J J estrestr

Abstract Abstract

Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (2008) 53-57 Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1Review (2008) 1 53-57 Engineering Science Engineering Science and and

JOURNAL OF JOURNAL OF

Lecture Lecture Note Note

Technology Review Technology Review

Perpetual Motion Machine Perpetual Motion Machine
D. Tsaousis* D. Tsaousis *

www.jestr.org www.jestr.org

School Adviser of Natural Teachers of Ioannina8 SeferiEleoussa, street, Eleoussa, 455 00,Ioannina School Adviser of Natural ScienceScience Teachers of Ioannina8 Seferi street, 455 00,Ioannina Hellas .Hellas . Received 30 April 2008; Accepted 17 September 2008 Received 30 April 2008; Accepted 17 September 2008

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

Everthe since the first century A.D.have therebeen haverelative been relative descriptions of known devices as manufactures Ever since first century A.D. there descriptions of known devices as wellas aswell manufactures for thefor the creation of perpetual machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, the opinion creation of perpetual motionmotion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the to opinion that a that a perpetual machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of age every age and educational level appear to claim perpetual motionmotion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every and educational level appear to claim thathave they invented have invented something «entirely new» orhave they improved have improved somebody invention, that they something «entirely new» or they somebody else’s else’s invention, which which «will «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual machine till now, function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of fact the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motionmotion machine till now, does not that mean that countless historical elements for fictional these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on it doesitnot mean countless historical elements for these machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual machine the onegives hand the gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each every version of a perpetual motionmotion machine on the on one hand chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each level of knowledge and his way of thinking, the hand, other to hand, to locate the points this «perpetual period period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and onand the on other locate the points where where this «perpetual machine» clashes with theof laws of nature and why that’sitwhy it is impossible tobeen havemanufactured been manufactured or have motionmotion machine» clashes with the laws nature and that’s is impossible to have or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual machine» has excited our interest to locate its points. weak points. functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motionmotion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak According to the designer ofmachine it the machine functions with theproduced work produced the buoyant According to the designer of it the functions with the work by the by buoyant force force
Keywords: Perpetual machine, heat engine, efficiency. Keywords: Perpetual motion motion machine, heat engine, efficiency.

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Introduction 1. Introduction

