Environmental Impact Assessment for a Proposed AC Milan Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant to be site at Avocat Village, Ravine, Blannchisseuse

Prepared By

Surindra Basdeo
Prepared For ENM 235 Lecturer: Mr. Vivian Joseph In Association With Cipriani College of Labour & Co-Operative Studies April 2009

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Cipriani College of Labour & Co-Operative Studies
Churchill Roosevelt Highway, Valsayn

Name: Surindra Basdeo Student I.D #: 2006030585 Program: Bachelors of Science Occupational Safety; Health; Environment. Course: Environmental Investigative and Impact Assessment Technique Code: ENM 235

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Lecturer: Mr. Vivian Joseph TABLE OF CONTENT
PAGE # Preface 5 Acknowledgment Introduction QUESTION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Background Introduction Transformation chart Site Map Residual Environmental Impact Residual Social Impact Mitigation Measures Environmental Management Plan CONCLUSION 1 Required Approval \ Agency Certificate of Environmental Clearance 14-15 16-17 8 9 10 11 12 12 12-13 13 5 6 7

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SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE: Quality Management Terrestrial Map BASELINE STUDY: Topography Drainage Geology Flora Avi-Fauna\ Terrestrial Fauna Rainfall Sewage Healthcare Water Quality Impact Prediction Impact Assessment Mitigation Measures Conclusion 2 Bibliography 20 20 20-21 20 21-22 23 23 23 24 24-25 26 27-29 30-36 37 18 19

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Preface: This project compiles together, to explain the effects of some Environmental effects Positive or Negative Impact that a Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant would have on the community and surrounding area of Avocat Village, Blanchissues, the citizens anatomical and physiological system that resides in that perimeter. It intends to identify the problems, allow you to understand the predictable effects, and the necessary measures to deal with it. Give an understanding with the presentation of information from different experts. Explain the control. As we are now into the twentieth century dramatic, a change has seen to affect the perspective of the Environment and Workplace safety. The most notable of these is the instant availability of detailed information on all subjects pertaining to health. Since the inception of the Environmental and Safety regulations and OSHA laws, one of the principal problems was how to find relevant information and essential information. What was need, thought, strategy or guidance for coming into compliance with the volume standards? This is considered one of the best strategies for Sustainable Safety and Environmental development.

Acknowledgment: This project Environmental Impact Assessment would not have been conducted without the help and forbearance of a number of people. I wish to acknowledge the support information of Cipriani College of Labour and Co- Operative Studies (CCLCS) in this endeavor, especially that given by Mr. Vivian Joseph. I am indebted to a number of colleagues for their helpful suggestion and provision of materials. In particular, special

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thanks are due to the Mr. Hatim Ali. A special mention should be made to the author of all the reference books that were used for information to complete this project and the document of institution or organization that was also included. Introduction: An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) if not completed, is a situation that could result in Negative Safety and Environmental occurrence or armed conflict that produces stress, personal injury physical damage, and economic disruption of great magnitude. EIA is a high – priority item for Health Safety and Environmental Managers. Although passed of by some health and safety professionals as technical and not necessary, it is actually a challenging task with new technologies pressing the state of the art. EIA has some obvious prediction and some not-so-obvious ones. Almost everyone respects the danger of not conducting an EIA, but serious consideration must continue to occur, and acceptable means of guarding both obvious and subtle hazards impact from leading to disaster needs to be considered. While all hydroelectric dams have some environmental impact, the impacts vary widely, and current regulations and policies attempt to address environmental concerns. A dam may either create a reservoir or may be a run-of-river project that does not store large amounts of water but simply takes advantage of a river's natural flow. A dam that Fish ladder. creates a reservoir may flood a large area upstream, and can change flow patterns and impact flooding downstream with resulting environmental consequences, either positive or negative. Fish migration, which has long been a concern associated with dams, is often addressed with fish ladders and other structures to ensure the successful movement of fish both upstream and downstream.

