thi im. V th c tnh knh da trn tn hiu ng b s cp s
b)
a)
Pha inh tn s thi
gian
Pha inh tn s thi
gian
f
Ngi s dng#1
Ngi s dng#2
Ngi s dng#2
Ngi s dng#1
phn nh knh tng hp cho tt c cc t bo nu cng mt tn hiu ng b s
cp c s dng trong tt c cc t bo. R rng rng, gii iu ch nht
qun tn hiu ng b th cp (cc tn hiu ny khc nhau trong cc t bo khc
nhau) c tnh knh xt t quan im t bo l cn thit v khng cn thit c
tnh knh tng hp t tt c cc t bo. V th LTE h tr nhiu chui cho tn
hiu ng b s cp. Trong trng hp thu nht qun c trin khai cng vi
vic cc t bo c ng b theo thi gian, cc t bo ln cn c th s ng
cc chui ng b s cp khc nhau gim nh vn c tnh knh c
trnh by trn, Ngoi ra tn hiu ng b s cp cng mang mt phn nhn
dng t bo.
T quan im TDD, t tn hiu ng b ti cui khe u ca khung con
thay v khe th hai l c li v s gim bt cc hn ch lin quan n vic to ra
cc khong thi gian bo v gia ng ln v ng xung. Ni mt cch
khc nu cc tn hiu ng b c t ti khe cui cng ca khung con, s
khng c kh nng nhn c thi gian bo v cn thit cho TDD bng cch
loi b cc k hiu OFDM. Ngoi ra, cn lu rng i vi khai thc TDD, v
tr cc tn hiu ng b trong cc khung con khng v nm l cc khung con
ng xung.
Ti thi im u ca tm t bo, bng thng t bo cha cn bit. V
nguyn tc, tm bng thng truyn dn c th c thc hin nh l mt phn
ca tm t bo. Tuy nhin iu ny s lm phc tp ha ton b th tc tm t
bo, v th nn duy tr th tc tm t bo nh nhau khng ph thuc vo tng
bng thng truyn dn ca t bo. Sau u cui c th c thng bo v
bng thng ca t bo trong knh qung b. duy tr cu trc min tn s ca
cc tn hiu ng b ging nhau khng ph thuc vo bng thng t bo, cc tn
hiu ng b lun lun c pht trn 72 sng mang con trung tm tng
ng vi bng thng l mhz. Ba mi su sng mang con ti hai pha ca sng
mang con DC trong min tn s c dnh ring cho tn hiu ng b. S dng
IFFT, tn hiu min thi gian tng ng c th c to ra. Kch thc IFFT
cng nh s cc sng mang con c t bng khng trn hnh 1.3 ph thuc
vo bng thng h thng. Cc sng mang con khng s dng cho truyn dn
cc tn hiu ng b c s dng truyn dn s liu.
Hnh 4.3. To tn hiu ng b trong min tn s.
1.13.3 Tm t bo ban u v tm t bo ln cn:
Tm t bo kt ni sau khi u cui bt ngun l mt trng hp rt
quan trng. Tuy nhin kh nng nhn dng cc t bo chuyn giao cho h tr
di ng khi u cui chuyn t kt ni ny sang kt ni khc cng khng km
phn quan trng. Hai tnh hung ny thng c gi l tm t bo ban u v
tm t bo ln cn.
Khi tm t bo ban u, u cui di ng thng khng bit c tn s
sng mang ca cc t bo m n ang tm. x l trng hp ny, u cui
cn tm mt sng mang thch hp bng cch lp th tc ni trn nhiu ln cho
tt c cc sng mang c th c c cho trong l i tn s. R rng rng cch
lm ny thng lm tng thi gian cn thit tm t bo, nhng yu cu v thi
gian i vi tm t bo ban u l kh d ri. Cc phng php c th thc
hin cng c th c s dng gim thi gian t lc bt ngun n lc tm
c t bo. Chng hn, u cui c th s dng mi thng tin m n c v bt
u tm t bo trn cng mt tn s m n kt ni n ln cui.
Mt khc, tm t bo ln cn li c cc yu cu nh thi cht ch hn.
Tm t bo ln cn cng chm th u cui cng mt nhiu thi gian c
chuyn giao n t bo c cht lng knh v tuyn trung bnh tt hn. R rng
DC
36 sng mang con 36 sng mang con
Tn hiu ng ng
b trnh by trong
min tn s
Tn hiu ng
ng b trnh by
trong min thi
gian-tn s
IFFT
0
0
rng iu ny s lm gim hiu sut s dng ph tn tng th. Tuy nhin trong
trng hp chuyn giao cng tn s, r rng rng u cui di ng khng cn
thit phi tm sng mang trong t bo ln cn. V khng phi tm kim t bo
trn nhiu sng mang, nn tm t bo ln cn cng tn s c th s dng cng
th tc nh tm t bo ban u.