website of Hans-Peter Gramatke a detailed website of Hans-Peter Gramatke there there is a is detailed presentation the known most known devices the designing of presentation of the of most devices for thefor designing of Perpetual motion machine: A machine since a perpetual motion machine with pictures, assimilated Perpetual motion machine: A machine which,which, since set in set in a perpetual motion machine with pictures, assimilated function, continues to function perpetually without movements function, continues to function perpetually without movements e.t.c. e.t.c. supplying any energy. e,is here is a plumbing – mechanic system an exampl supplying any energy. e, here a plumbing – mechanic system As an As exampl The question the perpetual motion machine with communicating of different as Fig.1, The question about about the perpetual motion machine is one is one with communicating tubes tubes of different lengthlength as Fig.1, the issues, attracts who to tend to believe contains two liquids with an important difference in of theof issues, which which attracts peoplepeople who tend believe which which contains two liquids with an important difference in strange and occultism. why ideas such ideas density e.g. water and mercury. The globules thatbe will be strange things things and occultism. That’sThat’s why such are are density e.g. water and mercury. The globules that will adopted from various non-recognized religious moving perpetually thetubes, two tubes, float in liquids. both liquids. adopted from various non-recognized religious circlescircles which which moving perpetually in the in two float in both often describe in books their books or in speeches their speeches perpetual Each globule thatupwards goes upwards because the buoyant often describe in their or in their perpetual Each globule that goes because of the of buoyant force force motion machines, however neither the left tube falls onto the wheel, because of motion machines, which which however have have neither been been in the in left tube falls onto the wheel, which which rotatesrotates because of manufactured nor have functioned. Usually the members of each globule’s momentum, while afterwards drops into the manufactured nor have functioned. Usually the members of each globule’s momentum, while afterwards drops into the these organizations the fundamental laws of physics right There tube. There the increased total weight the globules these organizations ignoreignore the fundamental laws of physics right tube. the increased total weight of the of globules and surely they arethe not the researchers who possess pushes the formed column thisanother way another globule and surely they are not researchers who possess the the pushes the formed column and inand thisin way globule knowledge to improve or generalize the laws. On the other reaches the bottom and then it rises to the surface knowledge to improve or generalize the laws. On the other reaches the bottom and then it rises to the surface of theof the it be must be stated it is not always easy to be proved the left and tube, on. if Even this device side it side must stated that it that is not always easy to be proved liquid liquid in the in left tube, soand on.so Even this if device is not is not theoretically it is impossible a manufacture to possible to function as a perpetual motion machine, theoretically that itthat is impossible for a for manufacture to possible to function as a perpetual motion machine, the the function because in each more complicated system a great factual cause seems not easy to be located. function because in each more complicated system a great factual cause seems not easy to be located. number of secondary or inconspicuous activities number of secondary or inconspicuous activities are are involved, in energy be taken involved, which which in energy issues issues shouldshould be taken into into consideration. consideration. isaalso a number great number of about ideas about perpetual There There is also great of ideas perpetual motion machines, (don’t) function with magnets, motion machines, which which (don’t) function with magnets, chemical substances or flame. The «eternal without chemical substances or flame. The «eternal light» light» without the addition ofseems fuel seems to been have cultivated been cultivated through the addition of fuel to have through the centuries mainly in religious circles. the first the centuries mainly in religious circles. Since Since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of theof the Roman military officer, politician, natural philosopher Roman military officer, politician, natural philosopher and and historian Plinius Secundus 79 A.D.). historian Gaius Gaius Plinius Secundus (23 – (23 79 – A.D.). In theIn the
______________ ______________ * E-maildtsaousis@sch.gr address: dtsaousis@sch.gr * E-mail address: ISSN: 1791-2377 © 2008 Kavalaof Institute of Technology. All rights reserved. ISSN: 1791-2377 © 2008 Kavala Institute Technology. All rights reserved. Fig..1. Perpetual machine consisting of a plumbing – mechanic Fig..1. Perpetual motion motion machine consisting of a plumbing – mechanic system system

