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2. bailee- the recipient; one who CREDIT TRANSACTIONS receives the custody or possession of CREDIT TRANSACTIONS  All transactions involving the purchase or loan of goods, services, or money in the present with a promise to pay or deliver in the future Contracts of security Types: 1. Secured transactions or contracts of real security - supported by a collateral or an encumbrance of property 2. Unsecured transactions or contracts of personal security - supported only by a promise or personal commitment of another such as a guarantor or surety Security  Something given, deposited, or serving as a means to ensure fulfilment or enforcement of an obligation or of protecting some interest in property  Types of Security a. personal – when an individual becomes surety or guarantor b. real or property – when a mortgage, pledge, antichresis, charge or lien or other device used to have property held, out of which the person to be made secure can be compensated for loss Bailment  The delivery of property of one person to another in trust for a specific purpose, with a contract, express or implied, that the trust shall be faithfully executed and the property returned or duly accounted for when the special purpose is accomplished or kept until the bailor claims it.  Parties: 1. bailor - the giver; one who delivers property the thing thus delivered

LOAN (Articles 1933 – 1961)  A contract wherein one of the parties delivers to another, either something not consumable so that the latter may use the same for a certain time and return it or money or other consumable thing, upon the condition that the same amount of the same kind and quality shall be paid. (Art 1933)

Characteristics: 1. Real Contract – delivery of the thing loaned is necessary for the perfection of the contract NOTE: An accepted promise to make a future loan is a consensual contract, and therefore binding upon the parties but it is only after delivery, will the real contract of loan arise. (Art 1934) 2. Unilateral Contract - once the subject matter has been delivered, it creates obligations on the part of only one of the parties (i.e. borrower).  Kinds: 1. Commodatum – when the bailor (lender) delivers to the bailee (borrower) a non-consumable thing so that the latter may use it for a certain time and return the identical thing.  Kinds of commodatum: a. Ordinary Commodatum – use by the borrower of the thing is for a certain period of time b. Precarium - one whereby the bailor may demand the thing loaned at will and it exists in the following cases: i. neither the duration nor purpose of the contract is stipulated

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT CHAIRPERSONS
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

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ii. the use of the thing is merely tolerated by the owner

2. Always on a double name paper (two signatures appear with both parties held liable for payment)

Always on a single name paper (i.e. promissory note with no indorse-ment other than the maker)

2. Simple loan or mutuum – where the lender delivers to the borrower money or other consumable thing upon the condition that the latter shall pay the same amount of the same kind and quality. Commodatum Mutuum Key: COPS-LOTR
1. Object Consumable 2. Cause Gratuitous May or may not be gratuitous 3. Purpose Use or temporary Consumption possession 4. Subject Matter Real or personal Only personal property property 5. Ownership of the thing Retained by the Passes to the debtor bailor 6. Thing to be returned Exact thing loaned Equal amount of the same kind and quality 7. Who bears risk of loss Bailor Debtor 8. When to return In case of urgent Only after the need, even before expiration of the the expiration of the term term Non-consumable

COMMODATUM (Articles 1935 – 1952)  Nature: 1. PURPOSE: Bailee in commodatum acquires the temporary use of the thing but not its fruits (unless stipulated as an incidental part of the contract).(Art 1935)  Use must be temporary, otherwise the contract may be a deposit. 2. CAUSE: Essentially gratuitous; it ceases to be a commodatum if any compensation is to be paid by the borrower who acquires the use, in such case there arises a lease contract.  Similar to a donation in that it confers a benefit to the recipient. The presumption is that the bailor has loaned the thing for having no need therefor. 3. SUBJECT MATTER: Generally nonconsumable whether real or personal but if the consumable goods are not for consumption as when they are merely for exhibition, consumable goods may be the subject of the commodatum. (Art 1936) 4. Bailor need not be the owner of the thing owned (Art. 1938) since by the loan, ownership does not pass to the borrower.  A mere lessee or usufructuary may lend but the borrower or bailee himself may not lend nor lease the thing loaned to him to a third person (Art 1932[2]) 5. Purely Personal (Art 1939):  Death of either party terminates the contract unless by stipulation, the commodatum is transmitted to the heirs of either or both parties.

Loan
Delivery by one party and the receipt of other party of a given sum of money or other consumable thing upon an agreement, express or implied, to repay the same.

Credit
Ability of a person to borrow money or things by virtue of the trust or confidence reposed by the lender that he will pay what he promised.

Loan

Credit

1. Interest taken at Interest is taken in the expiration of the advance credit 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT CHAIRPERSONS

Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
184

MEMORY AID
 Bailee can neither lend nor lease the object of the contract to a third person. 

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CIVIL LAW

NOTE:Use of the thing loaned may extend to members of the bailee’s household except: a. contrary stipulation; b. nature of the thing forbids such use Obligations of the Bailee: (Arts 1941 – 1945) 1. To pay for the ordinary expenses for the use and preservation of the thing loaned. (Art 1941) 2. To be liable for the loss of the thing even if it should be through a fortuitous event in the following cases: (KLAS D) a. when he keeps it longer than the period stipulated, or after the accomplishment of its use b. when he lends or leases it to third persons who are not members of his household c. when the thing loaned has been delivered with appraisal of its value d. when, being able to save either of the thing borrowed or his own things, he chose to save the latter; or e. when the bailee devoted the thing for any purpose different from that for which it has been loaned (Art 1942) 3. To be liable for the deterioration of thing loaned (a) if expressly stipulated; (b) if guilty of fault or negligence; or (c) if he devotes the thing to any purpose different from that for which it has been loaned 4. To pay for extraordinary expenses arising from the actual use of the thing by the bailee, which shall be borne equally by both the bailor and the bailee, even though the bailee acted without fault, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary (Art 1949 par 2) 5. To return the thing loaned CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

The bailee has no right to retain the thing loaned as security for claims he has against the bailor even for extraordinary expenses except for a claim for damages suffered because of the flaws of the thing loaned.

NOTES:

 However, the bailee’s right
extends no further than retention of the thing loaned until he is reimbursed for the damages suffered by him. He cannot lawfully sell the thing to satisfy such damages without court’s approval. In case there are two or more bailees, their obligation shall be solidary.

 

Obligations of the bailor (Art 1946 – Art 1952): 1. To respect the duration of the loan GENERAL RULE: Allow the bailee the use of the thing loaned for the duration of the period stipulated or until the accomplishment of the purpose for which the commodatum was instituted. EXCEPTIONS: a. In case of urgent need in which case bailee may demand its return or temporary use; b. The bailor may demand immediate return of the thing if the bailee commits any act of ingratitude specified in Art. 765 . 2. To refund to the bailee extraordinary expenses for the preservation of the thing loaned, provided the bailee brings the same to the knowledge of the bailor before incurring them, except when they are so urgent that the reply to the notification cannot be awaited without danger. 3. To be liable to the bailee for damages for known hidden flaws.  Requisites:

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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a. There is flaw or defect in the thing loaned; b. The flaw or defect is hidden; c. The bailor is aware thereof; d. He does not advise the bailee of the same; and e. The bailee suffers damages by reason of said flaw or defect

Simple Loan/Mutuum
1. Delivery of money or some consumable thing with a promise to pay an equivalent of the same kind and quality 2. There is a transfer of ownership of the thing delivered

Rent
Delivery of some nonconsumable thing in order that the other may use it during a certain period and return it to the former. There is no transfer of ownership of the thing delivered Relationship is that of a landlord and tenant Owner of the property rented receives compensation or price either in money, provisions, chattels, or labor from the occupant thereof in return for its use (Tolentino vs Gonzales, 50 Phil 558 1927)

NOTES:  If the above requisites concur, the bailee has the right of retention for damages.  The bailor cannot exempt himself from the payment of expenses or damages by abandoning the thing to the bailee. SIMPLE LOAN OR MUTUUM (Art 1953 – 1961)  A contract whereby one party delivers to another, money or other consumable thing with the understanding that the same amount of the same kind and quality shall be paid. (Art. 1953) NOTES:  The mere issuance of the checks does not result in the perfection of the contract of loan. The Civil Code provides that the delivery of bills of exchange and mercantile documents, such as checks, shall produce the effect of payment only when they have been encashed (Gerales vs. CA 218 SCRA 638 ). It is only after the checks have produced the effect of payment that the contract of loan may be deemed perfected.  The obligation is “to pay” and not to return because the consumption of the thing loaned is the distinguishing character of the contract of mutuum from that of commodatum.  No estafa is committed by a person who refuses to pay his debt or denies its existence.

3. Relationship between the parties is that of obligorobligee 4. Creditor receives payment for his loan

Loan
1. Real contract

Sale
Consensual contract Bilateral reciprocal and

2. Generally unilateral because only borrower has obligations

NOTE: If the property is “sold”, but the real intent is only to give the object as security for a debt – as when the “price” is comparatively small – there really is a contract of loan with an “equitable mortgage.” Commodatum/ Mutuum
1. Subject matter is money or fungible things

Barter
Subject matter is non-fungible, (non consumable) things

2. In commodatum, The thing with the bailee is bound equivalent value is to return the given in return for 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT

CHAIRPERSONS

Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
186

MEMORY AID
identical thing borrowed when the time has expired or purpose served 3. Mutuum may be gratuitous and commodatum is always gratuitous what has been received

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CIVIL LAW

2. when there is an express stipulation (must be in writing in view of Art. 1956) Guidelines for the application of proper interest rates 1. If there is stipulation: that rate shall be applied 2. The following are the rules of thumb for the application/imposition of interest rates: a) When an obligation, regardless of its source, i.e., law, contracts, quasi-contracts, delicts or quasi-delicts is breached, the contravenor can be held liable for damages. b) With regard particularly to an award of interest in the concept of actual and compensatory damages, the rate of interest, as well as the accrual thereof, is imposed, as follows: i. When the obligation breached consists of payment of a sum of money (loan or forbearance of money), the interest shall be that which is stipulated or agreed upon by the parties. In absence of an agreement, the rate shall be the legal rate (i.e. 12% per annum) computed from default. NOTE: The interest due shall itself earn legal interest from the time it is judicially demanded ii. In other cases, the rate of interest shall be six percent (6%) per annum. NOTE: No interest, however, shall be adjudged on unliquidated claims or damages except when or until the demand can be established with reasonable certainty. When the demand cannot be established, the interest shall begin to run only from the date of the judgment of the court is made. iii. When the judgment of the

