G2 - Productive, profitable, resilient agriculture & aquaculture systems

1

“HIGH SALINITY” •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm several weeks in aman •River water saline Dec-Jul •High soil salinity in dry season

“MEDIUM SALINITY” •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm several weeks in aman •River water saline mid-Feb-Jun •Medium soil salinity in dry season

“LOW SALINITY” •Water “stagnation” 30-50 cm several weeks in aman •River water fresh 10-11 months •Mild soil salinity in dry season

North 24 Parganas Polder 3

Polder 30 Patuakhali STU

South 24 Parganas

Polder 43/2/F

West Bengal, India

South West Bangladesh
Andy Nelson

Objectives (5+1)
1. Rice variety evaluation • aus (early rainy season) - low, medium • aman (main rainy season) - low, medium & high salinity • boro (dry season) - low, medium 2. Rice-based cropping system intensification • Rice-rice-rice – low; rice-rice medium • Rice-rice-rabi – low; rice-rabi medium • Rice+fish - brackish water aquaculture - high 3. Homestead production systems analysis & options • literature review & surveys - low, medium, high • evaluation of options for increasing productivity, incomes 4. Year-round brackish water aquaculture systems - high • Evaluation of improved management options 5. Technology & policy recommendations 6. Pilot community water management – CPWF Innovation Grant • 6 ha “compartment” 3

SocioConsult CPWF Innovation Project

Jahangir Alam

4

5

6

Progress
1. Saha 2. Rafiq Sukanta Liz 3. Manoranjan Community water management pilot 4. Jitendra Homestead production systems Kabir 5. Liz Plans to closure Research questions Improving year-round aquaculture & rice-aquaculture systems Improving rice–based agricultural cropping systems

7

Output 2: Rice-aquaculture for high salinity zone

Output 4: Year round aquaculture for high salinity zone

Rice-aquaculture: Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to low in rainy season

BANGLADESH

Year round aquaculture: Salinity fluctuates from high in dry season to medium in rainy season

Research Objective
Improved management for enhanced productivity, profitability & resilience in rice-aquaculture & year round aquaculture systems

407-870 m2

866-1463 m2

24 mini-ghers for rice-aquaculture

12 mini-ghers for year round aquaculture

Before

Construction

Drain/Intake canal Around every gher

11

Aquaculture Treatments
3 aquaculture treatments (4 reps) : 1. Farmer’s mgt: Polyculture shrimp+ various fish spp

2. Improved mgt 1: Rotational Monoculture shrimp - tilapia - prawn
3. Improved mgt 2: Rotational Polyculture shrimp+tilapia - tilapia+catfish – prawn+catfish Tilapia + Catfish Prawn (fresh water) Shrimp (brackish water)

Some tradeoffs for rice & aquaculture system
Saline water needs to be drained in July to allow leaching of salt by rainfall prior to rice transplanting Higher brackish water aquaculture production if saline water is kept for longer Need shallow water after transplanting rice (<20 cm) This is shallow for aquaculture (importance of trenches)

Better rice productivity with shallower water Better aquaculture productivity with deeper water

Rice-aquaculture system Therefore 2 water depth treatments (50 cm, 70 cm)

Management
Practice Liming Farmer’s Practice Improved 1 & 2 200 kg ha-1 200 kg ha-1

Water filtering Water depth Predatory Fish Fertilization Shrimp seed Feed Water replenishment Post stocking fertilization Fish seed

Unfiltered Lower Not eradicated No fertilizer Not PCR tested No feed When needed Very insufficient
Some wild

Filtered Higher Eradicated Fertilizer & dolomite PCR tested Feeding When needed When primary production is low All from hatcheries

Timeline (Output 2 & 4)
March April May July Aug. Sept. Nov.

Dec.

Shrimp Shrimp & fish disease in Stocking some ponds

Partial harvest Partial Harvest & stocking

Stocking

Rice harvest Partial drainage & rice planted (output 2) Full harvest of shrimp & fish by complete draining

Findings OP 2 - Rice aquaculture

Water depth during dry (March-June) season
Depth of flat area (cm)
70 60 50 40 FP (50cm) Mono (50 cm) Poly (50 cm)

30
20 10 1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119 0

50 cm depth

Days of culture
70

Depth of flat area (cm)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 FP (70 cm) Mono (70 cm) Poly (70 cm)

70 cm depth

1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119

Days of culture

Water depth during wet (mid July- mid Nov) season
70

Depth of flat area (cm)

Target date for rice transplanting

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Rice transplanting

FP (50cm) Mono (50 cm) Poly (50 cm)

50 cm depth

1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119

Days of culture
70

Target

Rice transplanting

Depth of flat area (cm)

