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A Collection of Limits

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# A Collection of Limits

March 28, 2011
Contents
1 Short theoretical introduction 1
2 Problems 12
3 Solutions 23
2
Chapter 1
Short theoretical
introduction
Consider a sequence of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
, and l ∈ R. We’ll say that l
represents the limit of (a
n
)
n≥1
if any neighborhood of l contains all the terms of
the sequence, starting from a certain index. We write this fact as lim
n→∞
a
n
= l,
or a
n
→ l.
We can rewrite the above deﬁnition into the following equivalence:
lim
n→∞
a
n
= l ⇔ (∀)V ∈ 1(l), (∃)n
V
∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n
V
⇒ a
n
∈ V .
One can easily observe from this deﬁnition that if a sequence is constant then
it’s limit is equal with the constant term.
We’ll say that a sequence of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
is convergent if it has limit
and lim
n→∞
a
n
∈ R, or divergent if it doesn’t have a limit or if it has the limit
equal to ±∞.
Theorem: If a sequence has limit, then this limit is unique.
Proof: Consider a sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
⊆ R which has two diﬀerent limits l

, l

∈ R.
It follows that there exist two neighborhoods V

∈ 1(l

) and V

∈ 1(l

) such
that V

∩ V

= ∅. As a
n
→ l

⇒ (∃)n

∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n

⇒ a
n
∈ V

.
Also, since a
n
→ l

⇒ (∃)n

∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n

⇒ a
n
∈ V

. Hence
(∀)n ≥ max¦n

, n

¦ we have a
n
∈ V

∩ V

= ∅.
Theorem: Consider a sequence of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
. Then we have:
(i) lim
n→∞
a
n
= l ∈ R ⇔ (∀)ε > 0, (∃)n
ε
∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n
ε
⇒ [a
n
−l[ < ε.
1
2 A Collection of Limits
(ii) lim
n→∞
a
n
= ∞ ⇔ (∀)ε > 0, (∃)n
ε
∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n
ε
⇒ a
n
> ε.
(iii) lim
n→∞
a
n
= −∞ ⇔ (∀)ε > 0, (∃)n
ε
∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n
ε
⇒ a
n
< −ε
Theorem: Let (a
n
)
n≥1
a sequence of real numbers.
1. If lim
n→∞
a
n
= l, then any subsequence of (a
n
)
n≥1
has the limit equal to l.
2. If there exist two subsequences of (a
n
)
n≥1
with diﬀerent limits, then the
sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
is divergent.
3. If there exist two subsequences of (a
n
)
n≥1
which cover it and have a common
limit, then lim
n→∞
a
n
= l.
Deﬁnition: A sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
is a Cauchy sequence if (∀)ε > 0, (∃)n
ε
∈ N
such that [x
n+p
−x
n
[ < ε, (∀)n ≥ n
ε
, (∀)p ∈ N.
Theorem: A sequence of real numbers is convergent if and only if it is a Cauchy
sequence.
Theorem: Any increasing and unbounded sequence has the limit ∞.
Theorem: Any increasing and bounded sequence converge to the upper bound
of the sequence.
Theorem: Any convergent sequence is bounded.
Theorem(Cesaro lemma): Any bounded sequence of real numbers contains
at least one convergent subsequence.
Theorem(Weierstrass theorem): Any monotonic and bounded sequence is
convergent.
Theorem: Any monotonic sequence of real numbers has limit.
Theorem: Consider two convergent sequences (a
n
)
n≥1
and (b
n
)
n≥1
such that
a
n
≤ b
n
, (∀)n ∈ N

. Then we have lim
n→∞
a
n
≤ lim
n→∞
b
n
.
Theorem: Consider a convergent sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
and a real number a such
that a
n
≤ a, (∀)n ∈ N

. Then lim
n→∞
a
n
≤ a.
Theorem: Consider a convergent sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
such that lim
n→∞
a
n
= a.
Them lim
n→∞
[a
n
[ = [a[.
Short teoretical introduction 3
Theorem: Consider two sequences of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
and (b
n
)
n≥1
such
that a
n
≤ b
n
, (∀)n ∈ N

. Then:
1. If lim
n→∞
a
n
= ∞ it follows that lim
n→∞
b
n
= ∞.
2. If lim
n→∞
b
n
= −∞ it follows that lim
n→∞
a
n
= −∞.
Limit operations:
Consider two sequences a
n
and b
n
which have limit. Then we have:
1. lim
n→∞
(a
n
+ b
n
) = lim
n→∞
a
n
+ lim
n→∞
b
n
(except the case (∞, −∞)).
2. lim
n→∞
(a
n
b
n
) = lim
n→∞
a
n
lim
n→∞
b
n
(except the cases (0, ±∞)).
3. lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
=
lim
n→∞
a
n
lim
n→∞
b
n
(except the cases (0, 0), (±∞, ±∞)).
4. lim
n→∞
a
bn
n
= ( lim
n→∞
a
n
)
lim
n→∞
bn
(except the cases (1, ±∞), (∞, 0), (0, 0)).
5. lim
n→∞
(log
an
b
n
) = log
lim
n→∞
a
n
( lim
n→∞
b
n
).
Trivial consequences:
1. lim
n→∞
(a
n
−b
n
) = lim
n→∞
a
n
− lim
n→∞
b
n
;
2. lim
n→∞
(λa
n
) = λ lim
n→∞
a
n
(λ ∈ R);
3. lim
n→∞
k

a
n
=
k
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
(k ∈ N);
Theorem (Squeeze theorem): Let (a
n
)
n≥1
, (b
n
)
n≥1
, (c
n
)
n≥1
be three se-
quences of real numbers such that a
n
≤ b
n
≤ c
n
, (∀)n ∈ N

and lim
n→∞
a
n
=
lim
n→∞
c
n
= l ∈ R. Then lim
n→∞
b
n
= l.
Theorem: Let (x
n
)
n≥1
a sequence of real numbers such that lim
n→∞
(x
n+1
−x
n
) =
α ∈ R.
1. If α > 0, then lim
n→∞
x
n
= ∞.
2. If α < 0, then lim
n→∞
x
n
= −∞.
4 A Collection of Limits
Theorem (Ratio test): Consider a sequence of real positive numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
,
for which l = lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
∈ R.
1. If l < 1 then lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0.
2. If l > 1 then lim
n→∞
a
n
= ∞.
Proof: 1. Let V = (α, β) ∈ 1(l) with l < β < 1. Because l = lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
,
there is some n
0
∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n
0

a
n+1
a
n
∈ V , hence (∀)n ≥ n
0

a
n+1
a
n
< 1. That means starting from the index n
0
the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
is
strictly decreasing. Since the sequence is strictly decreasing and it contains
only positive terms, the sequence is bounded. Using Weierstrass Theorem, it
follows that the sequence is convergent. We have:
a
n+1
=
a
n+1
a
n
a
n
⇒ lim
n→∞
a
n+1
= lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
lim
n→∞
a
n
which is equivalent with:
lim
n→∞
a
n
(1 −l) = 0
which implies that lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0.
2. Denoting b
n
=
1
a
n
we have lim
n→∞
b
n+1
b
n
=
1
l
< 1, hence lim
n→∞
b
n
= 0 which
implies that lim
n→∞
a
n
= ∞.
Theorem: Consider a convergent sequence of real non-zero numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that lim
n→∞
n
_
x
n
x
n−1
−1
_
∈ R

. Then lim
n→∞
x
n
= 0.
Theorem(Cesaro-Stolz lemma): 1. Consider two sequences (a
n
)
n≥1
and
(b
n
)
n≥1
such that:
(i) the sequence (b
n
)
n≥1
is strictly increasing and unbounded;
(ii) the limit lim
n→∞
a
n+1
−a
n
b
n+1
−b
n
= l exists.
Then the sequence
_
a
n
b
n
_
n≥1
is convergent and lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
= l.
Proof: Let’s consider the case l ∈ R and assume (b
n
)
n≥1
is a strictly increasing
sequence, hence lim
n→∞
b
n
= ∞. Now let V ∈ 1(l), then there exists α > 0 such
Short teoretical introduction 5
that (l −α, l + α) ⊆ V . Let β ∈ R such that 0 < β < α. As lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
= l, there
exists k ∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ k ⇒
a
n+1
−a
n
b
n+1
−b
n
∈ (l − β, l + β), which implies
that:
(l −β)(b
n+1
−b
n
) < a
n+1
−a
n
< (l + β)(b
n+1
−b
n
), (∀)n ≥ k
Now writing this inequality from k to n −1 we have:
(l −β)(b
k+1
−b
k
) < a
k+1
−a
k
< (l + β)(b
k+1
−b
k
)
(l −β)(b
k+2
−b
k+1
) < a
k+2
−a
k+1
< (l + β)(b
k+2
−b
k+1
)
. . .
(l −β)(b
n
−b
n−1
) < a
n
−a
n−1
< (l + β)(b
n
−b
n−1
)
Summing all these inequalities we ﬁnd that:
(l −β)(b
n
−b
k
) < a
n
−a
k
< (l + β)(b
n
−b
k
)
As lim
n→∞
b
n
= ∞, starting from an index we have b
n
> 0. The last inequality
rewrites as:
(l −β)
_
1 −
b
k
b
n
_
<
a
n
b
n

a
k
b
n
< (l + β)
_
1 −
b
k
b
n
_

⇔ (l −β) +
a
k
+ (β −l)b
k
b
n
<
a
n
b
n
< l + β +
a
k
−(β + l)b
k
b
n
As
lim
n→∞
a
k
+ (β −l)b
k
b
n
= lim
n→∞
a
k
−(β + l)b
k
b
n
= 0
there exists an index p ∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ p we have:
a
k
+ (β −l)b
k
b
n
,
a
k
−(β + l)b
k
b
n
∈ (β −α, α −β)
We shall look for the inequalities:
a
k
+ (β −l)b
k
b
n
> β −α
and
a
k
−(β + l)b
k
b
n
< α −β
6 A Collection of Limits
Choosing m = max¦k, p¦, then (∀)n ≥ m we have:
l −α <
a
n
b
n
< l + α
which means that
a
n
b
n
∈ V ⇒ lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
= l. It remains to prove the theorem
when l = ±∞, but these cases can be proven analogous choosing V = (α, ∞)
and V = (−∞, α), respectively.
2. Let (x
n
)
n≥1
and (y
n
)
n≥1
such that:
(i) lim
n→∞
x
n
= lim
n→∞
y
n
= 0, y
n
,= 0, (∀)n ∈ N

;
(ii) the sequence (y
n
)
n≥1
is strictly decreasing;
(iii) the limit lim
n→∞
x
n+1
−x
n
y
n+1
−y
n
= l ∈ R.
Then the sequence
_
x
n
y
n
_
n≥1
has a limit and lim
n→∞
x
n
y
n
= l.
Remark: In problem’s solutions we’ll write directly lim
n→∞
x
n
y
n
= lim
n→∞
x
n+1
−x
n
y
n+1
−y
n
,
and if the limit we arrive to belongs to R, then the application of Cesaro-Stolz
lemma is valid.
Trivial consequences:
1. Consider a sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
of strictly positive real numbers for which exists
lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
= l. Then we have:
lim
n→∞
n

a
n
= lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
Proof: Using Cesaro-Stolz theorem we have:
lim
n→∞
(ln
n

a
n
) = lim
n→∞
ln a
n
n
= lim
n→∞
ln a
n+1
−ln a
n
(n + 1) −n
= lim
n→∞
ln
_
a
n+1
a
n
_
= ln l
Then:
lim
n→∞
n

a
n
= lim
n→∞
e
ln
n

an
= e
lim
n→∞
(ln
n

an)
= e
ln l
= l
2. Let (x
n
)
n≥1
a sequence of real numbers which has limit. Then:
lim
n→∞
x
1
+ x
2
+ . . . + x
n
n
= lim
n→∞
x
n
Short teoretical introduction 7
3. Let (x
n
)
n≥1
a sequence of real positive numbers which has limit. Then:
lim
n→∞
n

x
1
x
2
. . . x
n
= lim
n→∞
x
n
Theorem (Reciprocal Cesaro-Stolz): Let (x
n
)
n≥1
and (y
n
)
n≥1
two se-
quences of real numbers such that:
(i) (y
n
)
n≥1
is strictly increasing and unbounded;
(ii) the limit lim
n→∞
x
n
y
n
= l ∈ R;
(iii) the limit lim
n→∞
y
n
y
n+1
∈ R
+
¸¦1¦.
Then the limit lim
n→∞
x
n+1
−x
n
y
n+1
−y
n
exists and it is equal to l.
Theorem (exponential sequence): Let a ∈ R. Consider the sequence x
n
=
a
n
, n ∈ N

.
1. If a ≤ −1, the sequence is divergent.
2. If a ∈ (−1, 1), then lim
n→∞
x
n
= 0.
3. If a = 1, then lim
n→∞
x
n
= 1.
4. If a > 1, then lim
n→∞
x
n
= ∞.
Theorem (power sequence): Let a ∈ R. Consider the sequence x
n
= n
a
, n ∈
N

.
1. If a < 0, then lim
n→∞
x
n
= 0.
2. If a = 0, then lim
n→∞
x
n
= 1.
3. If a > 0, then lim
n→∞
x
n
= ∞.
Theorem (polynomial sequence): Let a
n
= a
k
n
k
+a
k−1
n
k−1
+. . . +a
1
n +
a
0
, (a
k
,= 0).
1. If a
k
> 0, then lim
n→∞
a
n
= ∞.
2. If a
k
< 0, then lim
n→∞
a
n
= −∞.
8 A Collection of Limits
Theorem: Let b
n
=
a
k
n
k
+ a
k−1
n
k−1
+ . . . + a
1
n + a
0
b
p
n
p
+ b
p−1
n
p−1
+ . . . + b
1
n + b
0
, (a
k
,= 0 ,= b
p
).
1. If k < p, then lim
n→∞
b
n
= 0.
2. If k = p, then lim
n→∞
b
n
=
a
k
b
p
.
3. If k > p, then lim
n→∞
b
n
=
a
k
b
p
∞.
Theorem: The sequence a
n
=
_
1 +
1
n
_
n
, n ∈ N

is a strictly increasing and
bounded sequence and lim
n→∞
a
n
= e.
Theorem: Consider a sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
of real non-zero numbers such that
lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0. Then lim
n→∞
(1 + a
n
)
1
an
= e.
Proof: If (b
n
)
n≥1
is a sequence of non-zero positive integers such that lim
n→∞
b
n
=
∞, we have lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
b
n
_
bn
= e. Let ε > 0. From lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
n
_
n
= e, it
follows that there exists n