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QUESTION:

The proposal put forward for consideration was a Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant, with all modern facilities (water, electricity, telephone, cable, etc.). Additional development and infrastructure includes flood control measures, turbine (water wheel), generator, controls, switchgear and facilities for water sports, to become tourist attractions (one of the positive effect that accompanies this development)

Assign: To conduct an EIA  Do a baseline study, information on the geology, topography, flora, fauna, water, water quality, rainfall and air quality pollution.  Identify and describe the live hood impact on the environment (positive & negative) going back into the baseline looking at the environment, people lifestyle, and present land use and how that impacted on lifestyle.   Assess the significance of those impacts (positive & negative) Mitigation, what measures can be implemented to mitigate, negative impact and exploit positive impact.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Background In March of 2009, AC Milan Power Generation Company Limited and the citizens of Avocat Village, Blanchissues proposed to the Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries, and the, Ministry of Tourism Industry of Trinidad & Tobago for the development of The Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant. The proposal put forward for consideration was a Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant, with all modern facilities (water, electricity, telephone, cable, etc.). Additional development and infrastructure includes flood control measures, turbine (water wheel), generator, controls, switchgear and facilities for water sports, to become tourist attractions. This project is the first on this large scale that moves Trinidad & Tobago further downstream in the Energy and Tourism Industry and involves a collaborative effort, from the Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries and the Ministry of Tourism acting on behalf of the government of Trinidad & Tobago and the Environmental Management Authority of Trinidad & Tobago acting on the public. A joint venture has been formed to manage the project development and ownership of this Power Generation Plant, The Environmental Management Authority of Trinidad and Tobago and The National Reforestation Watershed & Rehabilitation Program to look after necessary adjustment that would have to be made for environmental disturbance. AC Milan Power Generation Company, Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries, and Ministry of Tourism for Creating and financing, the community of Avocat Village and surrounding areas with approximately 250 direct jobs with the projected minimum 2:1 ratio of indirect job creation in support services and entrepreneurial activities.

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Introduction The proposed Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant is to be sited on approximately 50 acres of land at Blanchisseuse Waterfall, Avocat Village, Ravine, Blanchisseuse, the proposed site is bounded to the north by Blanchisseuse Village and land belonging to the state, to east Marianne River and Mt Aripo, to the south lands belonging to Mr. James O’Connor and the Ravine River, to the West by the Arima Main Road and CROWN. Development planning in Trinidad and Tobago is subject to a number of policy and regulatory factors, primary among which are 1. The certificate of Environmental Clearance Rules (2001) made under Environmental Management Act # 3 of 2000 2. The Outline and Planning Regulation made under the town and Country Planning Act.

This project will therefore have to satisfy all requirements in law that relate to development planning before it receives final approval to go forward from the feasibility phase to development phase. If approved, the project will see the construction and development of the AC Milan Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant.

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TRANSFORMATION FACILITIES

Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant

Tourism Industry Park

Direct Jobs

Indirect Jobs

(250 Plant workers)

(10 workers)
Tour guides Maintenance workers Hospitality

Directors Managers Supervisors Laborers Maintenance workers

(125 Jobs in the Private Businesses in the Community and surrounding area)
Food and beverage Transportation Workers & Visitors accommodation Auto Vehicles Maintenance Private health care Entrepreneur, Ethical growth Cultural growth Holistic development Accessibility Infrastructure Economical development Social development Healthcare development Security

Water sports development (water polo) Tourist attraction Aesthetic development

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Site Map of the Propose Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant at Blanchisseuse Forest

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The CEC Rules, 2001 were made under section 26(h) of the Environmental Management Act, 2000 and came into effect on July 7 2001. The CEC (Designated Activities) Order, 2001 outline a list of activities that requires a CEC Order, 2001- establishment of the proposed AC Milan Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant is consistent with activity 26(h). The CEC rule describes the process to apply for and obtain a CEC. Rule 5(1) of the CEC Rules describe the process for preparation of the TOR for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Study While Rule 10 outlines the standard of preparation of EIA. Residual Environment Impacts The AC Milan Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant would be modern design that incorporates a number of engineering design elements that will allow it to meet relevant Environmental Protection Agency, de-forestation, effluent discharges solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal, wild life protection society and standard for gaseous emissions. The industry design will also allow it to comply full with regulatory requirements for pollution prevention and control to be made. Residual Social Impacts There would be resentment among residents of the communities surrounding Avocat Village regarding the development of this large Energy Industry in there “backyard”, As a rural community may be transformed into a big industry. They may be skeptical of the benefits to be derived from the industry (jobs, business development etc.) and not outsiders. Mitigation Measures Residual Environment Impacts The major potential impacts of the AC Milan Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant would be at the design stage and maintenance of the project as discussed above. This level of impact mitigation is however precedent on the running of this industry in strict accordance with design standards and standards operational procedures. To ensure that 12