60

50 40 30
20 10 0
FP (70 cm) Mono (70 cm) Poly (70 cm)

70 cm depth

1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119

Days of culture

September – drainage congestion in whole region after heavy rain due to inadequate water conveyance system (drainage) October – water shortage - plenty of freshwater in river but inadequate conveyance system (irrigation)

Salinity during dry (March-June) and wet season (mid July-mid Nov)
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
FP (50cm) Mono (50 cm) Poly (50 cm) FP (70 cm) Mono (70 cm) Poly (70 cm)

Salinity (ppt)

Dry Season

1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119

Days of culture
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119 0 Transplanting Target for rice transplanting
FP (50cm) Mono (50 cm) Poly (50 cm) FP (70 cm) Mono (70 cm) Poly (70 cm)

Wet Season

Salinity (ppt)

Days of culture

Annual production of shrimp and fish
4000 3500 3000
Fish (50 cm) Fish (70 cm)

Yield (kg ha-1)

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Shrimp (50 cm) Shrimp (70 cm)

Farmer's

Rotational Monoculture

Polyculture

Production of Aman Rice
2500

2000
Yield (kg/ha) 1500 1000 500 0
BR11 BR47 BR54 Jotai Kumri Morichsail

Varieties

No response of HYV aman varieties in ghers to recommended fertilizer management
2000 1500 Yield (kg/ha) 1000 500 0
No F Basal Recom No F Basal Recom No F Basal Recom BR11 BR47 BR54

Characteristics of soil in rice-aquaculture system
30 25 20 15
Before stocking (Feb.) Before rice plantation (Aug,) After complete harvest (Dec.)

10
5 0 EC (dS/m) P (µg/g) 3 2.5 2 1.5
Before stocking (Feb.) Before rice plantation (Aug,) After complete harvest (Dec.)

1
0.5 0 OM (%) K (me/100 g) N (%)

Profitability of aquaculture (Tk x 1000 ha-1 )
(includes farmer labour & land lease value)
Cost and return “50 cm” “70 cm “

Farmer's practice

Rotational Monoculture Polyculture

Farmer's practice

Rotational Monoculture

Polyculture

Total variable cost

230

354

394

183

385

374

Total Return

216

559

658

210

724

733

Gross margin

-14

205

264

27

340

359

(Rice production economics not included)

Profitability of aquaculture (Tk x 1000 ha-1 )
(excludes farmer labour & land lease value)

Cost and return

“50 cm” Farmer's practice Rotational Monoculture Polyculture Farmer's practice

“70 cm” Rotational Monoculture Polycult ure

Variable cost Total Return

147

260

301

101

295

290

216

559

658

210

724

733

Gross margin

69

299

357

109

434

443

(Rice production economics not added

Findings OP 4 – Year round aquaculture

Depth during dry (March-June) and wet season (mid July-mid Nov.)
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 FP Mono Poly

Depth (cm)

Dry Season

1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119

Days of culture

Wet Season

110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

FP

Mono

Poly

Depth (cm)

1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119

Days of culture

Salinity during dry (March-June) and wet season (mid July-mid Nov.)
22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Salinity (ppt)

FP

Mono

Poly

Dry Season

1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119

Days of culture

Wet Season

22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

FP

Mono

Poly

Salinity (ppt)

1 7 15 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 112 119

Days of culture

Annual production of shrimp and fish
4500 4000 3500

Yield (kg ha-1)

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Shrimp

Fish

Farmer's practice

Rotational

Monoculture

Rotational

Polyculture

Profitability (Tk x 1000 ha-1 )
(includes farmer labour & land lease value)

Cost and return

Farmer's Rotational Rotational practice Monoculture Polyculture 271 369 404

Total variable cost Total Return Gross margin

243 -28

533 164

610 206

Profitability (Tk x 1000 ha-1 )
(excludes farmer labour & land lease value)

Cost and return

Farmer's Rotational Rotational practice Monoculture Polyculture 187 271 321

Variable cost Total Return Gross margin

243 56

533 262

610 289

Knowledge Sharing
Formed 1 farmer & 1 labor group at each site – 10 per group inviting them to key activities (e.g., pond preparation, stocking, feeding management, monitoring, harvesting.

