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– Black & Veatch Abstract
The construction of new treatment plants and expansion or rehabilitation of existing facilities including collection/distribution networks, often involves new pipeline installation. Open trenching (direct burial) is, more often than not, the preferred method of pipe installation. However, the open trench method creates significant disturbance, especially in urban areas, and might not be feasible due to difficult ground conditions, existing underground utilities and structures, environmental sensitivities, and the presence of river, railroad, or highway crossings. Because of these constraints, decision makers (facility owners, planners, and engineers alike), must be aware of the trenchless technologies available as alternatives to open trench pipe installation. This paper is intended to introduce three of the most widely used trenchless technologies commonly used in the water industry: 1. 2. 3. Pipe Jacking & Microtunneling, Horizontal Auger Boring (HAB), and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD).
The discussion will include general design approaches and comparisons of method selection criteria, the optimum conditions for which each method is applicable, cost estimate ranges (2009 $) for each construction method (main components), and the pros and cons for each trenchless alternative will be outlined.
Most underground utilities in North America were installed in Canada and the United States during the 1950s and 1960s postwar construction boom. This period witnessed the rapid development of extensive underground systems for water, sewer, gas and power utilities. These systems, constructed in greenfields and the sparsely built-up environment, presented few impediments to large-scale open trenching. (McKim, 1997)
Over time, these systems have deteriorated and now need extensive rehabilitation. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimates that it will cost $1.3 trillion over the next five years just to maintain the current underground infrastructure system. Extensive rehabilitation will be even more expensive, and since open-cut construction is the preferred method, approximately 70-percent of the costs will simply be spent replacing the ground dug up from this process (Najafi and Gokhale, 2005). In response to these costs, a different approach to rehabilitating and replacing underground infrastructure has emerged. Referred to as “trenchless technology”, it is defined as ‘‘techniques for utility line installation, replacement, rehabilitation, renovation, repair, inspection, location and leak detection, with minimum excavation from the ground surface” (North American Society for Trenchless Technology - NASTT). These technologies should provide significant cost savings over traditional open-cut methods (Najafi and Gokhale, 2005). Because of the minimal surface disturbance, it appears the trenchless technology approach will be less expensive than traditional open-cut methods. However, since trenchless technologies are fairly new, few studies have compared trenchless method costs to open-cut method costs, and even fewer studies have been conducted using realworld case histories. Many utility providers have a huge investment in underground pipelines, cables and conduits and are interested in installing new pipelines at minimum cost. There is an increasing awareness of the cost-effectiveness of renovating or maintaining an already expensive 'hole-in-the-ground' utility. Many of these utility providers require conduits too small for man entry and conventional tunneling techniques are not applicable. Pipeline diameters up to 3 feet represent 99% of all underground pipeline infrastructure. Traditional open-cut excavation methods for installing,
Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. “the Hole”
in particular very wet ground) in which it can operate effectively in its standard form. open-cutting may require exotic (and expensive) ground control measures to prevent trench wall collapse given an adverse water regime. to the launch shaft or pit. The trench should be excavated to provide 6-inches to 8-inches clearance on each side of the pipe and the trench bottom should be graded to provide uniform bearing and pipe support. Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. the true social costs and environmental impacts of such disruptions are frequently not taken into account. Most of the extra costs for open cuts are associated with maintenance of traffic.S. existing utility support and site restoration among other site-specific issues. or a combination of the two methods may be required.renovating or maintaining services are often disruptive and uneconomical. steel sheet piling or other similar methods and in an urban environment. marketplace for pipeline replacement are as follows: 1. spoils storage. Spoil is placed into muck skips for removal as it exits the casing pipe. 6. an auger string established within the casing pipe. Rotating the helical auger string within the casing pipe allows the cutter head to excavate the ground at the face. 5. slide rail shoring systems. with spoil being removed back along the auger string within the casing pipe. stepping and sloping trench sidewalls is often prohibitive due to space restriction.g. 3. Trench excavations in urban environments are usually supported by trench boxes. and safety requirements. The technique is normally found to be cheaper than full microtunneling or pipe jacking but does have limitations on the range of ground conditions (e. and takes more time to complete than the trenchless alternative. “the Hole” . The cutter head is driven by. In extreme circumstances. Excavated open cut trenches should generally be at least 12-inches wider (but not more than 16-inches wider) than the outside diameter of the pipe being installed. This utility provider disruptive-accountability has resulted in an ever increasing demand for pipeline installation and rehabilitation methods without the need for trenching and have led to 'no-dig' or trenchless technology. 2. 8. Horizontal Auger Boring (HAB) –Horizontal Auger Boring is a technique for bored casing pipe installation and the product pipe or services are installed within the casing pipe as required. 4. groundwater control methods consisting of sump-pumping. Various excavation support systems are used based on the Contractor’s means and methods. 9. the auger diameter just below the full diameter of the casing to allow auger rotation. The open cut method is not as simple as digging a hole. the depth of trench. . equipment access. but with special adaptation HAB can operate in most ground including rock. and is positioned at the lead end of. Depth limits are dependent on the size of the launch shaft/pit excavation and the practical length of pipe that can be installed given the pit dimensions. Tunneling Pipe Jacking Microtunneling Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Guided Boring Horizontal Auger Boring (HAB) Water Jetting Impact Moling Pipe Bursting Open Cut Open cut construction can be used as a potential option for new pipeline installation but compared to trenchless methods. Depending upon the groundwater levels in the open cut excavation. open cut in a dense urban area is often more costly. The trenchless technology methods commonly employed in the U. 7. more disruptive. The HAB is an excavation technique employing the use of a rotating auger string/flight fitted with a cutter head. localized dewatering.