Khi u cui thu s liu ng xung t mng, n cng cn o c cho
mc ch chuyn giao. V th u cui phi c kh nng thc hin tm t bo
ln cn trong cc trng hp ny. i vi tm t bo ln cn trong cng tn s,
y khng phi l vn ln v cc t bo ln cn pht cng tn s ging nh
tn s m t du cui thu s liu. Thu s liu v tm t bo ln cn l hai
chc nng gc tch bit hot ng trn cng mt tn hiu thu.
Tuy nhin trng hp chuyn giao gia cc tn s phc tp hn trong
thu s liu v tm t bo ln cn cn c thc hin trn cc tn s khc nhau.
V nguyn l c th trang b cho u cui di ng mt mch thu v tuyn ring
cho vic tm t bo ln cn, tuy nhin iu ny s lm tng tnh phc tp. V th
c th to ra cc khong trng trong truyn dn s liu trong trong khong
thi gian ny u cui c th chnh sng n tn s khc cho mc ch o c.
iu ny c thc hin theo cch lp biu u cui trong mt hoc vi khung
con.
1.14 Truy nhp ngu nhin:
Yu cu cn bn i vi mi h thng t ong l kh nng u cui c th
yu cu thit lp kt ni. iu ny thng c gi l truy nhp ngu nhin v
n phc v hai mc ch chnh trong LTE, l thit lp ng b ng ln v
thit lp mt nhn dng u cui duy nht (C-RNTI), trong mng v u
cui u bit nhn dng ny. V th truy nhp ngu nhin khng ch c s
dng cho truy nhp ln u, khi chuyn t LTE DETACHED hay LTE-IDLE
vo LTE ACTIVE m cn c sau cc chu k khng tch cc khi ng b ng
ln b mt trong LTE ACTIVE.
Tng th th tc truy nhp ngu nhin (minh ha trn hnh 1.4) bao gm
bn bc:
1. Bc mt gm truyn dn mt tin t truy nhp ngu nhin cho
php eNodeB c tnh nh thi truyn dn ca u cui. ng b ng ln
cn thit v khng c n u cui khng th pht s liu ng ln.
2. Bc th hai bao gm pht lnh nh thi pht trc iu chnh
nh thi pht ca u cui da trn cc kt qu o nh thi bc mt. Ngoi
vic thit lp ng b ng ln, bc hai cn n nh cc ti nguyn cho u
cui di ng n s dng trong bc ba ca th tc truy nhp ngu nhin.
3. Bc ba bao gm truyn dn nhn dng u cui di ng n mng
bng knh UL-SCH ging nh s liu c lp biu thng thng. Ni dung
chnh xc ca bo hiu ph thuc vo trng thi ca u cui chng hn mng
c bit n trc y hay khng.
4. Bc th t v l bc cui cng bao gm truyn dn mt bn tin
phn gii xung t t mng n u cui trn DL-SCH. Bc ny cng phn
gii mi xung t do nhiu u cui tm cch truy nhp mng bng cch s
dng cng mt ti nguyn truy nhp ngu nhin.
Ch khi eNode cha bit UE
(Truy cp ngu nhin)
UE eNodeB AGW
iu chnh nh thi
ng ln
ng b theo nh thi
ng xung
S hiu ngi s dng
Bc 4: Bo hiu RRC
Bc 3: Bo hiu RRC
Bc 2: Tr li truy cp ngu nhin
Bc 1: Tin t truy cp ngu nhin
Hnh 4.4. Th tc truy nhp ngu nhin.
Ch bc th nht s dng x l lp vt l c thit k c bit cho
truy nhp ngu nhin. Tt c ba bc cn li s dng cng mt x l lp vt l
ging nh cho truyn dn s liu ng ln v ng xung thng thng. Di
y ta s xt chi tit cc bc ny.
1.14.1 Bc 1: Truyn dn tin t truy nhp
Bc th nht trong th tc truy nhp ngu nhin l truyn dn mt tin
t truy nhp ngu nhin. Mc ch chnh ca tin t ny l thng tin cho
mng v c mt nh truy nhp v nhn c ng b thi gian ng ln
trong gii hn mt phn nh ca CP ng ln.