Lessons Learned
• Water management is critical for increased productivity and profitability. • 20-75% shrimp mortality despite improved management • Polyculture system provided PROFIT despite mortality of shrimp (disease)

• Farmers have started adopting aspects of improved technology

Plan for 2013
3 aquaculture treatments (4 reps) in BOTH systems 1. Farmer’s mgt: Polyculture, shrimp+fish & farmer mgt 2. Improved mgt 1: Rotational Monoculture 3 cycles: shrimp – shrimp - catfish+tilapia 3. Improved mgt 2: Rotational Polyculture,3 cycles: shrimp+tilapia – shrimp+tilapia - tilapia+catfish

In OP-2 rice will be transplanted along with the above treatments

Improved varieties & cropping system intensification in low, medium & high salinity areas of the coastal zone

CPWF G2 Outputs 1 & 2

Productivity Improvement in Polder 43/2F (Year-round FRESH water)
 Fresh water available < 1 dS/m for year round  Traditional Aman Rice 2 - 3.5 t/ha  Grasspea, chilli, some vegetables in rabi, mostly fallow

Varietal trial in Polder43, Bazarkhali, Borguna

T Aman, 2012 43/2/F

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

P-30

P-43
Boro, 2012

Yield (t/ha)

BRRI dhan28

BRRI dhan29

BRRI dhan47

BRRI dhan50

BRRI dhan53

BRRI dhan55

BRRI dhan45

Alloran

BRRI Hybrid dhan2

BRRI Hybrid dhan3

Variety

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

15-Apr

Yield (t/ha)

T AUS, 2012 43/2/F
BRRI dhan28 BRRI dhan47 BRRI dhan48 BRRI dhan53 BRRI dhan55 Variety BINA dhan8 OM1490 Alloran Mala (Local)

Cropping Patterns: Aus-Aman-Boro or Aus-Aman-Rabi
Hypothesis
A
CURRENT

Low salinity area
J A S O N D J F M A

M

J

Fallow/ Aus (Mala):2.5 t/ha

T. Aman (Traditional: 2-3.5t/ha)

Rabi (Grasspea:0.5 t/ha)

Rice: 4.5-6 t/ha Rabi: 0.5 t/ha

Aus (BR48:5.5 t/ha)

T. Aman (BR54/ BR52 : 6.5 t/ha)

Boro (BR28;7 t/ha)

Rice: 19 t/ha

Aus (BR48: 5t/ha)

T. Aman (BR54: 6 t/ha)

Rabi (Sunflower-4 t/ha Maize:9 t/ha)

Rice: 11 t/ha Rabi: 4-9 t/ha

Achievement

BR48: 5 t/ha

BR54/ BR52: 5.5 t/ha

Sunflower: 4 t/ha

Aus-Aman-Rabi 10.5 + 4 t/ha (hypothesis 11 t/ha for rice)

BR48: 5 t/ha

BR54/ BR52: 5.5 t/ha

BR28/: 6.5 t/ha

Aus-Aman-Boro 17 t/ha (hypothesis 19 t/ha)

Productivity Improvement in Polder 30 (Medium salt affected area)
 Water salinity, EC 0.5 - 14 dS/m  Traditional Aman Rice cultivated, water stagnation  Average Yield 2- 3.5 t/ha  Sesame, mungbean and some vegetables in rabi

season others mostly fallow
 Scarcity of fresh irrigation water rabi season

Productivity Improvement in Polder 30
(Medium Saline Areas – dry season fresh water scarcity)
Hypothesis
A
CURRENT

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

T. Aman (Traditional: 2-3.5t/ha)

Rabi (Sesame:0.5 t/ha)

Rice: 3.5t/ha Rabi: 0.5 t Rice: 5.5 t/ha Rabi: 4t/ha

T. Aman (BR54/ BR49:5.5 t/ha)

Rabi (Sunflower: 4 t/ha)

T. Aman (BR49/BR54: 5.5 t/ha)

Boro (BR28/ BR47: 4-6.5 t/ha)

Rice: 9-12 t/ha

Achievement

BRRI dhan54
(5.5 t/ha)

BRRI dhan28 (5.0 t/ha)

Aman-Boro cropping system 10.5 t/ha (hypothesis 9-12 t/ha)

BRRI dhan49
(5.5 t/ha)

Sunflower (not yet harvested)

Aman-Rabi cropping system 5.5 t/ha + ?? (hypothesis 5.5 t/ha + 4 t/ha)

Productivity Improvement in Polder 3 (High salinity, Shrimp- Rice system)

 Water salinity, EC 2 – 18 dS/m  Aman Rice - BR23  Water stagnation and flash flood submergence  Average Yield 2 - 3 t/ha

Productivity Improvement in Polder 3 (High salinity areas)
Hypothesis
A M J J A S O N D J F M A

CURRENT

T . Aman (BR23: 0- 3 t/ha)

Shrimp (300 kg/ha)

Rice: 0-3 t/ha Shr: 300 kg/ha

Fallow

T. Aman (BR52/ BR47/ BR54 + Fish/ 2-5 t/ha)

Shrimp (450 kg/ha)

