Ghanshyam Thori

Indian Polity

Indian Polity
Analysis: Indian Political System - General Political Scenario/Broad Political Issue · Discuss economic backwardness as a major challenge of Indian democracy. Can democracy and development go together smoothly? (30 Marks) · What is the “Strategic Partnership” between India & United States of America? What are its implications for both the partners? (30 Marks) · What are the main determinants of voting behavior in India? (30 Marks) · Discuss the major obstacles in the smooth functioning of Parliamentary democracy in India. (30 Marks). · Bring out the aberrations in the Parliamentary system of government in India. (30 Marks). · Examine the demand for greater state autonomy & also its impact on the smooth functioning of the Indian Polity. (30 Marks). · Examine the major extra constitutional factors influencing the working of federal polity in India (15 Marks). Constitution of India & Its Amendments – Broad Constitutional Question · What is a constitution? What are the main sources of the Indian Constitution? (30 Marks) · What is the significance of Preamble of the Indian Constitution? Bring out the philosophy of the Indian Constitution as enshrined in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution. (30 Marks). · How does the constitution of India provide equal rights? (30 Marks) · Discuss the constitutional provisions regarding rights of Children. (15 Marks). · Discuss the significance of 44th Amendment of the Constitution of India. (15 Marks). · Why does the constitution of India provide different forms of Oaths for the President, the Ministers, the Legislators & the Members of Judiciary? Discuss their significance. (30 Marks). · How is the Constitution of India amended? Do you think the procedure to amendment makes the constitution a plaything in the hands of the Centre? (30 Marks). · Discuss the constitutional provisions relating to the non justiciable directives binding upon the states. (15 Marks). · Examine the need for the review of the Indian Constitution (30 Marks). · What constitutes the doctrine of “Basic features” as introduced into the constitution by the Judiciary. (30 Marks). Fundamental Rights & Duties · What is the right of life & personal liberty? How have the courts expanded its meaning in recent years? (30 Marks). · Give you views on the right to freedom of religion as enshrined in the Indian Constituion. Do they make India a secular state? (30 Marks). · What are the constitutional limitations on the free movement of Indians throughout the country? (15 Marks). Ghanshyam Thori 1 Indian Polity

Ghanshyam Thori · · How does the constitution of India provide equal rights? (30 Marks) Identify the major fundamental duties.

Indian Polity

Directive Principles · Bring out the fundamental differences between the Fundamental Rights & the Directive Principles of State Policy/ Discuss some of the measures taken by the Union & State Governments for the implementation of Directive Principles of State Policy. (30 Marks) · What is the constitutional position of Directive Principles of State Polity? How has it been interpreted by the Judiciary after the emergency of 1975-77? (30 Marks). President – Vice President · What are the exceptions when the President of India is not bound by the aid & advice of Council of Ministers? (15 Marks). · Discuss the question of death sentence & Presidential Clemency. (30 Marks). · Comment on the nature of Ordinance Making power of the President of India. What safeguards are there against possible misuse? (15 Marks). Speaker · What is pro term speaker? (15 Marks). Parliament – Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha · On What grounds can a member be disqualified from either House of the Parliament? (30 Marks). · How would you differentiate between the passage of a Constitution Amendment Bill and an Ordinary Legislative Bill? (15 Marks). · Under what circumstances can parliament legislate on State Subjects? (15 Marks) · Define Money-Bill. Discuss how it is passed in the Parliament. (15 Marks). · Discuss Parliamentary control over the Executive. (30 Marks). · Explain the relevance of Rajya Sabha as a second chamber in the federal setup of Indian Parlimentary System. (15 Marks). · The issue of hung parliament adversely affects the stability of the Indian Government. Discuss the statement and point out how far changing to the Presidential form of government will be a solution to this problem. (30 Marks) · What are the main differences between the passage of a constitutional amendment bill & other legislatve bills? (30 Marks). · Distinguish between Cabinet Secretariat & Prime Ministers Secretariat. Which of these is more important? (15 Marks). · How does Parliament control the Union Executive? How effective is this control? (30 Marks Repeat). Parliamentary Committees: · Explain the role of Public Accounts Committee. (15 Marks). Ghanshyam Thori 2 Indian Polity

Ghanshyam Thori · Examine the role of the Estimates Committee (15 Marks).

Indian Polity

Governor · Explain the discretionary powers of Governor of a State. (30 Marks). State Legislature · Examine the major extra constitutional factors influencing the working of federal polity in India (15 Marks). Local Governance – Panchayati Raj & Muncipalities · Would you say that the implementation of the Panchayati System in the last 10 years has lead to real restructuring of Indian polity? (30 Marks). · Discuss how the State government can exercise control over panchayats (15 Marks). Centre-State Relations · Comment on the financial relations between the Union & the States in India. Has post 1991 liberalization in any way affected it? (30 Marks). · Discuss the administrative relations between the centre & the states in the light of recent controversies. (30 Marks). Quasi-Judical/Extra Constitutional/Statutory Bodies · How does the Inter-State Council establish co-ordination between states? (15 Marks) · What are the steps that the Election Commission may take if a recalcitrant State Government wants to put off Assembly Elections? (15 Marks). · What is a Finance Commission? Discuss the main functions of the State Finance Commission. (15 Marks) Elections · Identify the major electoral reforms which are necessary in the Indian Political System · Describe the methods of delimiting constituencies for parliamentary elections in India (15 Marks – Important for this year). Judiciary · Is the High Courts power to issue writs wider than that of Supreme Court of India? (15 Marks) · Is it possible to distinguish between Judicial review & Judicial Activism in India? Does the recent behaviour of the Indian Judiciary partake more of judicial activism? Argue with suitable examples. · What is the position of Supreme Court under the Constituion of India? How far does it play a role as the Guardian of the Constitution. (30 Marks). Emergency Provisions Ghanshyam Thori


Indian Polity

Ghanshyam Thori

Indian Polity

What is the meaning of “Breakdown of Constitutional Machinery”. What are its effects? (30 Marks). Miscellaneous · How has the Indian State tackled the tradeoff between Environment & development? (15 Marks).

1. 2007 2. 1. 3. 2. 4. 3. 5. 4. 2002 5. 1. 2006 2. 1. 3. 4. 5. 2. 2001 3. 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. 2005 4. 1. 5. 2. 2000 3. 1. 4. 2. 5. 3. 2004 4. 1. 5. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2003

2 Markers (Previous Years) What is point of order? How can it be raised? What is criminalization Privilege Motion? of politics? State the difference between of Ministers & Cabinet (Repeat) How is the President of IndiaCouncil Elected? How is the Vice President of India elected? What is Casting Vote? What the is meant by “Sine-die” difference between adjournment? Council of Ministers & Cabinet? What is the importance of Right to Constitutional Remedies? What is the importance of 84th Amendment of the Indian Constitution? Under what Article of terms: the Constitution can the Union Government play its role in settling Inter-state Explain the following Water a. Dispute? Dissolution of the House What is the role of the protem speaker? b. Prorogation of the House What meant by “Lame-Duck Session” ofHouse the Legislature? c. isAdjournment of the business of the What is Consolidate meant by “Fringe Areas” in the sphere of local government in India? fund of India? To what extend can the President withhold his assent to a bill already passed by the Parliament? Explain the Local AreaEast” Development What is India’s “Look Policy Scheme of the Members of Parliatment. What is ethics of the Lok meant committee by “Empowerment of Sabha? India” in India? Why is it said that centre has absolute veto over state legislature? What is Call Attention Motion? meant by Double Jeopardy When is the device of joint sitting to of Scheduled both houses of the not available? What are the protections afforded tribes in parliament the Fifth Schedule of the Indian Constituion? In what ways can the President of India ascertain the views of the Supreme Court on a particular bill? What is vote on account? the common point between Articles 14 & 226 of the Indian constitution? What is what a caretaker government? Who & does the Indian Parliament consist of? Do you justify the Prime Minister’s Entry into Parliament through Rajya Sabha? What is Habeas priviledge Motion? Corpus? What are is Contempt of Parliament? the constitutional restrictions imposed upon the power of borrowings of state government? What is the special facility provided to the linguistic minorities under the article 350A? How can a judge of the Supreme Court be removed? How is the Election Commission of India Constituted? 4 Indian Polity

Ghanshyam Thori

Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Ghanshyam Thori 5 Indian Polity .