V tng qut, cc truyn dn tin t truy nhp ngu nhin c th trc
giao hoc khng trc giao i vi s liu ca ngi s dng. Trong WCDMA,
tin t l khng trc giao i vi truyn dn s liu ng ln. iu ny l c
li v khng cn phi n nh bn c nh ti nguyn cho truy nhp ngu nhin.
Tuy nhin iu khin nhiu truy nhp ngu nhin i vi s liu, cng sut
pht ca tin t truy nhp ngu nhin phi c iu khin cn thn. Trong
WCDMA, iu ny c gii quyt bng th lc tng cng sut tng nc, trong
u cui tng cng sut theo tng nc quy nh trc cho n khi trm di
ng pht hin c truy nhp ngu nhin. Mc d y l mt gii php thch
hp cho vn nhiu, nhng th tc tng tng nc dn n tr tng th th tc
truy nhp ngu nhin. V th t quan im tr, th tc truy nhp ngu nhin
khng i hi tng tng nc s c li hn.
Trong LTE, truyn dn tin t truy nhp ngu nhin c th c thc
hin trc giao vi cc truyn dn s liu ca ngi s dng v kt qu l khng
cn tng cng sut tng. Trc giao gia s liu ca ngi s dng c pht i
t cc u cui khc v cc truy nhp t c c trong min thi gian v
min tn s. Mng pht qung b thng tin n tt c u cui v ti nguyn
thi gian-tn s dnh cho truyn dn tin t truy nhp ngu nhin. trnh
nhiu gia s liu v cc tin t truy nhp ngu nhin, mng trnh lp biu cho
cc truyn dn ng ln trong cc ti nguyn thi gian-tn s ny. iu ny
c minh ha trn hnh 2.2. V n v thi gian c bn truyn dn s liu
trong LTE l lms, mt khung con c dnh trc cho truyn dn tin t. Tin
t truy nhp ngu nhin s c pht trong cc ti nguyn dnh trc ny.
Trong min tn s, tin t truy nhp ngu nhin c bng thng tng ng
vi su khi ti nguyn (1,08 MHz). iu ny hon ton ph hp vi bng
thng nh nht m LTE c th hot ng (su khi ti nguyn). V th, cng
mt cu trc tin t truy nhp c th c s dng khng ph thuc vo bng
thng truyn dn ca t bo. i vi cc trin khai s dng cc n nh bng
thng ln hn: nhiu ti nguyn truy nhp ngu nhin c th c nh ngha
trong min tn s m bo dung lng truy nhp ln hn.
Hnh 4.5 Minh ha nguyn l truyn dn tin t ngu nhin.
Khung 10ms
Ti nguyn ng ln
dnh trc cho truyn
dn tin t truy nhp
ngu nhin
Cc ti nguyn
ng ln c s
dng cho truyn
dn s liu
thc hin truy nhp ngu nhin, u cui i ng phi nhn c
ng b ng xung trong th tc tm t bo trc khi pht tin t. Tuy nhin
nh thi ng ln vn cha c thit lp. Khi u khung ng ln ti u
cui c nh ngha tng i so vi khi u khung ng xung ti u
cui di ng. Do tr truyn sng gia trm gc v u cui, pht ng ln s
tr tng i so vi nh thi pht ng xung ti trm gc. Do khong cch
gia tm gc v u cui di ng khng bit, nn s c s khng r rng trong
nh thi ng ln tng ng vi hai ln khong cch gia trm gc v u
cui gii quyt s khng r rng ny v trnh nhiu giao thoa vi cc khung
con tip theo, cn s dng mt khong bo v, ngha l di tin t thc t
ngn hn lms. Hnh 2.3 minh ha di tin t v thi gian bo v. Vi di
tin t vo khong 0,9ms, thi gian bo v 0,1ms s cho php cc kch thc t
bo n 15km. Trong cc t bo ln hn, trong s khng r rng c th ln
hn thi gian bo v, c th to ra thi gian bo v b sung bng cch khng
lp biu cc truyn dn trong khung con tip sau ti nguyn truy nhp ngu
nhin.
Hnh 4.6 nh thi tin t ti eNodeB cho cc ngi s dng truy nhp ngu
Khung con truy nhp ngu nhin 1ms
Cc ngi s dng khc
Cc ngi s dng khc
Cc ngi s dng khc Cc ngi s dng khc
Cc ngi s dng khc

Cc ngi s dng khc
Tin t 0,9ms
Ngi s dng gn
Ngi s
dng xa
trung bnh
Ngi s dng xa
Thi gian
bo v
nhin khc nhau.
