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NSCP C10110



I ,


Association of Stmctural Engineers of thc Philippincs

Suite 7 I3, Future Point Plaza Condominium 1 112 I'anay Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines 1100
Tel. No ; (+632) 410-0483 F"x No.: (+632 ) 411-S606 Enlail: i~~l!."!.!ili!.l...I.;Yf.gJ]]illL~~Jl!.! Webs ite: http: //
Nat!Oni'll Structural Code of U 'le Philippines 6!il Edition Volume 1

NSCP C101-10






Association of Structural Engineers of th e Philippines

NATIONAL STR UcrURAL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (NSCP) CIOI-IO Volume I Buildings, Towers and Other Vert ica l Structures Sixth Edition, 2010, First Plinting Copyright @ 20 I0, The Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (ASEP)
All rights reserved. Thi s publicat ion or any part thereof must no! be reproduced in any fom1 wilhoullhe written pcmlission of Ihe Associat ion Slructu ral Engineers of the Philippines, Inc. (ASEP).

ISSN No.: 2094-5477 PUBLISHER Association of Structural Engi neers of the Philippines, Inc. (ASEP)
Suite 713 Future POilU Plaza Condominium 112 Panay A venu e, Quezon City, 1100 Philippines

Telephone Nos.

Facsimile No. E-mail address


(+632) 410-0483 (+632) 411-8606

The Association of Structural Engineers of the Phili ppines, Inc . (ASEP) is a professiona l Association found ed in August

1961 to represent the structural engineering communi ty nationwide. This document is published in keeping wilh the association's objectives; Maintenance of high ethi cal and profess ional standards in the practice of structuraJ engineering; Advancement of structural engineering knowledge; Promot ion of good public and private clientele relationship; and Fellowship among structural engineers, and professional relations wit h other allied technical and scienlific organi zat ions.

Print His tory First Edition, 1972 Second Edition, 1981 Third Edit ion, 1987 Fourth Edi tio n, 1992 Fifth Edition, 2001 Sixth Edition. 20 J 0

National Structural Code of the Philipp ines 6" Edit ion Votume 1

For the protection of public life and propeny, the design of structures and the preparation of structural plans for their construction have to be controlled and regulated. For almos t four decades now, this control has been exercised in this countly by the National Structural Code of the Philippines with the initial publication by the Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (ASEP) of the National Structural Code for Buildings. The c urrent publication of the 6'" Edition of NSCP CIOI - 10 for buildings, towers and other vertical structures is the affinnation of the mandate of the ASEP to continuously update the National Structural Code of the Philippines with the latest technological developments. While attaining a legal status in its use as a referral code of the National Building Code, NSCP CIOI-1O is a publication of high technical value in matters of structural concerns.

The NSCP CIOI-IO is not only complete ly new in its technical substance but also in its format. It has been a product of a sustained effon of ASEP spanning nine years and the fruition of this endeavor has finally come to reality during my incumbency. It is therefore with a deep feeling of gratitude and pride that I commend the members of the ASEP Board, the Codes and Standards Committee and the Publicity and Publications Committee for their accomplishments.

May 2010.

Presiderll Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines. 2009-2010


Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


Introduction ASEP recognizes the need for an up-to-date structural code addressing the design and instalbtion of building stmclUral systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The new National Stl1Jctural Code of the Philippines (NSCP) is designed 1 0 meet these needs through various model codes/regulations, generally from the United S((I(CS, to safeguard the public health and safety nationwide.

This updated StI1lc(ural Code establishes minimum requirements for building structural systems using prescriptive and pcrforrnance-bascd provisiolls. It is founded 011 broad-based principles [hat make possible the usc of new materials (ind new building designs. Also, this code rencets the latest seismic design practice ror ea rthq uake rcsis!allt
structures. 2. Changes and Developments In ilS drive 10 upgrade and updale Ihe NSCP, Ihe ASEP Codes and Siandards Commillee inilially wanled 10 adopi the larest editions of American code counterparts. However, for cases where available local data is limited to suppon the upgrade, then some provisions and procedures of the NSCP 5 th edition were retained. This NSCP 6th edi tion is based on the follow ing international codes and references: a. Uniform Building Code UBC1997 (adopled for Earlhquake Loads) Imernational Building Code IBC2009 (referenced) American SocielY of Civil Engineers ASCE70S (adopted for Wind Loads) American Concrete Institute ACI31808M American Institute for Steel Construction AISC05 with Supplementary Seismic Provisions American Iron and Sleelinslitute AISI S 100-2007 Reinforced Masonry Engineering Handbook America Concrete Masonry H andbook, 6th Edition





Signifi cant rev is io ns are summari z.ed as follows: a. Chap ter I - Genera l Requirement s. The rollowing changes arc madc in this code:
a. J

Section 103 - Classification of Buildings School buildings of more than one storey, hospitals and designated evacuation ce nters are added under the essential facilities category.


Section 104 - Design Requirements Deflection of any structural member under the serviceabili ty requ iremen t is deleted. For concrete and Sir:l,'.1 materials see Chapter 4 and 5 respecti vely; new requiremenls are added 10 the design review section.


Section 105 - Post ing and InslrUme nlati on The provision of installed recording accelerograph is adjusted.

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6'" Edition Volume 1


Chapter 2 - Minimum Design Loads. The changes made in this code are as follows: b.i
Section 203 - Combination of Loads

The load factor val ues on wind 100lds (Ire loads.

b.2 Section 205 - Live Loads


together with the inclusion of rOlin

Additional loads arc in corporated in the table for minimulll uniform and concentrated loads. b.3 Sec ti on 207 - Wind Load s Wind load provisio ns, which were previously based on ASCE7-9S, are updated by lhe introduct ion of the 'Wind Directionality Facto r, KJ , based on ASCE7-0S. The ANSI ErAITIA-222G is also referenced for wind loads on antennas. Equations [or the gust effect facLOrs for both rigid and flexible structures are introduced. These include the gust effect factor for antennas, tran smission and latticed towers, poles/posts, masts and transmission Jines based on ASCE Manual of Practice NO.74 (Guide lines for Electrical Transmission Line Stru ctural Loading). New rormu las are also introd uced for the natural freq uency and damping rat io.

Sec ti on 208 - Earthquake Loads Basi ca lly. Lhere are no major changes on the earthquake provisions due 10 the 110navailabiJi'lY of Phivolcs-issued spectral acceleration maps for all areas in the Philippines. However, ASCE/SEI7-05 is recognized as an alternativ e procedure in the determination of the earthquake loads.


Section 210 and Section 2i 1- Environmemal Loads New sections on rai n loads and nood loads are added.


Chapter 3: Specifications ror Excavations and Geomatcrials. The revisions made in this updated code arc ,IS rollows:

Provisions ptrtaining to the conduct and interpretation of found<Hion invcstigmions for cases invol ving liquefillblc, expa nsive or questionable soils are adopted ;


The secti on on root ings is amended to in corporate provisions for differcntial selli c meni ,
design loads and vibratory loads;
The section on pile foundations is amendcd to incorporate new provisions on splicing of

concrete piles; and


Th e section on special foundations, slope stabilization and matcrials of constructio n are added.


Chapte r 4: Structural Concretc. The revi sions made in th is upda ted code arc as follows: d. 1 Sectioll 40 I . Genera l Requirements: Design requ iremcnts for carthquakc-rcsistam x!ructurcs arc updated based on ACI 3IS-0SM which mentions the "Seism;c Design Cillcgorks (SDCs)" or ASCEISEI 7-0's. However, ill the absence of Phi voles-issued spectral acceleration maps for <til <lreas in the Philippines , the seismic 10ilding procedu res hased Oil "SCE/SEI 7-05 is adopted ilS an alternative procedure (sec Section 208-11) . Tilcre.forc . based 011 the Commentary of AC I 318-08, Seismic Zone 2 (UBC (7) was adopted ill lieu of SDC C (ASCE/SE I 7-05). S iJllil ~II l y. Seismic Zone 4 is adopted in liell o r SDC, D. E and F;

Association of Structural Engincms of the Philippines


Section 403 - Materials: New requirements for headed shear stud reinforcement, headed deformed bars, and stainless steel bars are given wi~h appropriate references to ASTM standards; Section 404 - Durability Requirement: Exposure categories and classes, requirements or concrete by exposure class are adopted to replace the many tables of durability requirements in Section 404, making it easief to clearly specify the intended application; Section 405 - Concrete Quality, Mixing, and Placing: The use of three JOO 111m x 200 cylinders is adopted as equivalent to the use of two 150 I11Ill x 300 mm cylinders for determining concrete cornpressive strength. Due to concern that material properties may change with time, a 12-month limit is set on historical data used (0 qualify mixture proportions and flexural test performance criteria arc added to qualify the use of steel fiber - reinforced concrete as a replacement for minimum shear reinforcement;




Section 407 - Details of Reinforcement: To avoid the misconception that there is no minus tolerance on cover values given in the code, "minimum cover" is replaced with "specified cover" throughout Section 407; Class B lap splices are now required for structural integrity reinforcement; continuous top and bottom structural integrity reinforcement are required to pass through the column core; and requirements for transverse reinforcement confining structural integrity reinforcement in perimeter beams are clarified; Section 408 - Analysis and Design - General Considerations: Provisions are modified \0 allow redistribution of positive moments; and a simple modeling procedure for evaluation of lateral displacements is added; Section 409 ~ Strength and Serviceability Requirements: Strength reduction factors for compression-controlled sections (other structural members) is reduced from 0.70 to 0.65, and shear and torsion for shear walls and frames in Seismic Zone 4 is reduced from 0.85 to 0.75, bearing on concrete (except for post-tensioning anchorage zones) is reduced from 0.70 to 0.65. Strength reduction factors for strut-and-tie models, Ilexural sections in prctensioncd members, afC also added; Section 4JO - Flexure and Axial Loads: The section on slenderness effects is reorganized to recognize computer analysis techniques as the primary method of evaluating secondorder effects; Section 411 - Shear and Torsion: Code requirements are added to permit the lise of headed stud assemblies as shear reinforcement for slabs and footings. The nominal shear strength is permitted to be larger for headed stud assemblies than for other forms of slab and footing shear reinforcement; more stringent limits arc placed on the depths of beams that are exempted from the requiremellt for minimulll shear reinforcement; a new limit 011 the depth of ho!low core units for which minimum shear reinforcement could be waived is established; steel fiber-reinforced concrete is added as an alternative to minimulll shear reinforcement; and the upper limit on shear friction strength is significantly increased for monolithically placed concrete and COllcrete placed against intentionally roughened concrete;





Nation8i Structural Code of the Philippines G Edition Volume 1



Section 412 - Development and Splices of Reinforcement: Provisions are added for the development length of headed deformed bars; splice length when splicing bars with different sizes is addressed; and a coating factor of 1.0 for galvanized reinforcement is added;


Section 4 J 3 - Two-Way Slab Systems: Dimension limits are added for the use of shear caps; and alternative corner reinforcement arrangement is added for two-way slabs supPol1ed [).Y edge beams or walls; Section 414 ..- Walls: Design provisions for slender wall panels are modified to be more consistent with the methods used in design practice;



Section 418 - Prestressed Concrete:

The allowable concrete compression stress

immediately after prestress transfer is increased; and requirements for structural integrity steel in two-way unbonded post-tensioned slab systems are modified; d.14 Section 4.20 - Strength Evaluation of Existing Structures: Load factors for determining the required test load are modified to reflect typical modern load combinations; d.IS Section 421 - Earthquake-Resistant Structures: This section prescnts thc requiremcnts for Seismic Resistant Design from ASCEISEI 7-05, but instead of using the Scismic Design Categories of ASCEfSEI 7-05, the equivalent Seismic Zones as per UBC 1997 are specified. Also, new design requirements are added for slIch seismic zones; ncw detailing option is added for diagonally reinforced coupling beams; design yield strength for confincment reinforcement is raised to 690 MPa to help reduce congestion; and boundary clement confinement requirements is relaxed; d.16 Section 423 - Anchoring to Concrete: Use of reinforcement In the vicinity of anchors and ductility requirements for anchors in seismic zones are clarified. d.17 Section 425 - Altcrnative Provisions for Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Flexural and Compression Mcmbcrs: Revisions in Appendix B of ACI 3J8-08M is adopted; d.18 Section 426 - Alternative Load and Strength Reduction Factors: Revisions in Appendix C of ACI 318-08M is adopted, and Section 427 - Strut-and-tie Modcls: entirety. Appendix A of ACI 3 I 8-08M is adopted in ils



Chapter 5: Structural Steel. The revisions made in this updated code arc as follows: c. J Adopted is an integrated treatment of the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) and the Load and Rcsistance Factor Design (L,RFD) such that the earlier Specification that treated only the ASD method is retained; In lieu of the previolls mcthod of analysis, a new method (Direct Analysis Method) is adoptcd; and The cold formed steel design for building systems and structural members are included.