The process of impeachment may start in either house. It is then sent to the other house where it has to be passed by 2/3rd majority. 12 members are nominated. No provision in constitution. process. A resolution to impeach the President has to be passed by a two-third majority of the total members of the originating house. The election uses the Single Transferable Vote method of proportional representation. it is taken up for consideration. The charges are contained in a notice which has to be signed by at least one quarter of the total members of that house. 1/6th nominated by governor. The president has the right to defend himself during the process. Bihar. 1/12th by university graduates. At present only 6 states viz Uttar Pradesh. Members are elected by the Legislative Assembly of Each State. Delhi & Pondicherry are the only two UTs having representation. Maharashtra and Jammu and Kashmir & Andra Pradesh (added in 2005) have legislative council. Legislative Assembly members do not participate in impeachment.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Terms Post President Election An electoral college consisting of the elected members of both houses of the Parliament and the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha). By an electoral college consisting of all By a vote of the majority of the votes of all the Members of both Houses of the members of both Houses of Parliament. Direct Election. 6 Indian Polity Vice President MP (Lok Sabha) MP (Rajya Sabha) Governor MLA Members of Legilative Council Ghanshyam Thori . The notice is sent up to the President and 14 days later. But only Rajya Sabha can initiate the Parliament. 1/3rd elected by State Legislative Assembly. 2 members of Anglo Indian community nominated. 1/3rd by local bodies. He holds office during the pleasure of the president. Karnataka. Removal Through Impeachment. 1/12th by teachers.

he may either forthwith put the question thereon from the Chair or decline to propose the question. The debate on a dilatory motion must be restricted to the matter of such motion. President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India. For this the person must be a citizen of India and must have been. phrases or expressions from the proceedings or records of Expunction Rajya Sabha by an order of the Chairman as being defamatory or indecent or unparliamentary or undignified. Annual financial statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Budget Government of India in respect of a financial year. or the person must be. To cross Crossing the Floor the floor is a breach of Parliamentary etiquette A motion for the adjournment of the debate or a motion to retard or delay the Dilatory Motion progress of the business under consideration of the House. Governor of the State Concerned & Chief Justice of High Court.Ghanshyam Thori Supreme Court Judge President appoints in consultation with Supreme Court. The Budget is laid in Rajya Sabha in two parts viz. or an Advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession for at least 10 years. High Court Judge Parliamentary Terms Adjournment sine die Termination of a sitting of the House without any definite date being fixed for the next sitting. Ghanshyam Thori 7 Indian Polity . If the Chairman is of opinion that such a motion is an abuse of the Rules of the House. Deletion of words. for at least five years. and presented to the President in the same Session Exactly Same as in case of Supreme Court Judge (cited above). in the opinion of the President. a Judge of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession.. Indian Polity A Judge of the Supreme Court cannot be removed from office except by an order of the President passed after an address in each House of Parliament supported by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of members present and voting. half-an-hour discussions or any other notice given by more than one member simultaneously for being taken up on the same day. A Money Bill passed annually (or at various times of the year) providing for the Appropriation Bill withdrawal or appropriation from and out of the Consolidated Fund of India of moneys voted by Lok Sabha and moneys charged on the Consolidated Fund for the services of a financial year or a part of a financial year. Passing between the member in possession of the House and the Chair. in the case of an equality of votes on a matter. notices of questions. or the person Acting as such in the House and by Casting Vote the Chairman or person acting as such in a Committee. the Railway Budget and the General Budget. The vote cast by the Chairman. A method applied to determine the relative precedence of private members' Bills Draw of Lot and Resolutions. a distinguished jurist.

called upon by the Chairman to make his maiden speech in preference to others rising to speak at the same time. The first speech of a member after his election for the first time. unstarred (written) & short 8 Indian Polity Guillotine Maiden Speech Money Bill Naming a Member Ordinance Point of Order Prorogation Question Hour Ghanshyam Thori . The Chair forthwith puts the question without further debate. as a matter of courtesy. Such a Bill cannot be introduced except on the recommendation of the President and a Bill making such provisions cannot be introduced in Rajya Sabha. The questions consist of starred (oral). Unlike closure. Such a Bill cannot be introduced in Lok Sabha except on the recommendation of the President and a Bill making such provisions cannot be introduced in Rajya Sabha. with a view to action being taken to suspend him from the service of the House for a period not exceeding the remainder of the session. A law made by the President in exercise of the powers vested in him by article 123 of the Constitution. The first hour of a sitting of the House allotted for asking and answering of questions. Such a member is. Such a Bill can be introduced in Rajya Sabha. the guillotine to be applied is not preceded by any motion. The termination of a session of Rajya Sabha by an order made by the President under article 85(2)(a) of the Constitution. The presiding officer decides whether the point of order raised by the member should be allowed.Ghanshyam Thori Finance Bill Financial Bill Indian Polity Bill ordinarily introduced every year to give effect to the financial proposals of the Government of India for the following financial year and includes a Bill to give effect to supplementary financial proposals for any period. A member may raise a point of order if the proceedings of the house do not follow the normal rules. The drawing of attention of the House by the Chairman to the conduct of a member who disregards the authority of the Chair or abuses the Rules of the House by persistently and willfully obstructing the business thereof. It means the putting by the Chairman of outstanding question or questions relating to the business in hand on expiry of the time allotted for the discussion. Guillotine is a different form of closure. A point relating to the interpretation or enforcement of the Rules of Procedure or such articles of the Constitution as regulate the business of the House raised in the House and submitted for the decision of the Chair. It cannot be passed by either House of Parliament unless the President has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill. A Bill containing only provisions dealing with all or any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (g) of clause (1) of article 110 of the Constitution is a Money Bill. Financial Bills are of two types: (a) A Bill making provision for any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 110 of the Constitution is called a Money Bill. (b) A Bill which if enacted and brought into operation would involve expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India. It is a recognized parliamentary convention that a member making a maiden speech is not interrupted by another member.

This session is held when a new Parliament has been elected but the old parliament meets for the last time before it is dissolved. Question to which a member wishes to have an oral answer on the floor of the House and which is distinguished by an asterisk. The lame-ducks are the members of the parliament who have not got re-elected. The term `parliamentary privilege' refers to certain rights and immunities enjoyed by each House of Parliament and Committees of each House collectively. Usually. efficiently and effectively. Whereas all breaches of privilege are contempts of the House whose privileges are violated.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity notice question. prorogation Question of Privilege Parliamentary Privileges Lame Duck Session Privilege Motion Difference between the breach of privileges and contempt of the House Quorum Short Notice Question Starred Question Unstarred Question Adjournment. An adjournment also signifies brief break of the sitting of the House which re-assembles at the appointed time on the same day. When any of the privileges either of the members individually or of the House in its collective capacity are disregarded or attacked by any individual or authority. An adjournment terminates the sitting of the House which meets again at the time appointed for the next sitting. A question relating to a matter of urgent public importance asked with notice shorter than fifteen clear days. to produce such results. Prorogation means the termination of a session of the House by an order made by the President under article 85(2)(a) of the Constitution.g. The written answer to such a question is deemed to have been laid on the Table. when he disobeys an order to attend a committee or publishes reflections on the character or conduct of a member in his capacity as a member. Any member either from Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha can move a Privilege Motion notice against a person who he feels has caused breach of privilege either of his own person or that of the house in general. Prorogation & Dissolution of the House Ghanshyam Thori 9 Indian Polity . and by members of each House individually. Contempt of the House may be defined generally as "any act or omission which obstructs or impedes either House of Parliament in the performance of its functions. or which has a tendency. The minimum number of members required to be present at a sitting of the House or a Committee for valid transaction of its business. The quorum to constitute a sitting of the House is one-tenth of the total number of members of the House. or which obstructs or impedes any member or officers of such House in the discharge of his duty. A question involving a breach of privilege either of a member or of the House or of a Committee thereof or contempt of the House. The member moving the notice has to seek prior permission of the Lok Sabha speaker or chairman of the Rajya Sabha as the case may be. e. a person may be guilty of a contempt of the House even though he does not violate any of the privilege of the House. without which they cannot discharge their functions. directly or indirectly. the offence is called a `breach of privilege'. A question which is not called for oral answer in the House. The House has the power to punish any person who commits contempt of the House or a breach of any of its privileges.

if admitted. this period is euphemistically termed as `zero hour'. The term `zero hour' is not formally recognised in parliamentary procedures. schemes. Substitute Motion as its name suggests is moved in substitution of the original motion for taking into consideration a policy or situation or statement or any other matter. leads to setting aside of the normal business of the House for discussing the matter mentioned in the motion. all Resolutions are substantive motions. etc. For raising matters during the so-called zero hour in Lok Sabha. The time immediately following the Question Hour and laying of papers and before any listed business is taken up in the House has come to be popularly known as `zero hour'. By itself it has no meaning and is not capable of stating the decision of the House without reference to the original motion or proceedings of the House.m. regulations.g. Only if 50 members support it & speaker grants permission. Departmentally Related Standing Committee Substantive. orders. consider and report on the working/demands for grants of the Ministries/Departments assigned to them. "Rules. framed by the Executive or other subordinate authority in pursuance of the power conferred on it by the Constitution or delegated to it by an Act of Parliament. It combines asking a question with 10 Indian Polity Adjournment Motion Subordinate Legislation Zero Hour Calling Attention Notice Ghanshyam Thori . everyday to the Speaker stating clearly the subject which they consider to be important and wish to raise in the House. Adjournment Motion is the procedure for adjournment of the business of the House for the purpose of discussing a definite matter of urgent public importance. as their name suggests. Indian Polity Dissolution of the House means the end of the life of the Lok Sabha either by an order made by the President under article 85 (2) (b) of the Constitution or on the expiration of the period of five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. There can be no debate on such a statement at the time it is made. A substantive motion is a self-contained independent proposal made in reference to a subject which the mover wishes to bring forward e. Substitute & Subsidiary Motion These Committees. the Minister may make a brief statement or ask for time to make a statement at a later hour or date. for the Speaker to allow or not allow raising of such matters in the House.Ghanshyam Thori follows the adjournment of the sitting of the House sine die. As it starts around 12 noon. Subsidiary Motion is a motion which depends upon or relates to another motion or follows upon some proceedings in the House. A member with prior attention of the speaker may call the attention of a minister to a matter of urgent public importance. bye-laws. It is. of course. having the force of law. which can be moved with the consent of the Speaker.. members give notice before 10 a. substitute and subsidiary. The Calling Attention procedure is an Indian innovation. Motions may be classified into three broad categories namely substantive. The Adjournment Motion.