Tin t da trn cc chui Zaoff-chu v l cc chui dch vng. Cc
chui Zadoff-chu cng c s dng to ra cc tn hiu tham kho ng
ln.
Cc chui ZC dch vng c mt s tnh cht hp dn. Bin chui
khng i , v th m bo s dng hiu qa b khuch i cng sut v duy tr
cc thuc tnh PAPR thp ca ng ln n sng mang. Cc chui ny cng
c t tng quan dch vng l tng cho php c tnh nh thi chnh xc ti
eNodeB. Cui cng tng quan cho gia cc tin t khc nhau c xy dng
da trn dch vng ca cng mt chui ZC bng khng khi dch vng thi gian
[N/m] c s dng khi to ra cc tin t ti my thu khng ln hn thi gian
truyn vng cc i cng vi tri tr cc i knh. Nh tnh cht tng quan
cho l tng ny, nn khng xy ra nhiu ni t bo do nhiu truy nhp
ngu nhin s dng cc tin t c rt ra t cng mt chui Zadoff-chu gc.
Vic to ra tin t truy nhp ngu nhin c minh ha trn hnh 2.4.
Mc d hnh v minh ha vic qu trnh ny trong min thi gian, nhng cng
c th thc hin to tin t truy nhp ngu nhin trong min tn s. Ngoi ra
x l min tn s ti trm gc (s xt di y), CP c chn vo trong qu
trnh to tin t.
Hnh 4.7 To tin t truy nhp ngu nhin.
Cc chui tin t c chia thnh cc nhm 64 chui. Sau khi lp cu
Chui
ZC
gc
M
im
Dch
vng
Chn
CP
CP
Chui ZC gc M
im
0,1ms
0,8ms
0,1ms
hnh h thng, mi t bo c n nh mt nhm ni trn bng cch nh
ngha mt hay nhiu chui Zadoff-chu gc v cc dch vng cn thit to ra
tp cc tin t. S nhm ln n gin quy hoch chui gia cc t bo.
Khi thc hin truy nhp ngu nhin, u cui chn ngu nhin mt chui
t tp chui c n nh cho t bo m n ang tm cch truy nhp. Nu
khng c u cui no cng tm cch truy nhp ti cng mt thi im bng
cng mt chui, th khng c va chm v truy nhp ny s c mng pht
hin vi xc sut cao.
X l trm gc l mt thc hin c th, nhng nh gn CP vo tin t,
nn x l min tn s s t phc tp hn. V d v x l ny c cho trn hnh
2.5, cc mu trn mt ca s c thu thp v c chuyn i v th hin
min tn s bng FFT. Ca s di 0,8ms bng di chui ZC khng c CP.
iu ny cho php x l s khng r rng n 0,lms v thch ng vi thi gian
bo v c nh ngha:
Hnh 4.8 Pht hin tin t truy nhp trong min tn s.
FFT iFFT
Chui I c pht hin, c tnh
tr
Th hin min tn s ca chui
ZC
on 1
i-2
i-1 I+1 I+2
u ra ca FFT th hin tn hiu trong min tn s c nhn vi th
hin min tn s lin hip phc ca chui Zadoff-chu gc v kt qu nhn c
a n IFFT. Bng cch quan trc u ra, c th pht hin c dch vng no
ca chui Zadoff-chu gc c pht v tr ca n. ch ca u IFFT ra
trong on tng ng vi chui dch vng th i v tr c xc inh theo v tr
nh trong on ny. Thc hin min tn s cho php tnh ton n gin hn v
cho php pht hin nhiu truy nhp ngu nhin s dng cc chui dch
vng khc nhau t cng mt chui Zadoff-chu.
1.14.2 Bc 2: Tr li truy nhp ngu nhin:
tr li truy nhp ngu nhin (bc hai ca th tc truy nhp ngu
nhin), mng s pht mt bn tin trn DL-SCH cha:
* Ch s tin t truy nhp ngu nhin m mng pht hin v i vi tin
t ny tr li l hp l.
* Hiu chnh thi gian c tnh ton bi my thu tin t truy nhp ngu
nhin.
Cho php lp biu ch th cc ti nguyn m u cui s s dng cho
truyn dn bn tin trong bc ba.
* Mt nhn dng tm thi s dng cho thng tin tip theo gia u cui
v mng.