Equipment capabilities have improved. The excavation and thrust process is repeated in this way until the drive length required is completed with the arrival of the cutter head at the reception pit. usually operated by a single operator using controls on the body of the machine. When the auger boring machine reaches the end of its stroke. The cutter head excavates the ground and removes spoil to the start pit for manual or mechanical removal. Generally. the product pipe is attached to the reamer by means of a swivel connector. The cutter head is at the head of this auger flight. on the line and level required for the casing installation. The drill path may be straight or gradually curved. depending on the ground conditions and project requirements. or from the surface by setting the machine to drill into the ground at a shallow angle. A new length of pipe is positioned with its own auger flight in place. They are designed for the installation of casing pipes from about 4. cables or drainage system can be installed within the casing pipe as required. The installation process requires a launch pit dimensioned to allow the installation and auger boring machine operation and accommodate the required pipe length. welding to create the total pipe length required is not a problem. and the advantages of trenchless technology for new construction have become more widely appreciated. The product pipe(s). although experienced and skilled operators can achieve good accuracy where conditions permit. A pilot hole is first drilled along the required path using position-monitoring equipment to provide the steering information. or duct. and as the technology progresses. Installation of the product pipe. both in the power and diameter of installation available and in the wider range of ground conditions that can be bored. rock boring capability is improving. As the casing pipe is generally manufactured from steel. HAB systems are usually diesel or hydraulically driven and are used for non-displacement boring operations. on a precise line and level if necessary. Some systems have been developed that allow for some limited cutter head or casing pipe steering capability to counter minor line and grade deviations as they occur.. Some systems have been designed to handle softer rock formations with the use of a special cutter head. During the final ‘pullback’ stage. High water table and flowing ground conditions do cause auger boring problems as the auger flight is not generally a sealed system and the augers can not prevent ground loss from the face. Using the correct type of drilling rig. The first casing pipe length is positioned at the head of the machine with its auger flight already installed. and the direction of the drilling head can be adjusted at any stage during the initial pilot bore to steer around obstacles or under highways.to 72-inch diameter over distances of up to 600 feet. (ISTT. The auger boring machine rotates the auger flight and the cutter head as the machine thrusts forwards along the track or rack and pinion arrangement. The drive is completed with the withdrawal of the auger flight string from within the casing pipe and the casing cleaned out of all remaining spoil leaving only the casing pipe in the ground. ducts and cables. and the bore is then backreamed. 2006). the casing pipe is released and the machine is withdrawn to its original starting point. in a single or multistage operation to a larger diameter to accommodate the product pipe. bores can be between pre-excavated launch and reception pits. rivers or railways. is usually a two-stage operation. the auger flights are connected together to drive the cutter head and the pipe ends welded to form a continuous pipe length. The auger boring machine. governed by the length of the track/rack arrangement. The system is normally applied soft-ground conditions such as clay soils and soils with contained cobbles.The system is normally an unguided technique and is not generally used for installations requiring very high accuracy for line and level. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) techniques are used for the trenchless installation of new pipelines. is set up on tracks or a rack and pinion system. drilling machines and guidance systems have acquired guidance accuracy to meet close tolerances and the HDD technique will become increasingly popular for gravity pipelines requiring tight grade parameters. As the HDD technology is refined. and is pulled into the enlarged bore as the drill string is withdrawn. “the Hole” . Some utility companies now have a presumption against open-cut techniques Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs.