Private members can also bring matters of urgent public importance to the notice of the House. it has to resign. the member should confine the discussion to the specific point or points mentioned in the notice and it is open to the member to advocate an alternative Policy. A motion which seeks to censure the government for its lapse. if admitted. At least 50 members support it & speaker should admit it. The member giving notice of such a cut motion should indicate briefly and precisely the particular matter on which discussion is sought to be raised and if the notice is admitted speeches should be confined to the discussion as to how economy can be effected. which is within the sphere of responsibility of the Government of India. a motion "that the amount of the demand be reduced to Re. 11 Indian Polity Short Duration Discussions Cut Motion Censure Motion No Confidence Motion No Day Yet Named Motion By Elections Ghanshyam Thori . in consultation with the Leader of the House after taking into consideration the state of business before the House.. has presented the Budget in the House. the council of ministers have to resign. if allowed is debated upon. A motion moved by a member who expresses lack of confidence in the government for any reason. If the motion is passed in the Lok Sabha. The discussion on such a cut motion. 1" representing disapproval of policy underlying the Demand. At the conclusion of such debate.—Members may give notice of Cut Motions for the reduction of the votable heads of expenditure of the Demands for Grants immediately after the Finance Minister or the Railway Minister as the case may be. (ii) Economy cut i.e. Government gets adequate opportunity to state its case.e.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity supplementaries and making brief comments. The date and time is allotted for discussion on such motions by the Speaker. 100" in order to ventilate a specific grievance. A member giving notice of such a Cut Motion should indicate in precise terms. and (iii) Token cut i. If the Cut Motion is admitted.. If the Speaker admits notice of a motion and no date is fixed for the discussion on such a motion. To fill up the seat rendered vacant due to death. The term 'Motion' in its wider sense means any proposal submitted to the House for obtaining its decision. Any matter of general public interest can be the subject matter of a motion. the particulars of the policy which he proposes to discuss. a motion "that the amount of the Demand be reduced by a specific amount" representing the economy that can be effected. a motion "that the amount of the Demand be reduced by Rs. The motion. The calling attention matter is not subject to the vote of the House. The notice must be signed by at least 3 members Cut Motions to Demands for Grants.e. a vote of confidence is sought by the government & if it fails to get the required majority of vote.. Such specified amount may either be a lump sum reduction in the Demand or reduction of an item in the Demand. In this procedure. Cut Motions are divided into following three categories:— (i) Disapproval of Policy cut i. it is immediately notified in the Bulletin Part II under the heading `No-Day-Yet-Named Motion'. should be confined to the particular grievance specified in the motion.

eminent public figures and women. The determination of the taxes. Besides Union Ministers. The distribution between the State and the Panchayats of the net proceeds of the taxes. Article 243 I of the Indian Constitution prescribes that the Governor of a State shall. and the Statutory Resolutions are moved in pursuance of a provision contained in the Constitution or an Act of Parliament. 2. The UPA Government in Feb 2005 reconstituted the National Integration Council (NIC) under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister. The principles which should govern 1. and thereafter at the expiration of every fifth year. 3. or a recommendation Resolutions may be categorized as: Private Members' Resolutions. The NIC was constituted accordingly and held its first meeting in 1962. tolls and fees which may be assigned as. review issues relating to national integration and make recommendations. tolls and fees leviable by the State. Shri Jawaharlal Nehru. 1992. according to an official release here. the Government Resolutions are moved by Ministers.Ghanshyam Thori Resolution & Its Types Indian Polity A Resolution is the formal expression of opinion by the House. The measures needed to improve the financial position of the Panchayats. B. The NIC will function as a forum for effective initiative and interaction on issues of national concern. Manmohan Singh. constitute a Finance Commission to review the financial position of the Panchayats and to make recommendations to the Governor as to A. Various Bodies The then Prime Minister. the NIC will have representation from various categories such as national commissions. This Conference decided to set up a National Integration Council (NIC) to review all matters pertaining to national integration and to make recommendations thereon. business. duties. The 103member NIC was constituted after a gap of 12 years having held its last meeting in 1992. duties. and to formulate definite conclusions in order to give a lead to the country. The grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State. convened National Integration Conference in September-October. 1961 to find ways and means to combat the evils of communalism. 12 Indian Polity National Integration Council State Finance Commission Ghanshyam Thori . or appropriated by. linguism and narrow-mindedness. the Panchayats. Government Resolutions and Statutory Resolutions. Chief Ministers and political leaders. The Private Members Resolutions are moved by a member (not a Minister). as soon as may be within one year from the commencement of the Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act. regionalism. casteism. which may be divided between them under this Part and the allocation between the Panchayats at all levels of their respective shares of such proceeds. It may be in the form of a declaration of opinion. media persons.

It is headed by Dr. 1955. In this case. 2009. can solemnise second marriage The Court held that a Hindu marriage solemnised under the Hindu law can only be dissolved on any of the grounds specified under the Hindu Marriage Act. And. each with a three-year term and with different terms of reference. dissolve the Hindu marriage under the Act. by itself. a penurious Muslim woman claimed for maintenance from her husband under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure after she was given triple talaq from him.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity C. In this case. Any other matter referred to the Finance Commission by the Governor in the interests of sound finance of the Panchayats. After this decision. Since then eighteen more Law Commissions have been appointed. Sarla Mudgal Vs Union of India: The second instance in which the Supreme Court again directed the government of Article 44 was in the case of Sarla Mudgal v. Article 243Y of the Constitution further provides that the Finance Commission constituted under Article 243 I shall make similar recommendation vis-a-vis municipalities. It will have a three-year term ending August 31. The then Rajiv Gandhi led Government overturned the Shah Bano case decision by way of Muslim Women (Right to Protection on Divorce) Act. not binding on the government or the Parliament and that there should be no interference with the personal laws unless the demand comes from within. Conversion to Islam and Marrying again would not. Shah Bano Begum. The Governor is required to cause every recommendation made by the State Finance Commission together with an explanatory memorandum as to the action taken thereon to be laid before the Legislature of the State. by embracing Islam. Justice A R Lakshmanan. thus. the question was whether a Hindu husband. The Court also held that Article 44 of the Constitution has remained a dead letter. 2006. The Eighteenth Law Commission was constituted through a Government order with effect from September 1. Union of India. First Law Commission of Independent India was established in 1955. married under the Hindu law. and agitation were held. The Supreme Court held that the Muslim woman have a right to get maintenance from her husband under Section 125. The explanation given for implementing this Act was that the Supreme Court had merely made an observation for enacting the UCC. nationwide discussions. Former Judge Supreme Court of India & there are two other members. a second marriage solemnised after converting to Islam would be an offence under Section 494 of 13 Indian Polity Ghanshyam Thori . 1986 which curtailed the right of a Muslim woman for maintenance under Section 125 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. popularly known as the Shah Bano case. meetings. Law Commission of India Uniform Civil Code Article 44 Shah Bano Case: The Supreme Court first directed the Parliament to frame a UCC in the year 1985 in the case of Mohammad Ahmed Khan v.