53

but also during the machine even asGreece a theoretical later Antiquity it hasn’t been reported a motion d Astronomer The Indian Mathematician anperpetual machine not even as a theoretical version. which seem to function without not right. in center fact the during the rotation. without an irst kind of perpetual machine F input of external energy motion in any machine: form and Every without being which functions perpetually and produces work.). center but for theduring perpetual rotation. Definitions 3. which were considered as man perpetually thethe second belonged the systems which would moving mainly because they functioned with God’s will. Those occupied with such subjects would be Sciences Anyway. effort of its of imitation and sometimes are insulting.known but information disappeared. electric e.t. Definitions kind of perpetual motion machine: Every machine First which functions perpetually and produces work. to be as a recognition of divine the divine deed and an aspirations the researchers were they considered then. per heat of the air. who around 1715 presented to his 54 54 54 Fig. (hammers). perpetual motion machine the carrying Alchemists: You fictional works haven’t you with created out « your researchers of You the perpetual motion. You that had followed better make company with the more and more names of In the centuries creators of gold ». In this notebook he presents 13th century among themhas a been perpetual motion machine with masses several magnificent buildings a series of during machines. the firstinto kind. a perpetual motion Bha skaracharya (1114 – 1185) describes Astronomer The Indian and works mechanism as Fig. .God’s stars.t.57 Tsaousis/Journal Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) D. These the second category the systems man would aspirations of the belonged researchers were which considered then. but information astonished a perpetual which was states that audience it proved to be amotion great machine. There aren’t other details about this of any Middle Ages andknown Renaissance the In the bibliography subject. astonished audience a perpetual motion machine.haven’t you created carrying out your researches…. the Ondrag the other hand nowadays. but appears also during A. In this notebook he presents A notebook of Villard de Honecourt aged to the several magnificent buildings and a series ofback machines. decided not to accept suggestions about perpetual motion machines any more. we and it must overcome with the result after some know that the rotating wheel the axis due propulsion to friction rotations the energy caused by heats the initial external and must also overcome the drag with the result after some will it be consumed and so the rotation stops. which converts totally heat he same as Third kind of perpetual motion machine: T energy other type producing (mechanic. The simplest of these manufactures consists of a versions course itof didn’t constitute perpetual motion wheel in and the of perimeter which less or a more complicated machine. T idea In ofancient the perpetual motion machine for the the inhe India. which were considered as perpetually category concerned systems of the nature with (sun. had better makehow company with the fictional of works creators gold». While an impression of a perpetual arms are attached and the ofsystem mass.g. Rome. exchange of energy with their environment. perpetual motion machines are referred as: perpetuum bibliography of Middlemobile Ages and Renaissance the In the mobile naturae and perpetuum physicae. system. same as Third kindmotion of perpetual motion machine: Thebe kind would a pair Perpetual machine of first the first kind. motion dec ided not to accept suggestions aboutto perpetual Anyway. During the Renaissance De motion machine didn’t work because is a designed version or of Georgio. Greece and in Rome. system plus the change in internal energy ΔU of the system. rotations the energy caused by the initial external propulsion will be consumed and so the rotation stops. not In ancient and inversion. Leonardo da Vinci and Vittorio Zonca designed or three above-mentioned Leonardo is of the opinion that the tried to manufacture a motion perpetual motion machine. centurieswho Johann around 1715 presented to his researchers for the perpetual motion machine were added till Johann Bessler. There aren’t any other details about this states that it proved to be a great deceit and Bessler subject. perpetual atom with its electrons. before the «Inquisition» and be sentenced to death.). first in the East and to be exact in the 12th century later time Antiquity it hasn’t been reported a perpetual motion in India. It is not known whether these designs of Honecourt (hammers). which converts totally heat machine: Every Second kindtype of (mechanic. 2. con sidered a system sun – planets or every nucleus of an motion machine kind without can be Finally. Historical elements 2 Historical elements T. Thermodynamic Laws the statement of the thermodynamic laws in the middle With th of the 19 century the creation of a perpetual motion statement of the thermodynamic laws in the middle With the was machine theoretically excluded. but for sure the perpetual Bhaskaracharya’s conception. 