and then to back-ream to the required diameter while pulling in the conduit behind the reamer. Typically. The fluid may power a down-hole mud-motor for cutting rock and other hard formations. A beacon is usually built into the head or fixed close to it. There are Guidance-assist systems which are used to create a localized magnetic field in the bore area to override natural magnetic and electrical fields in areas where metallic structures or in-ground features interfere with normal transmitter signals.. the relative cost of HDD has fallen to below that of trenching for many applications. and then pulls it and the product pipe through the bore during the back reaming operation. for example) or where the bore depth is too great for location by radio-frequency methods. and other guidance parameters to be monitored. even ignoring the social costs of traffic disruption and delay. which pushes the drill string through the ground to bore the pilot hole. depth. Surface-launched rigs are often track-mounted and can be moved into position under their own power and while they do not require starter or reception pits to install pipe. Pit launched machines are generally intended to drill fairly straight. drill heads. the inclination of the rack on a surface launched rig can be adjusted between about 10° and 20° to the horizontal. Hard-wire guidance systems with cable running through the drill string are used. There are two broad categories of machines. On completion of the pilot bore. The second feature is a motor and drive system to rotate the drill string (together with the attached bore head or back-reamer) and provide rotational torque. the thixotropic mud stabilizes the hole for back reaming. but not all. which may limit their ability to steer. this can improve significantly the ability of HDD machines to punch through difficult ground or hard inclusions. using a drilling fluid to assist the cutting operation and to lubricate and cool the cutting head. Pit-launched machines are fixed in position within the launch pit. Either way. Some systems are designed for dry operation without the use of large quantities of water or drilling fluids. A Bentonite/ polymer additive/ water mix used as the drilling fluid carries bore debris in suspension and may be filtered through a recycling system. There are two essential features of any guided boring machine. Pit-launched machines require an excavation at each end of the bore. and signals emitted are traced by a receiver on the surface. The service pipe or duct. so constant rotation of the drill string produces a straight bore. surface-launched and pit-launched. in cases where the bore path cannot readily be traced on the surface (across rivers. The dimensions of the excavation restrict the length of individual sections of drill pipe. excavation is required to make end connections and some above-grade pipe may be wasted. Surface-launched rigs have some form of stake-down system to Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. In recent years however the smaller end of the surface launch rig market has created a range of machines that are now often used where pit-launch rigs would usually be the main choice. Some of the more compact machines can work from an excavation only slightly larger than needed to make the joint after installation. Apart from the obvious environmental benefits of trenchless installation. to large machines capable of installing well over a kilometer of large diameter pipe and an extensive range of bore guidance systems. reamers and accessories is available. traffic lanes or railway lines. much of the work is done by the rotation of the drill string. it is normal practice to drill a smaller pilot hole. The drill head is usually angled. HDD machines use a fluid-assisted drill head that is pushed on the end of a string of drill pipes. Manufacturers are numerous and offer a variety of equipment. In the case of larger HDD machines.(particularly in roads) where a no-dig alternative is available. generally high-density polyethylene or steel. whereas keeping the head in one position causes the line to deviate. allowing the direction. but may be operated in restricted spaces. is drawn in behind the final reamer. An increasingly common feature is percussive action to complement axial force and rotation. These are commonly known as Walk-over systems and recently developed walkover guidance systems now have the capacity to capture signals in situations where access is unavailable above the transmitter such as river crossings. in which case higher fluid flow rates are necessary. using the rear and front faces of the excavation to provide reaction to the thrust and pullback forces. This can be achieved either with a percussive hammer at the boring head. The first is a powered rack. and the torque of the unit is as vital a statistic as the axial thrust and pullback. ranging from compact rigs for small diameters and short lengths. Most. and often use stiffer drill pipe than surface launched systems. As with smaller rigs. “the Hole” . or by generating the percussion at the machine on the surface and transmitting it along the drill string. and this may influence the speed of installation and the cost of the drill pipe.