Once it has been approved it remains in force for a period of 6 months. the powers of government are divided between the Executive. elected by the State Legislatures who in turn are directly elected by the people on the same lines as the Lok Sabha). To extend further election commission should certify & still maximum period is 3 years. President can reduce salary of judges of all courts & ask all money bills passed by state legislature to be reserved. The court can strike down emergency if found unconstitutional & revive the dissolved state assembly. At the Center. elected by the people of India from individual. Emergency due to constitutional failure in state: Ceases to be in operation after the expiry of two months unless approved by each house. headed by the Prime Minister. After approval 6 months. National Emergency: The proclamation of emergency should be approved by both houses within one month of the date of issue & passed by 2/3rd majority otherwise ceases to operate in one month. in an ideal State. Declared more than 100 times. where people live at the whims and fancies of mullahs. but also makes one wonder whether we are a sovereign secular republic or a loose confederation of feudal states. Emergency was form 1962-68 & 1971-78. It can be extended by parliament for a further period of 6 months. The Judiciary is vested in the Supreme Court of India The "Basic Structure" doctrine is the judge-made doctrine whereby certain 14 Indian Polity Separation of Powers Basic Structure of Ghanshyam Thori . Fundamental rights except guaranteed in article 20 & 21 cannot be suspended. Financial Emergency: Remains in force for a period of 2 months unless approved. The maximum period is 3 years. bishops and pundits. After approval valid for 6 months. the Executive comprises the President. The life of Lok Sabha can be extended upto one year at a time & up to the period not exceeding beyond six months after the proclamation ceases to operate. Indian Polity Emergency Provisions of the Constitution Conclusion: The section of the nation against the implementation of UCC contends that in ideal times. I would like to say that citizens belonging to different religions and denominations follow different property and matrimonial laws which is not only an affront to the nation’s unity. But to conclude. a UCC would be an ideal safeguard of citizens’ rights.Ghanshyam Thori the Indian Penal Code. national emergency cannot be declared on grounds of internal disturbances. simple majority constituencies) and the Rajya Sabha (the upper house. However according to 44th amendment.the Lok Sabha (the lower house. first time in Punjab. The Union Legislature (Parliament) has two houses . Vice-President and the Council of Ministers. But India has moved much further from ideal than when the Constitution was written 50 years ago. At both the Center and in the States. the Legislature and the Judiciary.

writing for the majority. The Basic Structure doctrine applies only to the constitutionality of amendments and not to ordinary Acts of Parliament. Justices Shelat and Grover added three features to the Chief Justice's list: · The mandate to build a welfare state contained in the Directive Principles of State Policy. · The sovereignty of the country. On April 24. the court still reserved for itself the discretion to reject any constitutional amendments passed by Parliament by declaring that the amendments cannot change the constitution's "basic structure". a separate and shorter list: · The Sovereignty of India.amendment carried out by the Government in 1976 gave asserted that parliament had unlimited powers to amend the constitution & tried to accord precedence to Directive principles over fundamental rights. in their opinion. The doctrine which was first expresed in Kesavananda Bharati vs. · The federal character of the Constitution. The 42nd. Justices Hegde and Mukherjea instead provided. · Maintenance of the separation of powers. But in the Minerva Mills Ltd Vs Union of India Case. · A Republican and democratic form of government. · The secular character of the Constitution. Ghanshyam Thori 15 Indian Polity . 1980 the Supreme court struck down those provisions What constitutes Basic Structure of Constitution? Chief Justice Sikri. · The unity of the country.Ghanshyam Thori Constitution Indian Polity features of the Constitution of India are beyond the limit of the powers of amendment of the Parliament of India. in particular under Indira Gandhi. which must conform to the entirety of the constitution and not just its basic structure. · The democratic character of the polity. the Supreme Court ruled in Kesavananda Bharati v State of Kerala that although the 25th Amendment of 1971 was constitutional. · Essential features of individual freedoms. 1973. indicated that the Basic Structure was: · The supremacy of the Constitution. · Maintenance of the unity and integrity of India. The State of Kerala reflects judicial concern at the perceived threat to the liberal constitutional order posed by the Indian National Congress.

there is no question of a deadlock as the Rajya Sabha has a limited say in such matters. belief. or the Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments to be made in the Bill. A joint sitting of the Houses is convened for this purpose. economic and political justice. Rajya Sabha enjoys almost equal powers with Lok Sabha. except in the case of Money Bills where the latter has overriding powers. Only in case of non-money bills joint provision of joint sitting is available. Ghanshyam Thori 16 Indian Polity . It cannot be passed if other House does not pass it. · Liberty of thought. Indian Polity Legislative relationship between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha Justice Jaganmohan Reddy preferred to look at the Preamble. faith and worship. · The provision of social.Ghanshyam Thori · The mandate to build a welfare state. Such Bills cannot be introduced in Rajya Sabha and are deemed to have been passed if these are not returned to Lok Sabha within fourteen days. In the case of Money Bills. In legislative matters. stating that the basic features of the Constitution were laid out by that part of the document. and thus could be represented by: · A sovereign democratic republic. or more than six months lapse from the date of the reception of the Bill by the other House without the Bill being passed by it. There is no provision for a joint sitting in case of a deadlock over a Constitution Amendment Bill. · Equality of status and opportunity. a disagreement between the two Houses may arise when a Bill passed by one House is rejected by the other House. In the case of Bills. expression.

17 Indian Polity . Authoritative Schedule I Schedule II Schedule III Schedule IV Schedule V Ghanshyam Thori Schedules of the Constitution Deals with territories of the 28 states & 7 union territories Salaries allowances of president. Seats allotted to various states & UTs in the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) Administration & Control of scheduled areas. Commerce & Intercouse within the territory of India Services under the Union & the States Administrative Tribunals (42nd Amendment 1976) Elections Special Provisions (Reservations of SC. Article 242 repealed. Legislature etc) Amendment of the Constitution Temporary.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Part I II III IV IV A V VI VII VIII IX IX-A X XI XII XIII XIV XIV A XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI XXII Articles 1-4 5-11 12-35 36-51 51A 52-151 152-237 238 239-241 243 A-O 243 P-ZG 244-244 A 245-263 264-300A 301-307 308-323 323A-323B 324-329 330-342 343-351 352-360 361-367 368 369-392 393-395 Parts of the Constitution Areas The Union & its Territories Citizenship Fundamental Rights Directive Principles of State Policy Fundamental Duties (42nd Amendment) The Union Government The State Government Dealt with states in Part B of the First Schedule. Repealed in 1956 by the Seventh Amendment. Various forms of Oaths & affirmation which various incumbents have to take. Transitional & Special Provision Short Title. ST. V.P. Speaker. Union Territories. The Panchayats The Muncipalities The Scheduled & Tribal Areas Relations between the Union & the States Finance. CAG etc. Commencement. Anglo Indian etc) Official Language Emergency Provisions Miscellaneous Provisions (Immunity of President. Contracts & Suits Trade. Property. Judges.

Public Interest Litigation (PIL).Ghanshyam Thori Schedule VI Schedule VII Schedule VIII Schedule IX Schedule X Schedule XI Schedule XII Indian Polity Administration of tribal areas in Assam. 11. Meghalaya & Mizoram Subjects in the three lists – Union. 8. (52nd Amendment) 29 subjects on which panchayats can legislate. Concurrent list. (74th Amendment) 1. Preamble Federal System with a strong central authority. Ghanshyam Thori . 4. Preamble was a part of the constitution & can be amended by Parliament under Article 368. Centre State Relation. Law making procedure. State & Concurrent List of 22 regional languages Certain acts & regulations dealing with land reforms & zamidari system abolition. powers of the federal jury. Fundamental duties Office of the governor. Election of the President of India. President as Executive Head. Parliament can also amend the fundamental rights (Against Golaknath case) but ruled that the parliament cannot destroy the basic structure of the constitution. Single Citizenship. 4. 1. Election of members of Rajya Sabha Republic Fundamental Duties. 5. Judicial System. doctrine of pleasure tenure of civil servants. The 42nd. 6. (Added by I constitutional amendment). (73rd Amendment) 18 subjects on which municipalities have control. 2. Rule of Law. But in the Minerva Mills 18 Indian Polity 3.amendment carried out in 1976 gave asserted that parliament had unlimited powers to amend the constitution & tried to accord precedence to Directive principles over fundamental rights. Important Cases of the Constitution Preamble not a part of the constitution Supreme court held that the Parliament had no power to amend any of the provisions of Part III (Fundamental rights) The Indira Gandhi government in 1971 carried out the 24th Amendment with a view to assert the right of the parliament to amend any part of the constitution. Institution of Speaker. 3. Amendment of Constitution. Nomination of Rajya Sabha members by President. British Constitution American Constitution Canadian Constitution Irish Constitution Australian Constitution Weimar Constitution Soviet Constitution Govt of India Act 1935 South African French Constitution Japanese Constitution Berubari Case Golaknath Case 1967 Keshvanada Bharti Case Minerval Mills Case 1980 Indian Constitution Borrowed Features Parliamentary form of Government. Residual powers. 9. 7. 2. Freedom of Trade & Service within country Emergency Provision Five Year Plans. Directive Principles. Disqualifications on grounds of defection. Fundamental Rights. 10.