Rice: 4-5t/ha Shr+Fish: 450 kg/ha+2-2.5 t/ha

Water too deep after transplanting

Varietal trials in polder 3

Good leaching prior to rice establishment

Varietal trial at Kismotfultola, Batiaghata (Polder 30), Khulna, Boro 2012

Progress Rabi crop 2012-13

Chilli

Sesame

Maize

Cropping system trial at Bazarkhali (Polder 43/F/2), Amtoli, Barguna, Boro 2012/ 2013

Water melon

Sunflower

Mungbean

Progess Boro Rice 2012-13
Transplanted 1st December

Cropping system trial at Kismatfultola (Polder 30), Batiaghata, Khulna, Boro 2012/ 2013

BRRI dhan54

Rice variety evaluation for W. Bengal
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI) RRS Canning Town
Participating Scientists: D. Burman, S. Mandal, S. K. Sarangi & B. Maji

Challenges
• Rainy season
– Stagnant flooding (0.3-0.5 m for 1+ month)

• Dry season
– Soil salinty – Lack of fresh water (some ground water pumping, but is it sustainable? – salinisation of aquifer)

• Variety evaluation
– Rainy season (aman) – Dry season (boro)

• Cropping system
– Objective – reduce irrigation requirement for boro – Timely aman establishment-early boro establishment & shorter duration

Study locations: Present scenario of boro rice cultivation
Non-availability of adequate number of varieties for different salinity Canning Delayed in seed bed preparation and planting Often planting with old seedlings Labour scarcity during planting

Sandeshkhali

Polder 3, BD

Basanti Increasing expenditure on crop management especially water
Shortage of irrigation water during ripening phase Exposing to hot weather during heading stage Crop lodging due to high wind during post-flowering period High cost involvement

Gosaba Soil: Heavy texture Land type: Mostly ( 84%) low lying & flat topography Salinity: 5-15 dSm-1

Aman Varietal Evaluation

Improved varieties for Aman season in Coastal West Bengal, India
Sandeshkhali II* Gosaba** Yield (t/ha) Farmers’ choice Basanti*** Yield (t/ha) Farmers’ choice

Variety/Line

Yield (t/ha)

Farmers’ choice

Sabita (local) Amal-Mana
CSRC (D) 12-8-12

2.68
3.80 (42%) 3.52 (31%) 4.15 (55%)
-

3.15

2.60

2nd

Swarna sub 1
Geetanjali

1st

4.55 (44%) 4.15 (32%) 4.38 (39%)
3.96

1st
2nd

4.40 (69%) 4.80 (85%) 4.20 (61%)
3.82

2nd

1st

CSRC (D) 7-0-4
CSRC (D) 2-17-5 CSRC (D) 13-16-9 NC 678 SR 26 B

3.70
3.05 3.50 -

3.70
3.60 3.50 3.45 3.42

3.70
3.60 3.50 3.50 3.60

Rice varietal trial during 2013 Boro season
1 2 3 4 5 BRRI dhan 47 BRRI dhan 55 BINA dhan 8 Parijat Bidhan-2 6 7 N. Sankar S. Sankar

8 WGL-20471 9 IET-4786 10 Annada

On-station experiment for seed increase & evaluation of early sowing

• • • • • • • •

BRRI dhan 47 BRRI dhan 53 BRRI dhan 55 BINA dhan 8 CSR 34, CSR 22 IR 10206-29-2-1-1 CSRC (S) 50-2-1-1-4-B Dates of sowing: 08.11.12 & 28.11.12

Earliest flowering

Earliest flowering

Irrigation water salinity from tubewell
6 5

Salinity dSm-1

4

3

240 - <300 ft 300 - 350 t > 350 - 380 ft

2

1

0

1 WAT

3 WAT

6 WAT

8 WAT

12 WAT

Weeks After Transplanting

Bad example of new tubewell installation

Village: Kheria Block: Basanti Dist. : South 24 Parganas
Sample Pump water Field water Soil pH 6.77 6.97 7.03 EC 6.70 7.70 6.26

Change in groundwater salinity during dry season
Salinity dS m-1
8 6

4
2 0 04.01.12
Class C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 EC (dS m-1) <1.5 1.5 – 3 3–5 5 – 10 >10

02.02.12

16.03.12

20.04.12

Quality characteristics Normal waters Low saline waters Medium saline waters Saline waters High saline waters

Changes in soil salinity during dry season
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 07.01.12 02.02.12 16.03.12 20.04.12 Soil salinity ECe (dSm-1)

Sandeshkhali Gosaba

Groundwater irrigation at Daudpur

Daudpur (North 24 Parganas) monitoring of tube wells used for irrigation

THANK YOU ALL

Team building in W. Bengal

Team building in W. Bengal

Cropping system intensification - design & evaluation (detailed)
Nibir Saha Jayanta Bhattacharya