Onerous, actually a mutual sale

 Form of Payment (Art 1955): 1. If the thing loaned is money payment must be made in the currency stipulated, if it is possible; otherwise it is payable in the currency which is legal tender in the Philippines and in case of extraordinary inflation or deflation, the basisi of payment shall be the value of the currency at the time of the creation of the obligation 2. If what was loaned is a fungible thing other than money - the borrower is under obligation to pay the lender another thing of the same kind, quality and quantity. In case it is impossible to do so, the borrower shall pay its value at the time of the perfection of the loan. Interest  The compensation allowed by law or fixed by the parties for the loan or forbearance of money, goods or credits  Requisites for Demandability: (ELI) 1. must be expressly stipulated Exceptions: a. indemnity for damages b. interest accruing from unpaid interest 2. must be lawful 3. must be in writing Compound Interest GENERAL RULE: Unpaid interest shall not earn interest. EXCEPTIONS: 1. when judicially demanded CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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court awarding a sum of money becomes final and executory, the rate of legal interest, whether the case falls under paragraph i or ii above, shall be 12% per annum from such finality until its satisfaction, this interim period being deemed to be by then an equivalent to a forbearance of credit. (Eastern Shipping Lines vs. CA, July 12, 1994) NOTES:  Central Bank Circular No. 416 fixing the rate of interest at 12% per annum deals with loans, forbearance of any money, goods or credits and judgments involving such loans, or forbearance in the absence of express agreement to such rate  Interest as indemnity for damages is payable only in case of default or non-performance of the contract. As they are distinct claims, they may be demanded separately. (Sentinel Insurance Co., Inc. vs CA, 182 SCRA 517)  Central Bank Circular No. 905 (Dec. 10, 1982) removed the Usury Law ceiling on interest rates for secured and unsecured loans, regardless of maturity. Validity of unconscionable interest rate in a loan Supreme Court in Sps. Solangon vs. Jose Salazar, G.R. No. 125944, June 29, 2001, said that since the usury law had been repealed by CB Cir. No. 905 there is no more maximum rate of interest and the rate will just depend on the mutual agreement of the parties (citing Lim Law vs. Olympic Sawmill Co., 129 SCRA 439). But the Supreme Court said that nothing in said circular grants lenders carta blanche authority to raise interest rates to level which will either enslave their borrowers or lead to a hemorrhaging of their assets (citing Almeda vs. CA, 256 SCRS 292 ). In Medel vs. CA, 299 SCRA 481 , it was ruled that while stipulated interest of 5.5% per month on a loan is usurious pursuant to
CHAIRPERSONS

CB Circular No. 905, the same must be equitably reduced for being iniquitous, unconscionable and exorbitant. It is contrary to morals, (contra bonos mores). It was reduced to 12% per annum in consonant with justice and fair play. DEPOSIT (Articles 1962 – 2009)  A contract constituted from the moment a person receives a thing belonging to another, with the obligation of safely keeping it and of returning the same.

Characteristics: 1. Real Contract - contract is perfected by the delivery of the subject matter. 2. Unilateral (gratutitous deposit) only the depositary has an obligation. 3. Bilateral (onerous deposit) gives rise to obligations on the part of both the depositary and depositor. Deposit Mutuum
1. Purpose Principal purpose is Principal purpose is safekeeping or consumption custody 2. When to Return Depositor can The lender must wait demand the return of until the expiration the subject matter at of the period granted will to the debtor 3. Subject Matter Subject matter may Subject matter is be movable or only money or other immovable property fungible thing 4. Relationship Relationship is that Relationship is that of lender (creditor) of depositor and and borrower depositary. (debtor). 5. Compensation There can be NO compensation of compensation of things deposited with credits. each other (except by mutual agreement).

Deposit

Commodatum

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
188

MEMORY AID
1. Purpose is Safekeeping 2. May be gratuitous 3. Movable/corporeal things only in case of extrajudicial deposit 1. Purpose is the transfer of the use 2. Essentially and always gratuitous 3. Both movable and immovable may be the object Always onerous

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CIVIL LAW

4. Cause May be compensated or not, but generally gratuitous

5. When must the thing be returned Upon order of the Upon demand of court or when depositor litigation is ended 6. In whose behalf it is held Person who has a Depositor or third right person designated

 Kinds of Deposit: 1. Judicial (Sequestration) –takes place when an attachment or seizure of property in litigation is ordered. 2. Extra-judicial a. Voluntary – one wherein the delivery is made by the will of the depositor or by two or more persons each of whom believes himself entitled to the thing deposited. (Arts 1968 – 1995) b. Necessary – one made in compliance with a legal obligation, or on the occasion of any calamity, or by travellers in hotels and inns (Arts 1996 2004), or by travellers with common carriers (Art 1734 – 1735). NOTE: The chief difference between a voluntary deposit and a necessary deposit is that in the former, the depositor has a complete freedom in choosing the depositary, whereas in the latter, there is lack of free choice in the depositor. Judicial Extra-judicial
1. Creation Will of the court Will of the parties or contract 2. Purpose Security or to insure Custody and the right of a party safekeeping to property or to recover in case of favorable judgment 3. Subject Matter Movables or Movables only immovables, but generally immovables

GENERAL RULE: Contract of deposit is gratuitous (Art 1965) EXCEPTIONS: 1. when there is contrary stipulation 2. depositary is engaged in business of storing goods 3. property saved from destruction without knowledge of the owner
NOTES:  Article 1966 does not embrace incorporeal property, such as rights and actions, for it follows the person of the owner, wherever he goes.  A contract for the rent of safety deposit boxes is not an ordinary contract of lease of things but a special kind of deposit; hence, it is not to be strictly governed by the provisions on deposit. The relation between a bank and its customer is that of a bailor and bailee. (CA Agro vs CA, 219 SCRA 426) Obligations of the Depositary (Art 1972 –1991): 1. To keep the thing safely (Art 1972)  Exercise over the thing deposited the same diligence as he would exercise over his property 2. To return the thing (Art 1972)  Person to whom the thing must be returned: a. Depositor, to his heirs and successors, or the person who may have been designated in the contract

CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE
 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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b. If the depositary is capacitated he is subject to all the obligations of a depositary whether or not the depositor is capacitated. If the depositor is incapacitated, the depositary must return the property to the legal representative of the incapacitated or to the depositor himself if he should acquire capacity (Art 1970). c. If the depositor is capacitated and the depositary is incapacitated - the latter does not incur the obligation of a depositary but he is liable: i..to return the thing deposited while still in his possession; ii.to pay the depositor the amount which he may have benefited himself with the thing or its price subject to the right of any third person who acquired the thing in good faith (Art 1971)  Time of return: a. Upon demand even though a specified period or time for such return may have been fixed except when the thing is judicially attached while in the depositary’s possession or should he have been notified of the opposition of a third person to the return or the removal of the thing deposited. (Art 1998) b. If deposit gratuitous, the depositary may return the thing deposited notwithstanding that a period has been fixed for the deposit if justifiable reasons exists for its return. c. If the deposit is for a valuable consideration, the depositary has no right to return the thing deposited before the expiration of the time designated even if he should suffer inconvenience as a consequence.(Art 1989)


3.

4.

5. 6.

What to return: product, accessories, and accessions of the thing deposited (Art 1983) Not to deposit the thing with a third person unless authorized by express stipulation (Art 1973)  The depositor is liable for the loss of the thing deposited under Article 1973 if: a. he transfers the deposit with a third person without authority although there is no negligence on his part and the third person; b. he deposits the thing with a third person who is manifestly careless or unfit although authorized even in the absence of negligence; or c. the thing is lost through the negligence of his employees whether the latter are manifestly careless or not. If the thing deposited should earn interest (Art 1975): a. to collect interest and the capital itself as it fall due b. to take steps to preserve its value and rights corresponding to it Not to commingle things deposited if so stipulated (Art 1976) Not to make use of the thing deposited unless authorized (Art 1977) GENERAL RULE: Deposit is for safekeeping of the subject matter and not for use. The unauthorized use by the depositary would make him liable for damages. EXCEPTIONS: 1. When the preservation of the thing deposited requires its use 2. When authorized by the depositor NOTE: The permission to use is NOT presumed except when such use is necessary for the preservation of the thing deposited. Effect if permission to use is given (Art 1978):

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT CHAIRPERSONS
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
190

MEMORY AID
If thing deposited is non-consumable, the contract loses the character of a deposit and acquires that of a commodatum despite the fact that the parties may have denominated it as a deposit, unless safekeeping is still the principal purpose. 2. If thing deposited consists of money/consumable things, the contract is converted into a simple loan or mutuum unless safekeeping is still the principal purpose in which case it is called an irregular deposit. Example: bank deposits are irregular deposits in nature but governed by law on loans. 7. When the thing deposited is delivered sealed and closed : a. to return the thing deposited in the same condition b. to pay for damages should the seal or lock be broken through his fault, which is presumed unless proved otherwise c. to keep the secret of the deposit when the seal or lock is broken with or without his fault (Art 1981) NOTE: The depositary is authorized to open the thing deposited which is closed and sealed when (Art 1982): i. there is presumed authority (i.e. when the key has been delivered to him or the instructions of the depositor cannot be done without opening it) ii. necessity 8. To change the way of the deposit if under the circumstances, the depositary may reasonably presume that the depositor would consent to the change if he knew of the facts of the situation, provided, that the former notifies the depositor thereof and wait for his decision, unless delay would cause danger 9. To pay interest on sums converted to personal use if the deposit consists of money (Art 1983) CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE 1. 10.

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CIVIL LAW

To be liable for loss through fortuitous event (SUDA): (Art 1979): a. if stipulated b. if he uses the thing without the depositor's permission c. if he delays its return d. if he allows others to use it, even though he himself may have been authorized to use the same

NOTES:  Fixed, savings, and current deposits of money in banks and similar institutions shall be governed by the provisions concerning simple loan. (Art 1980)  The general rule is that a bank can compensate or set off the deposit in its hands for the payment of any indebtedness to it on the part of the depositor. In true deposit, compensation is not allowed. Irregular deposit
1. The consumable thing deposited may be demanded at will by the depositor

Mutuum
1. Lender is bound by the provisions of the contract and cannot demand restitution until the time for payment, as provided in the contract, has arisen 2. Essential cause for the transaction is the necessity of the borrower 3. Common creditors enjoy no preference in the distribution of the debtor’s property

2. The only benefit is that which accrues to the depositor 3. The irregular depositor has a preference over other creditors with respect to the thing deposited

Rule when there are two or more depositors (Art 1985): 1. If thing deposited is divisible and depositors are not solidary: Each depositor can demand only his proportionate share thereto.