ε
∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n

ε

¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 +
1
n
_
n
−e
¸
¸
¸
¸
< ε.
Also, since lim
n→∞
b
n
= ∞, there exists n

ε
∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n

ε
⇒ b
n
>
n

ε
. Therefore there exists n
ε
= max¦n

ε
, n

ε
¦ ∈ N

such that (∀)n ≥ n
ε

¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 +
1
b
n
_
bn
−e
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
< ε. This means that: lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
b
n
_
bn
= e. The same
property is fulﬁlled if lim
n→∞
b
n
= −∞.
If (c
n
)
n≥1
is a sequence of real numbers such that lim
n→∞
c
n
= ∞, then lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
c
n
_
cn
=
e. We can assume that c
n
> 1, (∀)n ∈ N

. Let’s denote d
n
= ¸c
n
| ∈ N

. In
this way (d
n
)
n≥1
is sequence of positive integers with lim
n→∞
d
n
= ∞. We have:
d
n
≤ c
n
< d
n
+ 1 ⇒
1
d
n
+ 1
<
1
c
n

1
d
n
Hence it follows that:
_
1 +
1
d
n
+ 1
_
d
n
<
_
1 +
1
c
n
_
dn

_
1 +
1
c
n
_
cn
<
_
1 +
1
c
n
_
dn+1

_
1 +
1
d
n
_
dn+1
Observe that:
Short teoretical introduction 9
lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
d
n
+ 1
_
dn
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
d
n
+ 1
_
dn+1

_
1 +
1
d
n
+ 1
_
−1
= e
and
lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
d
n
_
dn+1
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
d
n
_
dn

_
1 +
1
d
n
_
= e
Using the Squeeze Theorem it follows that lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
c
n
_
cn
= e. The same
property is fulﬁlled when lim
n→∞
c
n
= −∞.
Now if the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
contains a ﬁnite number of positive or negative
terms we can remove them and assume that the sequence contains only positive
terms. Denoting x
n
=
1
a
n
we have lim
n→∞
x
n
= ∞. Then we have
lim
n→∞
(1 + a
n
)
1
an
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
x
n
_
xn
= e
If the sequence contains an inﬁnite number of positive or negative terms, the
same fact happens for the sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
with x
n
=
1
a
n
, (∀)n ∈ N

. Let’s
denote by (a

n
)
n≥1
the subsequence of positive terms , and by (a

n
)
n≥1
the subse-
quence of negative terms. Also let c

n
=
1
a

n
, (∀)n ∈ N

and c

n
=
1
a

n
, (∀)n ∈ N

.
Then it follows that lim
n→∞
c

n
= ∞ and lim
n→∞
c

n
= −∞. Hence:
lim
n→∞
(1 + a

n
)
1
a

n
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
c

n
_
c

n
= e
and
lim
n→∞
(1 + a

n
)
1
a

n
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
c

n
_
c

n
= e
Then it follows that: lim
n→∞
(1 + a
n
)
1
an
= e.
Consequence: Let (a
n
)
n≥1
, (b
n
)
n≥1
two sequences of real numbers such that
a
n
,= 1, (∀)n ∈ N

, lim
n→∞
a
n
= 1 and lim
n→∞
b
n
= ∞ or lim
n→∞
b
n
= −∞. If there
exists lim
n→∞
(a
n
−1)b
n
∈ R, then we have lim
n→∞
a
bn
n
= e
lim
n→∞
(an−1)bn
.
Theorem: Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n≥0
deﬁned by a
n
=
n

k=0
1
k!
. We have
lim
n→∞
a
n
= e.
10 A Collection of Limits
Theorem: Let (c
n
)
n≥1
, a sequence deﬁned by
c
n
= 1 +
1
2
+
1
3
+ . . . +
1
n
−ln n, n ≥ 1
Then (c
n
)
n≥1
is strictly decreasing and bounded, and lim
n→∞
c
n
= γ, where γ is
the Euler constant.
Recurrent sequences
A sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
is a k-order recurrent sequence, if it is deﬁned by a formula
of the form
x
n+k
= f(x
n
, x
n+1
, . . . , n
n+k−1
), n ≥ 1
with given x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
k
. The recurrence is linear if f is a linear function.
Second order recurrence formulas which are homogoeneus, with constant coef-
ﬁcients, have the form x
n+2
= αx
n+1
+ βx
n
, (∀)n ≥ 1 with given x
1
, x
2
, α, β.
To this recurrence formula we attach the equation r
2
= αr + β, with r
1
, r
2
as
solutions.
If r
1
, r
2
∈ R and r
1
,= r
2
, then x
n
= Ar
n
1
+Br
n
2
, where A, B are two real numbers,
usually found from the terms x
1
, x
2
. If r
1
= r
2
= r ∈ R, then x
n
= r
n
(A+nB)
and if r
1
, r
2
∈ R, we have r
1
, r
2
= ρ(cos θ +i sin θ) so x
n
= ρ
n
(cos nθ +i sin nθ).
Limit functions
Deﬁnition: Let f : D → R (D ⊆ R) and x
0
∈ R and accumulation point
of D. We’ll say that l ∈ R is the limit of the function f in x
0
, and we write
lim
x→x0
f(x) = l, if for any neightborhood 1 of l, there is a neighborhood U of x
0
,
such that for any x ∈ D ∩ U¸¦x
0
¦, we have f(x) ∈ 1.
Theorem: Let f : D →R (D ⊂ R) and x
0
an accumulation point of D. Then
lim
x→x0
f(x) = l (l, x
0
∈ R) if and only if (∀)ε > 0, (∃)δ
ε
> 0, (∀)x ∈ D¸¦x
0
¦
such that [x −x
0
[ < δ
ε
⇒ [f(x) −l[ < ε.
If l = ±∞, we have:
lim
x→x0
f(x) = ±∞ ⇔ (∀)ε > 0, (∃)δ
ε
> 0, (∀)x ∈ D¸¦x
0
¦ such that [x−x
0
[ < δ
ε
,
we have f(x) > ε (f(x) < ε).
Theorem: Let f : D ⊂ R ⇒ R and x
0
an accumulation point of D. Then
lim
x→x0
f(x) = l (l ∈ R, x
0
∈ R), if and only if (∀)(x
n
)
n≥1
, x
n
∈ D¸¦x
0
¦, x
n

x
0
, we have lim
n→∞
f(x
n
) = l.
One-side limits
Short teoretical introduction 11
Deﬁnition: Let f : D ⊆ R →R and x
0
∈ R an accumulation point of D. We’ll
say that l
s
∈ R (or l
d
∈ R) is the left-side limit (or right-side limit) of f in x
0
if
for any neigborhood 1 of l
s
(or l
d
), there is a neighborhood U of x
0
, such that
for any x < x
0
, x ∈ U ∩ D¸¦x
0
¦ (x > x
0
respectively), f(x) ∈ 1.
We write l
s
= lim
x →x0
x<x0
f(x) = f(x
0
−0) and l
d
= lim
x →x0
x>x0
f(x) = f(x
0
+ 0).
Theorem: Let f : D ⊆ R → R and x
0
∈ R an accumulation point of the sets
(−∞, x
0
) ∩ D and (x
0
, ∞) ∩ D. Then f has the limit l ∈ R if and only if f has
equal one-side limits in x
0
.
Remarkable limits
If lim
x→x0
f(x) = 0, then:
1. lim
x→x0
sin f(x)
f(x)
= 1;
2. lim
x→x0
tan f(x)
f(x)
= 1;
3. lim
x→x0
arcsin f(x)
f(x)
= 1;
4. lim
x→x0
arctan f(x)
f(x)
= 1;
5. lim
x→x0
(1 + f(x))
1
f(x)
= e
6. lim
x→x0
ln(1 + f(x))
f(x)
= 1;
7. lim
x→x0
a
f(x)
−1
f(x)
= ln a (a > 0);
8. lim
x→x0
(1 + f(x))
r
−1
f(x)
= r (r ∈ R);
If lim
x→x0
f(x) = ∞, then:
9. lim
x→x0
_
1 +
1
f(x)
_
f(x)
= e;
10. lim
x→x0
ln f(x)
f(x)
= 0;
Chapter 2
Problems
1. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
3
_
n
3
+ 2n
2
+ 1 −
3
_
n
3
−1
_
2. Evaluate:
lim
x→−2
3

5x + 2 + 2

3x + 10 −2
3. Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
, such that
n

k=1
a
k
=
3n
2
+ 9n
2
, (∀)n ≥ 1.
Prove that this sequence is an arithmetical progression and evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1
na
n
n

k=1
a
k
4. Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
1
= a
2
= 0 and a
n+1
=
1
3
(a
n
+
a
2
n−1
+b), where 0 ≤ b ≤ 1. Prove that the sequence is convergent and evaluate
lim
n→∞
a
n
.
5. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
1
= 1 and x
n
=
2x
n−1
+
1
n
, (∀)n ≥ 2. Evaluate lim
n→∞
x
n
.
6. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n
_
4
5
_
n
+ n
2
sin
n
π
6
+ cos
_
2nπ +
π
n
_
_
7. Evaluate:
12
Problems 13
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k! k
(n + 1)!
8. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
1 −
1
2
2
__
1 −
1
3
2
_
. . .
_
1 −
1
n
2
_
9. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
¸
3
3n
(n!)
3
(3n)!
10. Consider a sequence of real positive numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that (n+1)x
n+1

nx
n
< 0, (∀)n ≥ 1. Prove that this sequence is convergent and evaluate it’s
limit.
11. Find the real numbers a and b such that:
lim
n→∞
_
3
_
1 −n
3
−an −b
_
= 0
12. Let p ∈ N and α
1
, α
2
, ..., α
p
positive distinct real numbers. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
_
α
n
1
+ α
n
2
+ . . . + α
n
p
13. If a ∈ R

, evaluate:
lim
x→−a
cos x −cos a
x
2
−a
2
14. If n ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
x→0
ln(1 + x + x
2
+ . . . + x
n
)
nx
15. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n
2
+ n −
n

k=1
2k
3
+ 8k
2
+ 6k −1
k
2
+ 4k + 3
_
16. Find a ∈ R

such that:
lim
x→0
1 −cos ax
x
2
= lim
x→π
sin x
π −x
17. Evaluate:
lim
x→1
3

x
2
+ 7 −

x + 3
x
2
−3x + 2
18. Evaluate:
14 A Collection of Limits
lim
n→∞
_
_
2n
2
+ n −λ
_
2n
2
−n
_
where λ is a real number.
19. If a, b, c ∈ R, evaluate:
lim
x→∞
_
a

x + 1 + b

x + 2 + c

x + 3
_
20. Find the set A ⊂ R such that ax
2
+ x + 3 ≥ 0, (∀)a ∈ A, (∀)x ∈ R. Then
for any a ∈ A, evaluate:
lim
x→∞
_
x + 1 −
_
ax
2
+ x + 3
_
21. If k ∈ R, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
k
_
_
n
n + 1

_
n + 2
n + 3
_
22. If k ∈ N and a ∈ R
+
¸¦1¦, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
k
(a
1
n
−1)
_
_
n −1
n

_
n + 1
n + 2
_
23. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1

n
2
+ k
24. If a > 0, p ≥ 2, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
p

n
p
+ ka
25. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n!
(1 + 1
2
)(1 + 2
2
) . . . (1 + n
2
)
26. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
2n
2
−3
2n
2
−n + 1
_
n
2
−1
n
27. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
_
1 + sin
2
x −cos x
1 −

1 + tan
2
x
Problems 15
28. Evaluate:
lim
x→∞
_
x +

x
x −

x
_
x
29. Evaluate:
lim
x →0
x>0
(cos x)
1
sin x
30. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
(e
x
+ sin x)
1
x
31. If a, b ∈ R

+
, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
a −1 +
n

b
a
_
n
32. Consider a sequence of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
deﬁned by:
a
n
=
_
_
_
1 if n ≤ k, k ∈ N

(n + 1)
k
−n
k
_
n
k−1
_ if n > k
i)Evaluate lim
n→∞
a
n
.
ii)If b
n
= 1 +
n

k=1
k lim
n→∞
a
n
, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
b
2
n
b
n−1
b
n+1
_
n
33. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
n+2
=
x
n+1
+ x
n
2
, (∀)n ∈
N

. If x
1
≤ x
2
,
i)Prove that the sequence (x
2n+1
)
n≥0
is increasing, while the sequence (x
2n
)
n≥0
is decreasing;
ii)Prove that:
[x
n+2
−x
n+1
[ =
[x
2
−x
1
[
2
n
, (∀)n ∈ N

iii)Prove that:
2x
n+2
+ x
n+1
= 2x
2
+ x
1
, (∀)n ∈ N

iv)Prove that (x
n
)
n≥1
is convergent and that it’s limit is
x
1
+ 2x
2
3
.
16 A Collection of Limits
34. Let a
n
, b
n
∈ Q such that (1 +

2)
n
= a
n
+ b
n

2, (∀)n ∈ N

. Evaluate
lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
.
35. If a > 0, evaluate:
lim
x→0
(a + x)
x
−1
x
36. Consider a sequence of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
1
=
3
2
and a
n+1
=
a
2
n
−a
n
+ 1
a
n
. Prove that (a
n
)
n≥1
is convergent and ﬁnd it’s limit.
37. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
0
∈ (0, 1) and
x
n+1
= x
n
− x
2
n
+ x
3
n
− x
4
n
, (∀)n ≥ 0. Prove that this sequence is convergent
and evaluate lim
n→∞
x
n
.
38. Let a > 0 and b ∈ (a, 2a) and a sequence x
0
= b, x
n+1
= a+
_
x
n
(2a −x
n
), (∀)n ≥
0. Study the convergence of the sequence (x
n
)
n≥0
.
39. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n+1

k=1
arctan
1
2k
2
40. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k
4k
4
+ 1
41. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1 + 3 + 3
2
+ . . . + 3
k
5
k+2
42. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n + 1 −
n

i=2
i

k=2
k −1
k!
_
43. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1
1
+ 2
2
+ 3
3
+ . . . + n
n
n
n
44. Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
0
= 2 and a
n−1
−a
n
=
n
(n + 1)!
.
Evaluate lim
n→∞
((n + 1)! ln a
n
).
Problems 17
45. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
with x
1
= a > 0 and x
n+1
=
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
+ . . . + nx
n
n
, n ∈ N

. Evaluate it’s limit.
46. Using lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
k
2
=
π
2
6
, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
(2k −1)
2
47. Consider the sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
deﬁned by x
1
= a, x
2
= b, a < b and
x
n
=
x
n−1
+ λx
n−2
1 + λ
, n ≥ 3, λ > 0. Prove that this sequence is convergent and
ﬁnd it’s limit.
48. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
n

n!
49. Consider the sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
deﬁned by x
1
= 1 and x
n
=
1
1 + x
n−1
, n ≥
2. Prove that this sequence is convergent and evaluate lim
n→∞
x
n
.
50. If a, b ∈ R