Alternatively. Percussion may be transmitted through the drill string by a hammer integrated into the drilling rig.anchor them to the ground. The capabilities of HDD machines vary considerably according to the type of ground. including hole-openers for reaming in rock. having on-board mixing tanks and pumps for the drilling fluid. In this technique instead of utilizing a mechanical cutter for ground excavation at the boring head. Some machines utilize a double pipe drill rod to enable a rock cutting head to be used for advancing the bore whilst the second rod applies the steering corrections. The fluid. the concept is not unlike an impact mole on the end of hollow drill pipes which also act as the pneumatic feed. Thrust and pull back capability now runs between 3. dry boring machines use a high-frequency pneumatic hammer at the bore head to penetrate and compact the ground for the pilot bore. The fluid is pumped through the hollow drill string to the bore-head. The angled head allows for steering adjustments in the same way as with FluidAssisted Boring. or in some cases by a pneumatic hammer at the bore-head. The fluid is passed down the drill string under a pressure much higher than that used for Fluid-Assisted Boring and is projected forward out of the end of the angled cutting head in such a way as to dislodge the ground ahead of the drill string. the chisel head in front of the hammer is angled. HDD in hard ground is done by percussive action in conjunction with forward thrust and rotation. allowing the bore to be steered by stopping the rotation at a particular orientation. Standard machines without percussive action or mud motors are generally unsuitable for penetrating rock or hard inclusions. some systems are designed for dry operation. The expander is fitted Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. In this respect. and returns through the space between the drill string and the walls of the bore. convey waste material back to the launch pit and stabilize the bore. Installations are possible over distances of up to 4. even on smaller machines. is pumped into a recycling/cleaning unit for separation and re-use. duct or cable installation (up to about 2. This capacity range makes it possible to install pipe diameters from as little as 2 inches with the small rigs up to as much as 48 inches with the largest rigs. together with associated power supplies.500 feet. As with fluid-assisted systems. but is not intended for drilling through solid rock or large masses or very hard material such as concrete. especially surface-launched machines. Instead of relying entirely on thrust and rotation generated at the rig. incorporate an automatic drill pipe loading system in which the lengths of drill pipe are contained in a carousel or on-board storage rack and are automatically added or removed from the drill string as boring or back-reaming progresses. For small diameter pipe. This usually operates in conjunction with an automatic vise arrangement which screws drill pipes together or unscrews during back-reaming. a series of high-pressure fluid jets are used. and most have particular design features claimed to enhance performance. This system is less widely used than Fluid-Assisted Boring and tends to be more applicable to softer ground suited to excavation by the high pressure jets. since it speeds up installation. Most reamers are bullet shaped with an arrangement of tungsten carbide teeth and fluid jets. a coneshaped reamer with tungsten-carbide cutting teeth may be connected directly to the drill rods. Some surface-launched machines are self-contained. The jets may be of water or a drilling fluid mix. improves safety and reduces manpower requirements. The pullback capacity range of surface launched HDD machines have widened immensely since the introduction of the first rigs some 25 years ago. homogeneous clays are the most favorable soils. Special designs are available for difficult ground conditions. the stake-down system may be hydraulically powered. Automatic pipe handling has become increasingly common. sand can present problems especially if it is below the water table or is not selfsupporting. Fluid Jet Boring has one basic difference from that shown above. In general.5 t up to 600 t . Drilling rigs. “the Hole” . mixed with the excavated material. Percussion allows improved penetration and directional control in stony soils or weak rock. Gravel can be penetrated at the expense of accelerated wear to the bore-head. On the more sophisticated machines. separate fluid mixing and pumping units can be provided.5 inches diameter) using dry methods. Both surface-launched and pitlaunched versions are available. The choice of back reaming tools and accessories is wide. and dry boring machines tend to be more compact and simpler than most fluidassisted rigs. While most guided boring machines use a drilling fluid to lubricate the bore-head. The rear of the reamer has a coupling to which a towing head can be attached for pulling in the product pipe. valves and control systems.
which are used to tailor the properties of the drilling fluid to suit the soil conditions and the nature of the project. sondes. This helps to moisten and loosen the soil. For example. and can increase productivity in dry soil conditions. If agitated again. To stabilize the bore prior to back reaming. and may not be appropriate for sands and gravels at bore diameters above about 3 inches. it is best suited to compressible. The expander is rotated and pulled back to enlarge the bore. and reamers. and should perhaps be described as guided/impact moling. 4. but forms a gel if allowed to stand. Drill pipes must have sufficient longitudinal strength to withstand the thrust and pullback forces. Most drilling machine manufacturers offer their own proprietary brands of drill pipes. In addition to simple water/bentonite fluids. Dry boring is essentially a displacement technique. the air supply for the reaming hammer is conveyed through the drill string. is the main agent in expanding the bore. Both fluid-assisted and dry boring methods have their merits in appropriate conditions. a pneumatically powered reaming hammer may be used. enough torsional stiffness to cope with the rotational torque. Drilling fluids have several functions: 1. and it requires more equipment involving mudfilled excavations and disposal or recycling of materials. and there are also specialist companies producing a variety of alternatives. but a mixture of Bentonite and water is the most common type of drilling fluid or mud. and high velocity airflow helps to clean out the bore during back reaming. especially in granular soils. Obviously. Fluid-assisted boring has greater ground condition versatility. 