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

191

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2. If obligation is solidary or if thing is not divisible: Rules on active solidarity shall apply, i.e. each one of the solidary depositors may do whatever may be useful to the others but not anything which may be prejudicial to the latter, (Art. 1212) and the depositary may return the thing to anyone of the solidary depositors unless a demand, judicial or extrajudicial, for its return has been made by one of them in which case, delivery should be made to him (Art. 1214). 3. Return to one of depositors stipulated. The depositary is bound to return it only to the person designated although he has not made any demand for its return. NOTES:  The depositary may retain the thing in pledge until full payment of what may be due him by reason of the deposit (Art 1994).  The depositor’s heir who in good faith may have sold the thing which he did not know was deposited, shall only be bound to return the price he may have received or to assign his right of action against the buyer in case the price has not been paid him (Art 1991). Obligations of the Depositor (Art 1992 – 1995): 1. To pay expenses for preservation a. If the deposit is gratuitous, the depositor is obliged to reimburse the depositary for expenses incurred for the preservation of the thing deposited (Art 1992) b. If the deposit is for valuable consideration, expenses for preservation are borne by the depositary unless there is a contrary stipulation 2. To pay loses incurred by the depositary due to the character of the thing deposited

arising from the character of the thing deposited. EXCEPTIONS: 1. at the time of the deposit, the depositor was not aware of the dangerous character of the thing 2. when depositor was not expected to know the dangerous character of the thing 3. when the depositor notified the depository of the same 4. the depositary was aware of it without advice from the depositor Extinguishment of Voluntary Deposit (Art 1995) 1. Loss or destruction of the thing deposited 2. In case of gratuitous deposit, upon the death of either the depositor or the depositary 3. Other causes, such as return of the thing, novation, merger, expiration of the term fulfilment of the resolutory condition, etc (Art 1231) Necessary Deposits 1. Made in compliance with a legal obligation 2. Made on the occasion of any calamity such as fire, storm, flood, pillage, shipwreck or other similar events (deposito miserable) 3. Made by travellers in hotels and inns or by travellers with common carrier

GENERAL RULE: The depositor shall reimburse the depositary for any loss

Deposit by Travellers in hotels and inns:  The keepers of hotels or inns shall be responsible as depositaries for the deposit of effects made by travellers provided: a. Notice was given to them or to their employees of the effects brought by the guest; and b. The guests take the precautions which said hotel-keepers or their substitutes advised relative to the care and vigilance of their effects. NOTES:

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT CHAIRPERSONS
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
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MEMORY AID  Liability extends to vehicles, animals
and articles which have been introduced or placed in the annexes of the hotel. Liability shall EXCLUDE losses which proceed from force majeure. The act of a thief or robber is not deemed force majeure unless done with the use of arms or irresistible force. The hotel-keeper cannot free himself from the responsibility by posting notices to the effect that he is not liable for the articles brought by the guest. Any stipulation to such effect shall be void. Notice is necessary only for suing civil liability but not in criminal liability.

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b. Onerous - the guarantor receives valuable consideration. 4. As to the Person guaranteed a. Single - one constituted solely to guarantee or secure performance by the debtor of the principal obligation. b. Double or sub-guaranty - one constituted to secure the fulfilment by the guarantor of a prior guaranty. 5. As to Scope and Extent a. Definite - the guaranty is limited to the principal obligation only, or to a specific portion thereof. b. Indefinite or simple - one which not only includes the principal obligation but also all its accessories including judicial costs SURETYSHIP A contract whereby a person (surety) binds himself solidarily with the principal debtor  A relation which exists where one person (principal) has undertaken an obligation and another person (surety) is also under a direct and primary obligation or other duty to the obligee, who is entitled to but one performance, and as between the two who are bound, the second rather than the first should perform (Agro Conglomerates, Inc. vs. CA, 348 SCRA 450) NOTES:  The reference in Article 2047 to solidary obligations does not mean that suretyship is withdrawn from the applicable provisions governing guaranty. A surety is almost the same as a solidary debtor, except that he himself is a principal debtor.  In suretyship, there is but one contract, and the surety is bound by the same agreement which binds the principal. A surety is usually bound with the principal by the same instrument, executed at the same time and upon the same 

GUARANTY (Articles 2047 – 2084)  A contract whereby a person (guarantor) binds himself to the creditor to fulfil the obligation of the principal debtor in case the latter fail to do so.

 Classification of Guaranty: 1. In the Broad sense: a. Personal - the guaranty is the credit given by the person who guarantees the fulfilment of the principal obligation. b. Real - the guaranty is the property, movable or immovable.

2. As to its Origin a. Conventional - agreed upon by the parties. b. Legal - one imposed by virtue of a provision of a law. c. Judicial - one which is required by a court to guarantee the eventual right of one of the parties in a case. 3. As to Consideration a. Gratuitous - the guarantor does not receive any price or remuneration for acting as such. CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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consideration (Palmares vs CA, 288 SCRA 422) It is not for the obligee to see to it that the principal debtor pays the debt or fulfill the contract, but for the surety to see to it that the principal debtor pays or performs (Paramount Insurance Corp vs CA, 310 SCRA 377)

Nature of Surety’s undertaking: 1. Liability is contractual and accessory but direct NOTE: He directly, primarily and equally binds himself with the principal as original promisor, although he possesses no direct or personal interest over the latter’s obligation, nor does he receive any benefits therefrom. (PNB vs CA, 198 SCRA 767) 2. Liability limited by the terms of the contract. NOTE: It cannot be extended by implication beyond the terms of the contract (PNB vs CA, 198 SCRA 767) 3. Liability arises only if principal debtor is held liable. NOTES:  The creditor may sue separately or together the principal debtor and the surety. Where there are several sureties, the obligee may proceed against any one of them.  In the absence of collusion, the surety is bound by a judgment against the principal even though he was not a party to the proceedings. The nature of its undertaking makes it privy to all proceedings against its principal (Finman General Assurance Corp. vs. Salik, 188 SCRA 740) 4. Surety is not entitled to the benefit of exhaustion NOTE: He assumes a solidary liability for the fulfilment of the principal obligation (Towers Assurance Corp vs. Ororama Supermart, 80 SCRA 262) as an original promissory and debtor from the beginning. 5. Undertaking is to creditor and not to debtor.
CHAIRPERSONS

NOTE: The surety makes no covenant or agreement with the principal that it will fulfil the obligation guaranteed for the benefit of the principal. Such a promise is not implied by law either; and this is true even where under the contract the creditor is given the right to sue the principal, or the latter and the surety at the same time. (Arranz vs. Manila Fidelity & Surety Co., Inc., 101 Phil. 272) 6. Surety is not entitled to notice of principal’s default NOTE: The creditor owes no duty of active diligence to take care of the interest of the surety and the surety is bound to take notice of the principal’s default and to perform the obligation. He cannot complain that the creditor has not notified him in the absence of a special agreement to that effect. ( Palmares vs CA, 288 SCRA 422) 7. Prior demand by the creditor upon principal is not required NOTE: As soon as the principal is in default, the surety likewise is in default. 8. Surety is not exonerated by neglect of creditor to sue principal Characteristics of Guaranty and Suretyship: 1. Accessory - It is indispensable condition for its existence that there must be a principal obligation. NOTES:  Guaranty may be constituted to guarantee the performance of a voidable or unenforceable contract. It may also guarantee a natural obligation. (Art 2052)  The guarantor cannot bind himself for more than the principal debtor and even if he does, his liability shall be reduced to the limits of that of the debtor. 2. Subsidiary and Conditional - takes effect only in case the principal debtor fails in his obligation. NOTES:

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
194

MEMORY AID  The
guarantor cannot bind himself for more than the principal debtor and even if he does, his liability shall be reduced to the limits of that of the debtor. But a guarantor may bind himself for less than that of the principal (Art 2054)  A guaranty may be given as security for future debts, the amount of which is not yet known; there can be no claim against the guarantor until the debt is liquidated. A conditional obligation may also be secured. (Art 2053) Unilateral - may be entered even w/o the intervention of the principal debtor, in which case Art. 1236 and 1237 shall apply and it gives rise only to a duty on the part of the guarantor in relation to the creditor and not vice versa. Nominate Consensual It is a contract between the guarantor/surety and creditor. NOTES:  Acceptance of guaranty by creditor and notice thereof to guarantor:  In declaring that guaranty must be express, the law refers solely and exclusively to the obligation of the guarantor because it is he alone who binds himself by his acceptance. With respect to the creditor, no such requirement is needed because he binds himself to nothing.  However, when there is merely an offer of a guaranty, or merely a conditional guaranty, in the sense that it requires action by the creditor before the obligation becomes fixed, it does not become binding until it is accepted and until CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

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3.

4. 5. 6.

notice of such acceptance by the creditor is given to, or acquired by, the guarantor, or until he has notice or knowledge that the creditor has performed the condition and intends to act upon the guaranty.  But in any case, the creditor is not precluded from waiving the requirement of notice.  The consideration of the guaranty is the same as the consideration of the principal obligation.  The creditor may proceed against the guarantor although he has no right of action against the principal debtor. 7. Not presumed. It must be expressed and reduced in writing. NOTE: A power of attorney to loan money does not authorize the agent to make the principal liable as a surety for the payment of the debt of a third person. (BPI vs. Coster, 47 Phil. 594) 8. Falls under the Statute of Frauds since it is a “special promise to answer for the debt, default or miscarriage of another”. 9. Strictly interpreted against the creditor and in favor of the guarantor/surety and is not to be extended beyond its terms or specified limits. (Magdalena Estates, Inc. vs Rodriguez, 18 SCRA 967 ) The rule of strictissimi juris commonly pertains to an accommodation surety because the latter acts without motive of pecuniary gain and hence, should be protected against unjust pecuniary impoverishment by imposing on the principal, duties akin to those of a fiduciary. NOTES:  The rule will apply only after it has been definitely ascertained that the contract is one of suretyship or guaranty. It cannot be used as an aid in determining

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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whether a party’s undertaking is that of a surety or guarantor. (Palmares vs CA, 288 SCRA 292)  It does not apply in case of compensated sureties. 10. It is a contract which requires that the guarantor must be a person distinct form the debtor because a person cannot be the personal guarantor of himself. NOTE: However, in a real guaranty, like pledge and mortgage, a person may guarantee his own obligation with his personal or real properties. Guaranty
1. Liability depends upon an independent agreement to pay the obligation if primary debtor fails to do so 2. Collateral taking underis

liability thereon, whether he has suffered any actual damage or not 3. Indorser does not warrant the solvency. He is answerable on a strict compliance with the law by the holder, whether the promisor is solvent or not
4. Indorser can sued as promisor be

suffered in consequence thereof

3. Guarantor warrants the solvency of the promisor

4. Guarantor cannot be sued as promisor

Suretyship
1. Surety assumes liability as regular party to the undertaking 2. Surety is original promisor 3. Surety primarily liable an is

Guaranty
A contract by which a person is bound to another for the fulfilment of a promise or engagement of a third party