Trong trng hp mng pht hin nhiu truy nhp ngu nhin (t
cc u cui khc nhau), nhiu bn tin tr li cho cc u cui di ng c th
c kt hp trong mt truyn dn duy nht. V th, bn tin tr li c lp
biu trn DL-SCH v c ch th trn knh iu khin LL/L2 bng mt nhn
dng dnh ring cho tr li truy nhp ngu nhin. Tt c cc u cui truyn
tin t s gim st cc knh iu khin LL/L2 nhn tr li truy nhp ngu
nhin. nh thi ca bn tin tr li khng c quy nh trong c t c th
tr li nhiu truy nhp ng thi. iu ny cng m bo mc linh hot nht
nh trong thc hin trm gc.
Nu cc u cui di ng thc hin truy nhp ngu nhin trong cng mt
ti nguyn s dng cc tin t khc nhau th s khng xy ra va chm v t bo
hiu ng xung cc u cui s nhn bit c r rng thng tin no dnh
cho n. Tuy nhin s c mt xc sut va chm nht nh trong nhiu u
cui s dng cng mt tin t ti cng mt thi im. Trong trng hp ny
nhiu u cui s phn ng ln cng mt tr li ng xung v va chm s
xy ra. Phn gii cc va chm l b phn ca bc tip theo (s xt di y).
Va chm l l do v sao HARQ khng c s dng truyn dn tr li truy
nhp ngu nhin. u cui nhn c tr li truy nhp ngu nhin dnh cho
u cui khc s khng c nh thi ng ln ng. Nu HARQ c s
dng, nh thi ACK/NAK cho u cui ny s khng ng v c th gy nhiu
cho bo hiu iu khin ng ln t cc ngi s dng khc.
Khi nhn c tr li truy nhp ngu nhin trong bc th hai u cui
s iu chnh nh thi pht ng ln v tip tc bc ba.
1.14.3 Bc 3: Nhn dng u cui:
Sau bc hai, ng ln ca u cui c ng b. Tuy nhin trc
khi c th truyn s liu ngi s dng n/t u cui di ng, cn n nh
cho u cui di ng mt s nhn dng duy nht trong t bo (C-RNTI). Ph
thuc vo trng thi u cui, c th cn thm cc trao i bn tin.
Trong bc ba, u cui pht cc bn tin cn thit n mng bng cch
s dng cc ti nguyn c n nh trong tr li truy nhp ngu nhin ca
bc hai. Cc bn tin ng ln ny c pht ging nh s liu ng ln
c lp biu m khng cn phi gn vo tin t nh trong bc mt. Cch lm
ny em li mt s li ch sau.
Th nht, khi lng thng tin c pht khi khng c ng b
ng ln b gim thiu do phi cn mt khong thi gian bo v
ln v iu ny lm tng chi ph cho truyn dn.
Th hai, s dng s truyn dn ng ln 'bnh thng' cho
php iu chnh kch thc cho php v s iu ch theo cc
iu kin v tuyn khc nhau.
Cui cng, cho php s dng HARQ vi kt hp mm cho bn tin
ng ln. Li ch cui cng l mt nt quan trng nht l i vi
cc gii hn vng ph, v n cho php s dng nhin ln pht li
thu thp nng lng cho bo hiu ng ln m bo xc
sut truyn dn thnh cng.
Mt b phn quan trng ca bn tin ng ln l b phn cha nhn
dng u cui v nhn dng ny c s dng nh l mt phn ca c ch phn
gii xung t trong bc bn. Trng hp u cui nm trong trng thi LTE
ACTLVE, ngha l n c ni n mt t bo bit trc v v th C-RNTI
c n nh, th C-RNTI ny c s dng lm nhn dng trong bn tin ng
ln. Tri li, mt nhn dng u cui ca mng li c s dng v mng truy
nhp v tuyn cn yu cu s tham gia ca mng li trc khi tr li bn tin
ng ln trong bc 3.
1.14.4 Bc 4: Phn gii va chm:
Bc cui cng trong th tc truy nhp ngu nhin gm mt bn tin cho
phn gii xung t. Lu rng t bc th hai, nhiu u cui thc hin truy
nhp v tuyn ng thi s dng cng mt chui tin t trong bc th nht
nghe cng mt bn tin tr li trong bc th hai v v th c cng mt nhn
dng tm thi. V th, trong bc bn, mi u cui di ng nhn c bn tin
ng xung s so snh s nhn dng trong bn tin ny vi s nhn dng bn
tin c pht trong bc ba. Ch mt u cui quan trc c s ph hp gia
nhn dng nhn c trong bn tin th t vi nhn dng c pht trong bc
ba mi thng bo rng th tc truy nhp ngu nhin thnh cng. Nu u cui
cha c n nh C-RNTI, s nhn dng tm thi trong bc hai c chuyn
thnh C-RNTI, tri li u cui gi nguyn C-RNN c n nh.