3. with the pipe attached to the rear using a swivel connector and some form of towing head. but sufficiently high to prevent significant loss into the ground. the viscosity should be low enough to flow through the system at reasonable pressures. and it may be unnecessary to use anything more sophisticated for short bores of small diameter through good ground. maximum diameters. Screw joints are most commonly used. it reverts to a fluid. although bayonet fittings are found with some systems. the mud helps to provide lubrication between the product pipe and the walls of the bore. drill pipes for pit launched machines are often between 3 and 5 feet in length. rather than the pullback force of the machine. again with the pipe string attached to the rear of the device by means of a swivel. To lubricate and/or cool the cutting head and reduce wear. but solidifies to stabilize the bore once drilling stops. fed through the drill string. Water/polymer mist lubrication can be used during both pilot boring and back reaming. The percussive effect of the reaming hammer. “the Hole” . During back reaming. resisting damage due to abrasion and scoring. there are polymer-based materials and a wide range of additives. especially if the rig incorporates an automatic drill pipe handling system. 2. The length of individual pipes depends on the type of drilling machine and the space available. They should be as light as possible to facilitate transportation and handling. meaning that it remains fluid as long as it is being pumped or agitated. 5. To convey excavated material in suspension back to the launch pit. Bentonite is clay with thixotropic properties. self-supporting soils. and reduces soil regression and friction.with air jets. To lubricate the product pipe during back reaming and insertion. The simplest drilling fluid is water. it is important to ensure that the drill pipes are wholly compatible with the drilling machine. and no rotation is required during back reaming. Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. To power mud motors for drilling through hard ground. Typically. surface launched rigs will use pipes up to 12 or 15 feet long. To soften the ground so that it is easier to drill through. The material acts as a lubricant and carrier during the drilling operation. and yet be flexible enough to negotiate changes of direction in the course of the bore. The risk of surface heave should also be considered. An intermediate technique between fluid-assisted and dry boring is to incorporate a water/polymer mist lubrication system into the airflow of a dry boring machine. As with the pneumatic hammer used for the pilot bore. As such. 6. and also with other components such as bore-heads. For the dry installation of pipe diameters up to 10 inches.
which may be an important consideration for potable water pipes that have to be sterile. Pipe jacking and microtunneling are normally used for main line or trunk pipelines. which are specially designed to withstand the jacking forces likely to be encountered during installation. especially when dealing with difficult ground conditions. Modern technology has. This system is normally for smaller diameter and/or shorter bore lengths such as branch and/or lateral pipeline connections. including pilot tube microtunneling. and again advice should be sought from experienced contractors or manufacturers. pumping. Swivel connectors are an essential component during the back reaming and pipe pulling operation. “the Hole” . One function of directional drilling towing heads is to prevent the ingress of drilling fluid or debris into the product pipe. form the final pipeline once the excavation operation is completed. Microtunneling is specifically defined as being a steerable remote-controlled shield for installing a pipejack with an internal diameter less than that permissible for man-entry. particularly on longer length. and should be designed to prevent the entry of mud and debris to the bearings. through soft or stiff. One of the most common applications is for gravity sewers. 2006). as with larger pipe jacking installations. Most manufacturers of drilling machines have their own recommendations on the most suitable fluids for particular applications. where not only is the line and level critical but the depth is such that the techniques tend to become more cost-effective when compared with open-cut installation. enabled these methods to be applied to a wide range of ground conditions from water-charged sands and gravels. dry or water-charged clays and mudstones. The pipes. (ISTT. This is an area where specialist guidance should be sought. are essentially from the same family of pipeline installation techniques and can be used for installations from about 120 mm diameter upwards. and pilot tube systems are well suited to situations where a pipeline has to conform to rigid line and level criteria. A pipejack is defined as a system of directly installing pipes behind a shield machine by hydraulic jacking from a drive shaft. and therefore resist the temptation to increase the load for higher productivity. Models are available with capacities from less than 5 to over 200 tons. Other important ancillary equipment may include butt-fusion machines for jointing polyethylene pipe. including pressure tight heads and versions aimed specifically at directional drilling. Not only do breakaway connectors reduce the risk of inadvertent damage. The design of mixing. larger Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. and one which plays a major part in the success of projects. such that the pipes form a continuous string in the ground. Some contractors use breakaway connectors to protect the product pipe. since the guidance and control systems allow accurate installation within close limits of the target. pipe support rollers and cable pullers. and advice is also available from the manufacturers of the materials. filtration and recycling plant is also a major consideration. Pilot Auger systems are a type of hybrid between a directional drilling system and a traditional microtunneling system where a drill string is used to bore a pilot hole on a line and level monitored and controlled normally using a laser theodolite aimed at a target situated just behind the boring head. especially for large-scale projects.The formulation of drilling fluids is a complex science in its own right. there is also a psychological effect on operators who are aware that the permissible pulling force cannot be exceeded. The connectors have a series of pins designed to break under a predetermined load. although increasingly in recent years various companies have developed guidance systems that enable curved drives to be completed. both laser guidance and normal survey techniques can also be utilized. there are numerous accessories and ancillaries that play an important part in the success of a guided boring or directional drilling project. to solid rock. Various types of towing heads for polyethylene pipes are available. Microtunnelers often use a laser guidance system to maintain the line and level of the installation. Pipe Jacking & Microtunneling Pipe jacking and microtunneling. Most microtunneling drives are straight between shafts. though. Pipejacking. and are set according to the permissible tensile load on the product pipe. Although most attention is focused on major items of equipment. The bore is reamed using an auger string used to expand the bore after the pilot bore has been completed and the pipe is jacked into position once this ream is finished. in recent years.