Only Rajya Sabha can initiate removal process. economic and political. More than 35 years of age. Oath by Chief justice of India. 1949. social. In case the office becomes vacant fresh elections within 6 months. do hereby adopt.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Case the Supreme court struck down those provisions Right to live is not merely confined to physical existence but includes within its ambit the right to live with human dignity 5. Maneka Gandhi Vs Union of India Preamble We. Can summon both houses separately. and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation. If the prime minister is taken from Rajya Sabha he cannot part in voting when a vote of no confidence is under consideration. Not a member of Rajya sabha only an exofficio chairman. Disputes in connection with the election of President are decided by Supreme Court. In the event of his death the council of ministers stand automatically dissolved. belief. * Italicized word added by 42nd amendment President Various Political/Non Political Offices of India Name proposed by 50 electors & security deposit of Rs 15000. The president enjoys suspensive veto powers & it applies only to the non money bills. Prime Minister Gets the same salary & allowances as MPs but additional sumptuary allowance of 3000 per month. Oath before the president or some other person appointed by him. faith and worship. President can promulgate ordinances when the parliament is in recess only on matters in the union & concurrent list. Equality of status and of opportunity. Nominated members can also participate but they do not participate in the election of president. Liberty of thought. The ordinances must be approved by parliament within 6 weeks. having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign socialist secular democratic republic and to secure to all its citizens : Justice. expression. In our constituent assembly this twenty-sixth day of November. If there is no party with clear cut majority the president can use his discretion. Appoints finance commission.000. Elected by the members of Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha at a joint meeting. MLAs do not participate in impeachment. enact and give to ourselves this constitution. The president submits his resignation to the Vice President. With regards to constitutional amendments president has no veto powers. the people of India. Deputy PM Position not known to the constitution although 7 persons have occupies this post. 19 Indian Polity Ghanshyam Thori . All money bills originate on the recommendation of the President. MLAs & members of both house of the parliament vote in the election. He cannot declare any emergency on his own. Can act as president for a maximum 6 months period. Removed by simple majority of Rajya Sabha & approved by Lok Sabha. Impeachment can be initiated by either house of parliament (2/3 majority). Vice President Name seconded by at least 25 members & security deposit of 15.

Legislative 60 to 500 members according to population but Sikkim has only 32 members. Appoint one sixth members of legislative council. Draws 36000. MPs are entitled to a monthly salary of Rs 12000 & pension of 3000 which increases according to the number of years served. No candidate can contest elections from more than 2 constituencies. Advani have served the office. 35 years of age. Speaker presides over joint sessions. Judge Address their resignation to president. Elected by members of state legislative assemblies on the basis of proportional representation through a single transferable vote. Makes laws through ordinances. Charan Singh. Oath before president or some person appointed by him. The salaries of chief justice & other judges are 33000 & 30. Y.000. Devi Lal & L. The joint session is called if a bill passed is rejected by other house or no action is taken. 10 electors should propose. It is not subjected to dissolution. Governor Oath before chief justice of high court of that state.B Chavan. The cabinet. Rajya Sabha 238 elected & 12 nominated. 1000 & 600 respectively. Mizoram. In the event of dissolution of Lok Sabha. state & deputy ministers get sumptuary allowance of 2000.000 respectively. 25 Assembly years of age. K. Jagjivan Ram. Goa. Impeachment requires 2/3rd majority in the two houses of the parliament. Minimum 30 years of age. Hold office till the age of 65. Reserve a bill for president’s consideration. Minimum 25 years of age. Present the budget before the parliament. Pondicherry have only 30 members. The Ghanshyam Thori 20 Indian Polity . The security deposit has been increased from Rs 500 to Rs 10. any bill pendin in the Rajya Sabha but not passed by Lok Sabha does not lapse. Collectively responsible to parliament but individual ministers responsible to President. Vote of no confidence Ministers against any minister leads to resignation of entire council. The constitution does not contain any provision for his impeachment. Morarji Desai. Can grant pardon but not in case of death sentence. Lok Sabha Strength of Lok Sabha fixed at 543 plus 2 nominated members of Anglo-Indian community in 1976. Supreme Court 5 years as high court judge or 10 years as advocate. Council of Should be a member of either house or do so within 6 months. Original Jurisdiction (Centre-state & fundamental rights). university graduates (1/12th) & nominated by governor (1/6th). Nominates one member of Anglo Indian community to the legislative assembly. In case of SC/ST it has been increased from Rs 250 to Rs 5000.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Vallabhbhai Patel. Remunerations as the General governor may determine. Can vacant seat by writing to speaker. Appellate jurisdiction (Only if high court certifies or the high court has awarded death sentence after reversing judgement or after withdrawing case from lower court & Advisory jurisdiction. Legislative Its members are elected by legislative assembly (1/3rd) local bodies (1/3rd). Seat vacant if absents from meetings for 60 days without intimation. teachers Council (1/12th). Ordinance issued by him remains in force for a maximum 6 months. The speaker continues in the house even after the dissolution of the Lok Sabha till a newly elected Lok Sabha meets. Advocate Person who is qualified to be a judge of the high court. He is permitted to act without the advice of the council of ministers unlike president.Adresses first session of state legislature after elections.

The state can restrict the fundamental rights of civil servants. Created on the recommendations of the Sarkaria commission although constitution provided for it. 5 before & 6th added in 1972 called NE council. Set up under state reorganization act 1956. CAT is located at Delhi. The president can remove CAG only after recommendation of the two houses of parliament. Union Home Minister heads the zonal council. Its recommendations are binding in nature as per convention 21 Indian Polity High Court Administrative Tribunals Inter State Council Zonal Council UPSC Comptroller & Auditor General Attorney General Election Commission Finance Commission (Art. The decision of CAT can be challenged in a high court. Election of local bodies comes under state election commission. The Chief Ministers of the member states hold the post of Vice Chairman of the Council by rotation for 1 year. Chief justice gets 30. Incorporated by 42nd amendment through addition of articles 323A & 323B. He only conducts audit. Qualification same as judge of supreme court. Job also includes delimitation of constituency to ensure same number of people in each. Programme Administration Divisions Extra constitutional & extra legal body. Advises on disputes between various states. President can issue orders for the removal of the members of the UPSC only after supreme court makes such recommendation on the basis of an enquiry. There is no provision for joint sitting here. Members appointed for a 6 year term or till they attain 65 years of age. advice president on any matter. of which there are three kind: General Planning Divisions. grant-in-aid to states. CM of each state in the zone. Qualified to be appointed as judges of the high court or special knowledge of finance & accounts of government.000. Chairman & 8 members.000 & other judges 26000. The retirement of chairman & VC at 65 & others at 62. PM can nominate 6 ministers of cabinet rank. Appointed by president. Members not eligible for employment by the government after retirement. Appears before supreme court & various high courts involving the Government of India. Submits report to President who in turn places it before parliament. 280) Planning Commission NDC Ghanshyam Thori . The Commission works through its various divisions. The pension of the high court judges is charged to the Consolidated fund of India. Special Planning Divisions. Two commissioners with equivalent power. Salary of 30. To become a judge – advocate for 10 years or held judicial office in Indian Territory for a period of at least 10 years. Meets atleast 3 times a year. 6 years or till the age of 65 years. Non-statutory body which formulates 5 year plans. The election commission of India appoints the ‘Returning officers’ for the state assembly elections to help conduct fair elections. 30 years of age. 62 years of age. The legislative council can delay an ordinary bill for 3 months & a money bill for 14 days. Functions:recommend distribution of taxes between centre & states. The state election commission is a single member commission comprising SEC.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity maximum membership can be 1/3rd that of Legislative Assembly but in no case less than 40 members. Comprises of PM & CMs of all states & UTs. Consists of Union minister nominated by president. Period of 6 years. two ministers from each state nominated by governor & one member per UT. Comprises chairman & four other members.

incidental and consequential matters Citizenship Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan 22 Indian Polity Ghanshyam Thori . boundaries or names of existing States Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedule and supplemental. Its chairman called ‘Pradhan’ is elected from among its members. Gets a share of cess of land revenue from the gram panchayat & Zilla Parishad Consists of representatives of panchayat samiti. Zilla parishad elects its chairman called ‘Pradhan’ form amongst its members. Orissa & Bihar are obliged to appoint a separate minister the welfare of SC/ST/OBC.P. Members usually range from 5 to 31. the general body of villagers comprising all adults. Panchayat Samiti Zila Parishad Part I Article 1 Article 2 Article 2a Article 3 Article 4 Part II Article 5 Article 6 Article 7 Constitution of India (Upto Part IV) The Union and its Territory Name and territory of the Union Admission or establishment of new States [Repealed] Sikkim to be associated with the Union Formation of new States and alteration of areas.Ghanshyam Thori Minorities commission Panchayat Indian Polity Seven members. The states of M. members representing SC/ST/Women/cooperative bodies. Responsible to gram panchayat as well as gram sabhas. Can legislate on 29 subjects which are listed in XI schedule Genearlly comprises of the sarpanches of village panchayats under the block. Panchayat is responsible to gram sabha. Members have same requirements as MLAs except lower age of 21. members of parliament. Depends entirely on state government for grants. local members of state legislature.