4. in 1775 the French Academy of presented before the «Inquisition» and be sentenced death. These sometimes.D. seasons mobile naturae and perpetuum mobile physicae. without producing work. to be with a recognition of thewould divine be deed and an Those occupied such subjects presented effort of its imitation and sometimes they are insulting. energy into other machine in periodical function. we motion machine may be given visually. 2. which would use for its function the heat of the ld be every Perpetual e. The which subsequent in theside same formapparatus or in different Bhaskaracharya describes wasconstitute manufactured by a motion lot of versions and of course it didn’t a perpetual subsequent researchers in the same form or in different machine. thing which is not right. of motor – generator where the generator supplies electric every Perpetual motion machine of second kind could be energy in return for its motion without any loss. rescued. During the machine.g. Bhaskaracharya’s perpetual motion mechanism Q= ΔU + W Consists the first law of thermodynamics (1) onsists the law supplied of thermodynamics TheC quantity offirst energy to any isolated system in the form of heat Q is equal to the work W done by the The quantity of energy supplied to anyenergy isolated in system plus the change in internal Δsystem U of the the form of heat Q is equal to the work W done by the system.D. deceit and Bessler functioning for a several period of time.he idea of the perpetual motion machine appears for the first time in the East and to be exact in the 12th century A. which change the and center of mass its among them a perpetual motion machine with masses rotation. On the other hand nowadays. 3. at the in one side the wheel works nearer with the axis following words: « The machine rotates at full speed because and farther from the other side».D. without work.2. subjected to any decay as time passes as without far as an its input of external energy are in concerned. Tsaousis/Journal of of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) 53-5357 57 2. Bhaskaracharya’s perpetual motion mechanism A notebook of Villard de Honecourt aged back to the 13th century has been rescued. In of year category and so on). would use for its function the heat of the environment e. th century the creation of a perpetual motion of the 19 The equation machine was theoretically excluded. thing which is atom with its electrons. In make following as example the divine creations. motion machine may bewhich given change visually. Offield the function of a perpetual machine belongs to the three above-mentioned is of the that the of the impossible andLeonardo he identifies the opinion researchers of function of a perpetual motion machine belongs to the field perpetual motion machine with the Alchemists: « You of the impossible and he identifies themany researchers of researchers of the perpetual motion. The apparatus which the mercury is atdescribes the one side the wheel nearer axis Bhaskaracharya wasof manufactured by athe lot of and farther researchers from the other ». Renaissance De tried to manufacture a perpetual motion Of the Georgio. of motor – generator where the generator supplies electric kind would be a pair Perpetual motion of firstany energy in return for its machine motion without loss. perpetual electric motione. The first per petual motion machines are referred as: perpetuum category concerned systems of the nature (sun. which change ofsure mass its were ever accomplished or the not. While an impression of a perpetual balances at some moment. researchers for the perpetual motion machine were added till that followed more and more names of In theBessler. many conceited. wheel in the perimeter of which less or more complicated during the rotation. in fact system know that the rotating wheel heats the axis due the to friction balances at also some moment. make following example the creations. Tsaousis/Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) 53. a vehicle which wouldof move exploiting petual motion machine third kind can the be Finally. disappeared. any form and without being components and materials subjected any of decay as time passes as far as its machine: Every Secondtokind perpetual motion components and materials are concerned. The simplest of these manufactures consists of a arms are attached and which change the center of mass.c. Thermodynamic Laws 4. ma chine in periodical function. researches…. which heat of the air. seasons moving mainly because they functioned will. The equation (1) Q= ΔU + W Fig. It is not known these designs of version Honecourt motion machine didn’t whether work because it is a of were ever accomplished or not. Mathematician in one of his literary with the Bha skaracharya 1185) describes perpetual motion following words:(1114 «The – machine rotates atafull speed because mechanism one ofof his literary the the mercury as is Fig. Leonardo da Vinci and Vittorio it Zonca Bhaskaracharya’s conception. sometimes. how conceited.2. stars.D. motion machine of second kind cou environment a vehicle which would move exploiting the sys tem. which was functioning for a several period of time. The first of the year and so on).c. in 1775 the French Academy of Sciences machines any more. which seem of to third function con sidered a system sun – planets or every nucleus of an exchange of energy with their environment.