, evaluate:
lim
x→0
ln(cos ax)
ln(cos bx)
51. Let f : R → R, f(x) =
_
¦x¦ if x ∈ Q
x if x ∈ R¸Q
. Find all α ∈ R for which
lim
x→α
f(x) exists.
52. Let f : R → R, f(x) =
_
¸x| if x ∈ Q
x if x ∈ R¸Q
. Find all α ∈ R for which
lim
x→α
f(x) exists.
53. Let (x
n
)
n≥1
be a sequence of positive real numbers such that x
1
> 0 and
3x
n
= 2x
n−1
+
a
x
2
n−1
, where a is a real positive number. Prove that x
n
is
convergent and evaluate lim
n→∞
x
n
.
54. Consider a sequence of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
1
= 12 and a
n+1
=
a
n
_
1 +
3
n + 1
_
. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
a
k
18 A Collection of Limits
55. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n

n
2
+ 1
_
n
56. If a ∈ R, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
_
k
2
a
_
n
3
57. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
2
n
_
n

k=1
1
k(k + 2)

1
4
_
n
58. Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
, such that a
n
> 0, (∀)n ∈ N and lim
n→∞
n(a
n+1

a
n
) = 1. Evaluate lim
n→∞
a
n
and lim
n→∞
n

a
n
.
59. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1 + 2

2 + 3

3 + . . . + n

n
n
2

n
60. Evaluate:
lim
x→
π
2
(sin x)
1
2x−π
61. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
2
ln
_
cos
1
n
_
62. Given a, b ∈ R

+
, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n

a +
n

b
2
_
n
63. Let α > β > 0 and the matrices A =
_
1 0
0 1
_
, B =
_
0 1
1 0
_
.
i)Prove that (∃)(x
n
)
n≥1
, (y
n
)
n≥1
∈ R such that:
_
α β
β α
_
n
= x
n
A + y
n
B, (∀)n ≥ 1
ii)Evaluate lim
n→∞
x
n
y
n
.
64. If a ∈ R such that [a[ < 1 and p ∈ N

is given, evaluate:
Problems 19
lim
n→∞
n
p
a
n
65. If p ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1
p
+ 2
p
+ 3
p
+ . . . + n
p
n
p+1
66. If n ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
x →1
x<1
sin(narccos x)

1 −x
2
67. If n ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
x →1
x<1
1 −cos(narccos x)
1 −x
2
68. Study the convergence of the sequence:
x
n+1
=
x
n
+ a
x
n
+ 1
, n ≥ 1, x
1
≥ 0, a > 0
69. Consider two sequences of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥0
and (y
n
)
n≥0
such that
x
0
= y
0
= 3, x
n
= 2x
n−1
+ y
n−1
and y
n
= 2x
n−1
+ 3y
n−1
, (∀)n ≥ 1. Evaluate
lim
n→∞
x
n
y
n
.
70. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
tan x −x
x
2
71. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
tan x −arctan x
x
2
72. Let a > 0 and a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥0
such that x
n
∈ (0, a) and
x
n+1
(a − x
n
) >
a
2
4
, (∀)n ∈ N. Prove that (x
n
)
n≥1
is convergent and evaluate
lim
n→∞
x
n
.
73. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
cos
_

2n

e
_
74. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n + 1
n
_
tan
(n−1)π
2n
20 A Collection of Limits
75. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
¸
¸
¸
_
n

k=1
_
n
k
_
76. If a > 0, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
a +

a +
3

a + . . . +
n

a −n
ln n
77. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
nln tan
_
π
4
+
π
n
_
78. Let k ∈ N and a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
∈ R such that a
0
+ a
1
+ a
2
+ . . . + a
k
= 0.
Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
a
0
3

n + a
1
3

n + 1 + . . . + a
k
3

n + k
_
79. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
sin
_

3
_
n
3
+ 3n
2
+ 4n −5
_
80. Evaluate:
lim
x →1
x<1
2 arcsin x −π
sin πx
81. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=2
1
k ln k
82. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
_
lim
x→0
_
1 +
n

k=1
sin
2
(kx)
_ 1
n
3
x
2
_
_
83. If p ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=0
(k + 1)(k + 2) . . . (k + p)
n
p+1
84. If α
n

_
0,
π
4
_
is a root of the equation tan α +cot α = n, n ≥ 2, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
(sin α
n
+ cos α
n
)
n
85. Evaluate:
Problems 21
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
¸
_
n + k
2
_
n
2
86. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
¸
¸
¸
_
n

k=1
_
1 +
k
n
_
87. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
arctan x −arcsin x
x
3
88. If α > 0, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
α
−n
α
n
α−1
89. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k
2
2
k
90. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=0
(k + 1)(k + 2)
2
k
91. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
1
∈ (0, 1) and
x
n+1
= x
2
n
−x
n
+ 1, (∀)n ∈ N. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
(x
1
x
2
. . . x
n
)
92. If n ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x cos 2x . . . cos nx
x
2
93. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
n
is the real root
of the equation x
3
+nx−n = 0, n ∈ N

. Prove that this sequence is convergent
and ﬁnd it’s limit.
94. Evaluate:
lim
x→2
arctan x −arctan 2
tan x −tan 2
95. Evaluate:
22 A Collection of Limits
lim
n→∞
1 +
2
2

2! +
3
2

3! + . . . +
n
2

n!
n
96. Let (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
1
> 0, x
1
+ x
2
1
< 1 and x
n+1
= x
n
+
x
2
n
n
2
, (∀)n ≥ 1.
Prove that the sequences (x
n
)
n≥1
and (y
n
)
n≥2
, y
n
=
1
x
n

1
n −1
are convergent.
97. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

i=1
sin
2i
n
2
98. If a > 0, a ,= 1, evaluate:
lim
x→a
x
x
−a
x
a
x
−a
a
99. Consider a sequence of positive real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
n+1

1
a
n+1
= a
n
+
1
a
n
, (∀)n ≥ 1. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1

n
_
1
a
1
+
1
a
2
+ . . . +
1
a
n
_
100. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
2
arctan x
−2
arcsin x
2
tan x
−2
sin x
Chapter 3
Solutions
1. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
3
_
n
3
+ 2n
2
+ 1 −
3
_
n
3
−1
_
Solution:
lim
n→∞
_
3
_
n
3
+ 2n
2
+ 1 −
3
_
n
3
−1
_
= lim
n→∞
n
3
+ 2n
2
+ 1 −n
3
+ 1
3
_
(n
3
+ 2n
2
+ 1)
2
+
3
_
(n
3
−1)(n
3
+ 2n
2
+ 1) +
3
_
(n
3
−1)
2
= lim
n→∞
n
2
_
2 +
2
n
_
n
2
_
3
_
_
1 +
2
n
+
1
n
3
_
2
+
3
_
_
1 −
1
n
3
_ _
1 +
2
n
+
1
n
3
_
+
3
_
_
1 −
1
n
3
_
2
_
=
2
3
2. Evaluate:
lim
x→−2
3

5x + 2 + 2

3x + 10 −2
Solution:
lim
x→−2
3

5x + 2 + 2

3x + 10 −2
= lim
x→−2
5x+10
3

(5x+2)
2
−2
3

5x+2+4
3x+6

3x+10+2
=
5
3
lim
x→−2

3x + 10 + 2
3
_
(5x + 2)
2
−2
3

5x + 2 + 4
=
5
9
3. Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
, such that
n

k=1
a
k
=
3n
2
+ 9n
2
, (∀)n ≥ 1.
Prove that this sequence is an arithmetical progression and evaluate:
23
24 A Collection of Limits
lim
n→∞
1
na
n
n

k=1
a
k
Solution: For n = 1 we get a
1
= 6. Then a
1
+a
2
= 15, so a
2
= 9 and the ratio
is r = 3. Therefore the general term is a
n
= 6 + 3(n −1) = 3(n + 1). So:
lim
n→∞
1
na
n
n

k=1
a
k
= lim
n→∞
n + 3
2n + 2
=
1
2
4. Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
1
= a
2
= 0 and a
n+1
=
1
3
(a
n
+
a
2
n−1
+b), where 0 ≤ b < 1. Prove that the sequence is convergent and evaluate
lim
n→∞
a
n
.
Solution: We have a
2
−a
1
= 0 and a
3
−a
2
=
b
3
≥ 0, so assuming a
n−1
≥ a
n−2
and a
n
≥ a
n−1
, we need to show that a
n+1
≥ a
n
. The recurrence equation gives
us:
a
n+1
−a
n
=
1
3
(a
n
−a
n−1
+ a
2
n−1
−a
2
n−2
)
Therefore it follows that the sequence is monotonically increasing. Also, because
b ≤ 1, we have a
3
=
b
3
< 1, a
4
=
4b
9
< 1. Assuming that a
n−1
, a
n
< 1, it
follows that:
a
n+1
=
1
3
(b + a
n
+ a
2
n−1
) <
1
3
(1 + 1 + 1) = 1
Hence a
n
∈ [0, 1), (∀)n ∈ N

, which means the sequence is bounded. From
Weierstrass theorem it follows that the sequence is convergent. Let then lim
n→∞
a
n
=
l. By passing to limit in the recurrence relation, we have:
l
2
−2l + b = 0 ⇔ (l −1)
2
= 1 −b ⇒ l = 1 ±

1 −b
Because 1 +

1 −b > 1 and a
n
∈ [0, 1), it follows that lim
n→∞
a
n
= 1 −

1 −b.
5. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
1
= 1 and x
n
=
2x
n−1
+
1
2
, (∀)n ≥ 2. Evaluate lim
n→∞
x
n
.
Solution: Let’s evaluate a few terms:
x
2
= 2 +
1
2
x
3
= 2
2
+ 2
1
2
+
1
2
= 2
2
+
1
2
(2
2
−1)
Solutions 25
x
4
= 2
3
+ 2
2
−1 +
1
2
= 2
3
+
1
2
(2
3
−1)
x
5
= 2
4
+ 2
3
−1 +
1
2
= 2
4
+
1
2
(2
4
−1)
and by induction we can show immediately that x
n
= 2
n−1
+
1
2
(2
n−1
−1). Thus
lim
n→∞
x
n
= ∞.
6. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n
_
4
5
_
n
+ n
2
sin
n
π
6
+ cos
_
2nπ +
π
n
_
_
Solution: We have:
lim
n→∞
4
n+1
·(n+1)
5
n+1
4
n
·n
5
n
= lim
n→∞
4(n + 1)
5n
=
4
5
< 1
Thus using the ratio test it follows that lim
n→∞
n
_
4
5
_
n
= 0. Also
lim
n→∞
(n+1)
2
2
n+1
n
2
2
n
= lim
n→∞
n
2
+ 2n + 1
2n
2
=
1
2
< 1
From the ratio test it follows that lim
n→∞
n
2
2
n
= lim
n→∞
n
2
sin
n
π
6
= 0. Therefore the
limit is equal to
lim
n→∞
cos
_
2nπ +
π
n
_
= lim
n→∞
cos
π
n
= cos 0 = 1
7. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k! k
(n + 1)!
Solution:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k! k
(n + 1)!
= lim
n→∞
n

k=1
(k + 1)! −k!
(n + 1)!
= lim
n→∞
_
1 −
1
(n + 1)!
_
= 1
8. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
1 −
1
2
2
__
1 −
1
3
2
_
. . .
_
1 −
1
n
2
_
Solution:
26 A Collection of Limits
lim
n→∞
_
1 −
1
2
2
__
1 −
1
3
2
_

_
1 −
1
n
2
_
= lim
n→∞
n

r=2
_
1 −
1
r
2
_
= lim
n→∞
n

r=2
_
r
2
−1
r
2
_
= lim
n→∞
n

r=2
_
(r −1)(r + 1)
r
2
_
=
1
2
lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
n
_
=
1
2
9. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
¸
3
3n
(n!)
3
(3n)!
Solution: Deﬁne a
n
=
3
3n
(n!)
3
(3n)!
. Then:
lim
n→∞
n

a
n
= lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
= lim
n→∞
3
3n+3
[(n + 1)!]
3
(3n + 3)!

(3n)!
3
3n
(n!)
3
= lim
n→∞
27(n + 1)
3
(3n + 1)(3n + 2)(3n + 3)
= 1
10. Consider a sequence of real positive numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that (n+1)x
n+1

nx
n
< 0, (∀)n ≥ 1. Prove that this sequence is convergent and evaluate it’s
limit.
Solution: Because nx
n
> (n + 1)x
n+1
, we deduce that x
1
> 2x
2
> 3x
3
>
. . . > nx
n
, whence 0 < x
n
<
x
1
n
. Using the Squeeze Theorem it follows that
lim
n→∞
x
n
= 0.
11. Find the real numbers a and b such that:
lim
n→∞
_
3
_
1 −n
3
−an −b
_
= 0
Solution: We have:
Solutions 27
b = lim
n→∞
_
3
_
1 −n
3
−an
_
= lim
n→∞
1 −n
3
−a
3
n
3
3
_
(1 −n
3
)
2
+
3
_
an(1 −n
3
) +
3

a
2
n
2
= lim
n→∞
n
_
−1 −a
3
+
1
n
3
_
3
_
_
1
n
3
−1
_
2
+
3
_
a
_
1
n
5

1
n
2
_
+
3
_
a
2
n
4
If −1−a
3
,= 0, it follows that b = ±∞, which is false. Hence a
3
= −1 ⇒ a = −1
and so b = 0.
12. Let p ∈ N and α
1
, α
2
, ..., α
p
positive distinct real numbers. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
_
α
n
1
+ α
n
2
+ . . . + α
n
p
Solution: WLOG let α
j
= max¦α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
p
¦, 1 ≤ j ≤ p. Then:
lim
n→∞
n
_
α
n
1
+ α
n
2
+ . . . + α
n
p
= lim
n→∞
α
j
n
¸
_
α
1
α
j
_
n
+
_
α
2
α
j
_
n
+ . . . +
_
α
j−1
α
j
_
n
+ 1 +
_
α
j+1
α
j
_
n
+ . . . +
_
α
p
α
j
_
n
= α
j
= max¦α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
p
¦
13. If a ∈ R