Thc chapler on slcel design from NSCP 200 I which covered Allowable Working Stress Design (ASD) is fully updated to address usage, advances in the statc of knowledge, and changes in design practice.

Chapter 6: Wood 1"1 The provisions in this chapter arc refined to iocorporate local practices and corrections in [he previous vcrsion of lhe code (NSCP 2(01). Referrals arc made to the NSCP 2010

J\ssocialion of Structural Engineers of t!~e Philippines

Vol. III on Housing for relevant provisions concerning single-family dwellings / low-cost housing; f.2 Tables from the previous version of NSCP 2001 includiog the Table containing specie design information are amended to incorporate the latest updated information/ list of wood species as provided by the Forest Products Research and Development Institute


A provision that limit the use of wood shear walls and diaphragms is added; and
A section for Machine Graded Lumber (MGL) is included.


Chapter 7: Masonry g.1 The provisions in this chapter are refined to include local practices and corrections from the previous versioo of the code (NSCP 2001); referrals are made to the NSCP 2010 Vol. III on Housing for relevant provisions concerning single-family dwellings / low-cost housing; Recycled aggregates are defined and provided; A section for Seismic Design is added; and Additional sections each for Masonry Fireplaces and Masonry Chimneys arc included.


g.3 g.4

This publication of the 6th Edition is a collective effort of the ASEP Board of Directors from 2007 to 2010, from ASEP's past presideots Christopher P. T. Tamayo (2007-2008) and Wilfreda S. Lopez (2008-2009) and the ASEP Codes and Standards Committee whose cooperation made this publication. In addition, the ASEP Codes and Standards Committee is indebted to Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) and to DiL Renato V. Solidum, Ph. D. for his unselfish contribution especially on Chapters I and 2 of this codc. Likewise, our thanks to all ASEP mcmbers and other users of the NSCP who have suggested improvements, identified errors and recommended items for inclusion and omissions. Their suggestions have been carefully considered.
ASr.~P also acknowledges the contribution of the industry partners, companies and individuals, who continue suppon ASEP's numerous undertakings.




The reader is cautioned that professional judgment must be exercised when data or recommendations afe applied. The information presented has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles anel is for genera! information only. This information should not be used or relied upon for any specific application without competent profcssioll,li examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability and applicability by a registered engineer. Anyone .making usc of this information assumes all liabilities arising from sllch usc.

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6


Edition Volume 1


m:"';:~ '.ASf.I'


MCM . .. .AS.:I'

AS!' Presidenl, 2009-20/0

ASEt' Presidl!llf, 2008-2009


ASEP lIice-Presidenl, 2009-2010 (/Ild


ASr:;P Pr('sit/{!III, 20072008

M(I"ogill[: Director, Cod(!.\" (111(/ Standard.l Commillcc

EM ILO M. MORALES, ~lsn: .ASI:.' Ch(lirman. Codes (IIu/ SUlllti(/rdJ COII/lllitlt'e

ROMEO A. ESTANEnO, 'b.n .. ...... St:l At/viser, Codes (llld SI<IIu/cm/s Committee


CARLOS M, VILLAHAZA , ,'..'. "" CltaimuJII VIRGILIO C. COLUMNA, ~!I:"~~ t....:m


CARLOS M. VILLAHAZA, ' ''''' Chaimum VIRGILIO C. COJ..UMNA, .' ,..:......A M:'


Work Grollp M embl'rs

~I SC:L~L\ SEr

Work Group M embers





Co- Clwirll1l11l

~IS( I .



Work Group M"",b('l's





Work Gmllp Members

ResO/lrce Perso/l



n.. IL ....ASt:'

Association o f Structural EnDinfl8fS of ltle Philippine:;







CJw irman





Work Group Members

RICO J. CADANGON, r~J) . ! fltrHl ACHILLES L. LUARDO, ""''' ROY T. ROQUE, ~u s~')'
Work Group Members





Administrative Officer

Account Officer


Work Group Members


Administrative Staff

National Structural Code of th e PhilipPines 6 Edition Volum e 1




Letter of' Acknowledgemen t and Appreciation ' 1 wish to convey my deepest appreciation and Ihanks for Ihe invaluable service rendered by the various volunteer chairpersons and members of Ihe commiltees in making Ihis major NSCP 2010 6'" Edilion a reality. The time, money and personal sacrifices rendered by the various Commillee Chairpersons are sincerely and deeply appreciated. Withou t these unselfish contributi ons, this monumental task would not have been at all possible. My sincerest thanks are also offered to our sponsors and benefaclors who have responded 10 our call by supporting the NSCP Ihrough their advertise ments which are very valuable in reducing the cost of prinling 10 make the NSCP more afford able and mOre widespread in di stribution . As we launch the NSCP 20 10 6'" Edition, we stay committed towards disseminating the important fealures and new revisions to the Code by conducting regional and city seminars as a service to Ihe civil engineering profession and also to help Ihe slructural engineering profession keep abreasl with the state of praclice and state of Ihe art in slrucluml engineering. As we have gone to this initial launch, we encourage the end-users 10 give us their inva luable comments towards making the NSCP a living code and more receptive 10 Ihe needs of Filipino engineers. Special thanks also go to the ASEP Presidenl and Ihe Board of Directors and the ASEP Secretariat for the valuable support and assistance given in the preparation o f the revised NSCP 2010 6'h Edilion.

. MORALES MSCE. F.i\SEP. F..PICE. F.ASCE Chairm 11 Commillee 011 Codes and Standardsjor NSCP 2010 6,10 Edition

Association of Stru ctural Engineers of tile Philippines





National Structural Code of the Pt1i1ippines 6 Edition Vall!me 1






Vice President




Immediate Past President



Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines




Vice President






Imm ediate Pas{ Presidelll

Ph . D. , F.ASE!' F.ASE!'


National Structural Code of the Philippin es 6 Edition Volume 1


Department of Public Works and Highways

Association of Structural Engilwers of ttle Philif}plnes

NSCP C101-10

Chapter 1


Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

Suite 713, Future Point Plaza Condominium 1 112 Panay Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines II 00 Tel. No: (+632) 410-0483 Fax No.: (+632) 411-8606 Email: asepon JincCmgll1<lil.colll Website: http://www.aseponline.orll

National Struclura l Code of the Philippines 6'" Edillon Volume 1

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 1 - General Requirements


Table of Contents
CHAPTER I GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................................................................... 3 SECTION 101 . TITLE, PURPOSE AND SCOPE ................................................... ............................................................. 3
101.1 Title ...... .... . 101.2 Purpose ...... .... .... ..... ........ ... .... ........ ... ..... .. . 10 J.3 Scope .... .... ... .... . '" ....... ........ ........... ..... .. . 101.4 Ahemative Systems._ .. ... ............. .. .. _ ...................................... ..... .

....... 3
...... ... 3
........ . 3 .

..... .. 3

SECTION 102 . DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................................................... 3 SECTION 103 . CLASSIFICA T10N OF STRUCTURES .................................................................................................... 5
103.1 Nature of Occupancy ................... ..................... ... ................. ........ ..... ............. ....... ........................... .. ........... .... ........... 5

SECTION 104 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................................................................ 6

104.1 Strength Requirement ..... ........ ... ...................... ..... ...... .................. ..... ...... ....... .. .......... ..... .... ... ..... . .. . 6

104.2 Serviceability Requirelncnt. ............................................................................ ....................... .....

................. .. 6

104.3 Analysis ......... ....... ........ ...... .. .... ...... .. ............... ........................................................ ................. ...... ........... .................. 6 104.4 Foundario n In vestigation .... ....... ..... .. ...... ,... ,.......... .. .. ...... ............ .. .............. ... .. ....... ..... ....... ... ... ...... .... .... ........ ,.... ,.. 7 104.5 Design Review ........ ..... .. .......... ............. ....... ...... ..... ...... ........... ................. ............. ...... .................... .. ..................... .... 7

SECTION 105 POSTING AND INSTRUMENTATION ..................................................................................................... 7

105.1 Posting of Live Loads ......................... ........ ............ ........... .... ........ ........... .... .. 105.2 Earthquake-Recording Instrumen tation .. ... ... ........... ........... ....... .... ..

............ .. .. ............. ...... 8 .. ........ ............ .... 8

SECTION 106 . SPECIFICA TJONS, DRA WINGS AND CALCULA TlONS ....................... ............................................. 8
106. I General... .............. ........... ................... ............ .. ............ .......... ................ ... .... ........ .. ............. 9 106.2 Specifications........ ........ .. .... ........ ...... ............................. .................. ................ .. ........ ........... 9 106.3 Design Drawings ............ ................. ............... ....................... ................. .. .... 9 106.4 Calculalions .. .......... ................ .... .. ................ .. ...... ........... .. 10 106.5 As-built Drawings.... ....... ... ......... ............ ....... ........... ... .......... ..... .... .......... ..... . .. 10

.. ...... .. ....... 11 107. 1 General............................................ ............................................................. ........... ........... .......... . 107.2 Definitions .. ............... ................. .......... .. .. .. .......... ...... .. ...... .. ................................. .. ............................ .. .................. II 107.3 l nspcction Program ...... .. .. .............................................................. ....................... .. ............... 12 107.4 Structural lnspcctor ..... ................................................................................................................................................ 12 .................... .. .............. .. ....... 12 107. 5 Types of Work for Inspectio n .. ... ........................ ............ .. . 107.6 Approved Fabricators ........ ......... .. ............... ........ .. .. .. ..................... ........ ...... 14 107.7 Prefabricated Construction ............. ..... .......... .... ........ ....... .. ........... .... ... .. .... .............. .. 14 107.8 Non -Destructive Testing.... .................... ........ ...... . .. .. ...... .. ............ ... 15 107.9 Structural Observatio n ................ .................... .. ...... .. .. ...... ............................................................................. 16

SECTION 108 . EXISTING STRUCTURES ........................................................................................................................ 16

........................... 108. I General... .... ..................................................................................................... . .. .. ............. 108.2 Mainle nancc ............... ............ ........... . .. ....... .... ........... .. .... .... .... .. .. ..... .. .... .. ..... 108.3 Additions, Alterati ons or Repairs ............ .. ...... ........ . .... 108.4 Chan ge ill Use.. .. .. .... ...... . .............. ...... ............. ..... .............. .... . 16 16 16 17

SECTION 109 GRADING AND EARTHWORK .............................................................................................................. 17

109. 1 General. .................................. ..