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing. race. in the opinion of the State. (2) No citizen shall. be ineligible for. sex or place of birth (1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion. caste. (2) No citizen shall. on ground only of religion. hotels and places of public entertainment. any requirement as to residence within that State or Union territory prior to such employment or appointment. liability. sex. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment 1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State. or (b) the use of wells. (4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) or article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. descent. public restaurants. (3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children. in the opinion of the State. residence or any of them. place of birth. (4A) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for reservation in matters of promotion to any class or classes of posts in the services under the State in favour of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which. a State or Union territory. place of birth or any of them. is not adequately represented in the services under the State. sex. or discriminated against in respect of. race. in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of. on grounds only of religion. 23 Indian Polity Ghanshyam Thori . bathing ghats. any employment or office under the State. race. caste. race. tanks. caste. restriction or condition with regard to (a) access to shops. are not adequately represented in the services under the State. roads and places of public resort maintained whole or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of general public. (5) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs of any religious or denominational institution or any member of the governing body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or belonging to a particular denomination.Ghanshyam Thori Article 8 Article 9 Article 10 Article 11 Part III Article 12 Article 13 Article 14 Article 15 Indian Polity Article 16 Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens Continuance of the rights of citizenship Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law Fundamental Rights Definition Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights Equality before law meaning ‘equality of treatment within a class’ Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion. sex. or any local or other authority within. place of birth or any of them. be subject to any disability. (4) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which. caste.

.Ghanshyam Thori Article 17 Article 18 Article 19 Indian Polity Article 20 Article 21 Article 21A Article 22 Article 23 Article 24 Article 25 Article 26 Article 27 Article 28 Article 29 Article 30 Article 31 Article 31A Article 31B Article 31C Article 31D Article 32 Article 32A Article 33 Article 34 Article 35 Part IV Article 36 Article 37 Article 38 Article 39 Article 39A Article 40 Article 41 Article 42 Article 43 Abolition of Untouchability Abolition of titles Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech. practice and propagation of religion Freedom to manage religious affairs Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions Protection of interests of minorities Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions [Repealed] Compulsory acquisition of property Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates. To practice any profession or to carry out an trade. occupation & business. To form Associations & Unions. Protection in respect of conviction for offenses Protection of life and personal liberty Right to education. etc. etc. etc. to education and to public assistance in certain cases Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief Living wage. To move freely throughout the territory of India e. Freedom of Speech & Expression b. for workers 24 Indian Polity Ghanshyam Thori . Freedom of conscience and free profession. Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while marital law is in force in any area Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part Directive Principles of State Policy Definition Application of the principles contained in this Part State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State A Equal justice and free legal aid Organisation of village panchayats Right to work. Assemble Peacefully & without arms c. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour Prohibition of employment of children in factories. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles [Repealed] Saving of laws in respect of anti-national activities Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part [Repealed] Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces. To reside & settle in any part of the territory in India f. d. a. etc. etc.

Scope of Article 331 Ghanshyam Thori 25 Indian Polity . Article 39 Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State The State shall. have the right to an adequate means of livelihood. the President may. men and women equally. in particular. (d) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. (c) that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment. men and women. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People Notwithstanding anything in article 81. nominate not more than two members of that community to the House of the People. direct its policy towards securing (a) that the citizen. (e) that the health and strength of workers. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.Ghanshyam Thori Article 43A Article 44 Article 45 Article 46 Indian Polity Participation of workers in management of industries Uniform civil code for the citizen Provision for free and compulsory education for children Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections Article 47 Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health Article 48 Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry Article 48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life Article 49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance Article 50 Separation of judiciary from executive Article 51 Promotion of international peace and security Article 51A Fundamental Duties Art 39 (b) & (c) of Directive Principles have primacy over Fundamental Rights. (b) that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good. if he is of opinion that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented in the House of the People. (f) that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

Classifies bills according to importance. Speaker is head. How far assurances given by the ministers have been implemented Examines leave applications of members 30 members all of which are from Lok Sabha. 2. improvements in organisation.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity 1. Speaker is chairman 15 members. 15 members. 22 members. Committee on Welfare of Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes 9. A Minister is not eligible for election to this Committee. 15 members. The term of the Committee is one year. 15 members. Rules Committee 6. From time to time the Committee selects such of the estimates pertaining to a Ministry or a group of Ministries or the statutory and other Government bodies as may seem fit to the Committee. Violation of Privileges of M. 20 M. 15 M. Examines Annual Estimates & suggests alternative policies.S. Estimates Committee Parliamentary Committees 15 members. Assisted by Comptroller & Auditor general. It acts as a watch dog of expenditure. The main duty of the Committee is to ascertain whether the money granted by Parliament has been spent by Government "within the scope of the Demand".P 30 Members. Constituted for considering different bills. Business Advisory Committee Committee on Private Members Bills & Resolutions 3. Select Committees 4. Committee on Privileges 7.S. Committee on Government Assurances 10. The Appropriation Accounts of the Government of India and the Audit Reports presented by the Comptroller and Auditor General mainly form the basis for the examination of the Committee. Public Accounts Committee Ghanshyam Thori . The main function of the Committee on Estimates is to report what economies. consistent with the policy underlying the estimates may be effected and to suggest alternative policies in order to bring about efficiency and economy in administration. The term of the Committee is one year. A Minister is not eligible for election to this Committee. The Committee also examines matters of special interest which may arise or come to light in the course of its work or which are specifically referred to it by the House or the Speaker. efficiency. Committee on Absence of Members 11.Ps & 10 R. Committee on Petitions 5. Committee on Subordinate Legislations 8. Cases involving losses. Rules of House 15 members.Ps & 7 R. This committee is headed by the member of the opposition by convention. or administrative reform. Deputy Chairman is chairman. nugatory expenditure and financial irregularities come in for severe 26 Indian Polity 12.

the Ethics Committee of the Rajya Sabha was constituted. (b) to examine the reports. Ethics Committee 15.S & 5 R. and (d) such other functions vested in the Committee on Public Accounts and the Committee on Estimates in relation to the Public Undertakings as are not covered by clauses (a). The term of the Committee is one year.S. examine matters of major Government policy and matters of dayto-day administration of the Undertakings. however. · The formation of the Ethics Committee in Rajya Sabha. be seen a step in that direction. 10 nominated by speaker & 5 by the chairman of Rajya Sabha.S. of the Comptroller and Auditor General on the Public Undertakings. 14. (b) and (c) above and as may be allotted to the Committee by the Speaker from time to time. dependent daughters and dependent sons before the Committee 15 members. It is concerned only with the execution of the policy laid down by Parliament and its results. Joint Committee on Salaries & Allowances 16. 10 M. The functions of the Committee on Public Undertakings are—(a) to examine the reports and accounts of Public Undertakings. 10 L. if any. 13. 15 members. · It is the considered view of the Committee that it should be made compulsory for the Members to declare their assets and liabilities and those of their immediate family which includes spouse. therefore. as one of the instruments to ensure value based politics may.Ps from Lok Sabha & 7 R.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity criticism by the Committee. Committee on Public Undertakings 22 members. The Ethics Committee of the Lok Sabha was constituted on 16 May 2000. · Moral and ethical conduct of the Members · The Committee does not favour the idea of subjecting the Members to the disciplinary authority of an agency outside the jurisdiction of the House. The Committee is not concerned with questions of policy. The ethics committee of the Lok Sabha comprises 15 members. The Committee does not. (c) to examine in the context of the autonomy and efficiency of the Public Undertakings whether the affairs of the Public Undertakings are being managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices. A Minister is not eligible for election to this Committee. 27 Indian Polity . Examines working of public undertakings. Joint Committee on Offices of Ghanshyam Thori In 1997.

transportation. communication. L. drugs. aerodromes. 11 by Speaker & 6 by chairman of Rajya Sabha Lists Defence. factories. 4. 3. highways. 7. relief of disabled. railways. inter-state trade. prisons. 3 added] State List (61) Health. Concurrent list (52) Criminal law. social insurance. electricity. Voting age to be reduced to 18 years (61st amendment). 8. Voter councils to be formed. liquor. forests. currency. taxes on entertainment & wealth. Commissions/committees & their Purpose S.M Singhvi Committee Panchayati Raj Reforms. followed by Andhra Pradesh & Bihar. sanitation. preventive detention. To save the security candidates should secure Committe at least 1/4th of valid votes. Rajamannar Commission Recommended abolition of IAS & the IPS Select Political Doctrines & Principles Idea that when the legislature wants to do something that it cannot do within the constraints of the constitution. 2. 9. sales tax & octroi. agriculture. Vallabh. [Originally 47 but 5 items transferred to this list from state list] Union List (99) 1. Balwant Rai Mehta Recommendations approved by NDC. trade unions. [Originally 97 items – one deleted. books & printing press.Ghanshyam Thori Profit 17. commerce. 6. local government. Pattabhi Sitaramayya (same as above) Shah Commission Punjab Reorganization Act Tarkunde Committee Electoral Reforms. newspapers. it colours the law with a substitute purpose which will still allow it to accomplish its original goal. 5. public order. atomic energy. Pith And Substance Ghanshyam Thori . Rajasthan first adopted 3 tier structure. education. stamp duties. banking. Foreign affaris.K Dhar committee Reorganization of states on linguistic basis JVP committee Jawahar. Interpretation used to determine under which head of power a given piece of legislation falls. Dinesh Goswami Electoral Reforms. marriage & divorce. The doctrine is primarily used when a law is 28 Indian Polity The Doctrine Of Colourability. Parliamentary Subject Committees Indian Polity 17 parliamentary committees were constituted. [Originally 66 items out of which 5 transferred to concurrent list]. Ashok Mehta Committee Working of panchayati raj institutions.