) evidently are notare solved with the predetermined rules. Because.|Qc W = Qh c| W = Qh h . one. The Carnot cycle can be thought of as the most efficient heat The Carnot cycle can be thought of as the most efficient heat engine cycle allowed by physical laws. defines the transmitted direction towards which the to the colder body. to it flows Speaking about heat. According to the second though. appear. too.|Qc| Replacing Eq 3 in the Eq 2 we have: Replacing Eq 3 in the Eq 2 we have: (3) (3) Q h − Qc e = Q h − Qc e= Q Qh h or or Qc e = 1 − Qc e = 1 − Qh Qh (4) (4) energy flow. we consider that they hold a place of axiom that is they constitute fundamental affairs. e. In 1824 the French engineer Sadi Carnot described a In 1824 the French Sadi Carnot described a reversible cyclic process engineer which. are confirmed simply principles that are deductions. researchers of every age and perpetual motion researchers every age and educational level machine. which «will function for ever invention of Executives somebody else’s. It is depends big when the on the temperatures of the two heat tanks. which is valid for every isolated system. the result confirms the second exploitation. which rules. them is true other one will be true. Some amount of heat must be exhausted a to cold heat must be about exhausted a coldspontaneously reservoir. This finding out led to the formulation of the second thermodynamic law by to the and formulation Kelvin Plank: of the second thermodynamic law by Kelvin and Plank: to extract an amount of heat from a It is impossible It is impossible to it extract of heat fromof a hot reservoir and use all to an do amount work. is equal to the difference between the two Carnot efficiency. are Firstly the rules ofare physics. So far nobody to manufacture an heat engine. The result states the Carnot efficiency depends only The result states of that the Carnot efficiency only on the temperatures the two heat tanks. Also the second thermodynamic law defining that the heat is always transmitted from the warmer defining that the heat is always from the warmer to the colder body. is the amount of heat it receives from the high temperature heat source Qh minus that one which it exhausts temperature heat sourceheat Qh that one which it exhausts h minus to the low temperature sink Q c c. The region. thereby further cooling cold region. the more profitable may be its the body whichAlso «emits» heat. tank environment. the introduced into a system going through a Carnot cycle. equal in value. cannot be transformed 100% to to another energy. A refrigerator is a heat engine which work is done on a refrigerant substance in order to in collect energy is done on a refrigerant substance in order to collect energy from a cold region and exhaust it to a higher temperature from a cold region and exhaust it to temperature region. thathave theyimproved have found something «entirely new» claiming or that they the something «entirely new» or that they have improved the invention of somebody else’s. are simply principles that deductions. of the when practical temperatures differ little. out led due to restriction set by the nature itself. squaring the cycle e. 100% we must have Tc 100% we must have Tc c = 0. which apparently are entirely unlinked. It would be 100% if the engine transformed the than whole amount would be 100% if the engine transformed the whole amount of heat to work. The statements about refrigerators applythe to air conditioners and statements about refrigerators apply to principles. result confirms theefficiency second thermodynamicAlso law. This deduction limit for the output of all the other machines. can function impossible to manufacture a refrigerator. Heat be transformed 100%law to mechanic Also cannot the second thermodynamic mechanic energy. The first the law is the application of conservation of energy Thesystem. which is absorbed byhigh the substance. 5. every isolated system. therefore universality and general acceptanceBecause. It is for the function of these machines we spend It is impossible to manufacture a refrigerator. Tsaousis/Journal of of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) 53-5357 57 The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the principle of the conservation of energy. Since most of thethat practical applications have as a cold tank the environment. is the applications have as 300º cold K. defines the direction towards which the phenomena happen spontaneously in nature. From the Eq 4 we see that the thermal efficiency of an From the Eq 4 we see that the thermal of an operating heat engine must always be lessefficiency than 100%. which is valid for principle of the conservation of energy. of these therefore the universality and the general acceptance of these principles. accomplish flow. which the axioms of physics empirical principles. The thethe gaslow equals with the net amount of heat work it absorbs that isby the gas equals with the net amount of heat it absorbs that is . "second or Clausius statement of the second law. e. the more profitable may be its exploitation. in every the measurement and the every calculation. The thermal efficiency. nature energy flow.D. Tsaousis/Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) 53. which can function without consuming energy. According to the second law though.t. which we call axioms.c. the amount of heat it receives from the substance. which which we call axioms. A heat pump is course a device which applies externalof work to extract an pump is of a device which applies external to extract amount heat from a cold reservoir andwork delivers heat toan a amount of heat a cold reservoir and delivers heatwork to a hot reservoir. Criterion of success for a perpetual motion machine Although physics has led with the two thermodynamic laws Although physicsthat has led with the two thermodynamic laws to the opinion it is impossible to manufacture a to the opinion that it is impossible to manufacture a perpetual motion machine. Suchvalue a supposed machine is which can be so used. the Carnot efficiency. the higher of the two that temperatures. (trisection