109.2 Definitions ...... .

109.3 Permits Required ........ .......... .

................................ 18 .. ...... 18 .. ........................ 19

National Stru ctural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 1 - General Requiremenls

. 19 109.4 Hazards. 109.5 Grading Permit Requi rements ........... ........ .. .... ............................................................................ ............. ...... ............. 19 109.6 Grading I nspection ................................................................................... ................. ... .............. .......... .. .... ............. . . 20 109.7 Complelion of Work ...... ........ ........................................................................................................................ .... ........ 2 1

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 1 - General ReqUIrements


10J.1 Tille These regul ations shall be kn own as the National Structural Code of the Philippines, Vol. I, 6111 Edition 20]0, and may be ciled 3S such and will be re ferred to herei n as "this code." 101.2 Purpose
The purpose of this code is to provide minimum load requirements for the design of buildings, towers and other vertical st ru ctures, and minimum standard s and guidelines to safeguard life or limb, propert y and public welfa re by regul at ing and con tro lling the des ign. construction. quality of materi als pe rt ain ing to the stntctural aspec ts of all bui ldings and stm clures withi n
this j urisdicti on.

Sponsors of an y system of design or construction not within the sco pe of this code, the adequ acy of which had been shown by successful use and by analysis and test, shall have the ri ght to prescnt the data on whi ch their design is based to the bui ldi ng official or to a board of examiners appointed by the buildi ng official or the project owner/developer. Thi s board shall be composed of competent stru ctural engineers anc! shaH have auth ori ty 10 investigate the data so submitted, to require tests, and to formul ate rules go verning design and construction of such systems to meet the intent 0f this code. These rul es, when approved and promulga ted by the building offi cial, shall be of the same force and effect as thc provisions of th is code.

101.3 Scope
T he provisions of this code shall appl y (() the construc tion, <l ll crati on. movi ng~ demoli tion. repa ir, main tenance and use of bui ldi ngs. towers and other

vertical structures within this jurisdiction. Special structures such as but n Ot limited to si ngle fa mil y dwelli ngs. storage s il o.';, liquid prod uct tanks a nd hydraulic nood control structures, sh ould be rc ferred to special slat e of practi ce literatu re but shall refer to provisions o f' th is code as a mini mulll whe rever appl icable. for additions, altcrations, main tenance. ,md change in w;c of buildi ngs and structures. see Sect ion 108.

Where, in an y specific case, different sec tions of thi s code specify different materi als, methods of construction or oth er requiremen ts. the mos t res tri cti ve prov isions shall govern exce pt in the case of single fam il y dwcll ings. Where there is a conflict between a gcneral require ment ilnd a specillc rC(luircmcnt. the specific rC{luirement shall he ap plicable ..
101.4 Alternative Syslems
Th e provi sions or this code <I re not intended to prevc llt th e w,c of any materia l, alte rnate design or method of

co nstructioll


spccilically prescribed by Ih is code.

provided ,Ill Y allcrnatc has been permilled and its li se authorized by th~ building official (sec Section 1(2).

National Structural Code of th e Philippines

Gi ll

Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEH 1 - General Requiremen ts

art ificially built up or composed of pans joined together

in some defi nite manner.

For the purpose of this code. certain terms. phrases. words and their deriv:ui\'es shall be confirmed as specified ill this chapter and else where in this code where specific definiti ons arc provided. Terms. phrases and words lIsed in th e. singu lnr include the plural and vice versa. Term s, phrases and words IIsed in the IllClscu 1i :;p. gender include the feminine and vice versa.

STRUCTURAL ENG IN EER is a registered Civi l Engjneer wit h special qualificati on in the practice of Structura l Engineering as recognized by the Board of Civil Engi neerin g of the Professional Regu lat ion Commission as endorsed by th e Philippine Institule of Civil Engineers (PICE) through the Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (ASEP) or special ist members of the Structural Enginccring Specialty Division of PICE.

The follo wing terms arc defined for usc in this chapter:
ADDITION is an extension or increase in fl oor area or height of a bu ilding or SlrUClUre. ALTE R or ALTERATION is any change. addition or Illodific<uion in const ruction or occupancy.

APPROVED as to IllHlcrinls and types of COllslJuct ion, refers to approval by the building official as the result of invcstig.uioll and tests conducted by the building officii!), or by reason of nccc ptcd principles or tests by recogn ized auth oriti es, tedillical or 5c icnt iric organiz.ations.
AUTHORITY HA VING JURISDI CTION is the organi zat ion, political subdivision , omce or ind ividual

chHrged with the responsibilit y of ildminislering and enforcing the provisions of this code . BUILDING is <lily structure usually enclosed by \\'alls and it roof, constructed to provide support or sheller for an intended usc or occupancy_
BU ILDI NG, EXISTI NG. is a building erec ted pri or to the adoption of th is code , or olle for which a legal building permit has been issued. BUILDING OFFIC IAL is the offlccr or other designated nUlhority charged with the admi ni :-; trati on and e nforcemen t of thi s code, or th e bu ilding omcial 's du l y authorized represen tat ive. C IVIL ENG INEER is a professional engineer licensed LO practise in the field of civil engineering. ENG INEER-OF-RECOI(I) IS a responsible for Ihe slrucwfill design. civil cnginee r

OCCUPANCY is Ihe pUlpOSC for which a bui lding or othe r structures or part thereof. is lIsed or intended to be used .

STn UCTURE is thil l which is buill or constmctcd, an edifice or bu ilding o f any kind. or any piece of work

Assor.i<1tion of Siructura l Engineers of the PhilippInes

CHAPTEFl. 1 -- General fiequirements


Table 103-1 - Occupancy Category

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF STRUCTURE Occupancies having surgery and emergency treatment areas,

103.1 Nature of Occupancy Buildings and other structures shall be classified, based
on the nature of occupancy, according to Table

Fire and police stations, Garages and shelters for emergency vehicles and emergency aircraft,


purposes of applying wind and earthquake in Chapter 2. Each building or other structures shall be assigned to the
highest applicable occupancy category or categories.

Stnlctures and shelters in emergency preparedness centers, A viation control towers, Structures and equipment in communication centers and other facilities required for emergency response, Facilities for standby power-generating equipment for Category I structures, Tanks or other structures containing housing or supporting water or other firesuppression material or equipment required for the-protection of Category I, II or III structures, Public school buildings, Hospitals and Designated evacuation centers. Occupancies and structures housing or supporting toxic or explosive chemicals or substances,

Assignment of the same structure to multiple occupancy

categories based 011 usc and the lype of loading condition being evaluated (e.g. wind or seismic) shall be pennissiblc.
When buildings or other structures have multiple uses (occupancies), the relationship between the uses of


various parts of the building or other structure and the

independence of the structural system for those various parts shall be examined. The classification for cach indcpendent structural system of a multiple-use building or other structure shall be that of the highest usage group in any part of the building or other structure that is dependent on that basic stJ1lctura! system.
II Hazardous Facilities

Non-building structures storing, supporting or containing quantities of toxic or explosive substances. -,Single-story school buildings Buildings with an assembly room with an occupant capacity of 1,000 or more, Educational buildings such as museums libraries, auditorium with a capacity of 300 or more students,

III Special Occupancy Structures

Buildings llsed for college or adult education with a capacity of 500 or more students, Institutional buildings with 50 or more incapacitated patients, but not included in Category I, Mental hospitals, sanitariums, jails, prison and other buildings where personal liberties of inmates arc similarly restrained, All structures with an OCCllp~I11Cy of 5,000 or more persons, Structures and equipment in powergenerating stations, and other public utility facilities not included in Category lor Category 11, and required for continued operation,
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National Structural CodE) of the PllilipPlnes


Edilion Volume 1

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CHAP TER 1 ... General ncquirements

Table 103-1 (con tinued ) - Occupancy Category

OCCUI' AN CY OCCUPANCY OR FUNCTION OF CA TEGOR Y _. STRUCTURE IV Stlil1 dard AI! structu res housing occupanc ies or Occupa ncy h,lving runctioll s not listed in Category l, Structures II or III and Category V.
I' Misccll aneo us

104.1 Strength Requirement

Buildings. LOwers and oth er ven ical structures and all portions thereof shall be des igned and constmcted to sustain , within lhe limitations specified in (his code, all load s set forth i ;l Chapter 2 and eJsewhen~ ;n tli! .'; code, combined in acco rdance with Section 203.
Des ign shall be in accordance with Strcngth;;, L. .()ad a nd Resistance Facto r Design and An ~,\'.' ;it'd~ S tress Design methods , as pennittcd by the appl i":J.b lc material chapters.

Struct ures

Private garages, c:lrports, sheds and feLlces over 1.5 III high.

Ex:ception: Unless otherwise required by the building official, buildings or portions thereof thai llre cOllstructed in accordaJlce willi fh e cOllvemionai Iiglltframill8 requirements sp ecified in Chapter 5 and the NSCP Volume III 011 Housing sholl be deemed (0 meet rhe requiremelllS of this section.
104.2 Se r viceability Requi rement

J 04.2. 1 Gene r a l
Stru ctural systems and me mbe rs thereof shall bc designed to have adequ a tc stiffness to limit deflect ions, lateral dri ft s, vibrati on, or any other deformations (bm adversely affect the inte nded usc and performa nce of' buildin gs lowers and ot her vert ical struct ures . The design shall a lso cons ider durahil ity, resistance to exposure to weather or aggressive env ironment . crac k contro l, and other cond i tions Ih<.11 affect the int ended usc and perform ance of buildings, towers il nd other vertical struct ures.

104.3 Analysis
Any sys tem or me thod of construction to be used ..shall be based o n a rational analysis in accordance with well established principles o f mechanics that take into account equilibrium, general stability, geometric comp<Hib il ilY alld both short-tenn and long-term matcria l properties. Me mbe rs that te nd to accumul ate resi dua! deformati ons under repeated se rvice loads shall have includetl in their ana lys is the added ecce ntri ci ties expecte d lO occu r du ring their service lire.. Such analysis shall result in a system Ih.1t prov ides it co mple le load path capable of Iran sferrin g ;111 loads and forces from their point of origin to the loadresisti ng clements. The an alysis sh all incl ude ., bLlI not be l imi te d to, the provis io ns of Sections 104 .:'1. 1 through 104.3.3.