Associated with declaration of law as unconstitutional & void by the courts. Ghanshyam Thori 29 Indian Polity . Concerned with the relationship between the fundamental rights & the directive principles. A SEC consists of a single member called State Election Commissioner who is appointed by the governor.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity challenged on the basis that one level of government (be it provincial or federal) has encroached upon the exclusive jurisdiction of another level of government. He is removed in manner. Doctrine of Severability Principle of Harmonious Construction State Election Commission Topics to be covered from here The 73rd & 74th Amendment act provide for an EC for each state for holding elections to the panchayats & municipalities. a judge of HC is removed.

I Other Articles of the Constitution Part V Chapter I Article 52 Article 53 Article 54 Article 55 Article 56 Article 57 Article 58 Article 59 Article 60 Article 61 Article 62 Article 63 Article 64 Article 65 Article 66 Article 67 Article 68 Ghanshyam Thori The Union The Executive – The President & the Vice President The President of India Executive power of the Union Election of President Manner of election of President Term of office of President Eligibility for re-election Qualifications for election as President Conditions of President's office Oath or affirmation by the President Procedure for impeachment of the President Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of resident and the term of office or person elected to fill casual vacancy The Vice-President Of India The Vice-President to be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office. or during the absence.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Annexure . of President Election of Vice-President Term of office of Vice-President Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term 30 Indian Polity .

Chapter II Parliament Constitution of Parliament Composition of the Council of States Composition of the House of the People Readjustment after each census Duration of Houses of Parliament Qualification for membership of Parliament Sessions of Parliament.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies Matters relating to. or to act as. etc. and removal from. the office of Deputy Chairman Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of. and to suspend. remit or commute sentences in certain cases Extent of executive power of the Union Council of Ministers Council of Ministers to aid and advise President Other provisions as to Ministers Attorney General of India Attorney-General for India Conduct of Government Business Conduct of business of the Government of India Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President. etc. prorogation and dissolution Right of President to address and send messages to Houses Special address by the President Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses Officers of the Paliament The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States Vacation and resignation of. the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of. Chairman The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People Vacation and resignation of. and removal from.. or to act as Speaker The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker 31 Indian Polity Article 69 Article 70 Article 71 Article 72 Article 73 Article 74 Article 75 Article 76 Article 77 Article 78 Article 79 Article 80 Article 81 Article 82 Article 83 Article 84 Article 85 Article 86 Article 87 Article 88 Article 89 Article 90 Article 91 Article 92 Article 93 Article 94 Article 95 Article 96 Article 97 Ghanshyam Thori . or connected with. the election of a President or Vice-President Power of President to grant pardons.

power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum Disqualification of Members Vacation of seats Disqualifications for membership Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified Powers. of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof Salaries and allowances of members Legislative Procedure Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases Special procedure in respect of Money Bills Definition of "Money Bills" Assent to Bills Procedure in Financial Matters Annual financial statement Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates (1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted to the vote of Parliament.. Privileges & Immunities of Parliament & its Members Powers. etc. etc. Privileges.Ghanshyam Thori Article 98 Article 99 Article 100 Article 101 Article 102 Article 103 Article 104 Article 105 Article 106 Article 107 Article 108 Article 109 Article 110 Article 111 Article 112 Article 113 Indian Polity Secretariat of Parliament Conduct of Business Oath or affirmation by members Voting in Houses.. of Judges Appointment of acting Chief Justice Appointment of ad hoc Judges 32 Indian Polity Article 114 Article 115 Article 116 Article 117 Article 118 Article 119 Article 120 Article 121 Article 122 Chapter III Article 123 Chapter IV Article 124 Article 125 Article 126 Article 127 Ghanshyam Thori . additional or excess grants Votes on account. but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the discussion in either House of Parliament of any of those estimates. Appropriation Bills Supplementary. votes of credit and exceptional grants Special provisions as to financial Bills Rules of procedure Procedure Generally Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business Language to be used in Parliament Restriction on discussion in Parliament Courts not inquire into proceedings of Parliament Legislative Powers of the President Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament The Union Judiciary Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court Salaries.

etc. etc.Ghanshyam Thori Article 128 Article 129 Article 130 Article 131 Article 131A Article 132 Article 133 Article 134 Article 134A Article 135 Article 136 Article 137 Article 138 Article 139 Article 139A Article 140 Article 141 Article 142 Article 143 Article 144 Article 144A Article 145 Article 146A Article 147 Chapter V Article 148 Article 149 Article 150 Article 151 Part VI Chapter I Article 152 Chapter II Article 153 Article 154 Article 155 Article 156 Article 157 Article 158 Article 159 Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court Supreme Court to be a court of record Seat of Supreme Court Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court [Repealed] Executive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in regard to questions as to constitutional validity of Central laws Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Court in certain cases Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to civil matters Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme Court Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs Transfer of certain cases Ancillary powers of Supreme Court Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery. Power of President to consult Supreme Court Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court [Repealed] Rules of Court. Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court Interpretation Comptroller and Auditor-General of India Comptroller and Auditor-General of India Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General Form of accounts of the Union and of the States Audit reports The States General Definition The Executive – The Governor Governors of States Executive power of State Appointment of Governor Term of office of Governor Qualifications for appointment as Governor Conditions of Governor's office Oath or affirmation by the Governor 33 Indian Polity .

prorogation and dissolution Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses Special address by the Governor Rights of Ministers and Advocate Officers of the State Legislature The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly Vacation and resignation of. Chairman The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman Secretariat of State Legislature Oath or affirmation by members Conduct of Business 34 Indian Polity . Speaker The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council Vacation and resignation. etc. remit or commute sentences in certain cases Extent of executive power of State Council of Ministers Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor Other provisions as to Ministers Advocate General of the State Advocate-General for the State Conduct of Government Business Conduct of business of the Government of a State Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor. the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of.Ghanshyam Thori Article 160 Article 161 Article 162 Article 163 Article 164 Article 165 Article 166 Article 167 Chapter III Article 168 Article 169 Article 170 Article 171 Article 172 Article 173 Article 174 Article 175 Article 176 Article 177 Article 178 Article 179 Article 180 Article 181 Article 182 Article 183 Article 184 Article 185 Article 186 Article 187 Article 188 Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies Power of Governor to grant pardons. of and removal from. the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of.. or to act as. etc. or to act as. and removal from. and to suspend. The State Legislature Constitution of Legislatures in States Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States Composition of the Legislative Assemblies Composition of the Legislative Council Duration of States Legislatures Qualification for membership of the State Legislature Sessions of the State Legislature.

etc. etc. of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof Article 195 Salaries and allowances of members Legislative Procedure Article 196 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills Article 197 Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills Article 198 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills Article 199 Definition of "Money Bills" Article 200 Assent to Bills Bills reserved for consideration Article 201 Procedure in Financial Matters Article 202 Annual financial statement Article 203 Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates Article 204 Appropriation Bills Article 205 Supplementary. Privileges & Immunities of State Legislatures & their Members Article 194 Powers. privileges. additional or excess grants Article 206 Votes on account. power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum Vacation of seats Disqualification of Members Article 191 Disqualification for membership Article 192 Decision on question as to disqualifications of members Article 193 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified Power... of Judges Ghanshyam Thori 35 Indian Polity . votes of credit and exceptional grants Article 207 Special provisions as to financial Bills Procedure Generally Article 208 Rules of procedure Article 209 Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business Article 210 Language to be used in the Legislature Article 211 Restriction on discussion in the Legislature Article 212 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature Chapter IV Legislative Power of the Governor Article 213 Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature Chapter V The High Courts in the States Article 214 High Courts for States Article 215 High Courts to be courts of record Article 216 Constitution of High Courts Article 217 Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court Article 218 Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts Article 219 Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts Article 220 Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge Article 221 Salaries.Ghanshyam Thori Article 189 Article 190 Indian Polity Voting in Houses.