Warranty
An undertaking that the title, quality, or quantity of the subject matter of the contract is what it has been represented to be, and relates to some agreement made ordinarily by the party who makes the warranty

3. Guarantor secondarily liable

4. Guarantor binds himself to pay if the principal CANNOT PAY 5. Insurer of solvency of debtor 6. Guarantor can avail of the benefit of excussion and division in case creditor proceeds against him

4. Surety undertakes to pay if the principal DOES NOT PAY 5. Insurer of the debt 6. Surety cannot avail of the benefit of excussion and division

Indorsement
1. Primarily transfer of

Guaranty
1. Contract security of

2. Unless the note is 2. Failure in either or promptly presented both of these for payment at particulars does not maturity and due generally work as an notice of dishonor absolute discharge of given to the indorser a guarantor’s within a reasonable liability, but his is time he will be discharged only to Double or sub-guaranty (Art 2051 2nd discharged abso- the extent of the loss par) lutely from all which he may have 2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT CHAIRPERSONS

NOTES:  A guaranty is gratuitous, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary. The cause of the contract is the same cause which supports the obligation as to the principal debtor.  The peculiar nature of a guaranty or surety agreement is that is is regarded as valid despite the absence of any direct consideration received by the guarantor or surety either from the principal debtor or from the creditor; a consideration moving to the principal alone will suffice.  It is never necessary that the guarantor or surety should receive any part or benefit, if such there be, accruing to the principal. (Willex Plastic Industries Corp. vs. CA, 256 SCRA 478)

Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
196

MEMORY AID
 One constituted to guarantee the obligation of a guarantor

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Continuing guaranty (Art 2053)  One which is not limited to a single transaction but which contemplates a future course of dealings, covering a series of transactions generally for an indefinite time or until revoked. NOTES:  Prospective in operation (Diño vs CA, 216 SCRA 9)  Construed as continuing when by the terms thereof it is evident that the object is to give a standing credit to the principal debtor to be used from time to time either indefinitely or until a certain period, especially if the right to recall the guaranty is expressly reserved (Diño vs CA, 216 SCRA 9)  “Future debts” may also refer to debts existing at the time of the constitution of the guaranty but the amount thereof is unknown and not to debts not yet incurred and existing at that time.  Exception to the concept of continuing guaranty is chattel mortgage. A chattel mortgage can only cover obligations existing at the time the mortgage is constituted and not those contracted subsequent to the execution thereof (The Belgian Catholic Missionaries, Inc. vs. Magallanes Press, Inc., 49 Phil 647). An exception to this is in case of stocks in department stores, drug stores, etc. (Torres vs. Limjap, 56 Phil 141). Extent of Guarantor’s liability: (Art 2055) 1. Where the guaranty definite: It is limited in whole or in part to the principal debt, to the exclusion of accessories. 2. Where guaranty indefinite or simple: It shall comprise not only the principal obligation, but also all its accessories, including the judicial costs, provided with respect to the CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

latter, that the guarantor shall only be liable for those costs incurred after he has been judicially required to pay. Qualifications of a guarantor: (Arts 2056-2057) 1. possesses integrity 2. capacity to bind himself 3. has sufficient property to answer for the obligation which he guarantees NOTES:  The qualifications need only be present at the time of the perfection of the contract.  The subsequent loss of the integrity or property or supervening incapacity of the guarantor would not operate to exonerate the guarantor or the eventual liability he has contracted, and the contract of guaranty continues.  However, the creditor may demand another guarantor with the proper qualifications. But he may waive it if he chooses and hold the guarantor to his bargain. Benefit of Excussion (Art 2058)  The right by which the guarantor cannot be compelled to pay the creditor unless the latter has exhausted all the properties of the principal debtor, and has resorted to all of the legal remedies against such debtor. NOTE:  Not applicable to a contract of suretyship (Arts 2047, par. 2; 2059[2])  Cannot even begin to take place before judgment has been obtained against the debtor (Baylon vs CA, 312 SCRA 502) When Guarantor is not entitled to the benefit of excussion: (PAIRS) 1. If it may be presumed that an execution on the property of the

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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2.

3. 4. 5.

principal debtor would not result in the satisfaction of the obligation  Not necessary that the debtor be judicially declared insolvent or bankrupt When he has absconded, or cannot be sued within the Philippines unless he has left a manager or representative In case of insolvency of the debtor  Must be actual If the guarantor has expressly renounced it If he has bound himself solidarily with the debtor

 The

Other grounds: (BIPS) 6. If he is a judicial bondsman or subsurety 7. If he fails to interpose it as a defense before judgment is rendered against him 8. If the guarantor does not set up the benefit against the creditor upon the latter’s demand for payment from him, and point out to the creditor available property to the debtor within Philippine territory, sufficient to cover the amount of the debt (Art 2060)  Demand can be made only after judgment on the debt  Demand must be actual; joining the guarantor in the suit against the principal debtor is not the demand intended by law 9. Where the pledge or mortgage has been given by him as special security Benefit of Division (Art 2065)  Should there be several guarantors of only one debtor and for the same debt, the obligation to answer for the same is divided among all.  Liability: Joint NOTES:  The creditor can claim from the guarantors only the shares they are respectively bound to pay except when solidarity is stipulated or if any of the circumstances enumerated in Article 2059 should take place.
CHAIRPERSONS

right of contribution of guarantors who pays requires that the payment must have been made (a) in virtue of a judicial demand, or (b) because the principal debtor is insolvent (Art 2073). If any of the guarantors should be insolvent, his share shall be borne by the others including the paying guarantor in the same joint proportion following the rule in solidary obligations. The above rule shall not be applicable unless the payment has been made in virtue of a judicial demand or unless the principal debtor is insolvent. The right to contribution or reimbursement from his coguarantors is acquired ipso jure by virtue of said payment without the need of obtaining from the creditor any prior cession of rights to such guarantor. The co-guarantors may set up against the one who paid, the same defenses which have pertained to the principal debtor against the creditor and which are not purely personal to the debtor. (Art 2074)

Procedure when creditor sues: (Art. 2062)  The creditor must sue the principal alone; the guarantor cannot be sued with his principal, much less alone except in Art. 2059. 1. Notice to guarantor of the action  The guarantor must be NOTIFIED so that he may appear, if he so desires, and set up defenses he may want to offer.  If the guarantor appears, he is still given the benefit of exhaustion even if judgment should be rendered against him and principal debtor. His voluntary appearance does not constitute a renunciation of his right to excussion (see Art. 2059(1)).

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
198

MEMORY AID
Guarantor cannot set up the defenses if he does not appear and it may no longer be possible for him to question the validity of the judgment rendered against the debtor. 2. A guarantor is entitled to be heard before and execution can be issued against him where he is not a party in the case involving his principal (procedural due process). Guarantor’s Right of Indemnity or Reimbursement (Art 2066) GENERAL RULE: Guaranty is a contract of indemnity. The guarantor who makes payment is entitled to be reimbursed by the principal debtor. NOTE: The indemnity consists of: (DIED) 1. Total amount of the debt – no right to demand reimbursement until he has actually paid the debt, unless by the terms of the contract, he is given the right before making payment. He cannot collect more than what he has paid. 2. Legal interest thereon from the time the payment was made known (notice of payment in effect a demand so that if the debtor does not pay immediately, he incurs in delay) to the debtor, even though it did not earn interest for the creditor. Guarantor’s right to legal interest is granted by law by virtue of the payment he has made. 3. Expenses incurred by the guarantor after having notified the debtor that payment has been demanded of him by the creditor; only those expenses that the guarantor has to satisfy in accordance with law as a consequence of the guaranty (Art. 2055) not those which depend upon his will or own acts or his fault for these are his exclusive personal responsibility CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

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and it is not just that they be shouldered by the debtor. 4. Damages if they are due in accordance with law. General rules on damages apply.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where the guaranty is constituted without the knowledge or against the will of the principal debtor, the guarantor can recover only insofar as the payment had been beneficial to the debtor (Art. 2050). 2. Payment by a third person who does not intend to be reimbursed by the debtor is deemed to be a donation, which, however, requires the debtor’s consent. But the payment is in any case valid as to the creditor who has accepted it (Art. 1238). 3. Waiver of the right to demand reimbursement.
Guarantor’s right to Subrogation (ART.2067)  Subrogation transfers to the person subrogated, the credit with all the rights thereto appertaining either against the debtor or against third persons, be they guarantors or possessors of mortgages, subject to stipulation in conventional subrogation. NOTE: This right of subrogation is necessary to enable the guarantor to enforce the indemnity given in Art. 2066.  It arises by operation of law upon payment by the guarantor. It is not necessary that the creditor cede to the guarantor the former’s rights against the debtor.  It is not a contractual right. The right of guarantor who has paid a debt to subrogation does not stand upon contract but upon the principles of natural justice.

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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 The guarantor is subrogated by
virtue of the payment to the rights of the creditor, not those of the debtor.  Guarantor cannot exercise the right of redemption of his principal (Urrutia & Co vs Morena and Reyes, 28 Phil 261) Effect of Payment by Guarantor 1. Without notice to debtor: (Art 2068)  The debtor may interpose against the guarantor those defenses which he could have set up against the creditor at the time the payment was made, e.g. the debtor can set up against the guarantor the defense of previous extinguishment of the obligation by payment. 2. Before Maturity (Art 2069)  Not entitled to reimbursement unless the payment was made with the consent or has been ratified by the debtor Effect of Repeat Payment by debtor: (Art 2070) GENERAL RULE: Before guarantor pays the creditor, he must first notify the debtor (Art. 2068). If he fails to give such notice and the debtor repeats payment, the guarantor can only collect from the creditor and guarantor has no cause of action against the debtor for the return of the amount paid by guarantor even if the creditor should become insolvent.