, evaluate:
lim
x→−a
cos x −cos a
x
2
−a
2
Solution:
lim
x→−a
cos x −cos a
x
2
−a
2
= lim
x→−a
−2 sin
x+a
2
sin
x−a
2
(x −a)(x + a)
= lim
x→−a
sin
x+a
2
x+a
2
lim
x→−a
sin
x−a
2
a −x
= lim
x→−a
sin
x−a
2
a −x
= −
sin a
2a
14. If n ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
x→0
ln(1 + x + x
2
+ . . . + x
n
)
nx
Solution: Using lim
x→0
ln(1 + x)
x
= 1, we have:
28 A Collection of Limits
lim
x→0
ln(1 + x + x
2
+ . . . + x
n
)
nx
= lim
x→0
ln(1 + x + x
2
+ . . . + x
n
)
x + x
2
+ . . . + x
n
lim
x→0
x + x
2
+ . . . + x
n
nx
= lim
x→0
x + x
2
+ . . . + x
n
nx
= lim
x→0
1 + x + . . . + x
n−1
n
=
1
n
15. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n
2
+ n −
n

k=1
2k
3
+ 8k
2
+ 6k −1
k
2
+ 4k + 3
_
Solution: Telescoping, we have:
lim
n→∞
_
n
2
+ n −
n

k=1
2k
3
+ 8k
2
+ 6k −1
k
2
+ 4k + 3
_
= lim
n→∞
_
n
2
+ n −2
n

k=1
k +
1
2
n

k=1
1
k + 1

1
2
n

k=1
1
k + 3
_
=
1
2
lim
n→∞
_
n

k=1
1
k + 1

n

k=1
1
k + 3
_
=
5
12

1
2
lim
n→∞
_
1
n + 2
+
1
n + 3
_
=
5
12
16. Find a ∈ R

such that:
lim
x→0
1 −cos ax
x
2
= lim
x→π
sin x
π −x
Solution: Observe that:
lim
x→0
1 −cos ax
x
2
=
a
2
4
lim
x→0
2 sin
2 ax
2
a
2
x
2
4
=
a
2
2
and
lim
x→π
sin x
π −x
= lim
x→π
sin (π −x)
π −x
= 1
Therefore
a
2
2
= 1, which implies a = ±

2.
17. Evaluate:
Solutions 29
lim
x→1
3

x
2
+ 7 −

x + 3
x
2
−3x + 2
Solution:
lim
x→1
3

x
2
+ 7 −

x + 3
x
2
−3x + 2
= lim
x→1
3

x
2
+ 7 −3
x
2
−3x + 2
+ lim
x→1
2 −

x + 3
x
2
−3x + 2
= lim
x→1
x + 1
(x −2)
_
3
_
(x
2
+ 7)
2
+ 2
3

x
2
+ 7 + 4
_ + lim
x→1
1
(2 −x)(2 +

x + 3)
= −
2
12
+
1
4
=
1
12
18. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
_
2n
2
+ n −λ
_
2n
2
−n
_
where λ is a real number.
Solution:
lim
n→∞
_
_
2n
2
+ n −λ
_
2n
2
−n
_
= lim
n→∞
2n
2
+ n −λ
2
_
2n
2
−n
_

2n
2
+ n + λ

2n
2
−n
= lim
n→∞
2n
2
_
1 −λ
2
_
+ n
_
1 + λ
2
_
n
__
2 +
1
n
+ λ
_
2 −
1
n
_
= lim
n→∞
2n
_
1 −λ
2
_
+
_
1 + λ
2
_
_
2 +
1
n
+ λ
_
2 −
1
n
=
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
+∞ if λ ∈ (−∞, 1)

2
2
if λ = 1
−∞ if λ ∈ (1, +∞)
19. If a, b, c ∈ R, evaluate:
lim
x→∞
_
a

x + 1 + b

x + 2 + c

x + 3
_
Solution: If a + b + c ,= 0, we have:
30 A Collection of Limits
lim
x→∞
_
a

x + 1 + b

x + 2 + c

x + 3
_
= lim
x→∞

x
_
a
_
1 +
1
x
+ b
_
1 +
2
x
+ c
_
1 +
3
x
_
= lim
x→∞

x(a + b + c)
=
_
−∞ if a + b + c < 0
∞ if a + b + c > 0
If a + b + c = 0, then:
lim
x→∞
_
a

x + 1 + b

x + 2 + c

x + 3
_
= lim
x→∞
_
a

x + 1 −a + b

x + 2 −b + c

x + 3 −c
_
= lim
x→∞
_
_
a
_
1
x
+
1
x
2
+
1
x
+
b +
b
x
_
1
x
+
2
x
2
+
1
x
+
c +
2c
x
_
1
x
+
3
x
2
+
1
x
_
_
= 0
20. Find the set A ⊂ R such that ax
2
+ x + 3 ≥ 0, (∀)a ∈ A, (∀)x ∈ R. Then
for any a ∈ A, evaluate:
lim
x→∞
_
x + 1 −
_
ax
2
+ x + 3
_
Solution: We have ax
2
+ x + 3 ≥ 0, (∀)x ∈ R if a > 0 and ∆
x
≤ 0, whence
a ∈
_
1
12
, ∞
_
. Then:
lim
x→∞
_
x + 1 −
_
ax
2
+ x + 3
_
= lim
x→∞
(1 −a)x
2
+ x −2
x + 1 +

ax
2
+ x + 3
= lim
x→∞
(1 −a)x + 1 −
2
x
1 +
1
x
+
_
a +
1
x
+
3
x
2
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
∞ if a ∈
_
1
12
, 1
_
1
2
if a = 1
−∞ if a ∈ (1, ∞)
21. If k ∈ R, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
k
_
_
n
n + 1

_
n + 2
n + 3
_
Solution:
Solutions 31
lim
n→∞
n
k
_
_
n
n + 1

_
n + 2
n + 3
_
= lim
n→∞
n
k
(n + 1)(n + 2)
lim
n→∞
−2
_
n
n + 1
+
_
n + 2
n + 3
= lim
n→∞
−n
k
(n + 1)(n + 2)
=
_
_
_
0 if k < 2
−1 if k = 2
−∞ if k > 2
22. If k ∈ N and a ∈ R
+
¸¦1¦, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
k
(a
1
n
−1)
_
_
n −1
n

_
n + 1
n + 2
_
Solution:
lim
n→∞
n
k
(a
1
n
−1)
_
_
n −1
n

_
n + 1
n + 2
_
= lim
n→∞
−n
k
(a
1
n
−1)
n(n + 2)
lim
n→∞
2
_
n −1
n
+
_
n + 1
n + 2
= lim
n→∞
−n
k−1
n(n + 2)
lim
n→∞
a
1
n
−1
1
n
= ln a lim
n→∞
−n
k−2
n + 2
=
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
0 if k ∈ ¦0, 1, 2¦
−ln a if k = 3
∞ if k ≥ 4 and a ∈ (0, 1)
−∞ if k ≥ 4 and a > 1
23. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1

n
2
+ k
Solution: Clearly
1

n
2
+ n

1

n
2
+ k

1

n
2
+ 1
, (∀)1 ≤ k ≤ n
Thus summing for k = 1, n, we get:
n

n
2
+ n

n

k=1
1

n
2
+ k

n

n
2
+ 1
32 A Collection of Limits
Because lim
n→∞
n

n
2
+ n
= lim
n→∞
1
_
1 +
1
n
= 1 and lim
n→∞
n

n
2
+ 1
= lim
n→∞
1
_
1 +
1
n
2
=
1, using the squeeze theorem it follows that:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1

n
2
+ k
= 1
24. If a > 0, p ≥ 2, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
p

n
p
+ ka
Solution: Obviously
1
p

n
p
+ na

1
p

n
p
+ ka

1
p

n
p
+ a
, (∀)1 ≤ k ≤ n
Thus summing for k = 1, n, we get:
n
p

n
p
+ na

n

k=1
1

n
2
+ k

n
p

n
p
+ a
Because lim
n→∞
n
p

n
p
+ a
= lim
n→∞
1
_
1 +
a
n
p
= 1 and lim
n→∞
n
p

n
p
+ na
= lim
n→∞
1
_
1 +
a
n
p−1
=
1, using the squeeze theorem it follows that:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
p

n
p
+ ka
= 1
25. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n!
(1 + 1
2
)(1 + 2
2
) . . . (1 + n
2
)
Solution: We have
0 ≤
n!
(1 + 1
2
)(1 + 2
2
) . . . (1 + n
2
)
<
n!
1
2
2
2
. . . n
2
=
n!
(1 2 . . . n) (1 2 . . . n)
=
n!
(n!)
2
=
1
n!
Thus using squeeze theorem it follows that:
Solutions 33
lim
n→∞
n!
(1 + 1
2
)(1 + 2
2
) . . . (1 + n
2
)
= 0
26. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
2n
2
−3
2n
2
−n + 1
_
n
2
−1
n
Solution:
lim
n→∞
_
2n
2
−3
2n
2
−n + 1
_
n
2
−1
n
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
n −4
2n
2
−n + 1
_
n
2
−1
n
= lim
n→∞
_
¸
¸
_
_
1 +
n −4
2n
2
−n + 1
_
2n
2
−n+1
n−4
_
¸
¸
_
(n−4)(n
2
−1)
2n
3
−2n
2
+n
= e
lim
n→∞
n
3
−4n
2
−n+4
2n
3
−2n
2
+n
= e
1
2
=

e
27. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
_
1 + sin
2
x −cos x
1 −

1 + tan
2
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
_
1 + sin
2
x −cos x
1 −

1 + tan
2
x
= lim
x→0
(1 + sin
2
x −cos
2
x)(1 +

1 + tan
2
x)
(1 −1 −tan
2
x)(
_
1 + sin
2
x + cos x)
= lim
x→0
2 sin
2
x(1 +

1 + tan
2
x)
−tan
2
x(
_
1 + sin
2
x + cos x)
= lim
x→0
−2 cos
2
x(1 +

1 + tan
2
x)
_
1 + sin
2
x + cos x
= −2
28. Evaluate:
lim
x→∞
_
x +

x
x −

x
_
x
34 A Collection of Limits
Solution:
lim
x→∞
_
x +

x
x −

x
_
x
= lim
x→∞
_
1 +
2

x
x −

x
_
x
= lim
x→∞
_
¸
¸
_
_
1 +
2

x
x −

x
_
x −

x
2

x
_
¸
¸
_
2x

x
x −

x
= e
lim
x→∞
2x

x
x −

x
= e
lim
x→∞
2

x
1 −
1

x
= e

= ∞
29. Evaluate:
lim
x →0
x>0
(cos x)
1
sin x
Solution:
lim
x →0
x>0
(cos x)
1
sin x
= lim
x →0
x>0
_
_
(1 + (cos x −1))
1
cos x −1
_
_
cos x −1
sin x
= e
lim
x →0
x>0
−2 sin
2 x
2
2 sin
x
2
cos
x
2
= e
lim
x →0
x>0
−tan
x
2
= e
0
= 1
30. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
(e
x
+ sin x)
1
x
Solution:
Solutions 35
lim
x→0
(e
x
+ sin x)
1
x
= lim
x→0
_
e
x
_
1 +
sin x
e
x
__1
x
= lim
x→0
(e
x
)
1
x
lim
x→0
_
¸
_
_
1 +
sin x
e
x
_
e
x
sin x
_
¸
_
sin x
xe
x
= e e
lim
x→0
x
sin x

1
e
x
= e
2
31. If a, b ∈ R

+
, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
a −1 +
n

b
a
_
n
Solution:
lim
n→∞
_
a −1 +
n

b
a
_
n
= lim
n→∞
_
¸
¸
_
_
1 +
n

b −1
a
_
a
n

b −1
_
¸
¸
_
n(
n

b −1)
a
= e
1
a
lim
n→∞
b
1
n
−1
1
n
= e
ln b
a
= b
1
a
32. Consider a sequence of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
deﬁned by:
a
n
=
_
_
_
1 if n ≤ k, k ∈ N

(n + 1)
k
−n
k
_
n
k−1
_ if n > k
i)Evaluate lim
n→∞
a
n
.
ii)If b
n
= 1 +
n

k=1
k lim
n→∞
a
n
, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
b
2
n
b
n−1
b
n+1
_
n
Solution: i) We have
36 A Collection of Limits
lim
n→∞
a
n
= lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
k
−n
k
_
n
k −1
_
= lim
n→∞
(k −1)! k n
k−1
+ . . . + (k −1)!
(n −k + 2)(n −k + 3) . . . n
=
k! n
k−1
+ . . .
n
k−1
+ . . .
= k!
ii) Then:
b
n
= 1 +
n

k=1
k k! = 1 +
n

k=1
(k + 1)! −
n

k=1
k! = (n + 1)!
so
lim
n→∞
_
b
2
n
b
n−1
b
n+1
_
n
= lim
n→∞
_
1 −
1
n
_
n
= e
−1
33. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
n+2
=
x
n+1
+ x
n
2
, (∀)n ∈
N

. If x
1
≤ x
2
,
i)Prove that the sequence (x
2n+1
)
n≥0
is increasing, while the sequence (x
2n
)
n≥0
is decreasing;
ii)Prove that:
[x
n+2
−x
n+1
[ =
[x
2
−x
1
[
2
n
, (∀)n ∈ N

iii)Prove that:
2x
n+2
+ x
n+1
= 2x
2
+ x
1
, (∀)n ∈ N

iv)Prove that (x
n
)
n≥1
is convergent and that it’s limit is
x
1
+ 2x
2
3
.
Solution: i)Using induction we can show that x
2n−1
≤ x
2n
. Then the sequence
(x
2n+1
)
n≥0
will be increasing, because
x
2n+1
=
x
2n
+ x
2n−1
2

x
2n−1
+ x
2n−1
2
= x
2n−1
Similarly, we can show that (x
2n
)
n≥1
is decreasing.
ii) For n = 1, we get [x
3
−x
2
[ =
[x
2
−x
1
[
2
, so assuming it’s true for some k, we
have:
Solutions 37
[x
k+3
−x
k+2
[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
k+2
+ x
k+1
2
−x
k+2
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
[x
k+2
−x
k+1
[
2
=
[x
2
−x
1
[
2
n+1
Thus, by induction the equality is proven.
iii) Observe that:
2x
n+2
+ x
n+1
= 2
x
n+1
+ x
n
2
+ x
n+1
= 2x
n+1
+ x
n
and repeating the process, the demanded identity is showed.
iv) From i) it follows that the sequences (x
2n
)
n≥1
and (x
2n−1
)
n≥1
are convergent
and have the same limit. Let l = lim
n→∞
x
n
= l. Then from iii), we get
3l = x
1
+ 2x
2
⇒ l =
x
1
+ 2x
2
3
34. Let a
n
, b
n
∈ Q such that (1 +