certain district judges Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service Control over subordinate courts Interpretation Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates [Repealed] The States in Part B of the First Schedule The Union Territories Administration of Union territories Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories Special provisions with respect to Delhi Provision in case of failure of constitutional monarchy Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories High Courts for Union territories [Repealed] The Panchayats Definitions Gram Sabha Constitution of Panchayats Composition of Panchayats Reservation of seats Duration of Panchayats. etc. Disqualifications for membership Powers. delivered by. etc.Ghanshyam Thori Article 222 Article 223 Article 224 Article 224A Article 225 Article 226 Article 226A Article 227 Article 228 Article 228A Article 229 Article 230 Article 231 Chapter VI Article 233 Article 233A Article 234 Article 235 Article 236 Article 237 Part VII Part VIII Article 239 Article 239A Article 239AA Article 239AB Article 239B Article 240 Article 241 Article 242 Part IX Article 243 Article 243A Article 243B Article 243C Article 243D Article 243E Article 243F Article 243G Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another Appointment of acting Chief Justice Appointment of additional and acting Judges Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts Jurisdiction of existing High Courts Power of High Courts to issue certain writs [Repealed] Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 226 Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court Transfer of certain cases to High Court [Repealed] Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of State laws Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States Subordinate Courts Appointment of district judges Validation of appointments of. authority and responsibilities of Panchayats 36 Indian Polity . and judgments.

the Panchayats Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position Audit of accounts of Panchayats Elections to the Panchayats Application to Union territories Part not to apply to certain areas Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters The Municipalities Definitions Constitution of Municipalities Composition of Municipalities Constitution and composition of Wards Committees. and Funds of. Reservation of seats Duration of Municipalities.Ghanshyam Thori Article 243H Article 243I Article 243J Article 243K Article 243L Article 243M Article 243N Article 243O Part IXA Article 243P Article 243Q Article 243R Article 243S Article 243T Article 243U Article 243V Article 243W Article 243X Article 243Y Article 243Z Article 243ZA Article 243ZB Article 243ZC Article 243ZD Article 243ZE Article 243ZF Article 243ZG Part X Article 244 Article 244A Part XI Chapter I Article 245 Article 246 Article 247 Article 248 Article 249 Article 250 Article 251 Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Powers to impose taxes by. Disqualifications for membership Powers. the Municipalities Finance Commission Audit of accounts of Municipalities Elections to the Municipalities Application to Union territories Part not to apply to certain areas Committee for district planning Committee for Metropolitan planning Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters The Scheduled and Tribal Areas Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor Relations Between the Union and the States Legislative Relations Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts Residuary powers of legislation Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the National interest Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the legislatures of States 37 Indian Polity . Power to impose taxes by. etc. etc. and Funds of. authority and responsibilities of Municipalities etc.

records and judicial proceedings Disputes relating to Waters Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys Co-ordination between States Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council Finance.Ghanshyam Thori Article 252 Article 253 Article 254 Article 255 Chapter II Article 256 Article 257 Article 257A Article 258 Article 258A Article 259 Article 260 Article 261 Article 262 Article 263 Part XII Chapter I Article 264 Article 265 Article 266 Article 267 Article 268 Article 269 Article 270 Article 271 Article 272 Article 273 Article 274 Article 275 Article 276 Article 277 Article 278 Article 279 Article 280 Article 281 Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State Legislation for giving effect to international agreements Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only Administrative Relations Obligation of States and the Union Control of the Union over States in certain cases Assistance to States by deployment of armed forces or other forces of the Union Power of the Union to confer powers. etc. Property. trades.. etc. Finance Commission Recommendations of the Finance Commission 38 Indian Polity . on States in certain cases Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union [Repealed] Armed Forces in States in Part B of the First Schedule Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India Public acts. Contracts and Suits Finance Interpretation Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States Contingency Fund Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the States Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States Taxes levied and collected by the Union and distributed between the Union and the States Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union [Omitted] Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products Prior recommendation of President require to Bills affecting taxation in which States are interested Grants from the Union to certain States Taxes on professions. callings and employments Savings [Repealed] Agreement with States in Part B of the First Schedule with regard to certain financial matters Calculation of "net proceeds".

rights.. removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State 39 Indian Polity Article 282 Article 283 Article 284 Article 285 Article 286 Article 287 Article 288 Article 289 Article 290 Article 290A Article 291 Chapter II Article 292 Article 293 Chapter III Article 294 Article 295 Article 296 Article 297 Article 298 Article 299 Article 300 Chapter IV Article 300A Part XIII Article 301 Article 302 Article 303 Article 304 Article 305 Article 306 Article 307 Part XIV Chapter I Article 308 Article 309 Article 310 Article 311 Ghanshyam Thori . rights. commerce and intercourse among States Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies [Repealed] Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304 Services Under the Union and the States Services Interpretation Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State Dismissal. etc. liabilities and obligations in certain cases Succession to property. of Consolidated Funds. assets. Rights. Commerce and Intercourse Within the Territory of India Freedom of trade. commerce and intercourse Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade. Obligations and Suits Succession to property. Liabilities. Contracts Suits and proceedings Right to Property Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law Trade. Contacts. etc. liabilities and obligations in other cases Property accruing by escheat or lapse or as Bona vacantia Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union Power to carry on trade. assets. Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public accounts Custody of suitors' deposits and other moneys received by public servants and courts Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation Restriction as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods Exemption from taxes on electricity Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds [Repealed] Borrowing Borrowing by the Government of India Borrowing by States Property.Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Miscellaneous Financial Provisions Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues Custody. commerce and intercourse Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce Restriction on trade.

the President may. caste or sex Article 326 Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage Article 327 Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures Article 328 Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature Article 329 Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters Article 329A [Repealed Part XVI Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes Article 330 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People Article 331 Notwithstanding anything in article 81. or to claim to be included in a special. race. if he is of opinion that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequately represented in the House of the People. direction and control of elections to be vested in an election commission Article 325 No person to be ineligible for inclusion in. electoral roll on grounds of religion. nominate not more than two members of that community to the House of the People.Ghanshyam Thori Article 312 Article 312A Indian Polity All-India services Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services Article 313 Transitional provisions Article 314 [Repealed] Chapter II Public Service Commissions Article 315 Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States Article 316 Appointment and term of office of members Article 317 Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission Article 318 Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission Article 319 Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members Article 320 Functions of Public Service Commissions Article 321 Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions Article 322 Expenses of Public Service Commissions Article 323 Reports of Public Service Commissions Part XIVA Tribunals Article 323A Administrative tribunals Article 323B Tribunals for other matters Part XV Elections Article 324 Superintendence. Article 332 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States Article 333 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States Article 334 Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after fifty years 40 Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity .

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes Control of the Union over the administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Tribes Official Language Language of the Union Official language of the Union Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language Regional Languages Official language or languages of a State Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State Language of the Supreme Court. Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language Special Directives Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage Special Officer for linguistic minorities Directive for development of the Hindi language Emergency Provisions Proclamation of National Emergency Effect of Proclamation of Emergency Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356 Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies [Repealed] Application of this Part to the State of Punjab Provisions as to financial emergency 41 Indian Polity . High Courts. etc. Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts. etc.Ghanshyam Thori Article 335 Article 336 Article 337 Article 338 Article 338A Article 339 Article 340 Article 341 Article 342 Part XVII Chapter I Article 343 Article 344 Chapter II Article 345 Article 346 Article 347 Chapter III Article 348 Article 349 Chapter IV Article 350 Article 350A Article 350B Article 351 Part XVIII Article 352 Article 353 Article 354 Article 355 Article 356 Article 357 Article 358 Article 359 Article 359A Article 360 Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian community National Commission for Scheduled Castes. Bills.

etc. authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution Provisions as to Judges of High Courts Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India Provisions as to Public Commissions Special provisions as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly [Article 379-391 Repealed] Power of the President to remove difficulties Short Title. or to give effect to. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and Privy purses to be abolished Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes Effect of failure to comply with. directions given by the Union Definitions Interpretation Amendment of the Constitution Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor Temporary. Commencement. agreements.Ghanshyam Thori Part XIX Article 361 Article 361A Article 362 Article 363 Article 363A Article 364 Article 365 Article 366 Article 367 Part XX Article 368 Part XXI Article 369 Article 370 Article 371 Article 371A Article 371B Article 371C Article 371D Article 371E Article 371F Article 371G Article 371H Article 371I Article 372 Article 372A Article 373 Article 374 Article 375 Article 376 Article 377 Article 378 Article 378A Article 379 Article 392 Part XXII Ghanshyam Thori Indian Polity Micsellaneous Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures [Repealed] Rights and privileges of Rulers of Indian States Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties. Authoritative Text in Hindu and Repeals 42 Indian Polity . Transitional and Special Provisions Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland Special provision with respect to the State of Assam Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh Special provision with respect to the State of Goa Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation Power of the President to adapt laws Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council Courts.

Ghanshyam Thori Article 393 Article 394 Article 394A Article 395 Short title Commencement Authoritative text in the Hindi language Repeals Indian Polity Ghanshyam Thori 43 Indian Polity .

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