GENERAL RULE: Guarantor has no cause of action against debtor until after the former has paid the obligation EXCEPTION: Article 2071
NOTES:  Article 2071 is applicable and available to the surety. (Manila Surety & Fidelity Co., Inc. vs Batu Construction & Co., 101 Phil 494)  Remedy of guarantor: (a) obtain release from the guaranty; or (b) demand a security that shall protect him from any proceedings by the creditor, and against the danger of insolvency of the debtor Art. 2066
Provides for the enforcement of the rights of the guarantor/surety against the debtor after he has paid the debt Gives a right of action after payment Substantive right

Art. 2071
Provides for his protection before he has paid but after he has become liable

Protective remedy before payment. Preliminary remedy

EXCEPTION: The guarantor can still claim reimbursement from the debtor in spite of lack of notice if the following conditions are present: (PIG) a. guarantor was prevented by fortuitous event to advise the debtor of the payment; and b. the creditor becomes insolvent; c. the guaranty is gratuitous.
Right of Guarantor to proceed against debtor before payment
CHAIRPERSONS

Extinguishment of guaranty: (RA2CE2) 1. Release in favor of one of the guarantors, without the consent of the others, benefits all to the extent of the share of the guarantor to whom it has been granted (Art 2078); 2. If the creditor voluntarily accepts immovable or other properties in payment of the debt, even if he should afterwards lose the same through eviction or conveyance of property (Art 2077); 3. Whenever by some act of the creditor, the guarantors even though they are solidarily liable cannot be subrogated to the rights, mortgages and preferences of the former (Art 2080); 4. For the same causes as all other obligations (Art 1231); 5. When the principal obligation is extinguished;

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
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MEMORY AID
6. Extension granted to the debtor by the creditor without the consent of the guarantor (Art 2079) BOND  An undertaking that is sufficiently secured, and not cash or currency Bondsman (Art 2082)  A surety offered in virtue of a provision of law or a judicial order. He must have the qualifications required of a guarantor and in special laws like the Rules of Court. NOTES:  Judicial bonds constitute merely a special class of contracts of guaranty by the fact that they are given “in virtue… of a judicial order.”  If the person required to give a legal or judicial bond should not be able to do so, a pledge or mortgage sufficient to cover the obligation shall admitted in lieu thereof (Art 2083)  A judicial bondsman and the subsurety are NOT entitled to the benefit of excussion because they are not mere guarantors, but sureties whose liability is primary and solidary. (Art 2084) PLEDGE, MORTGAGE AND ANTICHRESIS I. Common Elements of Pledge, Mortgage, and Antichresis (Articles 2085 – 2092) A. Essential Requisites (SOD) (Art 2085) 1. Secures the fulfillment of a principal obligation; 2. Pledgor, mortgagor, antichretic debtor must be the absolute owner of the thing pledged or mortgaged; and  The reason being that in anticipation of a possible foreclosure sale in case of default which is still a sale, the rule is that the seller must be the owner of the thing sold CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

IN

CIVIL LAW

(Cavite Development Bank vs. Lim, 324 SCRA 346) 3. Pledgor, mortgagor, antichretic debtor must have free disposal of their property, or be legally authorized for such purpose. NOTES:  Third persons can pledge or mortgage their own property to secure the principal obligation.  It is not necessarily void simply because the accommodation pledgor or mortgagor did not benefit from the same. So long as valid consent was given, the fact that the loan was given solely for the benefit of the principal debtor would not invalidate the mortgage (GSIS vs CA, 170 SCRA 533)  The accommodation pledgor or mortgagor, without expressly assuming personal liability for such debt, is not liable for the payment of any deficiency, should the property not be sufficient to cover the debt (Bank of America vs. American Realty Corporation, 321 SCRA 659).  The accommodation pledgor or mortgagor is not solidarily bound with the principal obligor but his liability extents only to the property pledged or mortgaged. Should there be any deficiency, the creditor has recourse on the principal debtor who remains to be primarily bound.  The law grants to the accommodation pledgor or mortgagor the same rights as a guarantor and he cannot be prejudiced by any waiver of defense by the principal debtor. B. Prohibition against Pactum Commissorium (Art 2088; 2137) Pactum Commissorium  Stipulation whereby the thing pledged or mortgaged, or under antichresis shall automatically become the property of the creditor

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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in the event of non-payment of the debt within the term fixed. Requisites: 1. There should be a pledge, mortgage, or antichresis of property by way of security for the payment of the principal obligation; and 2. There should be a stipulation for an automatic appropriation by the creditor of the property in event of nonpayment of the obligation within the stipulated period.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Where each one of several things guarantees a determinate portion of the credit 2. Where only a portion of the loan was released 3. Where there was failure of consideration. 4. Where there is no debtorcreditor relationship NOTES:  The mere embodiment of a real estate mortgage and a chattel mortgage in one document does not have the effect of fusing both securities into an indivisible whole.  The mortgagee, therefore, may legally foreclose the real estate mortgage extrajudicially and waive the chattel mortgage foreclosure, and maintain instead a personal action for the recovery of the unpaid balance of the credit (Phil. Bank of Commerce vs. Macadaeg, 109 Phil 981) E. When the principal obligation becomes due, the things in which the pledge, mortgage, or antichresis consists may be alienated for the payment to the creditor. (Art. 2087) NOTES:  If the debtor fails to comply with the obligation at the time it falls due, the creditor is merely entitled to move for the sale of the thing pledged or mortgaged in order to collect the amount of his claim from the proceeds.  If he wishes to secure a title to the mortgaged property, he can buy it in the foreclosure sale (Montevirgin vs. CA, 112 SCRA 641) F. Pledgor, mortgagor, antichretic debtor retains ownership of the thing given as a security PLEDGE (Arts 2093 – 2123)

GENERAL RULE: Pactum Commissorium is forbidden by law and is declared null and void. EXCEPTION: The pledgee may appropriate the thing pledged if after the first and second auctions, the thing is not sold. (Art 2112)
NOTE: The security contract remains valid; only the prohibited stipulation is void. C. Capability to secure all kinds of obligations, i.e. pure or conditional (Art 2091) D. Indivisibility (Art 2089) GENERAL RULE: A pledge, mortgage, or antichresis is indivisible, even though the debt may be divided among the successors in interest of the debtor or of the creditor.  Their indivisibility is not affected by the fact that the debtors are jointly or not solidarily liable. Consequences of indivisibility: 1. Single thing – Every portion of the property pledged or mortgaged is answerable for the whole obligation 2. Several things – All of the several things pledged or mortgaged are liable for the totality of the debt 3. Debtor’s heir/creditor’s heir Neither the debtor’s heir who has paid part of the debt cannot ask for proportionate extinguishment, nor creditor’s heir who received his share of the debt return the pledge or cancel the mortgage as long as the debt is not completely satisfied.

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT CHAIRPERSONS
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
202

MEMORY AID
 A contract wherein the debtor delivers to the creditor or to a third person a movable or document evidencing incorporeal rights for the purpose of securing fulfilment of a principal obligation with the understanding that when the obligation is fulfilled, the thing delivered shall be returned with all its fruits and accessions.

IN

CIVIL LAW

 In legal pledge, there is no definite
period for the payment of the principal obligation. The pledgee must make a demand for the payment of the amount due him; otherwise he cannot exercise the right of sale at public auction (Art 2122) Characteristics: 1. Real contract – it is perfected by the delivery of the thing pledged by the debtor who is called the pledgor to the creditor who is called the pledgee, or to a third person by common agreement; 2. Accessor y contract – it has no independent existence of its own; 3. Unilater al contract – it creates an obligation solely on the part of the creditor to return the thing subject thereof upon the fulfilment of the principal obligation; and 4. Subsidia ry contract – the obligation incurred does not arise until the fulfilment of the principal obligation which is secured. Consideration in pledge:  Insofar as the pledgor is concerned, the cause is the principal obligation.  If the pledgor is not the debtor, the cause is the compensation stipulated for the pledge or the mere liberality of the pledgor. Extent of pledge: Unless stipulated otherwise, pledge extends to the fruits, interests or earnings of the thing. Rights and Obligations of a Pledgor Rights Obligations
1. To demand return in case of reasonable grounds to fear destruction or impairment of the thing without the pledgee’s fault, subject to the duty of replacement 1. To advise the pledgee of the flaws of the thing (Art 2101) 2. Not to demand the return of the thing until after full payment of

Special Requisites (in addition to the common essential requisites): 1. Possession of the thing pledged must be transferred to the creditor or a third person by agreement (Art 2093); 2. It can only cover movable property and incorporeal rights evidenced by documents of title and the instruments proving the right pledged shall be delivered to the creditor, and if negotiable must be endorsed (Art 2094); and 3. The description of the thing pledged and the date must appear in a public instrument to bind third persons, but not for the validity of the contract (Art 2096).   Kinds: 1. Conventional /Voluntary – created by contract 2. Legal – created by operation of law (examples: Art. 546, 1731 and 1914 NCC) NOTES:  The provisions of possession, care and sale of the thing as well as on the termination of the pledge governing conventional pledges are applicable to pledges created by operation of law (Art 2121)  Unlike, however, in conventional pledge where the debtor is not entitled to the excess unless it is otherwise agreed, in legal pledge, the remainder of the price of the sale after payment of the debt and expenses, shall be delivered to the debtor. CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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(Art 2107) 2. To bid and be preferred at the public auction (Art 2113) 3. To alienate the thing pledged provided the pledgee consents to the sale (Art 2097) 4. To ask that the thing pledged be deposited (Arts 2104 & 2106)

the debt, including interest due thereon and expenses incurred for its preservation (Art 2105)

Rights of the Pledgee KEY: D SBC BA2R2OPS2 1. Option to demand replacement or immediate payment of the debt in case of deception as to substance or quality (Art 2109) 2. To sell at public auction in case of reasonable grounds to fear destruction or impairment of the thing without his fault (Art 2108) 3. To bring actions pertaining to the owner (Art 2103) 4. To choose which of several things pledged shall be sold 5. To bid at the public auction (Art 2113) 6. To appropriate the thing in case of failure of the 2nd public auction (Art 2112) 7. To apply said fruits, interests or earnings to the interest, if any, then to the principal of the credit (Art 2102) 8. To retain excess value received in the public sale (Art 2115) 9. To retain the thing until after full payment of the debt (Art 2098) 10. To be reimbursed for the expenses made for the preservation of the thing pledged (Art 2099) 11. To object to the alienation of the thing 12. To possess the thing (Art 2098) 13. To sell at public auction in case of non-payment of debt at maturity (Art 2112) To choose which of the several things pledged shall be sold (Art 2119) 14. Option to demand replacement or immediate payment of the debt in case of deception as to substance or quality (Art 2109) 15. To sell at public auction in case of reasonable grounds to fear destruction or impairment of the thing without his fault (Art 2108)
CHAIRPERSONS

16. To bring actions pertaining to the owner (Art 2103) 17. To choose which of several things pledged shall be sold 18. To bid at the public auction (Art 2113) 19. To appropriate the thing in case of failure of the 2nd public auction (Art 2112) 20. To apply said fruits, interests or earnings to the interest, if any, then to the principal of the credit (Art 2102) 21. To retain excess value received in the public sale (Art 2115) 22. To retain the thing until after full payment of the debt (Art 2098) 23. To be reimbursed for the expenses made for the preservation of the thing pledged (Art 2099) 24. To object to the alienation of the thing 25. To possess the thing (Art 2098) 26. To sell at public auction in case of non-payment of debt at maturity (Art 2112) 27. To choose which of the several things pledged shall be sold (Art 2119) Obligations of the Pledgee KEY: CUDA3 1. Take care of the thing with the diligence of a good father of a family (Art 2099) 2. Not to use thing unless authorized or by the owner or its preservation requires its use (Art 2104) 3. Not to deposit the thing with a 3rd person unless so stipulated (Art 2100) 4. Responsibility for acts of agents and employees as regards the thing (Art 2100) 5. To advise pledgor of danger to the thing (Art 2107) 6. To advise pledgor of the result of the public auction (Art 2116) RIGHT OF PLEDGOR TO SUBSTITUTE THING PLEDGED (ART.2107)  Requisites: 1. The pledgor has reasonable grounds to fear the destruction or impairment of the thin pledged 2. There is no fault on the part of the pledgee