71

Aus-aman-rabi
4 Aus transplanting dates (main plots)
10 April 25 April 10 May 25 May Vietnamese variety OM1490 (moderately salt tolerant, short duration 100 d seed to seed)

Aman (BR44) transplanted ~10 d after aus harvest Rabi transplanted ~10 d after aman harvest

2 rabi varieties (sub-plots)
Maize Sunflower

2 mulching treatments for rabi crops
No mulch Straw mulch 16 treatment combinations

Planting schedule of Aus – Aman – Rabi cropping pattern
A M J J
30 June T. Aus (OM 1490) (100d) 10 Apr 10 July T. Aman BR 44 PS (145 d), tidal submergence tolerance

A

S

O

N

D
15 Nov

J

F

M

A
30 Mar

M

Drained Rabi: Maize, Sunflower; Mulch 30 Nov 30 Mar Drained Rabi: Maize, Sunflower, not mulched 30 Nov

15 July T. Aus (OM 1490) (100d) 25 Apr 25 July Aug

30 Nov T. Aman BR 44 PS (145 d) Mulched 15 Dec 15 Dec Not mulched 15 Dec T. Aman BR 44 PS (145 d) 30 Dec

15 Apr

Rabi Maize Sunflower

15 Apr

30 Jul T. Aus (OM 1490) (100d) 10 May 10 Aug d) SG 15 Aug T. Aus (OM 1490) (100d) 25 May 25 Aug d) SG T. Aman BR 44 PS (145 d)

Mulch Rabi Maize Sunflower Not mulched

30 Apr

Rabi Maize Sunflower

30 Apr

30 Dec 30 Dec 15 Jan Rabi Mulched Maize Sunflower Not mulched 15 Jan Rabi Maize Sunflower 15 May

15 May

4 sowing dates x 2 crops x 2 mulch in rabi season = 16 treatments x 4 replications = 64 plots; T= Transplanted; d=day; PS= Photoperiod sensitive

Figure 1. Planting schedule of Aus – Aman – Rabi cropping pattern

Aman - 1st Transplanting, 23 July 2012

1st Transplanted Plot 3rd Transplanted Plot

2nd Transplanted Plot

Aus-aman-boro
Aus - 3 establishment tmts (OM1490, 100 d) E1.Transplanted 1 May E2.Transplanted 15 May E3. Dry seeded 1 May Aman – 2 varieties (planted 10 d after aus harvest) V1. BRRI dhan49 (135 d) V2. BRRI dhan52 (145 d) Boro – 2 transplanting dates (BRRI dhan28, 145 d) D1. 10 d after aman harvest D2. 25 d after aman harvest
12 treatment combinations

D1R2 plot

D1R1 plot

1st transplanting 3rd August Water level = 4-9 cm, outside= 28cm

D1R1 plot

Field condition at 6th August Water level = 15-20 cm, outside= 40cm

Field condition at 11th August

Field is still under water at 14th August

Raising up bunds

Field condition at 16th August Water level = 3-4 cm, outside= 14cm

D1R4 plot

Bad crop condition due to inundation at 16th August

2nd transplanting at 16th August

D3 Transplanting at 25th August

D1R1 plot

D3R4 plot

D2R4 plot

Field condition at 27th August

D2R2plot D3R1plot D1R1plot

Field condition at 3th September Water level = 10 cm, outside= 27cm

Total field again inundated at 6th September Water level = 50 cm, outside= 50cm

D3R1

D2R1

D1R1 plot

Huge pressure by outside water

Field condition at 10th September Water level = 26 cm, outside= 36cm

Growth duration of BRRI dhan49
60 55 50 45 40 Water depth (cm) 35 30 25 20
30 100

Rainfall Water depth D1 BRRI dhan49 D2 BRRI dhan49 Max Temp Min Temp
70 80 90

60

50

40

15
20

10 5 0 01 Aug 11 Aug 21 Aug 31 Aug 10 Sep 20 Sep 30 Sep 10 Oct 20 Oct Date after transplanting
10

0

30 Oct 09 Nov 19 Nov 29 Nov

D2R4 D3R3 D1R4

Field condition at 13th September Water level = 1-2 cm, outside= 20cm

Field condition at 6th October

Flowering stage, T. Aman 2012

Maturity stage, T. Aman 2012

7.00

Yield of different Ability to drain varieties high yield
6.00

5.00

4.00 t/ha Date 1 Date 2 3.00

Date 3

2.00

1.00

0.00 BRRI dhan49 BRRI dhan52 BRRI dhan33 BRRI dhan53

Implementing community level water management in coastal Bangladesh: Achievements & Lessons learned
Manoranjan Mondal, Alamgir Chowdhury, Elizabeth Humphreys, T P Tuong

SCL

Background
Ability to implement improved cropping systems is constrained by poor water management INSIDE polders – Too much water (too deep) in the rainy season not favorable for HYV rice cultivation due to
• Lack of separation of higher & lower lands • Limited drainage ability/mgt
 Excess soil moisture due to late irrigation of local rice  late planting & low rabi crop productivity & inability to diversify to higher yield/value crops.