this is achieved, the industry must be run on the principle of continuous improvement in accordance with the ISO 9001-2000 Standard for quality management, ISO 14001 for environmental management and ISO 18001 for health and safety environmental management. Residual Social Impacts The management of community issues is never simple and requires the establishment of open line of communication between the industrial stakeholders and its residential neighbour. There is also the need for public awareness, public education and the community right to know so that the residents of the communities around the AC Milan Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant are well informed and cognizant of all issues relating to the industry. Environmental Management Plan The Environmental Management Authority must ensure that a comprehensive health, safety and environmental management system, modeled along the lines of the ISO 14001 and ISO 18001 international guidelines, to ensure compliance with all applicable laws and standards and the industry’s corporate standards of performance. The industry corporate performance should be governed by its stated HSE policy and its policies and procedures that governed standard operational procedures emergency planning and response, and community right to know. The Environmental Management Authority must ensure that an environmental monitoring plan must be included and in-co-operated in the condition for grant of the CEC. Conclusion The aim of this project is to develop the area of Avocat Village and Surrounding areas into an Energy industry without having any major effect on the environment, and what ever negative effect it may have, correct environmental procedure would be in placed to avoid\reduce it. At the same introduce a better social life for the citizen in that community by creating new and dynamic opportunity.

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REQUIRED APPROVAL Certificate of environmental clearance Environmental Impact assessment Design of Building and Industry Structures

APPROVAL AGENCY • Environmental Authority • • Director of Civil Aviation Ministry of Tourism and Tourism Industries • Chief Design Engineer of the Regional Corporation Water and Sewerage Authority management

Portable Water Supply and Treatment and Disposal of Sanitary Waste Provision for Carrying Out Random Test Surface Water Drainage Safety and Health Of Workers

• • • • • •

Drainage Division of the Ministry of Work and Transport Ministry of Labour Local Health Authority Chief Fire Officer The Regional Coperation Solid Waste Management Company of T & T Ltd.

Fire Safety Emergency Response Plan Disposal of Garbage and other Solid Waste

• Disposal And Control of Hazardous Waste •

Environmental

Management

Authority Solid Waste Management Company of T & T Ltd.

Environmental Authority

Management

Ministry of Public Utilities and The 14

Monitoring Program

Environment Environmental Authority

Management

Electrical Regulation Provision For Car Parking Landscaping Advertisements\ Sign Approval of Planning Permission

• • • • •

Electricity Commission Town and Country Planning Town and Country Planning Town and Country Planning Town and Country Planning

Certificate of Environmental Clearance (CEC)

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Under the Certificate of Environmental Clearance Rules, new development requires an application for a Certificate of Environmental Clearance (CEC). The purpose of the CEC is to determine the environmental impact of the proposed activity. A description of the activity explaining• The purpose and objective of the activity?

The construction and development of AC Milan Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant • A description of the site and the areas likely to be affected by the proposed activity? A rural forested area along a main river and waterfall • The size and scale of the activity including capacity, throughput, land space and covered areas? 50 acres that is a very dense forested area, low population • The type of process and equipment or machinery to be involved?

Heavy construction equipment, a lot of excavation and clearance • The types, quantity and source of input materials?

Electricity, telephone, cables, all modern facilities to accommodate the village population of approximately 500(subjected to change with development) and the Industry population of approximately 200 at one time.

The quantity and destination of any by-products, including waste?

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Sewage products, garbage, smoke emission; noise emission etc. from approximately 200 per day, to be recycled and disposed by the regional co-operation; smoke traps; and sound proofing. • The modes of transportation that will be used to carry out the proposed activity and the potential effects of such transportation? Automobile transport, The effect would be the risk of trucks and cars flowing in opposite direction on winding hill corners; the release of extra carbon monoxide in to an environmentally sensitive area; the access road will have to be maintained at a higher cost. • The frequency or rate of extraction with respect to the use of the natural resources? The initial de-forestation should be the only one; the preservation of the wild life would be kept with the exception of recreational hunting during the season; the use of fossil fuel will be monitored\regulated; the system will include a rehabilitation program that would be fit when necessary and according to the situation. • The expected life of the project?