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
204

MEMORY AID
3. The pledgor is offering in place of the thing, another thing in pledge which is of the same kind and quality as the former 4. The pledge does not choose to exercise his right to cause the thing pledged to be sold at public auction NOTE: The pledgee’s right to have the thing pledged sold at public sale granted under the Article 2108 is superior to that given to the pledgor to substitute the thing pledged under Article 2107. Prohibition against double pledge  Property which has been lawfully pledged to one creditor cannot be pledged to another as long as the first one subsists. NOTE: Possession of a creditor of the thing pledged is an essential requisite of pledge. Extinguishment of Pledge (CRAPS) 1. For the same causes as all other obligations (Art 1231) 2. Return of the thing pledged by the pledgee to the pledgor (Art 2110) 3. Statement in writing by the pledgee that he renounces or abandons the pledge (Art 2111) 4. Payment of the debt (Art 2105) 5. Sale of thing pledged at public auction (Art 2115) NOTE: The possession by the debtor or owner of the thing pledged subsequent to the perfection of the pledge gives rise to a prima facie presumption that the thing has been returned and, therefore, that the pledge has been extinguished but not the principal obligation itself. (Art 2110) Requirements for sale of thing pledged at public auction: (Art 2112) 1. The debt is due and unpaid 2. Sale must be at a public auction 3. there must be notice to the pledgor and owner, stating the amount due 4. Sale must be with the intervention of a notary public Effect of sale of the thing pledged: (Art 2115) CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

IN

CIVIL LAW

1. The sale of the thing pledged shall extinguish the principal obligation, whether or not the proceeds of the sale are equal to the amount of the principal obligation, interest and expenses in a proper case 2. If the price of the sale is more than the amount due the creditor, the debtor is not entitled to the excess unless the contrary is provided 3. If the price of the sale is less, the creditor is not entitled to recover the deficiency even if there is a stipulation to that effect REAL ESTATE MORTGAGE (Articles 2124-2131)  A contract whereby the debtor secures to the creditor the fulfilment of a principal obligation, specially subjecting to such security immovable property or real rights over immovable property in case the principal obligation is not complied with at the time stipulated.

Characteristics of the contract: 1. Real 2. Accessory 3. Subsidiary 4. Unilateral – it creates only an obligation on the part of the creditor who must free the property from the encumbrance once the obligation is fulfilled.

NOTES:  As an accessory contract, its consideration is that of the principal contract from which it receives life.  A mortgage does not involve a transfer, cession or conveyance of property but only constitutes a lien thereon. Until discharged, it follows the property wherever it goes and subsists notwithstanding changes of ownership.  A mortgage gives the mortgagee no right or claim to the possession of the property, and therefore, a mere

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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mortgagee has no right to eject an occupant of the property mortgaged unless the mortgage should contain some provision to that effect. The only right of a mortgagee in case of non-payment of a debt secured by mortgage would be to foreclose the mortgage and have the encumbered property sold to satisfy the outstanding indebtedness. If the possession is transferred to the mortgagee, it must not expressly be for purpose of applying the fruits to the interest then to the principal of the credit, for then it would be an antichresis. It is not an essential requisite that the principal of the mortgage credit bears interest, or that the interest as compensation for the use of the principal and enjoyment of its fruits be in the form of a certain percent thereof.

1. Voluntary – agreed to by the parties or constituted by the will of the owner of the property on which it is created 2. Legal – one required by law to be executed in favour of certain persons  The persons in whose favour the law establishes a mortgage have no other right than to demand the execution and the recording of the document in which the mortgage is formalized (Art 2125 par 2) 3. Equitable – one which, although lacking the formalities of a mortgage, shows the intention of the parties to make the property a security for a debt PLEDGE
1. Constituted on movables 2. Property is delivered to pledgee or by common consent to a third person 3. Not valid against third persons unless a description of the thing pledged and date of pledge appear in a public instrument

REAL MORTGAGE
1. Constituted on immovables 2. Delivery is not necessary

Special Requisites (in addition to the common essential requisites): 1. It can cover only immovable property and alienable real rights imposed upon immovables (Art 2124); 2. It must appear in a public instrument (Art. 2125); and 3. Registration in the registry of property is necessary to bind third persons, but not for the validity of the contract (Art 2125).  An order for foreclosure cannot be refused on the ground that the mortgage had not been registered provided no innocent third parties are involved. NOTE: Where a mortgage is not valid or false, the principal obligation which it guarantees is not rendered null and void. What is lost only is the right to foreclose the mortgage as a special remedy for satisfying or settling the indebtedness which is the principal obligation but the mortgage deed remains as evidence or proof of a personal obligation of the debtor and the amount due to the creditor may be enforced in an ordinary personal action.   Kinds:

3. Not valid against third persons unless registered

Extent of Mortgage:  Absent express stipulation to the contrary, the mortgage includes the accessions, improvements, growing fruits and income of the property not yet received when the obligation becomes due and to the amount of the indemnity granted or owing to the proprietor from the insurers of the property mortgaged, or in virtue of expropriation for public use (Art 2127) Object of Mortgage:  Future property cannot be an object of a contract of mortgage (Art 2085[2]) However, a stipulation subjecting to the mortgage lien, properties (improvements) which the mortgagor may subsequently acquire

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT CHAIRPERSONS
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
206

MEMORY AID
install, or use in connection with real property already mortgaged belonging to the mortgagor is valid (People’s Bank and Trust Co. vs. Dahican Lumber Co., 20 SCRA 84) Special Rights: 1. Mortgagor - To alienate the mortgaged property but the mortgage shall remain attached to the property. NOTE: A stipulation forbidding the owner from alienating the immovable mortgage shall be void (Art 2130) being contrary to public policy inasmuch as the transmission of property should not be unduly impeded. 2. Mortgagee - To claim from a 3rd person in possession of the mortgaged property the payment of the part of the credit secured by the which said third person possesses (Art 2129) NOTE: It is necessary that prior demand for payment must have been made on the debtor and the latter failed to pay (BPI vs Concepcion & Hijos, Inc., 53 Phil 906) Foreclosure  The remedy available to the mortgagee by which he subjects the mortgaged property to the satisfaction of the obligation to secure that for which the mortgage was given NOTES:  It denotes the procedure adopted by the mortgagee to terminate the rights of the mortgagor on the property and includes the sale itself (DBP vs Zaragoza, 84 SCRA 668)  Foreclosure is valid where the debtor is in default in the payment of his obligation (Gobonseng, Jr. vs CA, 246 SCRA 472)  Kinds:

IN

CIVIL LAW

1. Judicial – ordinary action for foreclosure under Rule 68 of the Rules of Court 2. Extrajudicial – when mortgagee is given a special power of attorney to sell the mortgaged property by public auction, under Act No. 3135 Judicial foreclosure
1. There is court intervention 2. Decisions are appealable 3. Order of court cuts off all rights of the parties impleaded 4. There is equity of redemption except on banks which provides for a right of redemption 5. Period of redemption starts from the finality of the judgment until order of confirmation 6. No need for a special power of attorney in the contract of mortgage

Extrajudicial foreclosure
1. No court intervention 2. Not appealable because it is immediately executory 3. Foreclosure does not cut off right of all parties involved 4. There is right of redemption

5. Period to redeem start from date of registration of certificate of sale 6. Special power of attorney in favor of mortgagee is needed in the contract

NOTES:  A foreclosure sale retroacts to the date of registration of the mortgage and that a person who takes a mortgage in good faith and for valuable consideration, the record showing clear title to the mortgagor, will be protected against equitable claims on the title in favor of third persons, of which he had no actual or constructive notice (St. Dominic Corporation vs. IAC 151 SCRA 577 ).  Where there is a right to redeem, inadequacy of price is not material because the judgment debtor may reacquire the property or else sell his right to redeem and thus recover any loss he claims to have suffered

CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE
 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

207

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

by reason of the price obtained at the auction sale and consequently not sufficient to set aside the sale. Mere inadequacy of the price obtained at the sheriff’s sale will not be sufficient to set aside the sale unless “the price is so inadequate as to shock the conscience of the court” taking into consideration the peculiar circumstances attendant thereto. (Sulit vs. CA, 268 SCRA 441) Should there remain a balance due to the mortgagee after applying the proceeds of the sale, the mortgagee is entitled to recover the deficiency. This rule applies both to judicial and extra-judicial foreclosure real mortgage. The action to recover a deficiency after foreclosure prescribes after 10 years from the time the right of action accrues (Arts 1142 & 1144).

place within said province in which the sale is to be made is the subject of stipulation, such sale shall be made in the said place in the municipal building of the municipality in which the property or part thereof is situated. Procedure for extrajudicial foreclosure of both real estate mortgage under Act No. 3135 and chattel mortgage under Act No. 1508 (A.M. No. 99-10-05-0, January 15, 2000) 1. Filing of application before the Executive Judge through the Clerk of Court 2. Clerk of Court will examine whether the requirement of the law have been complied with, that is, whether the notice of sale has been posted for not less than 20 days in at least three (3) public places of the municipality or city where the property is situated, and if the same is worth more than P400.00, that such notice has been published once a week for at least three (3) consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the city of municipality 3. The certificate of sale must be approved by the Executive Judge 4. Where the application concerns extrajudicial foreclosure of real mortgages in different locations covering one indebtedness, only one filing fee corresponding to such debt shall be collected 5. The Clerk of Court shall issue certificate of payment indicating the amount of indebtedness, the filing fees collected, the mortgages sought to be foreclosed, the description of the real estates and their respective locations 6. The notice of sale shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation pursuant to Section 1, PD No. 1079 7. The application of shall be raffled among all sheriffs 8. After the redemption period has expired, the Clerk of Court shall archive the records. 9. No auction sale shall be held unless there are at least two (2) participating bidders, otherwise the