Association of Siructuwl Engineers of U )e PhilI ppines

C HAPTEfl 1 - General riequiremenls


104.3.1 S tabilit y Aga ins t O ve rturnin g Every Slniclurc shall be designed (0 resist the ovcI1urning effects caused by Ihe latera l forces specified wi th adequa le Faclor of Safely (FOS). See Secli o n 206.6 for n::(a ining wil lis, Section 207 fo r wind loading and Section 208 for earthquake loadi ng. 104.3.2 Self-S trai ning Fo r ces

104.5 Design Review The design calculations, drawi ngs, specificatio ns and other design rel ated documents for buildings, lowers and other vert ical structures with irregu lar configuration in Occupancy Categories J. II or III wi thin Seismic Zone 4. struclu res under Altemalive Systems in hem lO l A, and Undefined SllUclural Systems nOI lisled in Table 208-11, shall be subject to a review by an independent recognized structural engineer or engineers to be employed by the owner in accordance with the ASEP Design Pee r Review GuideHni:S. The stroclural engineer or structural engineers performing the review shall have comparable qualifications and experience as the structural engineer responsible for Ihe design. The reviewer or reviewers shall obtain a profess iolHll waiver fro l11 the engi nee rofrecord who shall be ex pected to grant suc h waiver in keeping with et hical standa rds of the profession as "dopted in ASEP guidelines for peer review, The des ign review shall , as a mini mum , veri fy the general compli ance with thi s code which shall illcJ ud e, but not be lim ited to, the review of the des ign load cri teri a, the des ign concept . mat hemat ica l mode l and tech niques. The followin g may also be verified, thal th ere are no maj or errors in pe rtinent ca lculali ons, drawings and specificati ons and may also ensure th at the struClUre as rev iewed, meet mi nimu m standards for safcty, adeq uacy nnd acceptable standard des ig n practi ce. The engincer-o f reco rd shall submil the p lans and specificat ions, a signed and scaled sta tement by the structural engineer doing [he review thal the above review has been performed and that minimum standards have been mel. See Section for design rev iew requirements when nonlinear timchislory ana lysis is used for earthquake design . In kccping wilh Ih e elhical slandards of Ihe profe.~sio n , Ihe reviewer or reviewers shall not supplant the engineeron record as cngineer-on rccord for the project. The design review shall not in any way transfer or diminish the responsibility of the engineerof-record . .; .~;\~;~~:~~;~< .:.Jl~:}; ~;: ~,;~ ~~~;~..:!::~;:.~-;~~~i rtisYf.~~~~~-~~: ~ '~~:~+~~;.~1~

provisions shall be made for anticipated self-straining

forces ilrising frolll diffcrcmial St!\lh:;llcnl of foundntions and from restrained dimensional changes due 10 Icmpcnlturc, moi sture. shrink.lgc. heave, creep and simi lar

104 .3.3 Anchora ge Anchorage of Ihe roof to walls and columns. and of walls and columns to foundations shall be provided and adequately de tailed to resist the uplift and sliding forces that result from Ihe applicatioll of the presc ribed fo rces. Conc rete and masonry wa lls shall he anc hored to all floors. roofs and m her struclU ral cleme nts Ihat prov ide latera l su ppon for the wa ll. Such anchorage shall provide a pos iti ve d irect con nec ti on capab le of resis ting the hori zo ntal forces speci fied in Chapter 2 but not less th~n the minimum fOfces in Section 206.4. in add iti o n, in Seismic Zone 4. diap hragm to wall ancho rage lIs ing embedded straps shall have Ihe straps illlached to or hooked arou nd the reinforcing steel or otherwise term inatcd so as to effec ti vel y trn nsfe r forces to the rein forc ing steel. W<llIs shall be designed to res ist bend in g be tween anchors where the anchor spacing exceeds 1.2 meters. Required tlllcilors jll masonry walls of hollow units or cavity walls shall be embedded in a reinforced grouted st l1!ctural elcmelll orthe wall. See Sections 208.7. and for earthq uake design requirements. Stiffener bea ms and columns adequalely anchored to the main frames slwlJ be considered as necessary to ensure proper basket effect on the masonry blocks to prevent coll"pse provided its co ntribution to the overall stiffness of the structure is recognized. 104.4 F ounda ti on In vesti gati on Soi l eXplOrillions sh:11I be required for buildings. tOwers ilnd other venical structures falling under Cllcgories I. II and III in accordant'c with Table 1031 ur ,IS required by the bu il ding official or if the s ile sp~ci fic cond itions make (he fou nda ti on in vestigation necessary. Detililcd requirements for foundation investigations sha ll

be in acc.:ordance with Chapter 3 of this code.

Natlollfll Str uc tural Code of U 'le Plli1ipplnes 6


Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEIi 1 -- General Requirements

105.1 Posting of Live Loads

The live loads for which each floor or pOliion thereof of a commercial or industrial building has been designed shall have such design live loads conspicuously posted by the

Phivolcs or the authorities having jurisdiction shall make arrangements to provide, maintain and service. the instruments. Data shall be the propcl1y of the authorities having jurisdiction. but copies of individual records shall be made available to the owner of the building and to the public on request and after the payment or an appropriate

owner in that pari of each story in which they apply, using

durable metal signs. It shall not be allowed to remove or deface such notices. The occupant of the building shall be responsible for keeping the actual load below the allowable limits.

105.2 Earthquake-Recording Instrumentation 105.2.1 General

Unless waived by the building official, every building in Seismic Zone 4 over 50 m in height shall be provided with not less than three approved recording accelcrographs. The acceJerographs shall be interconnected for common start and common timing.

105.2.2 Location The instruments shall be located in the basement, midpOliion, and near the top of the building. Each instrument shall be located so that access is maintained at all times and is unobstructed by room contents. A sign
stating "MAINTAIN CLEAR ACCESS TO THIS INSTRUMENT' shall be posted in a conspicuous


105.2.3 Maintenance Maintenance and service of the instruments shall be provided by the owner of the building, subject to thc monitoring of the building official. Data produced by the instrumcnts shaH be made availablc to the building official or the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and
Seismology (Phi voles) on request.

105.2.4 Instrumentation of Selected Buildings All owners of existing structures selected by the authorities having jurisdiction shall provide accessible space for the installation of appropriate earthquakcrecording instruments. Location of said.instnlments shall be determined by Phivo!cs or the authorities having j lJ ri sci i ct ion.

Association of Structural Engineers of tile PlliliPPlfws

CHAPTER 1 - General Requiremen

1-9 General Inrormation


Name and date of issue of buildi ng c .' ; and supplements. if an y, to which the des:gn conI ' i ,1$. Strcngths or designations of material s
I .. ..; li. ( ...: ,

106.1 General Copies of tlcsign c'1Jculations, repon s. plans. specifications and inspection program for all conSllllctions sh;'11i bear the signtllurc and seal of the engi neer-of-record. 106.2 Specifications The specifications shall contain infonnatiol1 cavcling the
material and constructi on requirements. The material s and


Design strengths of underlying sailor f"ck. or rock profile. when ava ilable, shall be !TOV' Live loads ,lHd other loads lIsed in indicated in the Ooor plans,
des il~ll aJ :





l:"'!J" ly

cons truction requirements shall confonn to the specifications referred to in Chapters 3 to 7 of thi s code.

Seismic design basis induding the tow! b;, ',,: shear coeffi cicnt ; a description of the laterH! ~ ;Id -r i:! :ng sys tem ; and the fundamenta l natur<:;i " '1<" .; . he design in each direction under considc!... ,.. 11
Provisions for dimensio nal changes ,,('<;;' 1 1 ; f !'rom creep, shrinkage. hea ve and tem perature.


106.3 Design Drawings


Camber of t!usses, beams and girders , ,1' "gll" : . Explanation or definition of abbreviations lIscd in the drawings.
;--;Yl !m -

106.3.1 General The design drawings shall be drawn to scale on durable

paper or cloth lIsing permanent ink and shall be of su ffi cient clarity 10 ind icate the location, n<uurc and exte nt


of the work proposed. TIle drawings shall show a co mpl ete design with sizes, secti ons, rel at ive locatio ns and connecti on detaits of the various members. Floor levels, column cenlers and offsets shall be dimens ioned. Where avai lable and feasible, nfchive copie.~ shall be maintained in durable mediu lll such as compact disc (CD)
and digilal versalile disc (DV D).

Engineer's professional license mn ,ll.;, expi ration date of the cu rrell! Profession:d Rc' -I' Co mmission reg istration, Stru ctural Concrete

I. Specified compressive st rength if'c) o [ statcd ages or stages of construction 'n;part of st ructure is designed, The 28 ,;
strength (J'..) shall be the basi s of desir"

' . H;


106.3.2 Required Ini~r;~~tio n .

The design drawings s hall cont ain, but shall nOl be limited to the general information listcd in SCClion 106.3.2_1 and material specific infonnatiol) lis ted in Sections
and 1063.2.3. as applicab le.

,': 1 SC/" . (


Anchorage embedme nt lengt hs or CI ' . l r pC 'I steel reinforcement and locati on and L.nglh splices_


Type and location of welded splices i!n'! cOllncctions of reinforce ment.


Magnitude and location of prcstrcs!-ol iig includi ng prestressed cable layout. Minimum concre te compressive st reng: > if'.- ) of posHension ing, Strcssing seque nce for post -tensioned I(!: ,' . . ii .' , Dctails lind location of all cOFll racli { , joints specifi rc! for plain concrete in ::;(:;. <
diapllragm. 421.9.4. ,.:


6. 7. 8.

Statemcnt if conc rcte slab is designi.d , .: .n. <IS specified in Sccrioll ;2 1.9


_ __h _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __

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NC1tlonnl Stru ctuwl Code of the Philippines G Edition Volume 1


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CHAP TE Ii 1 -GeneralliequiremenlS

106.4.3 Compuler Programs

Calculations Illay include the results from an electronic Structural Steel

I. T ype or types of construction as defined in Sec ti on 501.3.

digital computer analysis.

The following requirements

apply 1.


calculations which include such computer output:


Loads and design requireme nt s necessary for preparation of shop drawings including shears, moment s a nd ax ial forces to be resisted by all
members and their connections.

A dra wing of the complete mathematical model used to represent the struc ture in the computer-ge nerated ana lys is shall be provided. Design assump tions shall be clearly desc ribed .
A program description giving the program name, the

high~ strcngth

3. 4. 5. 6.

Th e type o f con nection for joints using

ve rsion number, and the company whi ch developed

lhe program and its address shall be provided as part of the computation docum entati on. A program User's Guide shall also be made avai lable, upon request, and shall contain the information to determine the nature and ex lent of the analysis. verify the input data, interpret the result , <Iud determine whether the

For welded joints, Type I connections shaU not be allowed. Stiffener and bracing requirements. Description or explanation of welding and inspec ti on

sy mbols used in the design and shop drawing s. 7. Notes for joints in which welding sequen ce and
technique of welding arc required to be carefully controlled to minimize distoI1ion. 3.

computations comply wi th the requirements of this code. Data provided. as co mput er input shall be clearly distinguished from th ose computed in tile program. The information required in the output shall include date of processing. program identification, and identification of structures being analyzed, all input data, units and final results . An archived copy of all computer runS shall be stored in CD or DVD.
The firs! sheet of each co mput er run shall be signed

106.4 Calculations 106.4.1 General

Calculations pertinent to the Slnlctu ral design of structures and its component members shall be filed with the des ign drawings. 4.

and sealed by the engineer-of-rccord.

106.4.2 Basis of Design Summary

The calc ulation s s h~1l include a summary o f the. crilCria a nd methodologies Il sed in the design. Th is summ ary shall include, but need not be li mited lO, tile folJo\, . . ing:
2. 3. 4. 5.

106.4.4 Model Analysis

Rcsuhs from modcl antl lysis < Iud experimcntal swdics shall be permitted 10 su ppleme nt calculations. The results shall be accompanied by a de sc ripti on of the rationa l hasis. SCI-UP, methodology and other informa tion requi red for Ihe evaluation of the results.

Name ,llld date of issue of building code and supp lc melH s, if any, to which the design conforms. Strengths or designations of materials to be used for each co mponent of the structure. Design stre ngt hs and other design parameters of the underlying soi l or rock. Li ve loads and other loads lIsed in design. Th e b'1Sis of the seismic an d wind design forces.
A ucscriptioll of the stl1lclUre's grav it y and lateral Jmld resistin g sys tems. A. description of Ihe roof. Il oor. foundation and olher com pollc nt !iystel11s sllilll also he pro vi ded .