Community water management pilot to demonstrate concept/benefits of improved water & crop management

Polder 30 = 5000 ha
Sluice gate = 12

Study Site: Kismat Fultola, Polder 30, Khulna (6 ha)

River
Outside sampling area Drainage canal Outside sampling area

Road Sluice gate

Sluice canal Outside sampling area

Drainage outlet

Rural road

Farm dykes & drains to facilitate drainage for improved agriculture

What We Wanted to Achieve?
M J J A S O N D J F M A M

HYV Aman

30 Nov

HYV Rabi

07 July

15 Dec-15 Jan Terminal Drainage

15 Apr15 May

Residual soil water

River water EC 1-4 dSm-1

Achievements
• All 36 farmers and water management group (WMG) agreed to collaborate. • Farmers and WMG officials helped identification of pilot watershed and drainage networks. • Farmers dug the drains/made the levee (paid) • Farmers and WMG took initiatives to drain out water within 3-4 days after submergence, while it took 10+ days for other parts of polder 30. • Watershed farmers participated in all the training programs. • Two farmers participated in rabi crop cultivation by dibbling, 1.5 months earlier than other watershed farmers.

Development of collaborative arrangements to implement improved sluice gate management
• A series of informal meetings with the – Farmers (watershed and neighboring) – Local water management group (WMG) officials – Local UP officials • Organized 3 formal meetings signed an agreement with the pilot watershed farmers on the roles and responsibilities of the farmers and IRRI.

Construction of drainage outlet and drainage canals
• The crop was submerged twice
• 8-14 August 2012: 264 mm rainfall, drained out within 4 days. • 3-5 September 2012: 246 mm rainfall, drained out within 3 days.

• Constructed internal drains/bunds to separate high and low land & outlet. • With this drainage network, watershed farmers were able to drain out excess water.

Flooding rice field 2-3 weeks after transplanting

Rainfall and Paddy Water Depth in Aman Season 2012
Rainfall & Water depth (mm)
240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Transplanting

Rapid drainage
Rainfall (mm) Paddy water depth (mm)

Draining out water during low tide

Seed distribution and aman rice cultivation in 2012
• Provided HYV seeds & training on HYV rice cultivation to the farmers. • The majority (75% of 37 farmers) transplanted rice in the third week of August, a week earlier than traditional practice .

Lesson-1: Seedbed Preparation vs Sesame Harvest
• Seedbed preparation scheduled: 1st week of July • Actual preparation: 2nd and 3rd week of July • Reason
– Lack of water in the canal. – Although river water was non-saline, farmers could not take in water due to standing sesame crop in the field. – Sluice gate was closed until the farmers harvested sesame.

Lesson-2: HYV Rice Cultivation
• Only about 50% farmer cultivated HYV • HYV on 45% of the pilot area • Reasons
– ~50% leasing land: tenant has to bear all expenses, crop share is only 1/3rd. – Need cash to buy inputs: fertilizer, pesticide – Higher cost of transplanting HYV due to closer spacing.
60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Farmer cultivated rice (%)

HYV

Local

Lesson-3: Fertilizer & Weed Management
• Reluctant to use fertilizer
– ~50% leasing land: tenant has to bear all expenses, crop share is only 1/3rd – Need cash to buy fertilizer – Huge weed infestation, late weeding

Lesson-4: Lack of HYV response to recommended fertilizer
– Good yield with little fertilizer (farmer practice) – Topdress urea when 3-5 cm water in the field, may have moved in water to surrounding fields – Huge weed infestation, urea taken up by weeds.

5000

4000
3000 2000

Yield (kg/ha)

1000
0

Recommended Fertilizer

Farmer Fertilizer

Lesson-5: Late drainage – soil to wet for cultivation for 2.5 months
Rainfall & Water depth (mm)
240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Target drainage time – but irrigation! because local variety late maturing Transplanting

Surface water gone but weather cold, foggy, soil too wet for tillage

Lesson-6: Tillage
• Land was not ready for plowing until mid-February 2013.
– Small tractor owners increased price (x2) of land preparation when they knew we wanted to prepare the land early quickly. – Farmers had to wait for big tractor to come from Jessore for land preparation.