Stipulation of upset price or “tipo”  It is a stipulation in a mortgage of real property of minimum price at which the property shall be sold, to become operative in the event of a foreclosure sale at public auction. It is null and void for the property must be sold to the highest bidder. Parties cannot, by agreement, contravene the law and interfere with the lawful procedure of the courts (BPI vs Yulo, 31 Phil 476) Extrajudicial foreclosure real property (Act No. 3135)  The law covers only real estate mortgages. It is intended merely to regulate the extrajudicial sale of the property mortgaged if and when the mortgagee is given a special power of express authority to do so in the deed itself or in a document annexed thereto.  The authority to sell is not extinguished by the death of the mortgagor (or mortgagee) as it is an essential and inseparable part of a bilateral agreement (Perez vs PNB, 17 SCRA 833).  No sale can be legally made outside the province in which the property sold is situated; and in case the
CHAIRPERSONS

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
208

MEMORY AID
sale shall be postponed to another date. If on the new date set forth for the sale there shall not be at least two bidders, the sale shall then proceed. The names of the bidders shall be reported to the Sheriff of the Notary Public, who conducted the sale to the Clerk of Court before the issuance of the certificate of sale. NOTES:  The Mortgagor and Mortgagee have no right to waive the posting and publication requirements under Act. No. 3135. Notices are given to secure bidders and prevent a sacrifice of the property. Clearly, the statutory requirements of posting and publication are mandated, not for the mortgagor’s benefit, but for the public or third persons. Failure to comply with the statutory requirements as to publication of notice of auction sale constitutes a jurisdictional defect which invalidates the sale.Lack of republication of notice of foreclosure sale made subsequently after the original date renders such sale void (PNB vs. Nepomuceno Productions Inc., G.R. No. 139479. December 27, 2002).  Sec 3 of Act 3135 does not require personal or any particular notice on the mortgagor much less on his successors-in-interest where there is no contractual stipulation therefor. Hence, unless required in the mortgage contract, the lack of such notice is not a ground to set aside a foreclosure sale.  Neither does Sec 3 require posting of notice of sale on the mortgage property and the certificate of posting is not required, much less considered indispensable, for the validity of a foreclosure sale. Redemption  It is the transaction by which the mortgagor reacquires or buys back CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

IN

CIVIL LAW

the property which may have passed under the mortgage, or divests the property of the lien which the mortgage may have created. NOTES:  A sale by the mortgagor to a third party of the mortgaged property during the period for redemption transfers only the right to redeem the property and the right to possess, use and enjoy the same during said period.  Where sale with assumption of mortgage not registered and made without the consent of the mortgagee, the buyer, thereof, was not validly substituted as debtor and, hence, had no right to redeem (Bonnevie vs. CA, 125 SCRA 122).  Kinds: 1. Equity of Redemption – right of mortgagor to redeem the mortgaged property after his default in the performance of the conditions of the mortgage within the 90-day period from the date of the service of the order of foreclosure or even thereafter but before the confirmation of the sale. Applies to judicial foreclosure of real mortgage and chattel mortgage foreclosure. NOTE: Redemption of the banking institutions is allowed within one year from confirmation of sale. 2. Right of Redemption – right of mortgagor to redeem the mortgaged property within one year from the date of registration of the certificate of sale. Applies only to extrajudicial foreclosure of real mortgage. NOTE: The right of redemption, as long as within the period prescribed, may be exercised irrespective of whether or not the mortgagee has subsequently conveyed the property to some other party (Sta. Ignacia Rural Bank, Inc. vs. CA, 230 SCRA 513)

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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Period of Redemption 1. Extra-judicial (Act #3135) a. natural person – one year from registration of the certificate of sale with Registry of Deeds b. juridical person – same rule as natural person c. juridical person (mortgagee is bank) - three months after foreclosure or before registration of certificate of foreclosure which ever is earlier (sec. 47, of General Banking Law) 2. Judicial – before confirmation of the sale by the court NOTE: Allowing a redemption after the lapse of the statutory period, when the buyer at the foreclosure sale does not object but even consents to the redemption, will uphold the policy of the law which is to aid rather than defeat the right of redemption. There is nothing in the law which prevents a waiver of the statutory period for redemption (Ramirez vs CA, 219 SCRA 598). Amount of the redemption price: 1. Mortgagee is not a bank (Act No. 3135, in relation to Sec. 28, Rule 39 of Rules of Court) a. purchase price of the property b. 1% interest per month on the purchase price c. taxes paid and amount of purchaser’s prior lien, if any, with the same rate of interest computed from the date of registration of sale, up to the time of redemption 2. Mortgagee is a bank (GBL 2000) a. amount due under the mortgage deed b. interest c. cost and expenses NOTE: Redemption price in this case is reduced by the income received from the property

ANTICHRESIS 2132 -2139) 

(Articles

A contract whereby the creditor acquires the right to receive the fruits of an immovable of the debtor, with the obligation to apply them to the payment of the interest, if owing, and thereafter to the principal of his credit (Art 2132)

Characteristics 1. Accessory contract – it secures the performance of a principal obligation 2. Formal contract – it must be in a specified form to be valid, i.e., “in writing.” (Art 2134)  1. 2. Special Requisites (in addition to the common essential requisites): It can cover only the fruits of an immovable property; (Art 2132) Delivery of the immovable is necessary for the creditor to receive the fruits and not that the contract shall be binding; Amount of principal and interest must be specified in writing (Art. 2134); and Express agreement that debtor will give possession of the property to creditor and that the latter will apply the fruits to the interest, if any, then to the principal of his credit. (Art 2132)

3. 4.

NOTE: The obligation to pay interest is not of the essence of the contract of antichresis, there being nothing in the Code to show that antichresis is only applicable to securing the payment of interest-bearing loans. On the contrary, antichresis is susceptible of guaranteeing all kinds of obligations, pure or conditional Antichresis
1. Refers to real property 2. Perfected by mere consent

Pledge

1. Refers to personal property 2. Perfected by delivery of the thing pledged 3. Consensual contract 3. Real Contract

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT CHAIRPERSONS
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
210

MEMORY AID
Antichresis
1. Property is delivered to creditor

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CIVIL LAW

Real Mortgage
1. Debtor usually retains possession of the property 2. Creditor does not have any right to receive the fruits; but the mortgage creates a real right over the property 3. The creditor has no such obligation

2. Creditor acquires only the right to receive the fruits of the property, hence, it does not produce a real right 3. The creditor, unless there is stipulation to the contrary, is obliged to pay the taxes and charges upon the estate 4. It is expressly 4. There is no such stipulated that the obligation on part of creditor given mortgagee possession of the property shall apply all the fruits thereof to the payment of interest, if owing, and thereafter to the principal Subject matter of both is real property

1. Bring an action for specific performance; or 2. Petition for the sale of the real property as in a foreclosure of mortgages under Rule 68 of the Rules of Court.(Art 2137) NOTES:

 The parties, however, may agree on
an extrajudicial foreclosure in the same manner as they are allowed in contracts of mortgage and pledge (Tavera vs. El Hogar Filipino, Inc., 68 Phil 712). A stipulation authorizing the antichretic creditor to appropriate the property upon the non-payment of the debt within the agreed period is void (Art 2088). CHATTEL MORTGAGE (Articles 2140-2141)  A contract by virtue of personal property is recorded Chattel Mortgage Register security for the performance obligation (Art 2140). which in the as a of an

Obligations of antichretic creditor: 1 To pay taxes and charges on the estate, including necessary expenses NOTE: Creditor may avoid said obligation by: a. compelling debtor to reacquire enjoyment of the property or b. by stipulation to the contrary 2 To apply all the fruits, after receiving them, to the payment of interest, if owing, and thereafter to the principal 3 To render an account of the fruits to the debtor 4 To bear the expenses necessary for its preservation and repair Remedies of creditor in case of nonpayment of debt

Characteristics 1. Accessory contract – it is for the purpose of securing the performance of a principal obligation 2. Formal contract – registration in the Chattel Mortgage Register is indispensable for its validity 3. Unilateral contract – it produces only obligations on the part of the creditor to free the thing from the encumbrance on fulfilment of the obligation. Special Requisites (in addition to the common essential requisites): 1. It can cover only personal or movable property in general; however, the parties may treat as personal property that which by its nature would be real property; 2. Registration of the mortgage with the Chattel Mortgage Register where the mortgagor resides; if property is located in a different province, 

CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE
 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

211

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registration in both provinces required; 3. Description of the property as would enable the parties or other persons to identify the same after reasonable investigation and inquiry; and 4. Accompanied by an affidavit of good faith to bind third persons, but not for the validity of the contract. 5. It can cover only obligations existing at the time the mortgage is constituted. NOTE: A mortgage containing a stipulation in regard to future advances in the credit will take effect only from the date the same are made and not from the date of the mortgage (Jaca vs Davao Lumber Co., 113 SCRA 107) Effect of registration: Creates a real right  The registration of the chattel mortgage is an effective and binding notice to other creditors of its existence and creates a real right or a lien which, being recorded, follows the chattel wherever it goes. The registration gives the mortgagee symbolical possession (Northern Motors, Inc. vs. Coquia, 68 SCRA 374). Effect of failure to register chattel mortgage in the chattel mortgage registry  Article 2140 makes the recording in the Chattel Mortgage Register an essential requisite but if the instrument is not recorded, the mortgage is nevertheless binding between the parties. But the person in whose favour the law establishes a mortgage has no other right than to demand the execution and the recording of the document. Chattel Mortgage 1. Delivery of the personal property to the mortgage is not necessary 2. registration in
CHAIRPERSONS

the Chattel Mortgage Registry is necessary for its validity 3. If property is foreclosed, the excess over the amount due goes to the debtor

necessary to be valid 3. Debtor is not entitled to excess unless otherwise agreed or except in case of legal pledge 4. If there is deficiency, creditor is not entitled to recover notwithstanding any stipulation to the contrary

4. If there is deficiency after foreclosure, creditor is entitled to recover the deficiency from the debtor, except under Art. 1484 Subject matter of both is movable property

Affidavit of Good Faith  Oath in a contract of chattel mortgage wherein the parties "severally swear that the mortgage is made for the purpose of securing the obligation specified in the conditions thereof and for no other purposes and that the same is a just and valid obligation and one not entered into for the purpose of fraud.” (Sec. 5, Chattel Mortgage Law) Effect of absence The special affidavit is required only for the purpose of transforming an already valid mortgage into “preferred mortgage.” Thus, it is not necessary for the validity of the chattel mortgage itself but only to give it a preferred status. In other words, its absence vitiates the mortgage only as against third persons without notice like creditors and subsequent encumbrancers. Foreclosure of Chattel Mortgage NOTES:  Foreclosure sale in chattel mortgage is by public auction under Act No. 1508, but the parties may stipulate that it be by private sale.  The mortgagee may, after thirty (30) days from the time of the condition broken, cause the mortgaged

Pledge 1. Delivery of the thing pledged is necessary 2. registration not

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
212

MEMORY AID
property to be sold at public auction by a public officer. The 30-day period is also a grace period for the mortgagor to discharge the mortgage obligation. After the sale of the chattel at public auction, the right of redemption is no longer available to the mortgagor (Cabral vs. Evangelista, 28 SCRA 1000). Application of proceed of sale: 1. Costs and expenses of keeping and sale 2. Payment of the obligation secured by the mortgage 3. Claims of persons holding subsequent mortgages in their order 4. The balance, if any, shall be paid to the mortgagor or person holding under him NOTES:  The creditor may maintain an action for the deficiency, except if the chattel mortgage is constituted as security for the purchase of personal property payable in instalments (Art. 1484).  The action for deficiency may be brought within ten (10) years from the time the cause of action accrues (Arts 1141 and 1142).  Only equity of redemption is available to the mortgagor; the latter can no longer redeem after the confirmation of the foreclosure sale. Right of redemption  When the condition of a chattel mortgage is broken the following may redeem: a) mortgagor; b) person holding a subsequent mortgage; or c) subsequent attaching creditor.  An attaching creditor who so redeems shall be subrogated to the rights of the mortgagee and entitled to foreclose the mortgage in the CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

IN

CIVIL LAW

same manner that the mortgagee could foreclose it. The redemption is made by paying or delivering to the mortgagee the amount due on such mortgage and the costs, and expenses incurred by such breach of condition before the sale thereof (Sec 13, Act No. 1508).

