Impact of Technologies on the Recovery Factor « The Challenges of Enhanced Recovery »

François CUPCIC
Heavy Oil Research Leader

Extra Heavy Oil and Bitumen

Heavy Oil : a mix of heterogeneous denominations
Confusing heterogeneous denominations :

§ Heavy Oil, Extra Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, Tar Sands, Bitumen, ….
è need for a simple classification

4 Classes based mainly on downhole viscosity : 0 A Class : Medium Heavy Oil 25°> d°API > 18° 100 cPo >µ > 10 cPo, mobile at reservoir conditions 0 B Class : Extra Heavy Oil 20°> d°API > 7° 10 000 cPo >µ > 100 cPo , mobile at reservoir conditions 0 C Class : Tar Sands and Bitumen 12°> d°API > 7° µ > 10 000 cPo, non mobile at reservoir conditions

0 D Class : Oil Shales
Reservoir = Source Rock, no permeability Mining Extraction only

ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 - Rueil- 26-27 May 2003

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10 0.0 uDalia API Density ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .Heavy Oil (excluding Oil Shales) : 3 Main Categories Heavy Oil Classification 10 000 000 Wabasca Downhole Viscosity (Cpo) C Class : 1 000 000 Tar Sands & Bitumen 100 000 Athabasca Canada Peace river Cold lake Upper & Lower Ugnu Cat canyon B Class : Extra Heavy Oil A Class : Medium Heavy Oil 10 000 Eljobo Boscan Poso creek Yorba linda Fazenda belem Llancanelo Alto do rodrigues 2 Lloyminster Belridge Kern river Orinoco 1 000 Mormora mare 100 Tia juana Midway Estreito Grenade Bressay Morichal Bati raman Mariner (H) Sarago mare Alto do rodrigues 1 Duri Pilon Bechraji Mount poso Rospomare Qarn alam Varadero Balol Bachaquero Emeraude Captain Mariner (M) Boca de Jaruco West sak u Shoonebeck u Lacq Sup.0 10.0 5.0 3 .0 uTempa Rosa (11-23°API) 25.0 15.Rueil.26-27 May 2003 20.

Rueil."Heavy Oils" : Resources of 4000 to 5000 Gb (OIP) Potential Reserves depends on recovery factors Considerable Potential Reserves : # 500 to 1000 Gb equivalent to 50-100% of worldwide conventional oil reserves 5 to 10 times (?) the ultra-deep offshore potential reserves mainly (80%) in extra heavy oil. tar sands and bitumens mainly (80%) in North and South America less than 1% produced or under active development Heavy Oil Reserves Light Oil Reserves 270 310 260 Venezuela ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 Canada 4 Saudi Arabia .

Rueil.000 cPo) Tar Sands & Bitumen (µ > 10.000 cPo) Oil in place: 1.000 km2 45.000 km2 ALBERTA Athabasca Fort Mc Murray Peace River Cold Lake Edmonton Lloydminster Calgary Cretaceous Oil Sands Cretaceous Heavy Oils SINCOR OPCO SURMONT SAGDPilot Extra Heavy Oils (µ < 10.26-27 May 2003 5 .200 Gb (PDVSA estimates) Oil in place: 1.300 Gb (EUB estimates) ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .Huge Untapped Resources in Orinoco and Athabasca 54.

500 to 3. 000 cPo Thermal Production Compulsory Orinoco : • T res. # 11°C • µ ‡ 1.Rueil.26-27 May 2003 1 4 0 0 m 6 .000 cPo Cold Production Possible Downh ole pump 5 5 0 m m 0 0 2 ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .A decisive difference: the geothermal gradient 10 000 000 cPo 1 000 000 cPo 100 000 cPo 10 000 cPo 1 000 cPo 100 cPo 10 cPo 1 cPo 0 °C 50 °C 100 °C 150 °C 200 °C 250 °C 300 °C Viscosity = f(tempure) Athabasca : • T res.000. # 53°C • µ # 1.

Proven technologies … but with limited suitability or recovery efficiency • Mining Extraction • Cold Production • Huff & Puff ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 7 .Rueil.Production Technologies 1 .

Mining Extraction • Proven technology • High Recovery Factor • Decreasing operating costs : 3 1980's 3 2002 : > 25 US$/bbl : 8 .26-27 May 2003 Calgary 8 .Rueil.12 US$/bbl • Limited GHG emissions ALBERTA Athabasca Fort Mc Murray Cold Lake Edmonton BUT : • Overburden limited to 50-75 m è suitable to less than 10% of Oil in Place in Athabasca ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .

rod pumps • No GHG emissions Sand + Oil BUT : ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 CHOPS • Poor recovery factors (# 5 to 10%) • Unsuitable for bitumens (too viscous) • Unsuitable for reservoirs with active aquifer 9 .Cold Production • Proven technology • Fair productivities with horizontal wells (Venezuela) or with CHOPS (Canada) • Limited investments • Limited operating costs (2 to 4 US$/bbl) • Available artificial lift technologies: PCP.Rueil.