2)
n
= a
n
+ b
n

2, (∀)n ∈ N

. Evaluate
lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
.
Solution: Because (1+

2)
n
= a
n
+b
n

2, it follows that (1−

2)
n
= a
n
−b
n

2.
Solving this system we ﬁnd:
a
n
=
1
2
_
(1 +

2)
n
+ (1 −

2)
n
_
and
b
n
=
1
2

2
_
(1 +

2)
n
−(1 −

2)
n
_
and therefore lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
=

2.
35. If a > 0, evaluate:
lim
x→0
(a + x)
x
−1
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
(a + x)
x
−1
x
= lim
x→0
e
x ln(a+x)
−1
x
= lim
x→0
e
x ln(a+x)
−1
xln(a + x)
lim
x→0
ln(a + x)
= ln a
36. Consider a sequence of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
1
=
3
2
and a
n+1
=
a
2
n
−a
n
+ 1
a
n
. Prove that (a
n
)
n≥1
is convergent and ﬁnd it’s limit.
38 A Collection of Limits
Solution: By AM − GM we have a
n+1
= a
n
+
1
a
n
− 1 ≥ 1, (∀)n ≥ 2, so the
sequence is lower bounded. Also a
n+1
− a
n
=
1
a
n
− 1 ≤ 0, hence the sequence
is decreasing. Therefore (a
n
)
n≥1
is bounded by 1 and a
1
=
3
2
. Then, because
(a
n
)
n≥1
is convergent, denote lim
n→∞
a
n
= l, to obtain l =
l
2
−l + 1
l
⇒ l = 1
37. Consider sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
of real numbers such that x
0
∈ (0, 1) and x
n+1
=
x
n
−x
2
n
+x
3
n
−x
4
n
, (∀)n ≥ 0. Prove that this sequence is convergent and evaluate
lim
n→∞
x
n
.
Solution: It’s easy to see that the recurrence formula can be written as: x
n+1
=
x
n
(1 − x
n
)(1 + x
2
n
), n ∈ N, then because 1 − x
0
> 0, it’s easy to show by
induction that x
n
∈ (0, 1). Now rewrite the recurrence formula as x
n+1
−x
n
=
−x
2
n
(x
2
n
− x
n
+ 1) < 0. It follows that the sequence is strictly decreasing, thus
convergent. Let lim
n→∞
x
n
= l. Then
l = l −l
2
+ l
3
−l
4
⇒ l
2
(l
2
−l + 1) = 0 ⇒ l = 0
38. Let a > 0 and b ∈ (a, 2a) and a sequence x
0
= b, x
n+1
= a+
_
x
n
(2a −x
n
), (∀)n ≥
0. Study the convergence of the sequence (x
n
)
n≥0
.
Solution: Let’s see a few terms: x
1
= a +

2ab −b
2
and also
x
2
= a+
_
(a +
_
2ab −b
2
)(a −
_
2ab −b
2
) = a+
_
a
2
−2ab + b
2
= a+[a−b[ = b
Thus the sequence is periodic, with x
2k
= b and x
2k+1
= a +

2ab −b
2
, (∀)k ∈
N. Then lim
k→∞
x
2k
= b and lim
n→∞
x
2k+1
= a +
_
2ab −b
2
. The sequence is
convergent if and only if b = a+

2ab −b
2
, which implies that b =
_
1 +
1

2
_
a,
which is also the limit in this case.
39. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n+1

k=1
arctan
1
2k
2
Solution: We can check easily that arctan
1
2k
2
= arctan
k
k + 1
−arctan
k −1
k
.
Then:
lim
n→∞
n+1

k=1
arctan
1
2k
2
= lim
n→∞
arctan
n
n + 1
=
π
4
Solutions 39
40. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k
4k
4
+ 1
Solution:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k
4k
4
+ 1
= lim
n→∞
_
1
2
n

k=1
1
2k
2
−2k + 1

1
2
n

k=1
1
2k
2
+ 2k + 1
_
=
1
4
lim
n→∞
_
1 −
1
2n
2
+ 2n + 1
_
=
1
4
41. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1 + 3 + 3
2
+ . . . + 3
k
5
k+2
Solution: In the numerator we have a geometrical progression, so:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1 + 3 + 3
2
+ . . . + 3
k
5
k+2
= lim
n→∞
n

k=1
3
k+1
−1
2 5
k+2
=
1
10
lim
n→∞
n

k=2
_
3
k
5
k

1
5
k
_
=
1
10
_
9
10

1
20
_
=
17
200
42. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n + 1 −
n

i=2
i

k=2
k −1
k!
_
Solution:
lim
n→∞
_
n + 1 −
n

i=2
i

k=2
k −1
k!
_
= lim
n→∞
_
n + 1 −
n

i=2
i

k=2
_
1
(k −1)!

1
k!
_
_
= lim
n→∞
_
n + 1 −
n

i=2
_
1 −
1
i!
_
_
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
n

i=1
1
i!
_
n
= e
40 A Collection of Limits
43. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1
1
+ 2
2
+ 3
3
+ . . . + n
n
n
n
Solution: Using Cesaro-Stolz theorem we have:
lim
n→∞
1
1
+ 2
2
+ 3
3
+ . . . + n
n
n
n
= lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
n+1
(n + 1)
n+1
−n
n
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
n
_
n+1
_
1 +
1
n
_
n+1

1
n
=
e
e −0
= 1
44. Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
0
= 2 and a
n−1
−a
n
=
n
(n + 1)!
.
Evaluate lim
n→∞
((n + 1)! ln a
n
).
Solution: Observe that
a
k
−a
k−1
=
−k
(k + 1)!
=
1
(k + 1)!

1
k!
, (∀)1 ≤ k ≤ n
Letting k = 1, 2, 3 n and summing, we get a
n
− a
0
=
1
(n + 1)!
− 1. Since
a
0
= 2 we get a
n
= 1 +
1
(n + 1)!
. Using the result lim
f(x)→0
ln(1 + f(x))
f(x)
= 1, we
conclude that
lim
n→∞
(n + 1)! ln a
n
= lim
n→∞
ln
_
1 +
1
(n+1)!
_
1
(n+1)!
= 1
45. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
with x
1
= a > 0 and x
n+1
=
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
+ . . . + nx
n
n
, n ∈ N

. Evaluate it’s limit.
Solution: The sequence is strictly increasing because:
x
n+1
−x
n
=
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
+ . . . + nx
n
n
−x
n
=
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
+ . . . + (n −1)x
n−1
n
> 0
Then
x
n+1
>
a + 2a + . . . + na
n
=
(n + 1)a
2
It follows that lim
n→∞
x
n
= ∞.
Solutions 41
46. Using lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
k
2
=
π
2
6
, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
(2k −1)
2
Solution:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
(2k −1)
2
= lim
n→∞
2n

k=1
1
k
2
− lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
(2k)
2
= lim
n→∞
2n

k=1
1
k
2

1
4
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
k
2
=
π
6

π
24
=
π
8
47. Consider the sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
deﬁned by x
1
= a, x
2
= b, a < b and
x
n
=
x
n−1
+ λx
n−2
1 + λ
, n ≥ 3, λ > 0. Prove that this sequence is convergent and
ﬁnd it’s limit.
Solution: The sequence isn’t monotonic because x
3
=
b + λa
1 + λ
∈ [a, b]. We can
prove by induction that x
n
∈ [a, b]. The sequences (x
2n
)
n≥1
and (x
2n−1
)
n≥1
are
monotonically increasing. Also, we can show by induction, that:
x
2k
−x
2k−1
=
_
λ
1 + λ
_
2k
(b −a)
It follows that the sequences (x
2n
)
n≥1
and (x
2n−1
)
n≥1
have the same limit, so
(x
n
)
n≥1
is convergent. The recurrence formulas can be written as
x
k
−x
k−1
= λ(x
k−2
−x
k
), (∀)k ≥ 3
Summing for k = 3, 4, 5, . . . , n, we have:
x
n
−b = λ(a + b −x
n−1
−x
n
) ⇔ (1 + λ)x
n
+ λx
n−1
= (1 + λ)b + λa
By passing to limit, it follows that:
lim
n→∞
x
n
=
b + λ(a + b)
1 + 2λ
48. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
n

n!
42 A Collection of Limits
Solution: Using the consequence of Cesaro-Stolz lemma, we have:
lim
n→∞
n
n

n!
= lim
n→∞
n
_
n
n
n!
= lim
n→∞
(n+1)
n+1
(n+1)!
n
n
n!
= lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
n+1
n
n
(n + 1)
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
n
_
n
= e
49. Consider the sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
deﬁned by x
1
= 1 and x
n
=
1
1 + x
n−1
, n ≥
2. Prove that this sequence is convergent and evaluate lim
n→∞
x
n
.
Solution: We can show easily by induction that x
n
∈ (0, 1) and that the
sequence (x
2n
)
n≥1
is increasing, while the sequence (x
2n−1
)
n≥1
is decreasing.
Observe that:
x
2n+2
=
1
1 + x
2n+1
=
1
1 +
1
1 + x
2n
=
1 + x
2n
2 + x
2n
The sequence (x
2n
)
n≥1
is convergent, so it has the limit

5 −1
2
. Similarly
lim
n→∞
x
2n−1
=

5 −1
2
. Therefore (x
n
)
n≥1
is convergent and has the limit equal
to

5 −1
2
.
50. If a, b ∈ R

, evaluate:
lim
x→0
ln(cos ax)
ln(cos bx)
Solution:
lim
x→0
ln(cos ax)
ln(cos bx)
= lim
x→0
(cos ax −1) ln(1 + cos ax −1)
1
cos ax −1
(cos bx −1) ln(1 + cos bx −1)
1
cos bx −1
= lim
x→0
−2 sin
2 ax
2
−2 sin
2 bx
2
=
a
2
b
2
Solutions 43
51. Let f : R → R, f(x) =
_
¦x¦ if x ∈ Q
x if x ∈ R¸Q
. Find all α ∈ R for which
lim
x→α
f(x) exists.
Solution: Let f = g − h, where g : R → R, g(x) = x, (∀)x ∈ R and h : R →
R, h(x) =
_
¸x| if x ∈ Q
0 if x ∈ R¸Q
. If α ∈ R¸[0, 1), we can ﬁnd two sequences
x
n
∈ Q and y
n
∈ R¸Q going to α, such that the sequences (f(x
n
)) and (f(y
n
))
have diﬀerent limits. If α ∈ [0, 1), h(x) = 0 and f(x) = x, thus (∀)α ∈ [0, 1), we
have lim
x→α
f(x) = α.
52. Let f : R → R, f(x) =
_
¸x| if x ∈ Q
x if x ∈ R¸Q
. Find all α ∈ R for which
lim
x→α
f(x) exists.
Solution: Divide the problem in two cases:
Case I: α = k ∈ Z. Consider a sequence (x
n
), x
n
∈ (k − 1, k) ∩ Q and
(y
n
), y
n
∈ (k −1, k) ∩ (R¸Q), both tending to k. Then:
lim
n→∞
f(x
n
) = lim
n→∞
¸x
n
| = lim
n→∞
(k −1) = k −1
and lim
n→∞
f(y
n
) = lim
n→∞
y
n
= k. Therefore lim
x→α
f(x) doesn’t exist.
Case II: α ∈ R¸Z. Let ¸α| = k. Consider a sequence (x
n
), x
n
∈ (k, k +1) ∩Q
and (y
n
), y
n
∈ (k, k + 1) ∩ (R¸Q), which tend both to α. Then:
lim
n→α
f(x
n
) = lim
n→α
¸x
n
| = lim
n→α
k = k
and lim
n→α
f(y
n
) = lim
n→α
y
n
= α. Again, in this case, lim
x→α
f(x) doesn’t exist.
53. Let (x
n
)
n≥1
be a sequence of positive real numbers such that x
1
> 0 and
3x
n
= 2x
n−1
+
a
x
2
n−1
, where a is a real positive number. Prove that x
n
is
convergent and evaluate lim
n→∞
x
n
.
Solution: By AM-GM
x
n+1
=
x
n
+ x
n
+
a
x
2
n
3

3
_
x
n
x
n

a
x
2
n
=
3

a ⇒ x
n

3

a
Also
3(x
n+1
−x
n
) =
a
x
2
n
−x
n
=
a −x
3
n
x
3
n
≤ 0 ⇒ x
n+1
−x
n
≤ 0, ∀ n ∈ N , n ≥ 2
44 A Collection of Limits
Therefore, the sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
is decreasing and lower bounded, so it’s conver-
gent. By passing to limit in the recurrence formula we obtain lim
n→∞
x
n
=
3

a.
54. Consider a sequence of real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
1
= 12 and a
n+1
=
a
n
_
1 +
3
n + 1
_
. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
a
k
Solution: Rewrite the recurrence formula as
a
n+1
= a
n

n + 4
n + 1
Writing it for n = 1, 2, . . . , n − 1 and multiplying the obtained equalities, we
ﬁnd that:
a
n
=
(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)
2
, (∀)n ∈ N

Then:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
1
a
k
= lim
n→∞
n

k=1
2
(k + 1)(k + 2)(k + 3)
= lim
n→∞
n

k=1
_
1
k + 1

2
k + 2
+
1
k + 3
_
= lim
n→∞
_
1
6

1
n + 2
+
1
n + 3
_
=
1
6
55. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n

n
2
+ 1
_
n
Solution:
Solutions 45
lim
n→∞
_
n

n
2
+ 1
_
n
= lim
n→∞
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
1 +
n −

n
2
+ 1

n
2
+ 1
_

n
2
+ 1
n −

n
2
+ 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
n
_
n −

n
2
+ 1
_

n
2
+ 1
= e
lim
n→∞
n
_
n −

n
2
+ 1
_

n
2
+ 1
= e
lim
n→∞
−n

n
2
+ 1
_√
n
2
+ 1 + n
_
= e
lim
n→∞
−n
n
2
+ 1 + n

n
2
+ 1
= e
lim
n→∞
−1
n +
1
n
+
_
n
2
+ 1
= e
0
= 1
56. If a ∈ R, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
_
k
2
a
_
n
3
Solution: We have x −1 < ¸x| ≤ x, (∀)x ∈ R. Choosing x = k
2
a, letting k to
take values from 1 to n and summing we have:
n

k=1
(k
2
a −1) <
n

k=1
_
k
2
a
_

n

k=1
k
2
a ⇔
n

k=1
(k
2
a −1)
n
3
<
n

k=1
_
k
2
a
_
n
3

n

k=1
k
2
a
n
3
Now observe that:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
(k
2
a −1)
n
3
= lim
n→∞
a
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
−n
n
3
=
a
3
and
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k
2
a
n
3
= lim
n→∞
an(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6n
3
=
a
3
46 A Collection of Limits
So using the Squeeze Theorem it follows that:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
_
k
2
a
_
n
3
=
a
3
57. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
2
n
_
n

k=1
1
k(k + 2)