106.5 Asbuilt Drawings

As-built drawings shall be prepared by the constl1lctor or a perso n rettlillcd to provide such services to docllment the wo rk as actually constru cted . The as-buil t drawi ngs shall be drawn lO scale upon durable pilpcr or cloth llsing

pe rm anent ink and shall illdicnte Ihe sizes, sectio ns, relative locati ons. ~lI\ d cOll llecl ion deta ils of the vari ous st ructu ral members as acltl;tlly co nstructed . Strengths of materials, based on required tesls. sha ll <lISt} he ind icated.
\Vork i lt! l1l ~ whidl requi re lI1odifications of or arc otherwise different fro m those shown in Ihe design


A descri pt io n procedures ust!d ill tile struclUral il!lal ysis. Thi s slwH incl ude the section and Jlwtcrial proP{~Jlic s used, loading co mbinati olls co nsidt! rcd, scc() l1d ~ ordcr ellerts considerati ons, lIlId any sill1pl ifying as~umplions made.

drawi ngs fil ed wilh Ihe build ing officii'll shall he accordingly mark ed in the a s~b llilt drawings and pro v!dt!d with noll'S indicating the ha sis of such modifications or changes. The bas is of modifi ca tion ' or ch'lIlc shall include reference to sllppk1llcntal design draWings, conslruction bulletins, or instru ctio!ls from the owner,

Association of StfUc!ural En})li"lcers of the

Ptlllipplne~ ;

CHAPTER 1 - General Requirements


owner's representative or structural engineer authorizing such modifications or changes. The signature, seal, name and professional license number of the civil engineer in charge of construction shall be included in the as~built drawings. Copies of the as-built drawings shall be provided to the owner, constructor, engineer~of~record and the building 107.1 General All construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection throughout the various work stages. One or more structural inspectors who are registered civil engineers with experience in structural construction, who shall undertake competent inspection during construction on the types of work listed under Section 107.5, shall be employed by the owner or the engineer~of~ record acting as the owner's agent.

Exception: The building official may waive the requirement for the employment of a structural inspector if the construction is of a minor nature.

In addition to structural inspections, structural observations shall be performed when required by Section 107.9.
107.2 Definitions The follo'wing tenns are defined for use in this section: CONTINUOUS STRUCTURAL INSPECTION is a structural inspection where the structural inspector is on the site at all times observing the work requiring structural inspection.

PERIODIC STRUCTURAL INSPECTION is a structural inspection where the inspections arc made on a periodic basis and satisfy the requirements of continuous inspection, provided this periodic scheduled inspection is performed as outlined in the inspection program prepared by the structural engineer.
STRUCTURAL INSPECTION is the visual observation by a structural inspector of a particular type of construction work or operation for the purpose of ensuring its general compliance to the approved plans and specifications and the applicable workmanship provisions of this code as well as overall construction safety at various stages of construction. STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION is the visual observation of the structural system by the stI11ctural observer as provided for in Section 107.9.2, for its general conformance to the approved plans and specifications, at significant construction stages and at completion of the structural system. Structural observation docs not include

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 1 -General Requiremenls

or waive the responsibilily for the structural inspections required by Section 107. I or other sections of this code. 107.3 Structural Inspector 107.3.1 Qualifications

I. 'Concrete jor,foundations of resillelllial !JUi/dings accommodating 10 or ~fewer persons, or - b!li1d~ngs fal1i~i l""'er Category V of Table 10}1, provided the buitding officwl finds tllat a ' structural IIaZ{lrd

does not exist.


The sU 'uctural inspector shall be a registered civil engineer who shall demonstrate competence for inspection of the particular type of construction or
operation requiring structural inspection.

For foundation concrete, otlier than cast-ill-place drilled piles or caissons. where the structural desigll is based on alit, 1Iot greater tha1l 17 MPa. Non-structural slabs on grade, lnclllding prestressed slabs on grade when effective prestress in concrete is less rhan 10 MPa.


107.3.2 Duties and Responsibilities The structural inspector shall observe the work assigned for conformance (0 the approved design drawings and specifications. Any discrepancy observed shall be brought to the immediate attention of the constructor for correction, then, if uncorrected, to the owner andlor to the building official. The structural inspector shall verify th at the asbuilt drawings (see Section 106.5) pertaining to the work assigned reflect (he condition as constructed,
The structural inspector shall also submit a final report duly signed and sealed stating whether the work requiring stru ctu ral inspection was, to the best of the inspector's knowledge, in confonllance to the approved plans and specifications and the applicable workmanship provisions of thi s code.


Site work concrele fully supported on earth and concrete where no special hazard exists.

107.5.2 Bolts Installed in Concrete Prior (0 and during the placement of concrete around bolts when stress increases permitted by Section 423 are utilized. 107.5.3 Special Moment-Resisting Co ncrete Frame For special moment-resisting concrete frame design seismic load in structures withill Seismic Zone 4, the. slructurru inspector shall provide reports to the engineerof-record and shall provide continuous inspection of th e.

placement of the reinforcement and concrete.

107.5.4 Reinforcing Steel and Prestressing Steel

107.4 Inspection Program The structuraJ inspector shall prepare an appropriate testi ng and inspection program that shall be submitted to the building official. He shall designate lhe ponions of the work that req uires structural inspections. When structural observation is required by Section 107 .9. the inspection program shan describe the stages of construction at which structural observatio n is to occur, The inspection program shan include samples of inspection reports and provide time limits for submi ssio n of reports. 107.5 Types of Work for Inspection Except as provided in Section !o7.1. the types of work listed below shall be inspected by a structural inspeclor. 107.5.1 COllcrcte During the laking of test specimens and placing of concrete. See Section 107.5.12 for shoterete. During a ll stresSing and gro uting of tendons

in prestressed concrete. During )llacing of I'einfol'ci ng steel and

prestressing tendons for all concrete required to have

structural inspection by Section 107.5.1.


The st11lctural inspector need not be presel!! continuously during placing of reillforcing steel and prestressing tendons, provided the structural inspector has inspecfed for confonnance to the approved plalls prior to flu: closing offonns or the delivery of concrete 10 the jobsit l'.


.. '.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 1 - General Requirements


107.5.5 Structural Welding General

During the we lding of any member or connecti on th at is designed to resist loads an<\forces required by this code.

of bolts to determine that all layers of connected materials have been drawn together and that the selected procedure is properly used to tighten all bolts.

107.5.7 Structural Masonry For masonry, other than fully grouted openend hollow-unit masonry, during preparation and taking of any required prisms or test specimens, placing of all masonry units, placement of reinforcement, inspection of grout space, immedhHely' prior to closing of cleanouts, and dUl'ing all grouting operations.

1. 2. Welding dOlle in on approved fabricator's shop in accordance witli Sec/ion 107,6. TI,e _~tmctural inspector need not be cOllfinuously presem dwine welding of the following ilems, provided the materials, qualifications oj welding procedures and welders are verified prior 10 the start of work; periodic inspections are made of work in progress; and a visual inspection of all welds is made prior 10 completion or prior fa shipment of shop welding:
oj Sing/ew pass fillet welds no/ exceeding 8 mm

Exceptioll: For hollow-unit masonry where the fm is no more than 10 MPa for concrete Ilnits or 18 MPa for clay ullits. structural inspectioll may be peifonned as required for fully grouted open-end hollow-unit masonry specified ill Section For fully grouted open-end hollow-unit masonry during preparation and taking of any required prisms or test specimens, at the start of laying units, after the placement of reinforcing steel, grout space prior to each grouting operation, and during all grouting operations.

in sileo
b) Floor and roof deck welding. c) d) e) Welded studs when used for structural diaphragm or composite systems. Welded sheet steel for cold-fanned steel framing members such as studs alld joists. Welding of stairs and railing systems.

Exceplion: S,ructural inspection as required ill Sec/iolls 107.5.7. J and need not be provided when design stresses have been adjusted as specified in Chapter 7 to permit noncontinUous inspection.
107.5.8 Reinforced GYPsulIl Concrete
When cast-in-place Class B gypsu m concrete is being Special Moment-Resisting Steel Frames

During the non ~destru clive testing (NDT) of welds specified in Section 107 .8 of this code, the use of certi fied welders shall be required for welding structural sleel connections for this type of frame. Crirical joint connections shall be subjected to non-destructive testing usi ng certified NDT technicians.

mixed and placed. Welding of Reinforcing Steel

During the non -destruct ive testing of welds.

J07.5.9Insulating Concrete Fill

During the application of insulaling concrete fill when used as part of a structural system.

107.5.6 High-Strength Bolts The inspection of hi gh-strength A325 and A490 bolts shall be in accordance with approved internationally recognized stanqards and the requirements of this section. While the work is in progress, the stnJclUral inspector shall determine that the requiremenls for bolts. nuts,
washers and paint: bo iled parts; and in:,t allali on and lightening in such standards arc mel. Suc h inspections may be perfonncd on a periodic basis as defined in Section 107.2.

]fIe slmctural inspections may be limited. to an illitja~ inspection to check the deck sUrface and placement of reinforcing Sleet. 11le slructural inspector shall monitor rhe preparation of compression test specimens during this initial inspection.

The st ructural inspector shall observe the calibration procedu res when such procedures are requi red by lhe plans or specifications. He shall monitor lhe installation

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volum e 1


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CHAPTER 1 - General Requirements

107.5.10 Spray Applied Fire-Resisti ve M a terials Du ring the application of spray-applied fire-resistive
materials ..


Verification of the fab ri cator's qUal it/ ~ontrol capabi lities, plant and person nel as outl illed !Jl the fab rication procedura l manual ~ lla ll b ~ ; ~)' an approved inspection or quali ty control dgcllt.y . Peri odic plant inspections shall be conducled by an approved inspection or quality con trol agency [0 monitor the effectiveness of the quality co ntrol program.

107.5. 11 Piling, Drilled Piers and Caissons During driving and load testing of piles and construction of cast-inplace dri lled piles or caissons. See Sections 107.5. 1 and 107.5.4 for concrete and rei nforcing steel inspection. 107.5.12 Shotcrete
During the (aJdng of lest specimens and placing of all


107.7 Prefabrica ted Cons tructi on 107.7.1 General Purpose The purpose of this section is to regulate materials and
establish meth ods of safe construction where any struc ture or portion the reof is wholl y or panial ly


Shotcrete work f ully supponed all earth, millor repairs and when, in the opinion of the building official, 110 special hazard exists.
107.5.13 Special Grading, Excavation and Filling

prefabricated. Scope

Unl ess otherwise specifically stated in thj s scct ion , all prefabricated co nstructi on and all materials used therein

During earthwork excavations, grad ing and fi lling

operatio ns ins pection to satisfy req uireme nt s o f Cha pter 3

and Section 109.5. 107.5.14 Special Cases Wo rk that, in the opinion of the stn lclural engineer,
involves unusual hazards or condi tions.

shall conform to all the req uirements of Secti on 101.4. Definition PREFABRICATED ASS EMBLY is a stru ctural uni t.
the integral parts of w hi ch have been built up or assembled prior to incorporation in the buHding.

107.5.15 Non-Dest ru ctive Testing

In-situ non-destructive testing program, in addition to the requirements of Section 107.8 that in the opinion of the structural engineer may supplement or replace conventional lC!HS 011 concrele or olher materials and

107.7.2 Tests of Materials

Every approval of a material n01 specifically mentioned in this code shall incorporate as a proviso the kind and number of tests to be made during prefabrication.

assemblies. 107.6 Approved Fa br ica tors

Structural inspections required by this section and elsewhere in this code are not required where the work is done on the premises of a fab ricator approved by the structural engineer to perform such work without structural inspection. The approved fabrica tor shall submit a certi (icate of compliance Lhat the work was

107.7.3 Tes ts of Assembl ies The building official may require special tests to be made
011 assemblies to dctermine thei r structural adequacy, durabili ty and weather resis tance.

107.7.4 Connec ti ons

Every device used to connect prefabricated as!\(,-II'b! i('~~ sllall be designed as required by this code and : j , _; : j> c

performed in accordance with the approved plans and

specifications to the building official and to lhe engineer

or architect of record. The approved fabricator's qualifications shal! be contingent on compliance with the following :

The fabricator has developed and submiltcd (l detai led fabrication procedur:ll manual rcnect ing key q uality cont rol procedures Iha t wi ll provi de a basis fo r inspect io n con tro l of work mansh ip and the rabricator plan t.

capable of developing the strength of the largest ,;" ;l1ber connected, except in the case of members fenning part of a sll1.lcwral frame designed as specified in ampler 2. Connections shall be capable of withstanding uplifl forces as specified in Chapter 2. 107.7.5 Pipes a nd Co nduits
In structural design. due allowance shall be mack fo r any mate rial to be re moved or d isplaced for tile inxla lia lion of pi pes, co nduits or ot her equipment.