5° API 200 Kbls /d 21+200 km Diluent 70 KBD 12”-20” 26”-36” Distillation Hydrotreater Diluted crude 270 KBD ZUATA SWEET Cold Production Coker Hydrocracker SOLIDS Coke 6000 t/d Sulfur 500 t/d Investment Plateau production Oil gravity Technical cost Contract duration : US$ 4.5° ð 32° API : < 7 US$ / b : 35 years 10 THE PARTNERS TOTAL 47 % 38 % 15 % ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 .Example of Cold Production : the Sincor Project JOSE 32° API 180Kbls /d ZUATA 8.2 billion : 200 kbd of crude oil 180 kbd of Zuata Sweet : 8.Rueil.

26-27 May 2003 11 . Wolf Lake & Primrose • Venezuela : Maracaïbo & Oriente Basins • California : Kern River • Limited operating costs : • 4 to 5 US$/bbl BUT : • Limited recovery factors (< 15-20%) : only stimulation around wellbore • Consumption of energy and increase of GHG emissions ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .Huff & Puff • Proven technology : • Canada : Cold Lake.Rueil.

Rueil.Production Technologies 2 .26-27 May 2003 12 .More efficient technologies … but not yet field proven • In-Situ Combustion • Solvent Injection ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .

In Situ Combustion Combustion front Mobile oil zone (MOZ) Cold Heavy Oil • Old technology (1960's) • High Recovery Factor : • up to 60% Air & Water • Self-generation of energy (coke consumption) • In situ upgrading (thermal cracking) Producer well BUT : • Field tested nearly exclusively on light oils • Not so many successes (operational and safety problems) • Pattern adapted to extra-heavy oil & bitumen to be found and field tested .26-27 May 2003 13 . ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .Rueil...

Rueil.26-27 May 2003 14 .Solvent Injection Capillary mixing Solubilization Swelling Molecular diffusion Convective dispersion Viscosity Viscosity reduction reduction Asphaltene precipitation • High Recovery Factor : • up to 60% Solvent flows to interface Solvent g Oil BUT : • Low energy consumption • In situ upgrading (asphaltene precipitation) • No boiler feedwater treatment • Limited GHG emissions • Slow process (molecular diffusivity much smaller than thermal diffusivity) • Start-up not so easy : need for warming with steam ? • Possible "killing factor" : solvent loss in reservoir ? • Not yet field tested : first pilots being launched in Alberta • Not mature enough for industrial application until some years ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .

Available efficient technology … with proven results • Steam Injection and SAGD ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 15 .Rueil.Production Technologies 3 .

) • Large GHG emissions : up to 15.26-27 May 2003 16 .000 Tons/day of CO2 for 100.Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) • High Recovery Factor : • up to 60% • Quick process (high thermal diffusivity) • Proven technology : • several pilots since 1980's in Alberta and elsewhere BUT : • Mature enough for medium scale field tests • Huge need of energy : 1500 MW for 100. …) ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 . surface pumping. metering.000 bopd • Requires technics adapted to high temperatures (artificial lift.Rueil.000 bopd !! • "Killing factor" : steam oil ratio (has to be < 3 vol./vol.

SAGD : already a reality in Alberta Phase 1 of Foster Creek (EnCana) Construction of Christina Lake (EnCana) Construction of Mac Kay River (PetroCanada) ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 Surmont Pilot (Conoco-Phillips / Total / Devon) 17 .Rueil.

3°API -80% -100% BRENT ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 1 .4°API Syncrude HDH + 36.6 $/bbl 15.5 $/bbl HEAVY FRACTION -40% -60% Gasoil (145-375°C) VGO (375-540°C) ATHABASCA ORENOQUE Diluted Bitumen 19°API Syncrude LR.Syncrude coking OIL with VR SINCOR 23°API 23.6 $/bbl 40% 20% 0% -20% 8.5°API 32°API Gasoline (0-145°C) VR 540°C+ Syncrude HOIL without VR 32.SAGD 1st Challenge : To Increase Oil Value UPGRADING & VALUE OF THE PRODUCT 100% LIGHT FRACTION Deep Upgrading Mid Upgrading 80% 60% 17 $/bbl Mini Upgrading 17.Syncrude H.Rueil.

Rueil.26-27 May 2003 19 .Upgrading : a Balanced Choice Thermal Cracking • Lower Investment Costs • Lower Cost of Steam : petcoke may be used as fuel • Higher SCO value Deep Hydrocracking BUT • Lower SCO value BUT • Higher Investment Costs • High consumption of natural gas for H2 and steam production ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .

000 bopd) BUT High operating cost : 3 US$/Bbl (gas price ± 3 US$/MMbtu) ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .SAGD 2nd Challenge : To Reduce Cost of Steam Combustion of natural gas : • simple and cheap boiler technology (OTSG) • reduced treatment of boiler feedwater • minimized GHG emissions • limited investment costs : • # 160 MMUS$ (for 100.26-27 May 2003 20 .Rueil.

1st Alternative Fuel : Combustion of Upgrading Residues Combustion of residues : • cheaper fuel than natural gas : • reduced operating cost : 3 è 1 US$/bbl • avoids stockpiling of residues (petcoke.000 bopd) ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 21 .Rueil. asphalts) BUT • Requests specific boilers • Heavier treatment of boiler feedwater • High sulphur % è FGD compulsory • Requires regenerative FGD process to avoid stockpiling of Ca2SO4 • Higher CO2 emissions • Higher investment costs : • 160 è 500 MMUS$ (100.

000 bopd) 22 ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 .2nd Alternative Fuel : Gasification of Upgrading Residues Synthetic Crude Oil 30.3 US$/bbl Naphta/Gasoil HDT S C O Surmont 8°API 100 KBOPD DAO/VGO T-Star Crude unit hydrogen Vacuum distillation HP Steam Gasification • avoids stockpiling of residues (petcoke. asphalts) • allows production of H 2 for hydrotreatment • easier capture of SO2 and CO 2 • syngas can be burnt into simple OTSG boilers • reduced treatment of boiler feedwater Asphalt Deasphalting unit Gas cleanup and Sulfur syngas recovery OTSG Clean syngas BUT • Higher investments costs : • 160 è 360 MMUS$ (100.Rueil.2°API 85 KBOPD Gasification of residues : • cheaper fuel than natural gas • reduced operating cost : 3 è 1.

3 MMSCFD Natural gas Electrical power external supply Nota : CO2 for bitumen production with only Natural gas : 6 500 tons / day ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .5 Vol / Vol Artificial lift : Gas lift + ESP 82.Rueil.12 wellpairs / Pad SOR : 2.9 MMSCFD Sulphur 8 .SAGD 3rd Challenge : To Reduce CO2 Emisions Synthetic crude oil Bitumen 100 000 BPOD SCO 88 050 BOPD Total CO2 : 14 300 tons / day Diluent recycle CO2 3 300 tons / day CO2 11 000 tons / day Oil Water separation Diluted Bitumen 19 °API Upgrader Flexicoker case C3 SCO Pads Steam : 43 200 tons/day Steam Generation Equivalent gas 71.5 MMSCFD Water make up 44.8 MMSCFD 38.26-27 May 2003 23 .

Rueil.CO2 Emissions in SAGD 125 kg CO2 / barrel of bitumen 1 ton CO2/ton syncrude 100 Range of possible variation Upstream Upgrader Refining 75 50 25 0 ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .26-27 May 2003 Athabasca SAGD Athabasca Mine 24 SINCOR .

26-27 May 2003 25 .5 T CO2 emission / T CO2 captured è real capture cost # 50 US$/T CO 2 ? BOILER Tax ? 10 US$/T CO 2 ? è + 2 US$/bbl 20 US$/T CO 2 ? è + 4 US$/bbl 30 US$/T CO 2 ? è + 6 US$/bbl è + 10 US$/bbl !! Possible solution : oxy-combustion (concentration of CO2) Off-gas vent STEAM / ELECTRICITY Oxygen Production Flue gas Treatment CO2 Separation/ Inerts removal HEAVY RESIDUE Steam BFW CO2 Sequestered ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .Cost of CO2 Capture Today solution : MEA process technical capture cost # 25 US$/T CO2 + 0.Rueil.

Rueil.26-27 May 2003 Recovery Efficiency 26 .Conclusion : Impact of Recovery Efficiency Technical cost (US$/bbl) 20 ( ( ( Upstream + Downstream + 20 $/T CO2 tax Upstream + Downstream Upstream only (no upgrading) 200 CO2 Emissions (kg/bbl) ( 15 150 ( 10 5 SAGD 100 ( ( ( ( 0% 10% Cold Production SAGD ( ( ( 0% 10% Cold Production ( 50 0 0 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Recovery Efficiency ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .

26-27 May 2003 27 .Rueil.Conclusion Difficult choice between : current proven technologies : 4 limited costs and GHG emissions 4 limited recovery factor (10% max?) 4 higher recovery factor (40%+?) 4 but : higher cost and higher GHG emissions emerging “hot” technologies : A temptation: 4Nuclear Energy to produce steam? 4But not without drawbacks (especially beyond technology) ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .

ASPO Annual Meeting 2003 .The End Thank you for your attention.26-27 May 2003 28 .Rueil.

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