1
4
_
n
Solution:
lim
n→∞
2
n
_
n

k=1
1
k(k + 2)

1
4
_
n
= lim
n→∞
2
n
_
1
2
n

k=1
1
k

1
2
n

k=1
1
k + 2

1
4
_
n
= lim
n→∞
2
n
_
3
4

1
2
_
1
n + 1
+
1
n + 2
_

1
4
_
n
= lim
n→∞
_
1 −
2n + 3
(n + 1)(n + 2)
_
n
= lim
n→∞
_
¸
¸
_
_
1 −
2n + 3
(n + 1)(n + 2)
_
−(n + 1)(n + 2)
2n + 3
_
¸
¸
_
−n(2n + 3)
(n + 1)(n + 2)
= e
lim
n→∞
−2n
2
−3n
n
2
+ 3n + 2
= e
−2
58. Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n≥1
, such that a
n
> 0, (∀)n ∈ N and lim
n→∞
n(a
n+1

a
n
) = 1. Evaluate lim
n→∞
a
n
and lim
n→∞
n

a
n
.
lim
n→∞
n(a
n+1
−a
n
) = 1 ⇔ (∀)ε > 0, (∃)n
ε
∈ N, (∀)n ≥ n
ε
⇒ [n(a
n+1
−a
n
) −1[ < ε
Let ε ∈ (0, 1). Then for n ≥ n
ε
, we have:
−ε < n(a
n+1
−a
n
) −1 < ε ⇒
1 −ε
n
< a
n+1
−a
n
<
1 + ε
n
Summing for n = n
ε
, n
ε
+ 1, . . . , n, we get:
(1−ε)
_
1
n
ε
+
1
n
ε
+ 1
+ . . . +
1
n
_
< a
n+1
−a

< (1−ε)
_
1
n
ε
+
1
n
ε
+ 1
+ . . . +
1
n
_
Solutions 47
By passing to limit, it follows that lim
n→∞
a
n
= ∞. To evaluate lim
n→∞
n

a
n
, recall
that in the above conditions we have:
1 −ε
n
< a
n+1
−a
n
<
1 + ε
n

1 −ε
na
n
<
a
n+1
a
n
−1 <
1 + ε
na
n
Thus lim
n→∞
a
n+1
a
n
= 1, and the root test implies that lim
n→∞
n

a
n
= 1
59. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1 + 2

2 + 3

3 + . . . + n

n
n
2

n
Solution: Using Cesaro-Stolz lemma, we have:
lim
n→∞
1 + 2

2 + 3

3 + . . . + n

n
n
2

n
= lim
n→∞
(n + 1)

n + 1
(n + 1)
2

n + 1 −n
2

n
= lim
n→∞
_
(n + 1)
3
_
(n + 1)
5

n
5
= lim
n→∞
_
(n + 1)
3
_
_
(n + 1)
5
+

n
5
_
(n + 1)
5
−n
5
= lim
n→∞
n
4
+ 4n
3
+ 6n
2
+ 4n + 1 +

n
8
+ 3n
7
+ 3n
6
+ n
5
5n
4
+ 10n
3
+ 10n
2
+ 5n + 1
= lim
n→∞
1 +
4
n
+
6
n
2
+
4
n
3
+
1
n
4
+
_
1 +
3
n
+
3
n
2
+
1
n
3
5 +
10
n
+
10
n
2
+
5
n
3
+
1
n
4
=
2
5
60. Evaluate:
lim
x→
π
2
(sin x)
1
2x−π
Solution:
48 A Collection of Limits
lim
x→
π
2
(sin x)
1
2x−π
= lim
x→
π
2
_
_
(1 + sin x −1)
1
sin x −1
_
_
sin x −1
2x −π
= e
lim
x→
π
2
sin x −1
2x −π
= e
lim
y→0
cos y −1
2y
= e
lim
y→0
−sin
2 y
2
y
= e
lim
y→0
_
sin
y
2
y
2
_
2

_

y
4
_
= e
0
= 1
61. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
2
ln
_
cos
1
n
_
Solution: We’ll use the well-known limit lim
xn→0
ln(1 + x
n
)
x
n
= 1. We have:
lim
n→∞
n
2
ln
_
cos
1
n
_
= lim
n→∞
_
n
2
_
cos
1
n
−1
__
lim
n→∞
ln
_
1 +
1
n
−1
_
cos
1
n
−1
= lim
n→∞
−2n
2
sin
2
1
2n
= lim
n→∞

1
2

_
sin
1
2n
1
2n
_2
= −
1
2
62. Given a, b ∈ R

+
, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n

a +
n

b
2
_
n
Solution: Using the limits lim
xn→∞
(1 + x
n
)
1
x
n
= e and lim
n→∞
n(
n

a − 1) = ln a,
we have:
Solutions 49
lim
n→∞
_
n

a +
n

b
2
_
n
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
n

a −1 +
n

b −1
2
_
n
= lim
n→∞
_
¸
¸
_
_
1 +
n

a −1 +
n

b −1
2
_
2
n

a−1+
n

b−1
_
¸
¸
_
n(
n

a−1)+n(
n

b−1)
2
= e
lim
n→∞
n(
n

a−1)+n(
n

b−1)
2
= e
ln a+ln b
2
= e
ln

ab
=

ab
63. Let α > β > 0 and the matrices A =
_
1 0
0 1
_
, B =
_
0 1
1 0
_
.
i)Prove that (∃)(x
n
)
n≥1
, (y
n
)
n≥1
∈ R such that:
_
α β
β α
_
n
= x
n
A + y
n
B, (∀)n ≥ 1
ii)Evaluate lim
n→∞
x
n
y
n
.
Solution: i) We proceed by induction. For n = 1, we have
_
α β
β α
_
= αA + βB
Hence x
1
= α and y
1
= β. Let
_
α β
β α
_
k
= x
k
A + y
k
B
Then
_
α β
β α
_
k+1
= (αA + βB)(x
k
A + y
k
B)
Using B
2
= A, we have:
_
α β
β α
_
k+1
= (αx
k
+ βy
k
)A + (βx
k
+ αy
k
)B
50 A Collection of Limits
Thus x
k+1
= αx
k
+ βy
k
and y
k+1
= βx
k
+ αy
k
.
ii) An easy induction shows that x
n
, y
n
> 0, (∀)n ∈ N

. Let X ∈ /
2
(R)
such that X
n
=
_
x
n
y
n
y
n
x
n
_
. Because det(X
n
) = (det X)
n
, it follows that

2
− β
2
)
n
= x
2
n
− y
2
n
, and because α > β, we have x
n
> y
n
, (∀)n ∈ N

. Let
z
n
=
x
n
y
n
. Then:
z
n+1
=
x
n+1
y
n+1
=
αx
n
+ βy
n
βx
n
+ αy
n
=
αz
n
+ β
βz
n
+ α
It’s easy to see that the sequence is bounded by 1 and
α
β
. Also the sequence is
strictly decreasing, because
z
n+1
−z
n
=
αz
n
+ β
βz
n
+ α
−z
n
=
β(1 −z
2
n
)
βz
n
+ α
< 0
Therefore the sequence is convergent. Let lim
n→∞
z
n
= l, then
l =
αl + β
βl + α
⇒ l
2
= 1
l can’t be −1, because z
n

_
1,
α
β
_
, hence lim
n→∞
x
n
y
n
= 1.
64. If a ∈ R such that [a[ < 1 and p ∈ N

is given, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
p
a
n
Solution: If a = 0, we get n
p
a
n
= 0, (∀)n ∈ N. If a ,= 0, since [a[ < 1, there
is a α > 0 such that [a[ =
1
1 + α
. Let now n > p, then from binomial expansion
we get:
(1 + α)
n
> C
p+1
n
α
p+1

1
(1 + α)
n
<
(p + 1)!
n(n −1)(n −2) . . . (n −p) α
p+1
Then:
0 < [n
p
a
n
[
= n
p
[a[
n
<
n
p
(p + 1)!
n(n −1)(n −2) . . . (n −p) α
p+1
=
n
p−1
(p + 1)!
(n −1)(n −2) . . . (n −p) α
p+1
Keeping in mind that
Solutions 51
lim
n→∞
n
p−1
(p + 1)!
(n −1)(n −2) . . . (n −p) α
p+1
= 0
and using the Squeeze Theorem, it follows that
lim
n→∞
n
p
a
n
= 0
65. If p ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1
p
+ 2
p
+ 3
p
+ . . . + n
p
n
p+1
Solution: Using Cesaro-Stolz lemma we have:
lim
n→∞
1
p
+ 2
p
+ 3
p
+ . . . + n
p
n
p+1
= lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
p
(n + 1)
p+1
−n
p+1
= lim
n→∞
n
p
+
_
p
1
_
n
p−1
+ . . .
_
p + 1
1
_
n
p
+
_
p + 1
2
_
n
p−1
+ . . .
=
1
_
p + 1
1
_
=
1
p + 1
66. If n ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
x →1
x<1
sin(narccos x)

1 −x
2
First solution: Recall the identity:
cos nt + i sin nt =
_
n
0
_
cos
n
t + i
_
n
1
_
cos
n−1
t sin t + . . . + i
n
_
n
n
_
sin
n
t
For t = arccos x, we have:
sin(narccos x) =
_
n
1
_
x
n−1

_
1 −x
2

_
n
3
_
x
n−3
(
_
1 −x
2
)
3
+
_
n
5
_
x
n−5
(
_
1 −x
2
)
5
−. . .
Then:
lim
x →1
x<1
sin(narccos x)

1 −x
2
= lim
x →1
x<1
__
n
1
_
x
n−1

_
n
3
_
x
n−3
(1 −x
2
) +
_
n
5
_
x
n−5
(1 −x
2
)
2
−. . .
_
= n
52 A Collection of Limits
Second solution:
lim
x →1
x<1
sin(narccos x)

1 −x
2
= lim
x →1
x<1
sin(narccos x)
narccos x
lim
x →1
x<1
narccos x

1 −x
2
= lim
x →1
x<1
narccos x

1 −x
2
= lim
y →0
y>0
ny

1 −cos
y
= lim
y →0
y>0
ny
sin y
= n
67. If n ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
x →1
x<1
1 −cos(narccos x)
1 −x
2
Solution:
lim
x →1
x<1
1 −cos(narccos x)
1 −x
2
= lim
x →1
x<1
2 sin
2
_
narccos x
2
_
1 −x
2
= lim
x →1
x<1
2 sin
2
_
narccos x
2
_
_
narccos x
2
_
2
lim
x →1
x<1
n
2
arccos
2
x
4(1 −x
2
)
= lim
x →1
x<1
n
2
arccos
2
x
4(1 −x
2
)
= lim
y →0
y>0
n
2
y
2
2 sin
2
y
=
n
2
2
68. Study the convergence of the sequence:
x
n+1
=
x
n
+ a
x
n
+ 1
, n ≥ 1, x
1
≥ 0, a > 0
Solution: Consider a sequence (y
n
)
n≥1
such that x
n
=
y
n+1
y
n
− 1. Thus, our
recurrence formula reduces to : y
n+2
− 2y
n+1
+ (1 − a)y
n
= 0, whence y
n
=
α (1 +

a)
n
+ β (1 −

a)
n
. Finally:
Solutions 53
lim
n→∞
x
n
= lim
n→∞
α (1 +

a)
n+1
+ β (1 −

a)
n+1
α (1 +

a)
n
+ β (1 −

a)
n
−1
= lim
n→∞
α (1 +

a) + β
_
1−

a
1+

a
_
n
(1 −

a)
α + β
_
1−

a
1+

a
_
n
−1
=
α (1 +

a)
α
−1
=

a
69. Consider two sequences of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥0
and (y
n
)
n≥0
such that
x
0
= y
0
= 3, x
n
= 2x
n−1
+ y
n−1
and y
n
= 2x
n−1
+ 3y
n−1
, (∀)n ≥ 1. Evaluate
lim
n→∞
x
n
y
n
.
First solution: Summing the hypothesis equalities, we have
x
n
+ y
n
= 4(x
n−1
+ y
n−1
), n ≥ 1
Then x
n
+ y
n
= 4
(
x
0
+ y
0
) = 6 4
n
. Substracting the hypothesis equalities, we
get
y
n
−x
n
= 2y
n−1
, n ≥ 1
Summing with the previous equality we have 2y
n
= 2y
n−1
+64
n
⇒ y
n
−y
n−1
=
3 4
n
. Then
y
1
−y
0
= 3 4
y
2
−y
1
= 3 4
2
y
3
−y
2
= 3 4
3
. . .
y
n
−y
n−1
= 3 4
n
Summing, it follows that:
y
n
= y
0
+3(4+4
2
+. . . +4
n
) = 3(1+4+4
2
+. . . +4
n
) = 3
4
n+1
−1
4 −1
= 4
n+1
−1
Then x
n
= 2 4
n
+ 1, and therefore:
lim
n→∞
x
n
y
n
= lim
n→∞
2 4
n
+ 1
4 4
n
−1
=
1
2
54 A Collection of Limits
Second solution: Deﬁne a
n
=
x
n
y
n
so that a
n
=
2a
n−1
+ 1
2a
n−1
+ 3
. Now let a
n
=
b
n+1
b
n

3
2
to obtain 2b
n+1
−5b
n
+b
n−1
= 0. Then b
n
= α 2
n
+β 2
−n
for some
α, β ∈ R. We ﬁnally come to:
lim
n→∞
a
n
= lim
n→∞
_
α 2
n+1
+ β 2
−n−1
α 2
n
+ β 2
−n