As it maintain sustainable development it will continue (life) • Maps, plans, diagram etc.

All provided in the attachment.

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Scope and Objective The proposal put forward for consideration In March of 2009, AC Milan Power Generation Company Limited and the citizens of Avocat Village, Blanchissues proposed to the Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries, Ministry of Tourism Industry of Trinidad & Tobago for the development of The Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant. The proposal put forward for consideration was a hydroelectric power generation plant, with all modern facilities (water, electricity, telephone, cable, etc.). Additional development and infrastructure includes flood control measures, turbine (water wheel), generator, controls, switchgear and facilities for water sports, to become tourist attractions. This project is the first on this large scale that moves Trinidad & Tobago further downstream in the Energy and Tourism Industry and involves a collaborative effort, from the Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries, Ministry of Tourism acting on behalf of the government of Trinidad & Tobago and The Environmental Management Authority of Trinidad & Tobago acting on the public. Quality Management In order to assure the quality of the project, quality management will be the central to the construction, operation and management of the project. Responsibilities for quality will be defined for all levels of the organization; however it will be the project manager that will have the overall responsibility of the quality management. The project manager will work closely with quality inspectors who will be responsible for: • • • • • Assessment of the action on quality and responsible Supervision Checking before acceptance Evaluation, and quality information management Submission for social, environmental, and construction quality

Time and labour would be in assurance system (ISO 9001: 2000)

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Waterfall

General location for the proposed

Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant

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Baseline Study: Topography: The topography and drainage of the MHR site were determined by field reconnaissance and existing plot plans of the site. The site has a man made road through the dense forest. The site is approximately 452 ft streaming from 10’46’51.26 N to 61’18’59.94W Drainage: • On – site Drainage

Field reconnaissance indicated that there was no evidence of any on – site drainage with the exception of a few stagnated pools of water in the lower lying area in Ravine. Hence, present runoff from happy hill flows into the main Marianne River by means of the natural water paths due to the present topography of the site. Geology: General Geology: This site falls within a physiographic known as the Blanchisseuse forest that is a broad synclinal feature filled with Cenozoic sediments (quarries). The development site lies approximately 18 km from the Arima Main road. A major road, that makes up part of the urban area in Trinidad. Bedrock: The principal geological unit underlying the site is the Ravine Formation. This bedrock comprises a Pliocene succession of massive sandstones and siltstones. The upper northeastern area is made of clay, the lower of sand and silts.

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Geotechnical factor: The project site consist calcareous clay-stone, which compose of fine silts and stones. This could possibly account for the present fauna in the soil. In addition there is no indication of mudflows occurring on or near the site. The soils there are high plasticity with a plasticity index averaging 45%. The presence of expansive clays was suggested based on the shrinkage limits ranging from 9% to 23%. The geo-technical report advises of the presence of swelling clays on the site. The suggested allowable bearing capacity for shallow foundation (1.5m deep) is 4-150km/m. Hence large and heavy structure (commercial building etc.) will record piled foundation.

Flora: In September 2003, a study conducted by the Institute of Marine Affairs, revealed that twenty-seven species were identified as common, the members of the National Reforestation Watershed & Rehabilitation Program agreed this upon. These include plants as bamboo, tapana, crapuad, cocorite, canal lily, juniper etc. those were some observed at the site visit. Avifauna: The IMA in 2003 noted that there were 67 species of avifauna, of common or abundant resident species. These include tanagers, and grackles. None were observed on the site.

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Terrestrial Fauna: In September 2003, a study conducted by the Institute of Marine Affairs, identified as common, this was agreed upon by the members of the National Reforestation Watershed & Rehabilitation Program DISCRIPTION LOCAL NAME A large semi nocturnal rodent Lappe brownish with white spot A burrowing mammal with the Tatou body encased in bony plates Fast running rodent rain forest Gouti mammal, famous for its speed and endurance, they live in monogamous pairs A fast four leg animal that has Deer great speed, A green lizard that live mostly Guana on trees Red animal that swings from Red Howler Monkey tree to tree Antelope Iguana Alouatta Insularis Seniculus SCIENTIFIC NAME Cuniculus paca Armadillo Dasyprocta Agouti

Birds Parrots, Mankin, Tuco, Big eye Grieve Aquatic Necturus Maculosus (Cray fish)