Lesson-7: Rabi crop establishment
• Early establishment of rabi crops possible by dibbling
– 2 farmers established sunflower by dibbling on 1 Jan 2013. – BUT Dibbling cultivation requires more labour to spade the land, increasing production cost. (if not cultivated, how to apply fertiliser? soil cracks leading to root breakage, irrigation water loss down cracks)

Lesson-8: Maintenance of bunds and drains

People walk on the bunds & damage Silted up during wet/aman season Construction and maintenance  Cost involvement

Lesson 9: Financial Issues
• Many organizations are providing financial support to farmers since 2008 (for rehabilitation of cyclone SIDR victims). • Watershed farmers expected cash support to buy inputs- that we did not provide. • That’s why only 50% farmers cultivated HYV rice. • Need to provide financial and technical support for demonstration of improved agricultural technologies.

Future potentials of community water management

• Productivity and income could be increased by integrate small indigenous fish with aman rice in the watershed area. • That will
– Increase aquatic agricultural diversity. – Improve home consumption of fish, lead to better nutrition.

THANK YOU

SCL

Output 3: Improved homestead production systems

Study area
Canning

Kakdwip

SAMPLING DESIGN
South 24 Pargana North 24 Pargana

Kakdwip

Namkhana

Sagar

Sandeshkhali I

Sandeshkhali II

2 gram panchayat from each block 3 villages from each Panchayat
Random
Sampling

2 gram panchayat from each block 3 villages from each Panchayat
Random Sampling

480 Households

240 Households

Distribution of land among HH

Land holding (ha) <0.2 0.2-0.4 0.4-1.0 1.0-2.0 >2.0

Category Landless Marginal 1 Marginal 2 Small Others

% of households 43.5 23.1 24.2 7.9 1.3

The average Homestead Land in 24 Paraganas South is 26.6 decimal ( 0.16ha) Land distribution is similar to Bangladesh but 90% falls below <1ha.

Financial status of the HH in South 24 Paraganas
Income source Farm activities Non-farm activities Amount (Rs.)/yr/hh 27 k 42 k

Homestead land distribution
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Percentage of land

•Pond shares maximum land • Land for livestock & poultry minimum

22% of HH have betel vine

Income from homestead production system
Rs/Household/annum
70K 60K 50K 40K 30K 20K 10K 0K

•Better income from betel vine attracts HH •Betel vine in homestead system competes with other components

Chain of Betel vine

Betel vine farm

Collection of betel leaves

Arranging of betel leaves

Packing for marketing

A unit of betel leaves

Marketing through auction

Purchased by a wholesaler

Packaging by the wholesaler

Purchasing by traders

Production in homestead land
Components of homestead farm Production/year/HH Aquaculture Horticultural crop Poultry egg Poultry meat Livestock milk Livestock meat 68 kg (1400kg/ha/yr) 100 kg 257 (no.) 84 kg 147 litre 53 kg

•Aquaculture production is much below the national average (2700kg/ha/yr). •Scope for technological intervention

Contribution of Homestead Production to Household Food security
Consumption of homestead products
Homestead products Average % of domestic consumption/annum

Fish Vegetable Fruit Poultry egg Poultry meat Livestock products
3% 20%

92 71 85 85 42 70
Can take three satisfactory meal in a day Cannot take three satisfactory meal in a day

The rest is sold

Satisfactory meal= Balanced meal (Rice, dal, fish/egg/meat/veg)

77%

Sometimes take three satisfactory meal in a day

23% HH do not get satisfactory meals.

Major constraints of homestead production in 24 Paraganas
 Poor Economic status  Poor quality of water and seed

 High cost of input
 Disease – especially vegetables  Soil Salinity  Climate changes  Shortage of irrigation water

Disease infection

Soil salinization

 Lack of scientific knowledge and
technical support
Poor water quality

Key findings from the survey
 More than 90% of households belong to marginal category of land holding ( <1 ha of land).  94% households have ponds, average size 0.04 ha.  20 varieties of Fish/prawn species are being cultured; Indian major carp (Rohu and Catla) dominant species. New species like Paccu and Spotted scat are also becoming common.  Main vegetable crops brinjal, arum, chilli, bitter gourd, pumpkin, ladies finger, potato and onion.  Non-availability of quality fodder is biggest impediment in development of animal husbandry.

Contd….

Key findings from the survey
 23% of household are unable to have 3 satisfactory meals/day.  22% households have betel vine yard and it strongly improves the economic status of HH.  Gender inequity in participation in some activities, especially betel

Key research questions?
 Development of suitable technology packages to augment production , income & nutrition in homestead production system.  Methodology for increasing participation of women in homestead production system for sustainability and child health care.  How to develop a simplified interactive training module for the clients in homestead production system?