emptied and returned before the drive is continued. when rotated. The first requirement for a pipejack. There is also a system which utilizes a hydraulically controlled sealing door to limit the ground removed during excavation. alignment systems based on. The Pilot Bore part of the process is completed using a laser theodolite-based steering system to maintain line and level of the cutter head. and normally requires a Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. bores in a straight line. The cutter head on the pilot drill string is an angled rotating head which. can be recovered without difficulty. In the cutter chamber the slurry mixes with the excavated ground. because of the curvature of the tunnel. The slurry system has the advantage of being continuous. Under such conditions excavation is carried out using a rotating cutter head. or auger casings in the case of Pilot Tube microtunneling. Initially the jacking frame is established in the shaft bottom with the drill string aligned closely to the required line and level of the finished pipeline. Several different excavation techniques are used in pipe jacking. As these shafts are not normally used for jacking operations there is no need for abnormally high strengths or thrust walls. gyroscopic devices or moving laser systems may be used as an alternative to the more usual laser equipment. The auger feeds spoil to a muck skip positioned beneath the jacking frame in the start shaft. For the excavation of the ground within the pipejack. The dimensions of this shaft should be such that the pipe jacking or microtunneling shield. a closed face shield is generally required. the slurry is pressurized to a level required to maintain face support. to meet the specification required at the face. for example. Where. or by limiting the amount of broken ground taken from the cutter chamber. in which pumps are used to discharge the slurry. The Pilot Auger Microtunneling system is a type of hybrid between HDD and standard microtunneling. a recirculating slurry system is used. but relies on a cutting rim on the leading edge of the shield to loosen the ground. If necessary. Two predominant systems of spoil removal are employed at the smaller diameters associated with microtunneling.. cutter boom or rotating cutter-head arrangement. When held at a certain angle the bias of the angled head allows steering to take place. with spoil removal being completed using a scraper system within the jacking pipe. The newly cleaned slurry is monitored and reconditioned by the addition of further chemicals. and this mixture normally passes through an in-built cobble crusher with an eccentric radial motion to ensure that no ground particle larger than the slurry system can handle enters the return side of the system. microtunneling or pilot auger microtunneling. This system does not normally use a cutter head. the size of the jacking frame and the lengths of the pipes to be installed. causing it to fall away from the face. In self-supporting soils where the head of ground water pressure does not exceed about 9 to 12 feet. loading into a hoisting system at the shaft bottom. In all cases there is a need to establish a thrust wall against which the jacking frame can operate without causing damage to or misalignment of the shaft itself. Excavated spoil is removed from the face using mucking skips which are often railmounted. This suspension is pumped to the cutter chamber via a system of pipes arranged within the Jacking pipe. A reception shaft is needed to complete a drive using pipe jacking. or a conveyor belt. Once the pilot run is completed the system uses an auger spoil removal technique. and recycled through the system. The spoil removal technique maintains a sufficient level of support at the face by using either a spoil removal slurry under pressure. microtunnel or a pilot auger drive is that a drive shaft should be sunk. A slurry system has been developed. line-of-sight is not possible between the drive shaft and the microtunneling machine. The design of the shaft depends on the installation required. whereas auger-based methods which require the hoisting of spoil are more cyclical and involve interruptions to the operation of the cutting head. Where the ground is not selfsupporting. The auger chain is established in an auger casing within the jacking pipe. techniques include hand excavation. it is possible to use an auger flight to remove broken ground. The mixture is pumped to the surface where the soil particles are removed from suspension by gravity or by using hydro cyclones or similar apparatus. “the Hole” . In more difficult ground conditions and at higher ground water heads. The latter system is known generally as Earth Pressure Balance. The slurry system requires a suspension of bentonite or specially designed man-made polymer (or a combination of the two) to be prepared at the surface. this is hoisted to the surface.diameter bores. Chemical flocculants are sometimes added to improve efficiency. When full. maintaining the level of excavated ground within the cutter chamber at a level sufficient to give face support.