Very few of the above was observed at the site exploration Rainfall:

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Data was provided by the Water Resource Agency for the area of Blanchisseuse, Avocat Village, the recording station located North of the proposed , for the period 1997-2002 over a six year period the driest month based on monthly average rainfall was March, with an average of 27mm while the wettest month was July with an average monthly rainfall of 260mm. The wettest year was 1998 with over 1967mm while 2000 was the driest over the period with 1387mm of rainfall. Sewage Treatment: There was no individual sewage in this area. Individual building is sewerage by septic tanks\soak away system or pit latrine. No treatment plant will be provided for the Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant Healthcare Facilities: The closest facility is about 18km from the proposed Hydroelectric Power Generation Plant however this unit cannot deal with sever emergency cases. Air Quality: The air quality at present would be at the right standard because there is nothing of the nature that will contribute to air pollution. Telecommunication: There was no cable in that particular area to access telephone communication, the closest to the area is on the Arima main road approximately 30km to the nearest point.

Water Quality:

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The water quality monitoring is the: Marianne River (upstream and downstream). The Institute of Marine Affairs conducted the water quality monitoring in 2004 on behalf of the ACHPG. The results follow as well the standard (appendix)

IMPACT PREDICTION  The potential for changes to water quality, air quality and soil quality that might increase that might increase human exposure to contaminant directly or indirectly.  The potential health implication of the compounds that will be released to the river and the environment from the proposed operation in the relation to exposure limits established for acute and chronic adverse effect on human health and safety.  The cumulative health and environmental effects that is likely to result from the project in combination with other existing, approved, and proposed project or reasonably foreseeable activities in the area.   Risk of leak and spill into the environment (river) Social impacts as it relates to: employment and training, local procurement, population / demographic movements, natural resource management and land use, demands on local services and utilities, vulnerable groups (youths and elderly, handicap, squatters, etc.) lifestyle and culture.  Impact of the project during the construction and operation phase on transportation planning and traffic; potential health and safety impacts due to change in traffic condition, such as increased volume and increase incidence of large / heavy vehicle     Increase in noise directly affecting the environment and communities Increase in dust, odour; change in the aesthetic character of the communities Temporary or permanent dislocation \ relocation of villagers The introduction of increased danger (fire, explosion, gaseous emission, and other hazardous substance) to the communities  Change in emergency response time to any of the above or other factors as a result of inadequate resources (fire services, police, EHS etc.)

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     

Impacts on habitat use (species migration) Impacts on sensitive species including endangered and commercially exploited Expected changes in health of flora and fauna with the introduction of activities. Expected changes in the quantity and type of species existing in the study area Impact on the aquatic ecology The impact of outfall (sewage and any possible water on the ambient water quality at discharge points; the cumulative impact of the continuous / long term discharge at the proposed site outfall point(s) of the project. Impact vegetation and soil saturation Dust generation and movements off site during the construction phase The impact of drainage pattern that can affect near by communities As a preliminary conclusion it was noted that in the other tropical reservoirs CH4 is emitted as bubbles and CO2 are emitted by molecular diffusion.

   

These are the valued ecosystem components

IMPACT ASSESSMENT

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VEC Water Resource Air Quality

IMPACT Increase Demand Decline quality

DURATION MAGNITUDE SPATIAL Moderate in Short Small Small EXTENT Regional Local

TYPE Direct Indirect And Cumulativ e Direct

PROBABILITY RANK Medium Low 2 1

Communitie s &

Social

Permanent

Great

Local To Regional

Medium

2

Lifestyle Flora

Environmen t

Permanent

Great

Local To

Direct

High

3

Fauna

Environmen t

Long

Great

Regional Local To

Direct

Medium

2

Topology

Environmen t

Long

Moderate

Regional Local To

Direct

Medium

2

Geology

Environmen t

Long

Moderate

Regional Local To Regional

Direct

Medium

2

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Mitigation Measures
General

Environmental awareness training of construction workforce should be conducted, emphasizing the relevant mitigation measures for their area of responsibility. Limit the area of disturbance, or ‘footprint’ to that essential for the project. Safe the topsoil by stripping and stockpile prior to construction On completion of work ensure topsoil is re-spread over disturbed area to promote natural regeneration. Fencing work areas to exclude livestock and vehicles