Contrary to problems ofthe Euclid’s Geometry ofthe the«unsolved» acute angle. which are confirmed in every measurement and every calculation. the higher is the temperature of the body which «emits» heat.17% for the first steam engines of the seventeenth century to over 40% for the turbines used of the seventeenth century to over 40% for the turbines used in modern power plants. phenomena happen spontaneously in nature. which is impossible. This deduction is known as Carnot theorem: is known as Carnot theorem: The efficiency of a Carnot engine or Carnot efficiency Themaximum efficiency of a Carnotpossible engine or Carnot efficiency is the efficiency for a heat engine is the maximum efficiency possible for a heat engine working between two given temperatures. nature sets restrictions in the transformation of law one kind of energy sets restrictions in Heat the transformation of one kind of energy to another one. It operating heat engine must always be less 100%. and the second sets limits on the possible efficiency of the machine and determines the direction of efficiency of the machine and determines the direction of 55 55 55 − Tc T Tc Th = e h − Tc = 1 − Tc Carnot eCarnot = T = 1 − T Th Th h h (5) (5) The ratio between the work done and the amount of heat The ratio between the work done and the amount of heat introduced into a system going through a Carnot cycle. we consider that they hold a place of axiom that principles. Such a supposed idealized machine is called Carnot engine and its output constitutes the superior called Carnot engine and itsother output constitutes the superior limit for the output of all the machines. However for the function of these machines we spend energy. which energy. isisothermal equal to the difference between the two temperatures of the steps of the cycle divided by temperatures of the steps of the cycle divided by the higher of the twoisothermal temperatures. from a high Speaking heat.) which evidently are not solved with the predetermined e. whichcenters «will function for ever henceforth» in research and educational henceforth» Executives in research centers and educational institutions very often face persistent visitors with ideas of institutions very often face persistent visitors with ideas of perpetual motion machines. body It is form" not possible for heat to flow from a colder is not possible for heat to flow having from abeen colder body to aIt warmer body without any work done to to a warmer body without any work having been done to accomplish this flow. of the heat engine is defined as The thermal efficiency. squaring cycle Geometry (trisection of the acute angle. If one of apparently are entirely unlinked. efficiency the limiting on the idealized fraction of the heat.17% first steam engines has increased from 0. The work produced by produced to temperature heat sink Q c. which embody the same principles. It is proved that the Carnot efficiency is: It is proved that the Carnot efficiency is: It is interesting to note that the efficiency of steam It ishas interesting note that for thethe efficiency ofengines steam engines increasedto from 0. All engines exploitmanaged only a part of the heat such and an engine. In order to have Carnot efficiency = 0. which is absorbed by the The netisamount of heat Q. of the heat engine is defined as work done during one cycle W e = work done during one cycle = W e = heat added during one cycle = Qh heat added during one cycle Qh h (2) (2) The net amount of heat Q. If one of them is true the other one will be true. This finding out led to the "second form" or Clausius statement of the second law. The temperature object to a consumption lower temperature object. work. the In order to have Carnot thermodynamic law. that is the temperature of about thethe higher is the temperature of temperature of about 300º K. which don’t need to is constitute fundamental affairs. it flows spontaneously from a high temperature object to a lower temperature object.57 D. claiming that of they have found educational level appear. the heat and they exhaust a engines notable amount of heat to the they exhaust afailures notableof amount of heat to to the environment. The two this forms of the second thermodynamic law. thereby further cooling thea higher cold region. The Carnot engine cycle allowed by physical The Carnot efficiency sets the limiting value on the laws. which . reversible cyclic process which. too. Some amount hot reservoir and use itto all doreservoir. Tsaousis/Journal Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) D. was called Carnot Cycle. are equal in value. working between two given temperatures.c. It is big when temperature difference is great and it is very small when the the temperature greatSince and it most is very small the temperaturesdifference differ a is little. which The two forms of the second are thermodynamic law. All exploit only a part of environment. which embody the same However heat pumps. Contrary to the «unsolved» of Euclid’s be proved. problems which don’t need to be they proved. in modern power plants. first law is the of conservation energy to the and theapplication second sets limits on theof possible to the system. which can sets be so used. Firstlymotion the rules of physics. So far nobody managed to manufacture such of to work. A from refrigerator is a heat engine in which hot reservoir. Criterion of success for a perpetual motion machine 5. air conditioners and heat pumps. which is impossible. A heat reverse demands consumption energy. The repeated the researchers manufacture a The repeated failures of the researchers to manufacture a «perfect» heat engine which would transform completely the «perfect» heat engine which would transform the heat to available work convinced us that this completely incapability is heat torestriction available work thatThis this finding incapability is due to set byconvinced the nature us itself. fraction of the heat. perpetual machines.t. the axioms of physics are empirical principles. The reverse course demands of energy. was called Carnot Cycle. This finding out led to the without consuming energy.