The use of interjacks reduces the potential for pipe failures.reaming phase prior to pipe installation to expand the bore diameter required to install the product pipe. the latest technologies and the most cost-effective approach to be employed whilst minimizing risk to both client and contractor. the auger casing is ejected into the reception shaft section by section and recovered for later re-use. and also that the manufacturer be certified for quality assurance. it may be possible to pull the auger casings back into the launch shaft prior to jacking the product pipe into place. be individually lubricated with the correct control and lubrication pump set-up. interjack and interjack. Once a basic plan has been formulated. “the Hole” . the deflection at the pipe joint face should not exceed 0. In cases where the ground is sufficiently self supporting and where the reception end of the drive has very limited access. vitrified clayware (both glazed and unglazed). A wide range of pipe materials is available for installation using pipe jacking and microtunneling techniques. The auger string is used to remove excavated spoil to the shaft through the auger casing. where it is hoisted to surface. As the techniques of pipe jacking and. As the pipe is jacked into the bore using the jacking frame. interested contractors take on the project to complete the final construction design and build the pipeline. the choice depending on the requirements of the client. Each length. can be advanced individually and independently from the rest of the pipe string. Each interjack divides the pipe string into more manageable jacking lengths. This auger arrangement comprises an auger string inside an auger casing with a cutter head at the lead. polymer concrete (concrete aggregate within a matrix of resin). and must also be fitted with a suitable packer material to ensure the even distribution of the jacking force across the joint. an expander in front of the lead pipe during the pipe jacking phase may be used to achieve this bore expansion.5°. Several organizations and clients currently require pipes used in pipe jacking and microtunneling to be manufactured to these recognized standards or the local equivalent. Each interjack is controlled independently from the operator's station and can. The correct choice of pipe with the ability to withstand the required jacking forces during installation and the right properties in terms of final product performance is as important as choosing the right machine. or interjack and face. with each interjack using the pipe length behind it as its thrust wall. It is important to be aware that. the joint face should be manufactured to the recognized standards. To this end. In highly compactable ground. It is the equivalent of having several smaller pipe jacks in operation at the same time in the one bore. although deflections of over 1. In many cases. In the majority of cases the pipe material is either concrete or clayware. the potential for standardization has been limited by the need to establish a depth of experience on which to base standards. This enables previous experience. glass fiber/resin-based pipes. transportation costs and the length of pipeline. the maximum permissible jacking load on a given pipe decreases significantly and quickly as the deflection at pipe joints Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. Probably the most important aspects of design in respect of pipes for a pipejack project are the allowable degree of joint deflection and the joint face geometry. many client organizations are looking at design and build contracts which bring in experienced potential contractors at an early stage in the planning process to advise on the suitability of systems for the given ground conditions and pipeline requirements.0° may be permissible for curved drives using appropriate cushioning materials at pipe joints. steel. microtunneling are relatively new to many parts of the world. ductile iron and also plastic are available as jacking pipe. An interjack station is a ring of hydraulic jacks within a steel framework that is inserted into the pipe string at strategic points. due to increases in point loading.. manufactured for pipe jacking to strict standards. or the local equivalent. normally in muck skips. The cutter head excavates the ground around the pilot bore expanding the hole as it is jacked through the bore using the pilot drill string as its directional control. More often however the system uses as a multi-pass installation with the auger being used to expand the pilot bore diameter to that required for the pipe installation. Materials including reinforce and un-reinforced concrete. the ground conditions. To ensure squareness. In general. Once the auger string has excavated the full length of the pilot bore the product pipe can be installed. Once the auger string has been replaced by the product pipe the installation operation is complete. whether between jacking frame and interjack. since the maximum force on any individual sub-string depends on the number of pipe sections plus the friction factor over that length of pipe. in particular. design engineers looking for a trenchless installation tend to rely on experienced contractors and machine manufacturers to fill in the knowledge gaps that would normally be covered in a standard. where necessary.