Right to possession of foreclosed property 1. Real mortgage – After the redemption period has expired, the purchaser of the property has the right to a conveyance and to be placed in possession thereof. NOTES:  Purchaser is not obliged to bring a separate suit for possession. He must invoke the aid of the courts and ask for a WRIT OF POSSESSION.  Section 7 of Act No. 3135 allows the purchaser to take possession of the foreclosed property during the period of redemption upon filing of an ex parte application and approval of a bond. 2. Chattel mortgage – When default occurs and the creditor desires to foreclose, the creditor has the right to take the property as a preliminary step for its sale. NOTE: Where the debtor refuses to yield the property, the creditor’s remedy is to institute an action either to effect judicial foreclosure directly or to secure possession (REPLEVIN) as a preliminary to the sale contemplated in Section 14 or Act. No. 1508 CONCURRENCE AND PREFERENCE OF CREDITS (Articles 2236 – 2251) Concurrence of Credits  Possession by two or more creditors of equal rights or privileges over the same property or all of the property of the debtor

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

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Preference of Credits  Right held by a creditor to be preferred in the payment of his claim above others out of the debtor’s assets. NOTES:  The rules on preference of credits apply only when two or more creditors have separate and distinct claims against the same debtor who has insufficient property.  Preference creates no lien on property, and, therefore, gives no interest in property, specific or general, to the preferred creditor but a preference in application of the proceeds after the sale. (Molina vs. Somes, 31 Phil. 76)  The preferential right of credit attains significance only after the properties of the debtor have been inventoried and liquidated, and the claims held by his various creditors have been established. (DBP vs. NLRC, 183 SCRA 328) Preference of Credit
Applies only to claims which do not attach to specific properties

subject to certain exceptions expressly provided by law. (Secs. 68, 69, The Insolvency Law [Act No. 1956]) 3. Property under legal custody and those owned by municipal corporations necessary for governmental purposes General Categories of Credit: 1. Special Preferred Credits - those listed in Arts. 2241 and 2242 shall be considered as mortgages and pledges of real or personal property or liens (Art. 2243). Hence, they are not included in the insolvent debtor's assets. NOTES:  Arts. 2241 and 2242 do not give the order of preference or priority of payment. They merely enumerate the credits which enjoy preference with respect to specific movables or immovables. With respect to the same specific movables or immovables, creditors, with the exception of the State (No. 1) , merely concur.  They only find application when there is a concurrence of credits, i.e., when the same specific property of the debtor is subjected to the claims of several creditors and the value of such property is insufficient to pay in full all the creditors. In such a situation, the question of preference will arise.  Article 2242 makes no distinction between registered and unregistered vendor’s lien (No. 2). Hence, any lien of that kind enjoys the preferred credit status. Unlike the unpaid price of real property sold, mortgage credits (No. 5), in order to be given preference, should be recorded in the Registry of Property. But a recorded mortgage credit is superior to an unrecorded unpaid vendor’s lien (De Barretto vs. Villanueva, 1 SCRA 288)  The priority rule applies to credits annotated in the Registry of Property. As to credits mentioned in No. 7 of Article 2242, there is

Lien
Creates a charge on a particular property

Liability of debtor’s property for his obligations GENERAL RULE: Debtor is liable with all his property, present and future, for the fulfilment of his obligations. (Art 2236)

EXEMPT PROPERTY: 1. Present property – those provided under Arts. 155 and 205 of the Family Code, Sec. 13, Rule 39 of the Rules of Court, and Sec. 118 of the Public Land Act 2. Future property – a debtor who obtains a discharge from his debts on account of his insolvency, is not liable for the unsatisfied claims of his creditors with said property
CHAIRPERSONS

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

San Beda College of Law
214

MEMORY AID
preference among the attachments or executions according to the order of the time they were levied upon the property. The pro rata rule in Article 2249 does not apply; otherwise, the result would be absurd. The preference of a credit annotated by an attachment or execution could be defeated by simply obtaining a writ of attachment or execution, no matter how much later (Manabat vs Laguna Federation of Facomas, Inc., 19 SCRA 621). The last paragraph of Article 2241 applies only when the right of ownership in such property continues in the debtor, and, therefore, it is not applicable to cases where the debtor has parted with his ownership therein, as where he has sold the property (Peña vs. Mitchell, 9 Phil 587) 3.

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CIVIL LAW

Common Credits – those listed under Art. 2245, which shall be paid pro rata regardless of dates. NOTE: Ordinary Preferred and Common Credits cover only “free property” of the debtor, or those not subjected to Special Preferred Credit. Effects of Article 110 of Labor Code to Art 2244: 1. Removed the one-year limitation found in No. 2 of Art. 2244 2. Moving up the claims for unpaid wages (and other monetary claims) of laborers or workers of insolvent from second priority to first priority in the order of preference established by Art. 2244

2.

Ordinary Preferred Credits - those listed in Art. 2244 as amended by Art. 110 of the Labor Code. NOTES:  The provision not only enumerates the preferred credits with respect to other property, real and personal, of the debtor, but also gives their order of preference “in the order named”.  In contrast with Articles 2241 and 2242, Article 2244 creates no liens on determinate property which follow such property. What Article 2244 creates are simply rights in favour of certain creditors to have the cash and other assets of the insolvent applied in a certain sequence or order of priority.  Article 2244, particularly par (14) item (1) thereof, is not applicable to obligations of the State as it is a recognized doctrine that the State is always solvent. It is inconceivable for the State to voluntarily initiate insolvency or general liquidation proceedings or to be subjected to such proceedings under its own laws. CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE

NOTES:  In case of bankruptcy or liquidation of the employer’s business, the unpaid wages and other monetary claims of the employees shall be given first preference and shall be paid in full before the claims of the government and other creditors may be paid. The terms, “declaration” of bankruptcy, or “judicial” liquidation have been eliminated, nevertheless, according to the SC, bankruptcy or liquidation proceedings are still necessary for the operation of the preference accorded to workers under Art. 110 of the Labor Code. (DBP vs. NLRC 183 SCRA 328; RA No. 6715 Sec 10)  In case of rehabilitation, the preference of credit granted to employees under Art 110 of the Labor Code is not applicable (Rubberworld [Phils.] vs CA, 305 SCRA 722). Refectionary Credit  Indebtedness incurred in the repair or reconstruction of something previously made, such repair or reconstruction being made necessary

 CHAIRPERSON: Romuald Padilla  ASST.CHAIRPERSON: Vida Bocar, Joyce Vidad  EDP: Alnaiza Hassiman, Dorothy Gayon  SUBJECT HEADS: Christopher Rey Marasigan (Persons and Family Relations), Alejandro Casabar(Property), Ma. Rhodora Ferrer(Wills and Succession), Ian Dominic Pua(Obligations and Contracts), Sha Elijah Dumama(Sales and Lease), John Stephen Quiambao(PAT), Christopher Cabigao(Credit Transactions), Ligaya Alipao(Torts and Damages), Anthony Purganan(LTD), Ma. Ricasion Tugadi (Conflicts of Law)

215

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS

by the deterioration or destruction of the thing as it formerly existed. ORDER OF PREFERENCE OF CREDITS Arts. 2241 and 2242, jointly with Arts. 2246 to 2249 establish a twotier order of preference: 1. First tier – includes taxes, duties and fees due on specific movable or immovable property; 2. Second tier – all other special preferred (non-tax) credits shall be satisfied pro-rata, out of any residual value of the specific property to which such credits relate.  NOTES:  The pro-rata rule does not apply to credits annotated in the Registry of Property by virtue of a judicial

order, by attachments and executions, which are preferred as to “later credits”. In satisfying several credits annotated by attachments or executions, the rule is still preference according to the priority of the credits in the order of time. In order to make the pro rating provided in Art 2249 fully effective, the preferred creditors enumerated in Nos. 2 to 14 of Art 2242 must necessarily be convened, and the import of their claims ascertained. There must be first some proceeding where the claims of all the preferred creditors may be bindingly adjudicated, e.g. insolvency, settlement of decedent’s estate, or other liquidation proceedings except where there are not more than one creditor.

 Credits which do not enjoy any
preference with respect to specific property because they are not among those mentioned in Arts. 2241 and 2242 and those while included in said articles are unpaid because the value of the property to which the preference refers is less than the preferred credit or credits, shall be satisfied in the order established in Art. 2244 with reference to other real and/or personal property. Common credits or those which do not fall under Arts. 2241, 2242, and 2244 do not enjoy any preference and shall be paid pro rata regardless of dates.

2005 CENTRALIZED BAR OPERATIONS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND SUBJECT CHAIRPERSONS
Maricel Abarentos (Over-all Chairperson), Ronald Jalmanzar (Over-all Vice Chair), Yolanda Tolentino(VC-Acads), Jennifer Ang(VC- Secretariat), Joy Inductivo (VC-Finance), Elaine Masukat (VCEDP), Anna Margarita Eres (VC-Logistics). Jonathan Mangundayao (Political Law), Francis Benedict Reotutar (Labor Law), Romuald Padilla (Civil Law), Charmaine Torres (Taxation Law), Mark David Martinez (Criminal Law), Garny Luisa Alegre (Commercial Law), Jinky Ann Uy (Remedial Law), Jackie Lou Bautista (Legal Ethics)

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