  

Water Quality:

Ensure that ground water is not use for portable purpose due to hydrocarbon contamination (natural) Schedule measures to avoid or reduce erosion by phasing work program Collect and treat any contaminated water prior to discharge off site. This includes sediments from rainfall run off. Create temporary ponds for control of water runoff from site prior to discharge point at Marianne River; create sediment barriers to filter water. At diversion channel and culverts designed to divert flow and to control runoff, ensure the outlets have adequate source protection. This may include riprap (rocks held with wire mesh) or geo-textile material. Design topsoil stockpile to prevent excessive lost by wind and water. Septic tanks should be monitored for leaks and appropriate method statement and spill plans should be in place prior to septic tank installation / use / transfer.

 

 

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Air Erosion Control:

    
Noise:

Provision should be made for dust suppression during the period of the day Use water trucks for regular watering of road Minimize the traffic where possible Re- vegetation and establishment of ground covers Use surface binding / sealing agents on high traffic surface

Design for use noise suppression or equipment / process change to ensure noise levels are within the required limit (state limit) Locate access paths and the facilities as far away as possible

Flora and Fauna:

During the initial clearing for construction, the site shall be assessed for compliance with the performance criteria and the EMP requirements. Ensure vegetation is not disturbed outside the defined areas of construction Ensure riparian areas (vegetation adjacent to waterways / Marianne River etc.) are clearly marked and identified. Awareness training needs to be given to make sure these areas are avoided. Limit clearing vegetation to that essential for the project Fauna inhabiting area should be allowed to relocate naturally Education to construction crew not to hunt or kill fauna Design night-light not to shine directly to sensitive habitat areas or residential area Prior to entry on site machinery should be washed down to avoid disease.

 

    

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Replanting should include the purchase of flora that may promote biodiversity. An ecologist should be able to provide a sustainable replanting scheme.

Air quality:

   
Gas:

A machine idling ‘switch off’ Vehicular use should be minimized Vehicle and equipment must be maintained Smoke stack where necessary and would reduce any emission as possible

Use lean burn process equipment where possible.

Electricity:

 

Use low energy product where possible. Place under ground if possible

Telecommunication

 

Use environmentally safe phones (cell phone that are available presently) Place under ground if possible

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CONCLUSION:

The government of Trinidad and Tobago in its vision to transform the country into a develop society by the year 2020 seeks to implement policies and programs that would promote sustainable development and enhance the quality of life of all citizen. The integration of the National Reforestation and Rehabilitation Programs (NRWRP) into the society development agenda provides a unique vehicle, from the multi-dimensional perspective, of creating meaningful long term sustainable employment while at the same time addressing the issue of conservation and the wise use enhancement of our natural renewable resources. It also provides the opportunity to empower communities to care for their own environment and the resources on which they depend for a live hood. The forest plantation and natural forests have lately come under sever threat from overexploitation, illegal logging, quarrying, squatting, slash and burn agriculture, forest fire and other activities. The destruction of our forest cover will lead to higher incidence of soil erosion with increased siltation of rivers, major watercourse and costal areas. Reduce aquifer recharge and increased flooding in low-lying areas will also occur. This program provides the mechanism and the resource for dealing with these problems with active community participation. The aim is to improve and maintain the productivity and value of lands under the jurisdiction of the state. Private land owners will also be actively encouraged to join in this national effort to enhance the integrity of the nation’s watershed and forest. This program also provides an opportunity for the identification and development of socioeconomic initiatives at the local level through the protecting the natural fauna (wildlife) and flora including hiking trail, waterfalls, caves, and monuments. These opportunities wherever identified (Avocat Village) will be explored through promotion at the local level and transmitted from the Energy Sector to the tourism sector for further development, the establishment of the Hydroelectric Power

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Generation Plant within, also generate high attraction for Tourism and Sport with the beautification of the Reservoir (Diversification). Community involvement and active participation at all stages would be encouraged. National Food Security will be augmented through agro- forestry initiatives. (Arable land is cultivated in the area)

The following are cause of land degradation:        Squatting Forest fire Shifting cultivation / slash and burn Quarrying Improper agriculture practice Garbage dumping Development activities, e.g. housing

Consequences:        Increased flooding Reduced water quality and quantity Siltation Erosion, landslides, gully and loss in soil fertility Loss of forest cover Loss of biodiversity (flora & fauna) Increased socio-economic cost due to blocked drains, roads, schools, stores, markets, loss of crops and livestock.