Association of Structural Engineers of th e Philippines

CHAPTEfi 1 - General Hequirements


107.7.6 Certificate and Inspection Materials

Materials and the assembly thereof shall be inspected to determine compliance with this code. Every material shall
be graded, marked this code.
Of General All complete penetration groove welds contained in joints and splices shall be tested 100 percent either by ultrasonic testing or by radiography.

labeled where required elsewhere in

l!.,xceptions: 1. When approved, the non-destructive testing rate for an individual welder or welding operator may be re.duced to 25 percent, provided the reject rate is demonstrated to be 5 percent or less of the welds tested for the welder or welding operator. A sampling of at least 40 completed welds for a job shall be made for such reduction evaluation. Reject rate is defined as the number of welds containing rejectable defecls divided by the number of welds completed. For evaluating the reject rate of continuous welds over 900 mm in length where the effective throat thickness is 25 mm or less, each 300 mm increment or fraction thereof shall be considered as one weld. For evaluating the reject rate on continuous welds over 900 mm inlenglh where the effective throat thickness is greater than 25 mm, each 150 mm of length or fraction thereof shall be considered one weld. For complete penetration groove welds on materials less than 8 mm thick., non-destructive testing is not required; for this welding, continuous inspection is required. When approved by the building official alld owlilled in the project plans and specifications, this nondestructive ultrasonic testing may be performed in the shop oj an approved fabricator utilizing qualified techniques in the employment of the fabricator. Certificate A cCI1ificate of acceptance shall be furnished with every

prefabricated assembly, except where the assembly is readily accessible to inspection at the site. The certificate of acceptance shall certify that the assembly in question has been inspected and meets all the requirements of this code. Certifying Agency To be acceptable under this code, every certificate of approval shall be made by a nationally or internationally recognized cCltifying body or agency. Field Erection
Placement of prefabricated assemblies at the building site

shall be inspected to detennine compliance with this code. Continuous Inspection


If continuous inspection is required for certain materials where construction takes place on the site, it shall also be required where the same materials are used in prefabricated construction.
txceplioJ1: Continuous inspection )'1 ill not be required during prefabricariol1 If the approved agency cerlz(ies to the consfruction andfumishes evidence (~f compliance.


107.8 NonDestructive Testing 107.8.1 General

In Seismic Zone 4, welded, fully-restrained connections between the primary members of special momentresisting frames shall be tested by nondestructive methods perfonned by certified NDT technicians for compliance with approved standards and job specifications. This testing shat! be a pan of the structural inspection requirements of Section 107.5. A program for this testing shall be established by the person responsible for stI1lctural design and as shown 011 plans and specifications.
107.8.2 Testing Program Partial penetration groove welds when used in column splices shall be tested either by ultrasonic testing or radiography when rcquired by the plans and specifications. For partial penetration groove welds when used in column splices, with an effective throat less than 20 mm thick, nondestl1lctive testing is not required; for this welding, continuous structural inspection is required. Base metal thicker than 40 mm, when subjected to through-thickness weld shrinkage strains, shalt be ultrasonically inspected for discontinuities directly behind such welds after joint completion. Any material discontinuities shall be accepted or rejected on the basis of the defect rating jn accordance with the (larger reflector) criteria of approved national standards.
107.8.3 Others The structural engineer may accept or require in place non-destructive testing of concrete or other materials and assemblies to supplement or replace conventional tests.

As a minimum, the testing program shall include the following:

National Structural Code of the Pllilippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 1 _ .. General Requirements

107.9 Structural Observation 107.9.1 General

Stmctural observation shall be provided in Seismic Zone 4 when one of the foll owing conditions exists:
I. 2. The struct ure is defi ned in Table 103- 1 as Occupancy Category I. II or Ill; The structure is in Seis mic Zone 4, No as sel forth in Table 208A is greater th an 1.0, and a lateral design is

10S.1 General

Buildings in existence at the time of the adoption of this Illay have their existing usc or occupancy continued , if such use or occupancy was legal at the time of the adoption of this code, provide(1 such cOlllin ued use is not dangerous to life.

required for the entire structure;

3. When so designated by the stru ctural engineer. Of


When such observation is specifically required by the

bu ilding official.

Any change in the use or occupancy of any ex isting building or structure shall comply with lpC provisions of Seclions 108.4 of this code. IOS.2 Maintenance AI! buildings and structures, both existing and new, and all parts thereof, shall be maintained in a safe condition. The owner or the owner's designated agent shall be responsible for th e maintenance of buildings and structures. To determine compliance with this.subsection, the bui lding official may cause a structure 10 be reinspected.
108.3 Additions, Alterations or Repairs 10S.3.1 General

I .

107.9.2 Structural Observer The owner shall empl oy the engincer~of-record or another civ il engi neer to perform structural observation as defined in Section 107.2. Observed deficiencies shall be reponed in writing (0 the owner's represcntati vet structural inspector, constructor

and the building official. If not resolved, the stnlctural observer shall submit to the bu ilding offi cial a written statement duly signed and sealed, idemifying any deficiency.
107.9.3 Cons truction Stages for Observations

The structural observations shall be performed at the construction stages prescribed by the inspection program
prepared as requ ired by Secti on 107.3.

Buildings and structures to which additions, alterations or repairs are made shall comply with all the requirements of this code for new facilit ies except as specifically provided in thi s section . IOS.3.2 When Allow ed by the Building Official Additions, alterations or repairs may be made to any building or structure without requ iri ng the existing building or st nlcturc 10 co mply wi th ,\11 the requirements of this code, provided the addition, alteration OJ' repair co nforms to that required for a new building or structure and provided further that such appro val by the building official is in writi ng. Additions or alterations shall not be made to an ex isting building or structure that will calise the existing bui lding or Slructure to become unsafe. An unsafe condition shall be deemed to ha ve been created if an addit io n or alteratioll wi ll ca use .IIlY st ructu ra l element of the existing building or SlmClUrc to resist loads in excess of their capacity or cause .1 red ucti on of {heir load cnrrying capaci ty. Ad di tions or alterations shall nOI be made 10 an ex isting buildi ng or structure when suc h existing building or structure is not in full compliance with the provisions of this code except when such addi ti on or alteration will resu lt in {he ex isting building or st ructure bei ng no more

It shall be the dUly of the engineer+in-charge of construction, as authorized in the Building Permit, 10 notify the stmclUral observer that the described constniction stages have been reached, and to provide access to and means for observing the co mponents of the strucrural system.


Association of Struclural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 1 - General Requirements

1 17

hazardous based on structural safety, than before such additions or alterations arc undertaken, unless adequate retrofitting or remediation is introduced.

Exceptions: Alterations to exl'sting structural elements or additions of flew structllral elements, wh!'ch are initiated for the plllpose oj increasing the strength or stiffness oj (he lateral-jorce-resisting system of an existing struc/~lre. Ileed not be designed for. forces confonning to these regulations provided that an engineering analysis is submitted 10 show that: 1. 2. The capacity of existing structural elements required to resist/orces is not reduced; The lateral force co required errstmg structural elements is not increased beyond their design strength;. New slnlclural elements are detailed and connected to Ihe existing structural elements as required by these regulations; and New or relocated nOfl~strnctural elements are detailed alld connected to existing or fl ew structural elements as required by these regulations.

A change in use or occupancy of any building shall be allo wed only when the change in use or occupancy will not cause any structural elemen t of the existing building to resist loads, determined on Ihe basis on this code and on the proposed use or occupancy. in excess of their capacity. Alterations to Ihe ex isting bui lding shall be pemliued to satisfy this requirement. No change in the character of occupancy of a building shaJl be made without a new cenificate of occ upancy regardless of whether any alterations to the building arc



108.3.3 Non-structural
Non-s truclural alterations or repairs to an existing bui lding or struclure are rennitted 10 be made of Ihe sam e materi als of whi ch the building or structure is constructed, provided that they do not adversely affect any structural member or lhe fire~resistance rating of any part of the bu ilding or structure.

108.3.4 Historic Buildings

Repairs, alterati ons and additions necessary for the preservation, rcstoration, rehabilitation or cominued use of a building or structure may be made without confonnance 'to all the requ irements of this code when authorized by the building official. provided :
The build ing Or structure has been designated Iby official action o f the legally constituted authori ty of thi s jurisdict ion as having spec ial historical or architectural signi fi cance.


Any structurally unsafe conditions are corrected.


The reslc!'cd buildin g or structure will be no more

hazardous based on life safet y than the existing building.

108.4 C hange in Use

No Change shall be made in the charactcr o f occupancies or use of i\ny building unless the new o r proposed lise is less ha7.ardous, hased on life safety than the existin g usc.

National Structural Code of th e Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 1 '" General Requirements

Geotechnica l Engineeri ng of the Ph ilippi ne In stitute o f Civil En gineers (PI CE). GEOTECHNI C AL ENGINEERING is the "ppli cation of thc princi pl es o f soil and rock mechan ics in the in vestigatio n, eva luati on and dcsign of ci vil works involvin g the use o f ea rth materi als and fo und ations and the inspec tion or testi ng of the construction the reof. GRADE is Ihe vel1icill locJli on of the ground su rfacc. EXISTING GRADE is the grad e pri or to gradin g. FINISH GRAD E is the final grade of the si te that confonns to the approvcd pl an. ROUGH GRADE is the stage at which the grade approximately co nforms to the approved pl an. G RADING is an excavator or fill or com bination thereo f. K E Y is a designed compacted fi ll placed in a tre nc h excav ated in earth malerial beneat h the toe of a slope. PROFESSIONAL INSPECTION is the inspection required by thifi code to be performed by th e civ il engineer o r geotechnical e ngi neer. S uc h inspecti ons incl ude tha I perfomled by persons supervised by such engi neers or geologists a nd shall be suffic ient to fonn a n opinio n relating to the conduct of the work. SITE is any lot or parce l of land or cont iguous com binmioll the reof. unde r the same owncrs hi p. where grading is performed or permitted.

109.1 General 109. 1.1 Scope The provis ions of this section apply 10 gradi ng. excavation and can hwork cOll stm . :tio n, includ in g fi lls and c nbankmc rHs. 109.2 DefillitiolLs The fo ll owing terms are defi ned for lise in this sect ion: APPROV AL s hall mean Iha t the proposed work or completed work con forms 10 th is secti on in the opin ion o f th c building offi cial. AS GRADED is the ex te nt o f surface con dirions o n comple ti on of grading.

BEDROCK is in placc solid or altered rock . BENCH is a rel atively level step ex cavated into earth mat eri al on whic h fill is to be pl aced . nORRO\V is earth m3lerial acquired from an offsite
loca tion fo r use in grading on a site. CIVIL ENGINEERING is the applicat ion of the kn owl edge of the fo rces of nature, principl es o f mec hanic s a nd the properties of mate ri als to the evaluat ion, design an d constllJc ti o n of civi l works. COMPA C TION is the dcnsir<cation mechanical or chemical mea ns. of a fill If)'

SLOPE is an inclined ground surface the inclination of

whic h is ex prcssed as a rat io o f vel1ica l distance to horizo ntal di stance.

EARTH MATERIAL is a ny roc k, natural soi l o r r< 1I or

an y combin ati o n thereof.

SOIL is naturall y occu rring supe rficia l deposi ts overlying EROSION is the wearing away of the grou nd surface as a
res ult of the movemen t of wi nd, wate r or ice. SOILS ENGIN EER. See Geotechni cal Engineer. EXCAVATION is the mec ha ni cal re moval of earth mate ri al. SOILS ENGINEEIUNG . See Geotecilili ca l Engineering. TERRACE is a relatively level step co ns tructed in the face of a graded s lope surface for drai nage and mai IIt ena nce purposes. bedroc k.

FILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial me'I IlS.

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER is II registered Civ il En gin ee r with spec ial qualifi ca ti on in the prac tice of Geo tec hn ical Engineering as recognized by the Bo. ard of Civi l Engincering of thc Professiona l Regulation Commission as endorsed by the Specially Division of

Association of Structural Engineers of tile Philippines

CHAPTER 1 .- General HequlremenlS

1- 19

109.3 r)ennits Required 109.3.1 Gencral Exce pt as specified in Section 109.3.2 of this section, no person shall do any gmd ing without first having obtained .1 gra ding pCnllit from the building official. 109.3.2 Exempted Work A grading permit shall not be required for the following:

Sl<lbility of a public w:ly or drainage channel, the owner of the property upon whi ch the excavation or fill is located, or other person or agent in control of said property, upon receipt of notice in writing from the building official, sha ll within the period specified therein repair or eliminate such excavat ion or embankment (O eliminate the hazan.l and 10 be in confonnance with the requirements of this code. Requirements for excavations shall he referred to Chapter 3 of thi. code.
109.5 Grading Permit Requirements 109.5.1 General Except as exempted in Section 109.3.2 of this code, no person shall do any grading without first obtaining a grading permit from the building official. A separate pem)it sha ll be obtained for each si te, and may cover both excavations and fill s. 109.5.2 Grading DeSignation Grading in excess of 4.000 m) shall be perfonned ill accordance with the approved grading plan prepared by a civil engineer, and shall be designated as "engineered grading." Grading involving less Ihan 4,000 1111 shall be designated "regular grading" unless the permittee chooses to have the grading performed as engineered grading, or the building official determines Ih31 special conditions or unusual hazards exist, in which case grading shall conform to the requirements for engineered grading. 109.5.3 Engineered Grading Requirements Application for a gradi ng pennil shnll be accompanied by two sets of plans and specifications, and supporting data co nsisting of a geotechnicill engineering repofl. Additionally. the application shall state lhe estimated quantities of work involved. The plans and specifi cations shall be prepared and sig ned by the civi l engineer licensed to prepare such plans or spec ifi cations when required by {he build ing official. information covering Plans shall be drawn to scale upon subs tantial paper or cloth and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the nature and extent of (he work proposed and show in detail thilt th ey will conform to th e provisions of this code and all rc!e val1l laws. ordinances, rules and regulations . The first sheet of eac h set of plans shall give location of the work, the nam e and ,lddrcss of {he oWlH.~1'. and the perso n hy whom th ey were
constmcl ion and malerial requirements. prcp'l l'cd .

Grading in an isolated.

sc lf~co lllaiJ)cd

area if [here is

no dnngcr to priv'lIc Or public properly.


An excavation below finished grade for basements and footings of a building, retnining wall or other stnlcture authorized by a valid building permit. Thi s shall nol exempt any fill made with the material from such excavation or cxempt any excavation ha ving an . unsupported hcight greater than 1.5 m after the completion of such Slmcture;
Cemetery graves;

3. 4. 5. 6.

Refuse di sposal sites cont rolled by other regulmions; Exc:lvations for wells, or trenches for utilities; Mining, quan'ying, excavating, processing or stock piling of rock , sa nd, gravel, aggregate or clay controlled by other regulations. provided slich operations do flot affect the ItHera l suppon of, or increase stresses in, soil on adjoining propeflies; Exploratory excavat ions performcd under direction of a registcred geotechnical engineer; the

7. 8.

An excava ti on that ( I) is less than 600 mm in depth Of (2) docs not create <l cut slope grea ter [han 1,5 m in height and steeper th an ! unit venical in I Y2 units horizo ntal (66.7 % slope); and A fill less than JOO mill in depth and placed on natttrni terrain wi th a slope flatter th<l ll 1 unit vertical in 5 units hori zo ntal (20% slope). Or less than 900 in depth, not imcndcd 10 suppor( structurcs, that docs not exceed 40 Ill) on anyone lot and docs not obSlmct a drainage course.





Exemption from the pennil requirements of thi s sec ti on shall flot be deemed 10 grant authorization for any work to be done in any manlier in violation of the provisions or this code or any oth er laws or ordinances or this

109.4 Hazards
Wh enever the huilding offi cial determines lhilt any exLo;;ting excavation or embankment Of filt on private property Il(I~ become a hazard to life and limb, or endangers properly. or Oldvcrscly affects the s"f'ct y. usc or

National Struc tural COCIG of thE: Pllilippll1 es


Edition Votume 1


CHI\P TEIi 1 ... General f1equirerncnls

The plans shall include lhe following information: I. 2. 3. General vi cinity map of lhe proposed s ite; Property limits and accurate contours of eX isti ng

of the person who prepared the plan . The pl:m shall include the followin g information :


General vicinity map of the proposed site;

ground and details of terrain and area drainage;

Limiting dimensions a nd depth of cut and fill;

Limiting dimensions elevati ons or f'inhih co ntours to be achieved by the grading, and proposed dmin agc channels and rel ated COnSII1J ction;
Detailed plans of all surface and subsurface drainage

Provisions for lateral earth SUPPOI' or shori ng; l.\Ild

Loca tion of an)' bu ild ings or structures where work is


w be pcr:onned , and the location of any buildings

stnJcture ~ \~' ithin



4 .5


of the proposed grading.

devices, w;.!Ils, cribbing, dams <lnd other protective

devices to be constructed with, or as a part of. the

109.6 Grading Inspeclion 109.6.1 General

Grading operariolls for which a permit is required shall be subject 10 inspection by the building official. Inspection of grading opera tions shall be provided by the geolechnical engineer reHlined 10 provide such services in accordance with Section 109.5.5 for engineered grading <lnd as required by the building official for regular

proposed work, IOgether with a map showi ng the

drainage arc.\ and the estimated runoff of the arc,l

serveO by an y drains;
5. Location of a ny buildings or struc tures on the property where the work is to be pcrfonncd and the locatioll of any buildings or s(ruC lUres on l:lllu of adjacen t owners that arc within 4.5 m of the property or that may be affected by the proposed grading

6. Recommendations included in the geotechnical

109.6.2 Civil Engineer
The civil engineer shall provide professional inspection within such engineer's area of tcchnicnl spec ialty, which shall consist of observation and review as to the establishment of line, grade and surface drainage of the development area. If revised plulls arc required during the course of the work, th ey shal! be prepared by the civi l engineer.

enginccling reron and the engincering geology report shall be incorporated in,. the grading plans or speci fi cations. When approved by the building official, specific recommendations contained in the geotechnical engineering report and the engineering geology report, which arc applicable to grading, may
be included by reference; and


The dates of the geotechnical engineering :lnd engineering geology repon s toge ther with the names, addresses and phone numbers of the firms or indi vidu als who prepared the reports.

109.6.3 Geotechnical Engineer

The geotech nical enginee r shall provide obscrvation duri ng gradi ng a nd tc~tin g for requ ired compaction . The geotcc hn ical engineer shall provide s ufficiclll observation during the prep<lration o f the natural ground and placemelll and comp< lclioll of (he rill to verify lh<lt sll ch work is being performed in accord ance with the condit ions of the approved p lun and th e ,Ippropriate requirements of this chapter. Revised recolllmendations relating to conditions differing from the approved geotechnical engi ncering ttl1d eng inecling geology report s shall be submitted to the permi ttee, the buildi ng officia l a nd Ih e civil engi neer.

109.5.4 Geotech nical Engineering Report The geo technical engineering re port required by Section 109.53 shall include data regarding the nmure, distributi on and strength of in g soi l, conclusions and recomlllendations for grading procedures and design criteria for corrective mcasures, including buttres,-; fill s, when necessary, and opinion on adequacy for the intended usc of sitcs to be devel o ped by the proposed grading ilS affected by gcotechn ica l engineering f.lcwrs. including Ih l~ stabili ty of slopes.
Refer to -C hapter :-\ on Excavtltiolls imd Fou ndations for

delililed requ ireme nt s :md gu idel ines.

J 09 .5.5 H('g uJ :Il- GnHiing Requirements
applicat ion for .1 grading perini I shall l)l~ (I<..:<.:otllpanicd by <I plan in su fficient clarity 10 indicate the nature ilnd cxlcll! or !Ilc work. and slate tllc estimat ed qllilillili e-s of' work involved. The plans shall give th e loc, llinn oj' th e work, 1he Ilame of thc ow nc r alld thc Il i lllle


109.6.4 I>enllittre The pcrmilLcc s hall he res po nsi hle for the work to he performed in accordancc wi th th e approved pla ns and spcc ifie;:ltin ns and in conformil llce with th e provisions or Ihis code. and the pcrmillce shall e ngage cons ultants, as may be ncce ssary. 10 provide professional in spec ti on un iI limely basis. The permittee shall ac t ;IS a coorclin:lt or between lh c COllsuIWIHS. lhc co ntrac tor <Ind the building

Associallon of Slnu:1 11 1 ',)1 Enq: n(~nrs of tile: Pillilpplll e~,

CHAPTER 1 - General 11equiremenls

1-2 1

official. In the event of changed conditions, the permittee shall be respo nsible for infonning the bui lding oflici nl of such change and shall provide revi sed plans for approval.
109.6.5 BUilding Official The building orfi cial shall inspect Ihe projeci at the

vario us stilges of work requiri ng approviJl to detc rmine ndequate cOl1 lrol is being exercised by Ihe professional co nsultants.

tests, other substamiatin g data, and com ments all any changes made during grading and thei r effect on the recomrncndmions made in th e approved geotechni cal engineering investigati on report. GeotcdUl ical engincers shall submit a statement that, to the besl of their knowledge. the work wi thin their aren of responsibilities is in accord ance wit h (he approved geotechni cal engineering repon and applicable provisions of thi s sec tion. 3. The gradi ng conl ractor shall submit in a fNIll prescribed by the building official a slmemCI, i of co nfonnance to said as-buill plan and .he speci ficati ons.

109.6 .6 NOlilicalion of No ncompliance

If, in the course of fuHilJing their respcctive duties under thi s chapter, the civil engineer or the geotech ni cal engineer rind s that the work is not being done in confo nnance with thi s chapter or the appro ved,., gradin g plans, the disc repanc ies shall be reported immediately in writ ing to the permittee and to the building offi cial.
109.6.7 T r ansfer of Rcsponsibilily If the civil engineer or the geotechnical engineer-ofrecord is changed during grading, {he work shall be stopped ulllil the replace me nl has i.lgreed in writing to accept their responsi bility within (he area of techni cal co mpetellce for approval upo n completi on of the work. It shall be the duly of th e pennittee to notify the building official in wl;ting of such Change prio r \0 the. recolnmeJ)cement of such grading.

109.7.2 Nolification of Complel ioll The permi ttee shall notify the building official when the grading operati on is ready fo r final inspec tion. '; n:-li permission by the bui lding official shall not be giver .!" ' all work, including installation of all drainage f ? ! .md their protecti ve devices. and all erosion ~' measu res have been com pleted in accordance W I': 1;:'_ final approved gnlding plan , and the requi red fep(l: ! been submitted by the engi neer-or-record.