Tsaousis/Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) 53. is consumed also work for the submersion of the parallelepipeds in the container equal with nW2 in order to overcome force the F because hydrostatic pressure. (8) (9) A Fig. therefore. 6. overcoming the force caused by pressure Therefore the kinetic energy of the disc is not altered. since as much work is produced so much is consumed.2 Description of the machine The perpetual motion machine that we are examining is composed of a circular disc to which we have adapted weightless n parallelepipeds. That is if it does what its manufacturer claims. that can’t function. The discussion on any version of perpetual motion machine gives the opportunity on the one hand to comprehend the level of knowledge and the way of thinking of the researchers of each period and on the other hand. that is F = PS And the consumed work will be: W1 = FL or W1 = PSL at last W1 = dghV (7) (6) If we let the parallelepiped to rise to the surface of the liquid a work will be produced due to the buoyant force: or W2 = dgVh W2 = Ah From the Eq 7 and 8 the result is that W 1 = W2 6. On the bottom of the container there is a parallelepiped of negligible length as in fig. We are going to calculate the work produced during the shift to length L. But because of Eq 9 we have nW1 = nW2 (10) L S h F Fig. Of course. A circular disc. is false-scientific. until the parallelepiped acquires volume V. Work produced by F. During the rotation of the disc the parallelepipeds can pass from the lower part of a container which is filled with a liquid via a suitable mechanism so that the liquid cannot slop away. the fact that up to now (and with all certainty in the predictable future) failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine doesn’t mean that the countless historical elements for these fictional machines are vain.57 D. which we prove theoretically.g. such as the discussed free energy and so on. but whether it functions. Motive for the following analysis was a new effort of manufacturing a perpetual motion machine.57 perhaps some time will be proved to be of limited validity in space or in time.D. 56 56 . is rotating while a part of it is submerged in a container filled with a liquid. which is in the container at a depth h. Thus. which are considered obvious today. According to the designer the buoyant force is exerted on the parallelepipeds when they are in the liquid and so the buoyant force will be the moving force for the production of energy. criterion of success for a machine is not whether it obeys the 1st or the 2nd law of physics or not. 4. On the one side. 4. Theoretical introduction Supposing we have a container filled with a liquid of density d. as fig. With this criterion we are in position to declare in advance that till today a perpetual motion machine hasn’t been materialized despite the countless efforts. every claim that a «new scientific theory proves» the possibility of function of perpetual motion machines e. From the other side. however. F In fact for each rotation of the disk the buoyant force A produces a work equal with nW1. 6. 3. to locate the points in which this «perpetually moving machine» clashes with the natural laws and that’s why it has been impossible to be manufactured or be in function. we have with absolute certainty the repetition of the same results in an enormous number of measurements and calculations. the free surface of which is at a height h from the bottom. theoretical and constructional ones.1. of a side with area S of the elementary parallelepiped of null initial volume. That is to say that the machine does not produce any energy. For each rotation. Tsaousis/Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) 53. The force F that we will apply should be so much that would be able to overcome the force caused by the pressure at the depth h. to which we have adapted n weightless parallelepipeds. The error of the designer of the particular machine is that he did not take into consideration the force F because of the hydrostatic pressure and the work that will be consumed for the submersion of the parallelepipeds in the container. And on the other side in science there is the possibility of subversion or as it is usually happens the extensions and generalization of some deductions. with the introduction of new concepts. A perpetual motion machine which «functions» with buoyant force There have been a lot of efforts to manufacture a perpetual motion machine concerning the production of work with the use of the buoyant force. which are unknown in physics. 3.