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It is anticipated that all project conducted under the National Reforestation and Rehabilitation Program would generate the following major benefits:

          

Enhanced forest asset accumulation increased forest cover Improve and protect watersheds Enhance fore fire protection capability Reduction in flooding Enhanced state of the environment deriving from increased carbon sequestration Increased opportunities for Energy base Industrial Development Increased opportunities for Eco-tourism Improve recreational facilities Employment generation (sustainable live hood) and poverty alleviation Entrepreneurial development Enhance food security through increased food production as a result of agroforestry activities Revenue generation, particularly generation from the Energy sector. Revenue generation, particularly generation from the foreign export of forest and eco-tourism products Enhance community involvement in the sustainable development process Enhance ability of the Government to meet its international obligation reenvironmental protection as provide for in various treaties and protocol.

 

 

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One of many Formulas: (Base on expectancy) Low-1 Medium-2 High-3 Biodiversity: Water resourceAir qualityCommunity FloraFaunaTopologyGeologyTOTALRecreation: Water poloFishingTotal2 2 4 Mean= 4\2=2 Economical Productivity: Job CreationBusiness Develop Cost reduction Diversity Total3 3 3 3 12 Mean = 12\4=3 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 14 MEAN= 14\7=2

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Cultural Aesthetic: BeautificationIncrease in utilities Accesses road Social interaction Total3 3 3 3 12 Mean = 12\4=3 Components Biodiversity Recreation Economic Productivity Cultural Aesthetic Total Values 2 2 3 3 11

Stressor: Toxic Chemical, Excess Nutrients, Erosion\Sedimentation, Human over Crowding. Frequency Remotely possible Possible Likely in near future Occasionally Ongoing Progressively increasing Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 Severity Minor loss\rapid recovery Partial loss\ rapid recovery Partial loss\ long term recovery Major loss\long term recovery Total loss\minimum recovery Irreversible loss Value 1 2 3 4 5 6

Stressors Toxic stressor Excess nutrient Erosion Human over crowding Total

Frequency(F) 1 2 3 2

Severity(S) 1 1 2 1 1 2 6 2 11

(F*S)

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For evaluation: (F*S) X Total pro value = 11x11 Total = 121 The permissible value is 300 therefore the value of this project is very much within the permissible range Ref: Pg. 53 World Commission on Dams, Thematic Review II.2: Dams and Global Change The slow yet steady accumulation of scientific data on methane emissions indicates that although, in principle, hydroelectric power plants emit less than a fossil fuel power plant with the same energy generation, there is no justification for claiming that hydro does not contribute significantly to global warming and climate change. This has to be assessed on a case by case basis. However the science base is not yet able to give accurate guidance to planners on whether a new reservoir will or will not emit methane. More research is needed in order to be able to do this, and this should focus on the following areas. • • • What would be the carbon cycle with and without the reservoir? How does one account for the stock of carbon by flooding vs growth and decay of forest? How important are the first rapid peaks of methane emission in the total quantity that will be emitted? In general it can be said that the risk of methane emissions can be reduced by: • • Avoiding low W/m2 ratios Clearing the reservoir of all biomass prior to flooding

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References:
• • • National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Program (NRWRP) Ministry of Public Utilities and Environment, 2009 Mr. Anil Mahabir, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Division, 2007 Mr. Housein, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Division, 2007

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• • • • • •

Mr. Hatim Ali, Cipriani College of Labour and Co-Operative Studies Environmental Protection Agency. Handbook of Chemical Hazard IMA 2003. Environmental Impact Assessment for the Establishment of development IMA 2003. Environmental Impact Assessment for the Establishment of water quality IMA 2003. Environmental Impact Assessment for the Establishment of noise monitoring Impact Assessment Theory & Practical, Peter Wathern

Bibliography:
Aselmann, I. and Crutzen, P. (1989) - Global Distribution of Natural Freshwater Wetlands and Rice Paddies, Their Primary Productivity, Seasonality and Possible Methane Emissions. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry. 8: 307-358. Batlett, K.B.; Harris, R.C. (1993) Review and Assessment of Methane Emission from Wetlands,Chemosphere, 26, 261-320, 1993.

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