unlike conventional pipes for open-trench installation. 2. the thrust wall is an integral part of the shaft support. Much of the cost of microtunneling pipe is in the joints. caisson constructed. Normally of concrete construction. sloping. social costs: 1. compaction. Pipe length varies according to the microtunneling system used. rectangular or oval. or even unsupported if ground conditions are good enough and local safety rules permit. on the other hand. the advantages of a lowfriction external pipe surface without protrusions are obvious. pipe bedding. but this is usually not the case and a thrust wall has to be provided. which in turn reduces the jacking load requirements. There are also some indirect cost items such as contingencies. Travel Delay: Utility construction work can cause significant traffic delay due to lane closures or complete road closures. Maintaining. Pedestrian exposure to construction activities as well as pedestrian access issues are significant. pipe length and material. the pipe diameter and constraints of space. or to allow a machine boring from another location to enter the shaft as a reception point. which usually have spigot and socket joints with sockets of greater external diameter than the rest of the pipe barrel. (ISTT. and their precise role in the bid process. High deflection will reduce the maximum loading that the pipe string can withstand without fear of pipe failure in the ground. For microtunneling and pipe jacking.2 gallons for light duty vehicles (ISTT. Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. shielding. and insurance. However. and demobilization. They may be round. new pipe installation. this may require larger shafts. old pipe removal. The thrust wall must enable the jacking frame to exert its maximum pushing force whilst maintaining the integrity of the shaft structure and that of the surrounding ground. there is still no agreement over the magnitude of social costs. In some instance a pipe design with lubrication ports is also useful to allow lubrication fluids to be injected between the pipe wall and the surrounding ground along the length of the drive to minimize friction losses. but not nearly all. The most notable exceptions are those where the exit point of the shield is either directly out of the ground at a set position or under water. Even then. excavation. pavement removal and replacement. In suitable ground this can simply be the back wall of the shaft. Almost all pipe jacks and microtunnels are installed between a drive shaft and a reception shaft. The benefits of trenchless methods in reducing disruption are widely accepted. Vehicle Operating Costs: Longer travel distances and stop-and-go traffic induce higher vehicle operating costs. ground conditions. backfilling. Costs Costs for the traditional open-cut method include mobilization. An essential feature of pipes for microtunneling and pipe jacking is that the joints do not extend outside the main barrel of the pipe. Social cost categories related to construction work are numerous. a reception arrangement has to be designed in order to prevent environmental contamination by loss of lubricant or slurry. sheet piled. Drive shaft requirements vary greatly depending on the machine being used. One factor common to each drive shaft is that there has to be some form of reaction face for the jacking frame to push against. Excavation may be by hand although in the modern world this is more likely to be done using a mechanical excavator or shaft-sinking rig. although smaller lengths are available for small diameters and longer pipes are sometimes available on special order. Emergency vehicle travel detours and delays impact public safety. so as not to compromise the final pipeline structure.increases. length of drive and the type of installation. so the use of longer pipe lengths tends to save cost on pipes.000 speed changes from 50 mph to 15 mph and back to 50 mph cause an additional fuel consumption of 12. bonding. The following categories represent some. the entire joint is contained within the normal pipe wall thickness. segmental lined. overhead and profit. 2006). For example 1. should it be required. as straight a drive as possible will allow the operator to take full advantage of the design loading of the pipe. and may be designed with a soft eye centre to allow the jacking frame to be rotated for a second bore in the opposite direction. “the Hole” . 2006). Typical pipe segment lengths usually range from 3 to 10 feet. In other words. or to prevent the ingress of water into the pipeline.
costs of construction decrease and facility of installation increase. blocked parking spaces and barriers from the construction site itself. Second Edition. Loss of parking spaces leads to citizen complaints. Worker Safety: Open trenches pose a higher risk to workers and pedestrians than trenchless technologies. Traffic Management and Loss of Parking Spaces: Traffic management becomes an urban planning issue as streets are temporarily closed then reopened as the construction-driven road closure pattern progresses through the community. Cleaning needs. 4. McKim. construction and renewal. Reduction in useful pavement life to due an open-cut excavation is estimated to be as high as 30% (ISTT. No. Also the quality of life for people living near the construction zone decreases. Noise Pollution Costs: The use of heavy construction equipment results in a higher noise level in the vicinity of the work area. as technology booms. Trenchless Technology Guidelines. The market is advancing so fast that much of what is written today is obsolete the next and. “the Hole” . 5. 119-125. who prefer to go to more convenient places. M. Trenchless Technology Resource Center. and within. Najafi. Journal of Infrastructure Systems. 2006). 3. References ASCE Manual of Practice for Horizontal Auger Boring Projects. a decreased parking meter revenue for the city. Decreased Road Surface Value: Open excavations can result in pavement deformations and asphalt cracking at the edges of the trench. Vol. It is unusual to drive through areas surrounding. International Society for Trenchless Technology (ISTT). Trenchless technology: pipeline and utility design. 3. Conclusion Trenchless excavation techniques have arrived to the forefront of construction practices today. August 2005. pp. cities and towns without seeing a HDD or other trenchless machine at work. Accidents related to trenching are about 112% higher than the average value for construction work in general. New York. S. Trenchless Pipeline Installation – “the Mole” vs. Small business economic viability frequently depends on customer access. Trenchless technology remains a continually developing construction technique and records are set and broken with challenging projects each time pipe is put in the ground. and Gokhale. 2006).3. which leads to an accelerated degradation of the pavement. 7. 2004.. Each year more than 60 workers are killed in trenching accidents (ISTT. and businesses depending on deliveries may have problems receiving supplies. 8. increase. and neighborhood disruption. Loss of Trade: Construction zones can decrease the accessibility to businesses due to congested traffic conditions. 6. Businesses lose customers. Selection Methods for Trenchless Technologies. In addition construction work may lead to a higher noise pollution due to changing traffic conditions compared to the normal situation. McGraw-Hill. American Society of Civil Engineers. Cost of Dust and Sedimentation Control: Open excavations result in a significant amount of dust and sediments in their surrounding. (1997). and thus costs. R. (2005).A.
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