frictions. Fig. Physics. although although don’t don’t function.org/htdocs/perpetual/torus. So So we we manufactured manufactured a a perpetual perpetual motion motion machine machine based based on the design of fig. 6. Fig..html 6. Issue II. energy. 5. The The result result was was astonishing. Lessons of General Physics. chain.Pittas A. and express the view that the machine will rotate. School Adviser of of English English Teachers. The The stems stems of of the the Arabian Arabian Perpetuum Perpetuum Mobile Mobile which which fold fold only only towards towards the the one one direction direction were were replaced replaced by by parts parts of of a a bicycle bicycle chain. D.5. D. http://www. ______________________________ ______________________________ References References 4. Note: Note: The The present present version version is is an an inept inept translation translation of of the the original Greek manuscript.. At At the the nodes nodes we we have have tied tied up up nylon nylon joints joints so so that that the the chain chain can can fold fold only only towards towards one one side side as as it it shown shown in in fig fig 7.5. Introduction in Physics. by by no no means. who who based based on on its its not not functioning.. I. Plexiglas. After After discussion discussion they they understand understand their their error. them. 2. Ikomomou N. fig. Introduction in Physics.57 D. energy. Ikomomou N.htm 6. Marketou Pilarinou Maria. Our manufacture version of Bhaskaracharya’s machine. not.. machine. but but to to help help the the students. Thessaloniki (1968).html 1. & Marinou D. 7. Issue I. http://www. Οικονόμου Ν.. laws. machines. Our manufacture is is shown shown in in the the fig. 7. Form B of the Senior High School. Raptis S. 2. 7. Issue I.. Athens (1980). Thermodynamics. We We thought thought then then to to materialize materialize some some design design of of such such a a machine. Physics.org/htdocs/perpetual/torus. 6. 5.com/historia/parart089. Arabian Perpetuum Mobile.richardclegg.com/historia/parart089. Tsaousis/Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) 53. result after a little time it stops. Marketou Pilarinou Maria. Tsaousis/Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) 53. Some Some of of these these machines. 6. Fig. Thessaloniki (1968). http://sfrang.57 In In the the whole whole analysis analysis we we made made we we did did not not include. & Marinou D. into English. Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments: We We wish wish to to thank thank our our collaborator collaborator in in this this work. Georgiou Georgiou Athanasios. Athens 3. 1. http://sfrang. for for his his help help in in translating translating the the initial initial Greek Greek essay essay into English. Senior High School. Ntanos I. astonishing. and and so so they they consolidate consolidate their their knowledge knowledge on on the the law law of of conservation conservation of of energy. Picture of our perpetual motion machine. However However frictions frictions exist exist and and they they will will consume consume any any initial initial kinetic kinetic energy energy we we give give to to the the disc disc with with result after a little time it stops. Thermodynamics. which describes the Arabian on the design of fig. although although they they have have been been taught taught the the conservation conservation of of energy. Tsaousis/Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 1 (2008) 53. students. Ioannou A. Issue II. which which were were adapted adapted on on a a disc disc made made of of Plexiglas. I. consolidate the conservation of energy and and validity validity of of the the two two thermodynamic thermodynamic laws. which describes the Arabian perpetual perpetual motion motion machine machine (Arabian (Arabian Perpetuum Perpetuum Mobile) Mobile) which which is is a a version of Bhaskaracharya’s machine. means. 7. Aleksopoulou K. 6. 6. Fig. 6. 57 5757 . Ioannou A. Lessons of General Physics.htm 5. Our Our perpetual perpetual motion motion machine machine The The study study we we have have done done for for the the perpetual perpetual motion motion machines machines gave gave us us the the opportunity opportunity to to see see some some designs designs and and conceptions conceptions of of them. function. Thessaloniki (1967). consolidate the conservation of energy functioning.. Aleksopoulou K.Pittas A. not with purpose to research whether this machine works works or or not. Picture of our perpetual motion machine. which is a version of Fig. . not with purpose to research whether this machine machine. original Greek manuscript. Athens. 3. Ntanos I.richardclegg. Details concerning fig. Fig. . which is a version of Arabian Perpetuum Mobile. error. impressed us for the imagination of their designers. Physics. Issue I. 5. (2000). frictions. Raptis S. (1980). Arabian Perpetuum Mobile. (2000). Form B of the 4. Teachers.. Thessaloniki (1967). Issue I. Οικονόμου Ν. impressed us for the imagination of their designers. 7.D. We We were were also also occupied occupied with with the the educational educational use use of of such such a a machine..57 D. Physics.. Details concerning fig. include. Athens. School Adviser work. The The students students are are influenced influenced and express the view that the machine will rotate. Arabian Perpetuum Mobile. Athanasios.