Bn tin phn gii va chm c pht trn DL-SCH s dng nhn dng
tm thi t bc hai trao i thng tin vi u cui trn knh iu khin
LL/L2. V ng b ng ln c thit lp, HARQ c p dng cho
ng xung trong bc ny. u cui c s ph hp gia nhn dng c
pht trong bc ba v nhn dng trong bn tin nhn c trong bc bn s
pht cng nhn HARQ ng ln.
u cui khng tm c s ph hp gia nhn dng nhn c trong
bc bn v nhn dng c pht trong bc ba s c coi l b tht bi trong
th tc truy nhp ngu nhin v cn phi khi ng li th tc truy nhp ngu
nhin t bc th nht. Tt nhin khng c phn hi HARQ t cc u cui
ny.
1.15 Tm gi:
Tm gi c s dng thit lp mt kt ni c khi u bi mng.
Mt th tc tm gi hiu qu phi cho php u cui ng my thu khng
phi thc hin x l trong hu ht thi gian v ch thc gic trong cc khong
thi gian ngn quy nh trc gim st thng tin tm gi t mng.
Trong WCDMA, mt knh ch th tm gi ring c s dng ch th
cho u cui rng thng tin tm gi s c pht v u cui phi gim st
knh ny ti cc thi im quy nh trc. V ch th tm gi rt ngn so vi
thi gian truyn thng tin tm gi, nn cch lm ny gim thiu thi gian m
u cui phi thc.
Trong LTE, khng s dng knh ch th tm gi ring v tit kim cng
sut theo cch ny khng ng k do thi gian ca bo hiu iu khin LL/L2
ngn, nhiu nht l ba k hiu. Thay vo c ch ging nh truyn dn s
liu ng xung 'bnh thng' trn knh DL-SCH c s dng v u cui di
ng gim st bo hiu iu khin ng xung cho cc n nh lp biu ng
xung. Cc chu k DRX c nh ngha, v th u cui c th ng hu ht
thi gian v ch thc trong khong thi gian ngn gim st bo hiu iu
khin LL/L2. Nu u cui di ng pht hin nhn dng nhm c s dng
tm gi khi n thc gic, n x l bn tin tng ng c pht trn ng
xung ny. Bn tin tm gi bao gm nhn dng u cui (cc u cui) ang
c tm gi v u cui khng tm thy nhn dng ca mnh s xo thng tin
nhn c v ng theo chu k DRX. R rng rng, v nh thi ng ln
khng c bit trong cc chu k DRX, nn khng th thc hin bo hiu
ACK/NAK v v th khng th s dng HARQ vi kt hp mm cho cc bn
tin tm gi. V th tr li tm gi u cui phi thc hin th tc truy nhp
ngu nhin nh xt trn.
Chu k DRX cho tm gi c minh ha trn hnh 2.6.
Hnh 4.9 Thu khng lin tc (DRX) i vi tm gi.
1.16 Kt lun:
Ta xt cc th tc cn thit cho mt u cui di ng n c th
C th tm gi u cui
My thu UE
tt
My thu UE
tt
Chu k DRX
Khung con
truy nhp mng LTE. Hai th tc c xt l: tm t bo v truy nhp ngu
nhin.
Tm t bo l th tc m mt u cui di ng tm mt t bo tim nng
kt ni. Kt qu ca th tc ny l u cui nhn c s nhn dng v c
tnh nh thi khung ca t bo c nhn dng. Ngoi ra th tc tm t bo
cng cung cp c tnh cc thng s cn thit thu thng tin h thng trn
knh qung b, qua knh ny u cui nhn c cc thng s cn thit truy
nhp h thng.
Truy nhp ngu nhin cho php u cui gi yu cu thit lp kt ni n
mng. Kt qu ca truy nhp ny l thit lp ng b ng ln v thit lp
mt nhn dng u cui duy nht, trong mng v u cui u bit nhn
dng ny. V th truy nhp ngu nhin khng ch c s dng cho try nhp
ln u, khi chuyn t LTE DETACHED hay LTE-IDLE vo LTE AETIVB
m cn c sau cc chu k khng tch cc khi ng b ng ln b mt trong
LTE_ACTIVE.
4 CHNG 5
M PHNG
1.17 M phng