3
2
_
= 2 −
3
2
=
1
2
70. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
tan x −x
x
2
Solution: If x ∈
_
0,
π
2
_
, we have:
0 <
tan x −x
x
2
<
tan x −sin x
x
2
=
tan x(1 −cos x)
x
2
=
2 tan x sin
2 x
2
x
2
and because lim
x→0
2 tan x sin
2 x
2
x
2
= lim
x→0
tan x
2
lim
x→0
_
sin
x
2
x
2
_
2
= 0, using the
Squeeze Theorem it follows that:
lim
x →0
x>0
tan x −x
x
2
= 0
Also
lim
x →0
x<0
tan x −x
x
2
= lim
y →0
y>0
−tan y + y
y
2
= − lim
y →0
y>0
tan y −y
y
2
= 0
71. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
tan x −arctan x
x
2
Solution: Using the result from the previous problem, we have:
lim
x→0
tan x −arctan x
x
2
= lim
x→0
tan x −x
x
2
+ lim
x→0
x −arctan x
x
2
= lim
x→0
x −arctan x
x
2
= lim
y→0
tan y −y
tan
2
y
= lim
y→0
tan y −y
y
2
lim
y→0
y
2
tan
2
y
= 0
Solutions 55
72. Let a > 0 and a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥0
such that x
n
∈ (0, a) and
x
n+1
(a − x
n
) >
a
2
4
, (∀)n ∈ N. Prove that (x
n
)
n≥1
is convergent and evaluate
lim
n→∞
x
n
.
Solution: Rewrite the condition as
x
n+1
a
_
1 −
x
n
a
_
>
1
4
. With the substitution
y
n
=
x
n
a
, we have y
n+1
(1 −y
n
) >
1
4
, with y
n
∈ (0, 1). Then:
4y
n+1
−4y
n
y
n+1
−1 > 0 ⇔ 4y
n
y
n+1
−4y
2
n+1
+4y
2
n+1
−4y
n+1
+1 < 0 ⇔ 4y
n
(y
n+1
−y
n
) > (2y
n+1
−1)
2
So y
n+1
− y
n
> 0, whence the sequence is strictly increasing. Let lim
n→∞
y
n
= l.
Then l(1 −l) ≥
1
4

_
l −
1
2
_
2
≤ 0. Hence l =
1
2
⇒ lim
n→∞
x
n
=
a
2
.
73. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
cos
_

2n

e
_
Solution: Using lim
f(x)→0
a
f(x)
−1
f(x)
= ln a, with a ∈ R, we have:
¸
¸
¸ lim
n→∞
cos
_

2n

e
_
¸
¸
¸ = lim
n→∞
[(−1)
n
cos
_

2n

e −nπ
_
[
= lim
n→∞
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
cos
_
π
2

e
1
2n
−1
1
2n

¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
cos
_
π
2
lim
n→∞
e
1
2n
−1
1
2n

¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸cos
_
π
2

¸
¸
= 0
It follows that lim
n→∞
cos
_

2n

e
_
= 0.
74. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
n + 1
n
_
tan
(n−1)π
2n
Solution:
56 A Collection of Limits
lim
n→∞
_
n + 1
n
_
tan
(n−1)π
2n
= lim
n→∞
__
1 +
1
n
_
n
_
1
n
tan
(n−1)π
2n
= e
lim
n→∞
tan
(n−1)π
2n
n
= e
lim
n→∞
tan
_
π
2

π
2n
_
n
= e
lim
n→∞
cot
π
2n
n
= e
lim
n→∞
1
ntan
π
2n
= e
lim
n→∞
2
π

π
2n
tan
π
2n
= e
2
π
75. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
¸
¸
¸
_
n

k=1
_
n
k
_
Solution: Using AM-GM, we have:
n

n! =
n

1 2 3 . . . n <
1 + 2 + . . . + n
n
=
n + 1
2
Therefore
(n + 1)
n
n!
> 2
n
⇒ lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
n
n!
= ∞. So:
lim
n→∞
n
¸
¸
¸
_
n

k=1
_
n
k
_
= lim
n→∞
n+1

k=1
_
n + 1
k
_
n

k=1
_
n
k
_
= lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
n
n!
= ∞
76. If a > 0, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
a +

a +
3

a + . . . +
n

a −n
ln n
Solution:
Solutions 57
lim
n→∞
a +

a +
3

a + . . . +
n

a −n
ln n
= lim
n→∞
n+1

a −1
ln(n + 1) −ln n
= lim
n→∞
n (
n+1

a −1)
ln
_
1 +
1
n
_
n
= lim
n→∞
_
a
1
n+1
−1
1
n+1

n
n + 1
_
= ln a
77. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
nln tan
_
π
4
+
π
n
_
Solution:
lim
n→∞
nln tan
_
π
4
+
π
n
_
= lim
n→∞
ln tan
_
π
4
+
π
n
_
n
= ln lim
n→∞
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
1 + tan
_
π
4
+
π
n
_
−1
_
1
tan
_
π
4
+
π
n
_
−1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
n
_
tan
_
π
4
+
π
n
_
−1
_
= ln e
lim
n→∞
_
tan
_
π
4
+
π
n
_
−1
_
= lim
n→∞
n
_
tan
_
π
4
+
π
n
_
−1
_
= lim
n→∞
n
_
_
1 + tan
π
n
1 −tan
π
n
−1
_
_
= lim
n→∞
2ntan
π
n
1 −tan
π
n
= 2 lim
n→∞
ntan
π
n
= 2π lim
n→∞
tan
π
n
π
n
= 2π
78. Let k ∈ N and a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
∈ R such that a
0
+ a
1
+ a
2
+ . . . + a
k
= 0.
Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
a
0
3

n + a
1
3

n + 1 + . . . + a
k
3

n + k
_
58 A Collection of Limits
Solution:
lim
n→∞
_
a
0
3

n + a
1
3

n + 1 + . . . + a
k
3

n + k
_
= lim
n→∞
_
a
0
3

n +
k

i=1
a
i
3

n + i
_
= lim
n→∞
_

3

n
k

i=1
a
i
+
k

i=1
a
i
3

n + i
_
= lim
n→∞
k

i=1
a
i
_
3

n + i −
3

n
_
= lim
n→∞
k

i=1
ia
i
3
_
(n + i)
2
+
3
_
n(n + i) +
3

n
2
= 0
79. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
sin
_

3
_
n
3
+ 3n
2
+ 4n −5
_
Solution:
lim
n→∞
sin
_

3
_
n
3
+ 3n
2
+ 4n −5
_
= lim
n→∞
sin
_

3
_
n
3
+ 3n
2
+ 4n −5 −n(n + 1)π
_
= lim
n→∞
sin
_

_
3
_
n
3
+ 3n
2
+ 4n −5 −n −1
__
= lim
n→∞
sin
_
n(n −6)π
3
_
(n
3
−5)
2
+ (n + 1)
3

n
3
−5 + (n + 1)
2
_
= sin
_
_
_π lim
n→∞
1 −
6
n
3
_
_
1 −
5
n
3
_
2
+
_
1 +
1
n
_
3
_
1 −
5
n
3
+
_
1 +
1
n
_
2
_
_
_
= sin
π
3
=

3
2
80. Evaluate:
lim
x →1
x<1
2 arcsin x −π
sin πx
Solution:
Solutions 59
lim
x →1
x<1
2 arcsin x −π
sin πx
= 2 lim
x →1
x<1
arcsin x −
π
2
sin
_
arcsin x −
π
2
_ lim
x →1
x<1
sin
_
arcsin x −
π
2
_
sin πx
= 2 lim
x →1
x<1

_
1 −y
2
sin πx
= −2 lim
y →0
y>0
_
y(2 −y)
sin π(1 −y)
= −2 lim
y →0
y>0
_
2(1 −y)
sin πy
= −2 lim
y →0
y>0
πy
sin πy
lim
y →0
y>0

2 −y
π

y
= −∞
81. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=2
1
k ln k
Solution: Using Lagrange formula we can deduce that
1
k ln k
> ln(ln(k + 1)) −ln(ln k)
Summing from k = 2 to n it follows that
n

k=2
1
k ln k
> ln(ln(n + 1)) −ln(ln 2))
Then it is obvious that:
lim
n→∞
n

k=2
1
k ln k
= ∞
82. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
_
_
lim
x→0
_
1 +
n

k=1
sin
2
(kx)
_ 1
n
3
x
2
_
_
Solution:
60 A Collection of Limits
lim
n→∞
_
_
lim
x→0
_
1 +
n

k=1
sin
2
(kx)
_ 1
n
3
x
2
_
_
= lim
n→∞
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
lim
x→0
_
1 +
n

k=1
sin
2
(kx)
_
1
n

k=1
sin
2
(kx)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n

k=1
sin
2
(kx)
n
3
x
2
= lim
n→∞
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
1
n
3
lim
x→0
n

k=1
sin
2
(kx)
x
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= e
lim
n→∞
1
2
+ 2
2
+ . . . + n
2
n
3
= e
lim
n→∞
(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6n
2
=
3

e
83. If p ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=0
(k + 1)(k + 2) . . . (k + p)
n
p+1
Solution: Using Cesaro-Stolz, we have:
lim
n→∞
n

k=0
(k + 1)(k + 2) . . . (k + p)
n
p+1
=
n

k=0
(k + p)!
k!
n
p+1
= lim
n→∞
(n + p + 1)!
(n + 1)!
(n + 1)
p+1
−n
p+1
= lim
n→∞
(n + 2)(n + 3) . . . (n + p + 1)
n
p+1
+
_
p+1
1
_
n
p
+ . . . + 1 −n
p+1
= lim
n→∞
n
p
+ . . .
(p + 1)n
p
+ . . .
=
1
p + 1
Solutions 61
84. If α
n

_
0,
π
4
_
is a root of the equation tan α +cot α = n, n ≥ 2, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
(sin α
n
+ cos α
n
)
n
Solution:
lim
n→∞
(sin α
n
+ cos α
n
)
n
= lim
n→∞
_
(sin α
n
+ cos α
n
)
2
¸n
2
= lim
n→∞
(1 + 2 cos α
n
sin α
n
)
n
2
= lim
n→∞
_
_
_
_
1 +
2
sin
2
α
n
+ cos
2
α
n
cos α
n
sin α
n
_
_
_
_
n
2
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
2
tan α
n
+ cot α
n
_
n
2
= lim
n→∞
_
1 +
2
n
_n
2
= e
85. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
¸
_
n + k
2
_
n
2
First solution: Cesaro-Stolz gives:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
¸
_
n + k
2
_
n
2
= lim
n→∞
¸
_
2n + 1
2
_
+
¸
_
2n + 2
2
_

¸
_
n + 1
2
_
2n + 1
=
1

2
lim
n→∞
_
2n(2n + 1) +
_
(2n + 1)(2n + 2) −
_
n(n + 1)
2n + 1
=
1

2
lim
n→∞
_
4 +
2
n
+
_
4 +
6
n
+
2
n
2

_
1 +
1
n
2 +
1
n
=
3
2

2
Second solution: Observe that:
62 A Collection of Limits
_
n + k
2
_
=
(n + k −1)(n + k)
2
=
n
2
2
_
1 +
k
n
__
1 +
k −1
n
_
for which we have
n
2
2
_
1 +
k −1
n
_
2

n
2
2
_
1 +
k
n
__
1 +
k −1
n
_

n
2
2
_
1 +
k
n
_
2
therefore
n

2
_
1 +
k −1
n
_

¸
_
n + k
2
_

n

2
_
1 +
k
n
_
Summing from k = 1 to n, we get:
1
n

2

k=1
_
1 +
k −1
n
_
≤ lim
n→∞
n

k=1
¸
_
n + k
2
_
n
2

1
n

2
n

k=1
_
1 +
k
n
_
We can apply the Squeeze theorem because
lim
n→∞
1
n

2

k=1
_
1 +
k −1
n
_
= lim
n→∞
1
n

2
_
n +
n −1
2
_
= lim
n→∞
3n −1
2n

2
=
3
2

2
and
lim
n→∞
1
n

2
n

k=1
_
1 +
k
n
_
= lim
n→∞
1
n

2
_
n +
n + 1
2
_
= lim
n→∞
3n + 1
2n

2
=
3
2

2
Thus
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
¸
_
n + k
2
_
n
2
=
3
2

2
86. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n
¸
¸
¸
_
n

k=1
_
1 +
k
n
_
Solution: Using Cesaro-Stolz we’ll evaluate:
Solutions 63
lim
n→∞
ln
n
¸
¸
¸
_
n

k=1
_
1 +
k
n
_
= lim
n→∞
n

k=1
ln
_
1 +
k
n
_
n
= lim
n→∞
n+1

k=1
ln
_
1 +
k
n + 1
_

n

k=1
ln
_
1 +
k
n
_
= lim
n→∞
n

k=1
ln
1 +
k
n+1
1 +
k
n
+ ln 2
= lim
n→∞
ln
_
4n + 2
n + 1

_
n
n + 1
_
n
_
= ln 4 −1
It follows that:
lim
n→∞
n
¸
¸
¸
_
n

k=1
_
1 +
k
n
_
= 4e
−1
87. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
arctan x −arcsin x
x
3
Solution:
lim
x→0
arctan x −arcsin x
x
3
= lim
x→0
arctan x −arcsin x
tan(arctan x −arcsin x)
lim
x→0
tan(arctan x −arcsin x)
x
3
= lim
x→0
tan(arctan x −arcsin x)
x
3
= lim
x→0
1
x
3

x −
x

1 −x
2
1 +
x

1 −x
2
= lim
x→0
1
x
2

1 −x
2
−1

1 −x
2
+ x
2
= lim
x→0
−1
(

1 −x
2
+ x
2
)(

1 −x
2
+ 1)
= −
1
2
88. If α > 0, evaluate:
lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
α
−n
α
n
α−1
64 A Collection of Limits
Solution: Let
x
n
=
(n + 1)
α
−n
α
n
α−1
=
n
α
__
1 +
1
n
_
α
−1
¸
n
α−1
= n
__
1 +
1
n
_
α
−1
_
Then lim
n→∞
x
n
n
= 0. Observe that:
1 +
x
n
n
=
_
1 +
1
n
_
α