Sustain homestead farming to ensure healthy and safe living for women & children

Thank You all

Insights from the Bangladesh homestead production systems survey and research progress (Output 3)

Survey Areas (2012) 1280 HH surveyed

Southern part of Polder 3 P3H 232 P3L 306

Polder 30 381

Polder 43/2/F 361

Some components of homestead production systems

Land holdings by polders
800 700 Number of households 600 Functionally landless < 0.2 ha Small 0.2-0.6 ha Marginal 0.6 - 1.0 ha Medium 1.0-3.0 ha 400 300 200 100 0 Large >3 ha

500

Polder 30

Polder 3-H

Polder 3 L

Polder 43

ALL Polder

More than 50% households are functionally landless >80% have < 1 ha
* Categories based on Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey (2010)

Percentage of People Living Below National Poverty Line ( Income <1.25 $US/person/day)
100 90 80 70 60

50
40 30 20 10

0 National Status (2009) Surveyed Household Functionally landless Small Marginal

Homestead land used for various productive uses
40

35
30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Dwelling house Fruit garden/trees Livestock shade Pond Poultry Tree covered area vegetable garden Yard

% Area (Dec)

Household farm income contributes more than from field for functionally landless people
Average off farm income (TK)
70000

Average farm income from Homesteads (TK) Average farm income from Field (TK)

60000

50000

Taka/hh/year

40000

30000

20000

10000

0

Functionally Landless

Small

Marginal

Homestead Product Consumption (< 1ha)
Correlation between HH food production and Its consumption

Correlation coefficient (r) at P<0.05

0.87 HH food consumption

0.54

0.52

0.56

0.56

Fish

Fruit

Poultry meat
HH food production

Poultry egg

Vegetable

Research questions from survey
• How to improve pond productivity from the challenged (multiple use, shading, joint ownership etc.) ponds • How to improve income and nutritional benefits of ponds? • How to empower women by involving them in participatory action research process through increased benefit for them? • How can multiple use benefits be optimized? • For poor households without ponds, what other productivity components can be improved?

Research plan for 2013
Purpose: Establish a women led participatory action research for improving income and nutrition benefits to homesteads from challenged/shaded homestead ponds Key questions for 2013 research How can homesteads increase benefits from shaded ponds without interfering with multiple usage?

Comparative Aquaculture Production
National average production Household production
5500 5000

Improved average production Linear (Household production)

Fish Production Kg/ha

4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000

1500
1000 500 0

House hold

Locations & new partners – under umbrella of G2
Polder 3: G2, AAS

P30

P3

Pxx

Polder 30: G2, AAS

Pxx P43

Polder 43: G2, FtF-Aq

Polder 5: SmartFarm

Polder 39: SmartFarm

Research Process

[

Technology options:
• Small indigenous fish • Higher value air breathing fish • Stress tolerant catfish •Carp, tilapia •Developing suitable feeding a. Light trap at night for attracting insects b. Increasing benthic population c. Insects/ants as feed by their commercial propagation •Integrating with floating vegetable production or small ruminants •Different species combination for brackish water •Cages for nursing of fry to fingerling of GIFT

Timeline
Activity J Research team building Monitoring team formation Village selection Group formation FGD/community consultation for research plan and capacity needed to do the jobs Process documentation and draft research design Developing monitoring tools Baseline survey of the selected homesteads Homestead women managed research for improved production and diversification F M A M J J A S O N D

Thanks to all

Plans to closure
1. Seek opportunities/develop proposals for funding to build on/expand research effort

2a. If no No Cost Extension (NCE) • continue field research to end of 2013 (one more dry & wet season) & local dissemination/training (very small scale) • students continue to mid-2014 (via CSISA) – need 2 full cycles • MANY outputs to prepare (working papers, leaflets & booklets (guidelines), video, journal papers, policy briefs) • continuation of pilot watershed uncertain – ONLY if can have an area with all farmers planting HYV & timely establishment/good management; we would have to provide all inputs (budget?) • continue to participate in dialogues with policy makers/donors organised by GBDC
2b. If NCE (& sufficient funds left – likely, will vary with partners) • continue field experiments in 2014 (time of cessation will vary for different activities depending on need & fund availability – some activities started late, some things went wrong so data limited)
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Research questions for the future (23+)
Common across aquatic-agriculture systems: 1. How can we implement improved community management to demonstrate the benefits of improved production systems? (about water & much more) 2. What are the land tenure arrangements within the polders and what is their effect on adoption of improved technologies? 3. How can AAS scale out: knowledge sharing and enhance uptake of CPWF outcomes? 4. Is implementation of improved drainage/water management systems in polders economic? 5. How to improve access to quality inputs input & markets Many others specific to: • aquaculture in saline areas • rice-shrimp • rice varietal improvement • homestead production systems • sustainability of groundwater pumping for boro rice (CSIRO proposal for BGD) • establishment of rabi crops • etc
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