_
_
_
1 +
x
n
n
_
n
x
n
_
_
xn
=
__
1 +
1
n
_
n
_
α
By passing to limit, we have e
lim
n→∞
x
n
= e
α
. Hence lim
n→∞
x
n
= α.
89. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k
2
2
k
Solution:
lim
n→∞
n

k=1
k
2
2
k
= lim
n→∞
n

k=1
_
k(k + 1)
2
k

k
2
k
_
= lim
n→∞
_
n

k=1
_
k
2
2
k−1

(k + 1)
2
2
k
+
3k + 1
2
k
_

n

k=1
k
2
k
_
= lim
n→∞
_
_
1 −
(n + 1)
2
2
n
_
+
n

k=1
2k + 1
2
k
_
= lim
n→∞
_
_
1 −
(n + 1)
2
2
n
_
+ 2
n

k=1
k
2
k
+
n

k=1
1
2
k
_
= lim
n→∞
_
_
1 −
(n + 1)
2
2
n
_
+ 2
n

k=1
_
k
2
k−1

k + 1
2
k
+
1
2
k
_
+
n

k=1
1
2
k
_
= lim
n→∞
_
_
1 −
(n + 1)
2
2
n
_
+ 2
_
1 −
n + 1
2
n
_
+ 3
n

k=1
1
2
k
_
= lim
n→∞
_
3 −
n
2
+ 4n + 3
2
n
+ 3
_
1 −
1
2
n
__
= lim
n→∞
_
6 −
n
2
+ 4n + 6
2
n
_
= 6 − lim
n→∞
n
2
+ 4n + 6
2
n
Because:
Solutions 65
lim
n→∞
(n + 1)
2
+ 4(n + 1) + 6
2
n+1
n
2
+ 4n + 6
2
n
= lim
n→∞
n
2
+ 6n + 11
2n
2
+ 8n + 12
=
1
2
it follows that lim
n→∞
n
2
+ 4n + 6
2
n
= 0, therefore our limit is 6.
90. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

k=0
(k + 1)(k + 2)
2
k
Solution: Using the previous limit, we have:
lim
n→∞
n

k=0
(k + 1)(k + 2)
2
k
= lim
n→∞
_
n

k=0
k
2
2
k
+ 3
n

k=0
k
2
k
+
n

k=0
1
2
k−1
_
= 6 + 3 lim
n→∞
_
2 −
n + 2
2
n
_
+ lim
n→∞
_
2 +
1 −
1
2
n
1
2
_
= 16
91. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
1
∈ (0, 1) and
x
n+1
= x
2
n
−x
n
+ 1, (∀)n ∈ N. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
(x
1
x
2
. . . x
n
)
Solution: Substracting x
n
from both sides of the recurrence formula gives
x
n+1
−x
n
= x
2
n
−2x
n
+1 = (x
n
−1)
2
≥ 0 so (x
n
)
n≥1
is an increasing sequence.
x
1
∈ (0, 1) is given as hypothesis. Now if there exists k ∈ N such that x
k
∈ (0, 1),
then (x
k
−1) ∈ (−1, 0), so x
k
(x
k
−1) ∈ (−1, 0). Then x
k+1
= 1 +x
k
(x
k
−1) ∈
(0, 1) as well, so by induction we see that the sequence in contained in (0, 1).
(x
n
)
n≥1
is increasing and bounded from above, so it converges. If lim
n→∞
x
n
= 1
then from the recurrence, l = l
2
−l + 1 which gives l = 1. Thus, lim
n→∞
x
n
= 1.
Now rewrite the recurrence formula as 1−x
n+1
= x
n
(1−x
n
). For n = 1, 2, . . . , n,
we have:
1 −x
2
= x
1
(1 −x
1
)
1 −x
3
= x
2
(1 −x
2
)
. . .
66 A Collection of Limits
1 −x
n
= x
n−1
(1 −x
n−1
)
1 −x
n+1
= x
n
(1 −x
n
)
Multiplying them we have:
1 −x
n+1
= x
1
x
2
. . . x
n
(1 −x
1
)
Thus:
lim
n→∞
(x
1
x
2
. . . x
n
) = lim
n→∞
1 −x
n+1
1 −x
1
= 0
92. If n ∈ N

, evaluate:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x cos 2x . . . cos nx
x
2
Solution: Let
a
n
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x cos 2x . . . cos nx
x
2
Then
a
n+1
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x cos 2x . . . cos nx cos(n + 1)x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x cos 2x . . . cos nx
x
2
+ lim
x→0
cos x cos 2x . . . nx(1 −cos(n + 1)x)
x
2
= a
n
+ lim
x→0
1 −cos(n + 1)x
x
2
= a
n
+ lim
x→0
2 sin
2 (n+1)x
2
x
2
= a
n
+
(n + 1)
2
2
lim
x→0
_
sin
(n+1)x
2
n+1
2
_
2
= a
n
+
(n + 1)
2
2
Now let n = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n −1:
a
0
= 0
a
1
= a
0
+
1
2
Solutions 67
a
2
= a
1
+
2
2
2
a
3
= a
2
+
3
2
2
. . .
a
n
= a
n−1
+
n
2
2
Summing gives:
a
n
=
1
2
+
1
2
2
+ . . . +
n
2
2
=
1
2
(1
2
+ 2
2
+ . . . + n
2
) =
1
2

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
lim
x→0
1 −cos x cos 2x . . . cos nx
x
2
=
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
12
93. Consider a sequence of real numbers (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
n
is the real root
of the equation x
3
+nx−n = 0, n ∈ N

. Prove that this sequence is convergent
and ﬁnd it’s limit.
Solution: Let f(x) = x
3
+ nx − n. Then f

(x) = 3x
2
+ n > 0, so f has only
one real root which is contained in the interval (0, 1)(because f(0) = −n and
f(1) = 1, so x
n
∈ (0, 1)).
The sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
is strictly increasing, because
x
n+1
−x
n
=
1 −x
n
x
2
n+1
+ x
n+1
x
n
+ x
2
n
+ n
> 0
Therefore the sequence is convergent. From the equation, we have x
n
= 1−
x
3
n
n
.
By passing to limit, we ﬁnd that lim
n→∞
x
n
= 1.
94. Evaluate:
lim
x→2
arctan x −arctan 2
tan x −tan 2
Solution: Using tan(a −b) =
tan a −tan b
1 + tan a tan b
, we have:
68 A Collection of Limits
lim
x→2
arctan x −arctan 2
tan x −tan 2
= lim
x→2
arctan x −arctan 2
tan(arctan x −arctan 2)
lim
x→2
tan(arctan x −arctan 2)
tan x −tan 2
= lim
x→2
x−2
1+2x
sin(x−2)
cos x·cos 2
= lim
x→2
x −2
sin(x −2)
lim
x→2
cos x cos 2
1 + 2x
= lim
x→2
cos x cos 2
1 + 2x
=
cos
2
2
5
95. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1 +
2
2

2! +
3
2

3! + . . . +
n
2

n!
n
Solution: Using Cesaro-Stolz:
lim
n→∞
1 +
2
2

2! +
3
2

3! + . . . +
n
2

n!
n
= lim
n→∞
(n+1)
2
_
(n + 1)!
Also, an application of AM-GM gives:
1 ≤
(n+1)
2
_
(n + 1)!
=
n+1
_
n+1
_
1 2 3 . . . n (n + 1)
<
n+1
_
1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + n + n + 1
n + 1
=
n+1
_
n + 2
2
Thus
1 ≤ lim
n→∞
(n+1)
2
_
(n + 1)! ≤ lim
n→∞
n+1
_
n + 2
2
= 1
From the Squeeze Theorem it follows that:
lim
n→∞
1 +
2
2

2! +
3
2

3! + . . . +
n
2

n!
n
= 1
96. Let (x
n
)
n≥1
such that x
1
> 0, x
1
+ x
2
1
< 1 and x
n+1
= x
n
+
x
2
n
n
2
, (∀)n ≥ 1.
Prove that the sequences (x
n
)
n≥1
and (y
n
)
n≥2
, y
n
=
1
x
n

1
n −1
are convergent.
Solutions 69
Solution: x
n+1
−x
n
=
x
2
n
n
2
, so the (x
n
)
n≥1
is strictly increasing.
x
2
= x
1
+ x
2
1
< 1 ⇒
1
x
2
> 1 ⇒ y
2
=
1
x
2
−1 > 0
Also
y
n+1
−y
n
=
1
x
n+1

1
n

1
x
n
+
1
n −1
=
1
n(n −1)

x
n+1
−x
n
x
n
x
n+1
=
1
n(n −1)

x
n
n
2
x
n+1
>
1
n(n −1)

1
n
2
=
1
n
2
(n −1)
> 0
Hence (y
n
)
n≥2
is strictly increasing. Observe that x
n
=
1
y
n
+
1
n −1
. So
lim
n→∞
x
n
=
1
lim
n→∞
y
n
. Assuming that lim
n→∞
y
n
= ∞, we have lim
n→∞
x
n
= 0, which is
1
> 0 and the sequence (x
n
)
n≥1
is strictly increasing.
Hence (y
n
)
n≥2
is convergent. It follows that (x
n
)
n≥2
is also convergent.
97. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
n

i=1
sin
2i
n
2
First solution: Let’s start from
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1 ⇔ (∀)ε > 0, (∃)δ > 0, (∀)x ∈ (−δ, δ)¸¦0¦ ⇒
¸
¸
¸
¸
sin x
x
−1
¸
¸
¸
¸
< ε
Let some arbitrary ε > 0. For such ε, (∃)δ > 0 such that (∀)x ∈ (−δ, δ)¸¦0¦, we
have 1 −ε <
sin x
x
< 1 +ε. For δ > 0, (∃)n
ε
∈ N

such that
2
n
< δ, (∀)n ≥ n
ε
.
Because 0 <
2i
n
2

2
n
, (∀)1 ≤ i ≤ n, n ≥ n
ε
, we have:
1 −ε <
sin
2i
n
2
2i
n
2
< 1 + ε
70 A Collection of Limits
Summing, we get:
(1 −ε)
n

i=1
2i
n
2
<
n

i=1
sin
2i
n
2
< (1 + ε)
n

i=1
2i
n
2
Or equivalently:
(1 −ε)(n + 1)
n
<

i=1
sin
2i
n
2
<
(1 + ε)(n + 1)
n
By passing to limit:
1 −ε ≤ lim
n→∞
n

i=1
sin
2i
n
2
≤ 1 + ε
Or
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
lim
n→∞
n

i=1
sin
2i
n
2
−1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
≤ ε, (∀)ε > 0
which implies that:
lim
n→∞
n

i=1
sin
2i
n
2
= 1
n

i=1
sin(x + yi) =
sin
(n + 1)y
2
sin
_
x +
ny
2
_
sin
y
2
Setting x = 0, y =
2
n
2
, it rewrites as
n

i=1
sin
2i
n
2
=
sin
n + 1
n
2
sin
1
n
sin
1
n
2
whence
lim
n→∞
n

i=1
sin
2i
n
2
= lim
n→∞
sin
n + 1
n
2
n + 1
n
2

sin
1
n
1
n
sin
1
n
2
1
n
2
lim
n→∞
n + 1
n
= 1
98. If a > 0, a ,= 1, evaluate:
Solutions 71
lim
x→a
x
x
−a
x
a
x
−a
a
Solution: As lim
x→a
xln
x
a
= 0, we have:
lim
x→a
x
x
−a
x
a
x
−a
a
= lim
x→a
e
x ln x
−e
x ln a
a
x
−a
a
= lim
x→a
e
x ln a
_
e
x ln
x
a
−1
_
a
a
(a
x−a
−1)
=
_
lim
x→a
e
x ln a
a
a
_

_
lim
x→a
e
x ln
x
a
−1
xln
x
a
_

_
lim
x→a
x −a
a
x−a
−1
_

_
lim
x→a
xln
x
a
x −a
_
=
1
ln a
lim
x→a
_
xln
_
x
a
_ 1
x−a
_
=
a
ln a
lim
x→a
_
¸
_
_
1 +
x −a
a
_
a
x −a
_
¸
_
1
a
=
a
ln a
ln e
1
a
=
1
ln a
99. Consider a sequence of positive real numbers (a
n
)
n≥1
such that a
n+1

1
a
n+1
= a
n
+
1
a
n
, (∀)n ≥ 1. Evaluate:
lim
n→∞
1

n
_
1
a
1
+
1
a
2
+ . . . +
1
a
n
_
Solution: (a
n
)
n≥1
is clearly an increasing sequence. If it has a ﬁnite limit, say
l, then
l −
1
l
= l +
1
l

2
l
= 0
n
approaches inﬁnity. Let y
n
=
1
a
2
n
+ a
2
n
. Then
y
n+1
= y
n
+ 4. So
y
2
= y
1
+ 4
y
3
= y
2
+ 4
. . .
72 A Collection of Limits
y
n+1
= y
n
+ 4
Summing, it results that y
n+1
= y
1
+ 4n, which rewrites as
a
2
n+1
+
1
a
2
n+1
= y
1
+ 4n ⇔
_
a
n+1
+
1
a
n+1
_
2
= y
1
+ 2 + 4n ⇔
a
n+1
+
1
a
n+1
=
_
4n + y
1
+ 2 ⇒ a
2
n+1

_
4n + y
1
+ 2 a
n+1
+ 1 = 0
from which a
n+1
=

4n + y
1
+ 2 ±

4n + y
1
−2
2
. If we accept that a
n+1
=

4n + y
1
+ 2 −

4n + y
1
−2
2
, then:
lim
n→∞
a
n+1
= lim
n→∞

4n + y
1
+ 2 −

4n + y
1
−2
2
= lim
n→∞
2

4n + y
1
+ 2 +

4n + y
1
−2
= 0
which is false, therefore a
n+1
=

4n + y
1
+ 2 +

4n + y
1
−2
2
.
By Cesaro-Stolz, we obtain:
lim
n→∞
1

n
_
1
a
1
+
1
a
2
+ . . . +
1
a
n
_
= lim
n→∞
1
a
n

n + 1 −

n
= lim
n→∞

n +

n + 1
a
n+1
= lim
n→∞
2(

n +

n + 1)

4n + y
1
+ 2 +

4n + y
1
−2
= lim
n→∞
2(1 +
_
1 +
1
n
)
_
4 +
y
1
n
+
2
n
+
_
4 +
y
1
n

2
n
= 1
100. Evaluate:
lim
x→0
2
arctan x
−2
arcsin x
2
tan x
−2
sin x
Solution:
Solutions 73
lim
x→0
2
arctan x
−2
arcsin x
2
tan x
−2
sin x
= lim
x→0
2
arcsin x
(2
arctan x−arcsin x
−1)
2
sin x
(2
tan x−sin x
−1)
= lim
x→0
2
arctan x−arcsin x
−1
2
tan x−sin x
−1
= lim
x→0
2
arctan x−arcsin x
−1
arctan x −arcsin x
lim
x→0
tan x −sin x
2
tan x−sin x
−1
lim
x→0
arctan x −arcsin x
tan x −sin x
= ln 2
1
ln 2
lim
x→0
arctan x −arcsin x
tan x −sin x
= lim
x→0
arctan x −arcsin x
x
3
lim
x→0
x
3
tan x −sin x
= lim
x→0
arctan x −arcsin x
tan(arctan x −arcsin x)
lim
x→0
tan(arctan x −arcsin x)
x
3
lim
x→0
x
3
tan x(1 −cos x)
= lim
x→0
x −
x

1−x
2
1 +
x
2

1−x
2
x
3
lim
x→0
x
3
2 tan x sin
2 x
2
= lim
x→0

1 −x
2
−1
x
2
(

1 −x
2
+ x
2
)
lim
x→0
x
tan x
2 lim
x→0
_
_
x
2
sin
x
2
_
_
2
= 2 lim
x→0
−x
2
x
2
(

1 −x
2
+ x
2
)(

1 −x
2
+ 1)
= −1

scribd
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