109.7 Compleli on of Work 109.7.1 Final Reporls

Upon completion or the rough grading work and 31 the final completion of the work , the following reports and

dnlwings and sup ple ments thereto <Ire requ ired for engineered grading or when profess iona l inspec ti on is perform ed for regular grading. as applicable:
I. An ns-built gradin g plan prepared by the civi l e ng inee r retained to provide slich services in accordance with Section J09.6.5 showing original ground surfac e elevati ons, as-graded ground su rface elevations, lot drai nage patterns, and the loca tions and elevati ons of surface dmin age faci lities and of the ou tlets of subsu rface drains. As-constnlcted locations, elevations and details of subsu rface drains shall be shown as repo rted by th e geo tedlllical e ngineer. Civil engineers shall stale Ihal 10 Ihe bes t of their knowledge th e wo rk within the ir area of res ponsi bili ty was done in acco rd ance wit h the finil l approved grading plan .
1\ repol1 prepared hy the geotec hnical engineer retained 10 provide such services ill accordance wi th


Sec tion 109.6.3 , including locations and elevations of fie ld density tests, summaries of field .Ind I;.lboratory

Nationa( Stru ctural Co(Je of t!1P. r.l11i1ippines (,111 Edition Volume 1

Association or Struc tural E 119inecrs of the Philippinp.s

NSCP C101 10

Chapter 2

Association of Structu ra l Engi neers of the Philippines

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Nalloll<l l S tI"LJ ctlJr,~ 1 Code of 11'1 0 F>hilipPlnes 6 ' Edition Volume 1


CHA PT ER 2 - Minimum Design loads

2 1

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 2 MINIM UM DESIGN LOADS ................ .. .................................... ........ ............................................................ 3 SECTION 201 GENERAL. ............................................................................................................. ................................... ...... 3
20 1. 1 Scope ... ..... ....... .... ... ......... ..... . .......... .... .. .. ........ ......... 3

SECTION 202 DEFINITIONS ........... ............... ..... ................ ...................................... ........................................................... 3

202. 1 Walls ...................... .. ...... 4

SECTION 203 COMBINATIONS OF LOADS ..................................................................................................................... 5

203. 1 General ............ ...... ..... ..... .............. ................ ....... ........... .. ................ ....... .......... . .................................................. 5

203.2 SYlllbols and Notations. ......... ................. ................................ .......... ............................................. 5 203.3 Load Combinations llsing Strength Design or Load and Resistan ce Factor Design . .. ........ .......... ....... .. ..... ".5 203 .4 Load Co mbinati ons Using Allowable Stress Design ......... .. ........ ........ .......... ........ .. ......... ........................... 5
203.5 Specia l Seis mi c Load Combinations .... ............ ..... ........ ........... . .... 6

SECTION 204 DEAD LOADS ........ .............................................. ........................ .................................................................. 9

. 204. 1 General .... .... .............. ................... .. .... .......... 204.2 Weigh ts of Materi,ds and Conslnlclions.. ........ .. .............. .. 204.3 Parlitio n Loads.. ........ ..................... . ................ . ..................... .. .... ............ ............. .... ..... ............ 9 .......... ....... ..... ................ .................................... 9 .. ............. 9

SECTION 205 LIVE LOADS ........................... ................. ......................................... ................ ............................................. 9

205. 1 Gen eral...... . .. ........... ..... ..... .. .. ... .... ...... .... .... .. .......... .... .. ............ ...... 9 205.2 Critica l DistributiOJl o f Live Loads.. .. ....................... .. .................. 9 205.3 Floor Li ve Lo ads ............. . ................. .. ................................. 9 205 .4 Roof Live Loads .......... ...... ............... ..... ........... ..... ............. .................................. .................................................. 13 205.5 Redl!ction of Li ve Loads .................................... ................... . ...... ........................ 14 205.6 A ItCrlHl tc Floor Live Load Reduc lion .. .. .... 14

SECTION 206 OTHER MINIMUM LOADS ............... ..................... ........................... ........... ............................................ 15
206. I Gelle ra l .... .......... .... .
206.2 2063 206.4 206.5 ................. . Anchorage of Conc rete iln d Masonry Wall s ....... Interi o r Walt Lo ads..... .. ............. .. ..
Olher Load s. I mpaci Loads

206.6 Retaining Vo.' alJs ................. ........................... " ................... .

206.7 Waler Accumul at ion .. . 206.8 Up lift on Floors and Foundations . .......... ........ .. 206.9 Crane Loads ...... .. ....... . . ..... ... ...... .. ... . 206. 10 Heliport '!!lei Hel isto p Landin g Areas . ............ ..

. 15 .. .... 15 15 15 15 . 15 .. ...... .. 15 .. .. 15

. ......... .. ........ ......... ....... ........ ....... .. ...... ... .... ....... ... .... ..... .... 16 ... 16

SECTION 207 WIN]) LOADS ........ ....................... ................... ............. ............................................................................... 17

207. 1 Gene ral .................... .. 207.2 Definitions 2073 Symbol s and NOI.uiolls .. 207.4 Method I - Simpl i fi ed Pmct~d1ll'c .. . 207.5 Method 2 -- Analyti ca l Procedure .. 207.0 Method 3 ... Wind Tunnel Proced ure .. 207.7 GUSI Effect Fac tor for Other Struclures .. . 207.X ES lim'ilcs of D yn'lInil' PropcI 1ics .............. ...... .. 207.9 Con sc nslis Sta nd 'Ir<.Is il nd Olher RcfcrclH.:cd i)(lClIIllCIH.'i .....
..................... ... 17 .. .... . 17

.. 19 .. .... 20 .. .... 2 1

... 01

.. ............................... :l2
.. .. 32
.. ...... .. ................ .................... 34

SECTION 208 ICAHTHQUAKE LOAI)S .............................. ....... .. ........................ ...... ... ...... .... .. ..... ......... .... .................. ... .. 72


C HAPTt:f~

2 -. Minimum Design Loads

208. 1 Geneml. ........... .............. .. .................................................. ..................................... .................................................. 72 208.2 Dcllnitions . ...... .... ..... ....... ...... . .... 72 208.3 Symbol s and Notation ...... .. ....... ......... .... ..... .. 74 208.4 Criteria Selecti on ........ .................. .. ................ ............................ ............................. 75 208.5 Minimum Design Lateral Forces and Rcl3lcd Effects ........ ................................. ....................................................... 81 208.6 Dynal1\ ic Analysis Procedu res ...................... .... ........ ... .............. .......... ..................... ..... ...... .................. .. ...... 90 208.7 Lateral Force 011 Elemen ts of Stnlctures, NonslJ1lctur.1I Componcllt,<; and Eq uipmcn t Suppol1cd by St ructures ... 92 208.8 Detailed Systems Design Requirements.. ....... ....... ...... . .. ..... ........ .. ... ..... 96 20R.9 NO ll-Bu ilding Stru ctures ........................... .. .. , ..... ... ...... ..... ". ,." .. ,.. ,.... '.. ,........ ,... .." ......... " ... 99 208.10 Si te Cntcgorization Procedure.,.,............ ........... ,., ,......... ,.......... ..................... ,............. , 101 208.1 t Alternativc Earthquake Load Procedure "" .. "." ................ ..... ,." ....... ,.102

SECTION 209 SOIL LATERAL LOADS ................................................ ...................... ................................................. ... 103
209.1 Ge nera!... ..
....... 103

SECTIO N 210 RAI N LOADS .......................................................................... ... ..... ................. .......................................... 111
210.1 Roof Drainage ..... ..... ... 2 10,2 Design Rain Loads ..... , 2 ] 0.3 Ponding Instabili ty 210.4 Controlled Drailwgc
........... .......... ................. III ..................... ........ 111 ...... .. 111 ......... 111


SECTION 211 FLOOD LOADS ............. ....................................... ...................................................................................... 111

211. 1 Ge neral.. . 2 J 1.2 Definitions, 21 1.3 Establishme nt of Flood Hazard Areas, . , 2 11.4 DeSign and Constructioll ........ 2 1 1.5 Flood Hazard Documentation
...... .......... ........... 111 ......... .... 111 .. ..... ..... .. ....... 11 2

.............. ... . ....... . 11 2 ............................. ........................... ...... 113

Association of Structu ral

of tile PhilippInes

CHAPTEli 2 - Minimum DeSign Loads


The following terms are defined for use in this chapter:

ACCESS FLOOR SYSTEM is an assembly consisting

of panels mounted on pedestals to pr9vide an under-floor

201.1 Scope
This chapter provides minimum design load requirements for the design of buildings, towers and other vertical structures. Loads and appropriate load combinations,
which have been developed to be used together, for strength design and al!owa~le stress design are set forth.

space for the installations of mechanical, electrical, communications or similar systems or to serve as an air-supply or return-air plenum.

AGRICULTURAL BUILDING is a stmeture designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, Ii vestock or other horticultural products. The
stmcture shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated, or packaged, nor shall it be a place

used by the public_


proportioning and designing structural members such that elastically computed stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified allowable stresses (also called working stress design).

ASSEMBLY BUILDING is a building or portion of a

building for such worship, awaiting for the gathering together of 50 or more persons pUfl)oses as deliberation, education, instruction, entertainment, amusement, drinking or dining, or transportation.

AWNING is an architectural projection that provides

weather protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by the building to which it is attached.

BALCONY, EXTERIOR, is an exterior floor system

projecting from and supported by a structure without additional independent supports.

DEAD LOADS consist of the weight of all materials ancl fixed equipment incorporated into the building or other structure.
DECK is an exterior floor system supported on at least two opposing sides by an adjacent structure anci/or posts, piers, or other independent supports.

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES arc buildings. towers and

other vertical structures that arc intended to remain operational in the event of extreme environmental loading from wind or earthquakes.

FACTORED LOAD is the product of a load specified in Sections 204 through 208 and a load factoL See Section
203.3 for combinations of factored loads.

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volurne 1



CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

GA RAG E is a building or portion thereof in which motor vehicle containing flammable or combusHble liquids or gas in its tank is stored, repai red or kept. GARA GE, PRIVATE, is a bu ilding or a portio n of a building, not more than 90 111 2 in area, in which only motor vehicles used by the tenants of the building or buil din gs on lhe premises are kepi or stored. LIMIT STATE is a condit ion beyond whicJ; i\ structure or member becomes unfi t for service and is judged to be


Any masonry or concrete walt that supports m ore than 2.90 kN/m of vertical load in addition to its Own weigh!.

EXTERIOR WALL is any wa ll or elemen t of a wall, Or any membcr or group of members , that defines th e exterior bound aries or courts of a build in g an d that has a slope of 60 degrees or greutcr with th e horizontul plane. NONBEARIN G WALL is any wall thaI is not a bearin g wall. PARAPET W AL L is Ihat part of any wall entirely above Ihe roof linc. RETA INING WALL is a wall designed to resist the lateral displacement of soil or other materials.

no longer useful for its intended func tion (serviceability

limit state) or

be unsafe (strength limit state).

LI VE L O ADS are those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or Olher structure and do nOl include dead load, construction load. or environmental loads suc h as wind load, earthquake load and nuid load. LOADS are forces or other actions that result from the weight of all bu ilding materials. occupants and their possess ions. environmental effects. differential movements, and restrained dimensional changes. Penn ancnt loads are those load s in which variations over lime are rare or o f small magnitud e. All other loads are vari able load,. LOAD A ND RES ISTAN CE F ACTOR DES IGN (LRF D) M ETHOD is a me thod of proportioning and designing structural elements using load and resistance factors such that no applicable limit state is reached when the struc ture is subjected 10 all a ppropriate load combinations. The term "LRFO" is used in the design of sleel stru ctures. MA RQ UEE is a permanent roofed stru cture attac hed to and supported by Ihe buildi ng and projecting over public right-of-way. O CC UPANCY is the purpose for th at a bu ilding, or part the reof, is used or intended to be used . STR E NG TH DESIGN is a method of proportioning and designing stnlctural members such that the computed forces produced in the members by the factored load do not exceed the member design strength . The term strength design is used in the design of co nc rete stnlclllres. 202. 1 Wa lls B EA RI NG WALL is any wall meeting either of the following class i fications:


Any metal or wood stud wall that slipports more thall

1.45 kN/1ll of ven ical load in addition to its own weigh!.

Associa tion of Structural Engineers of the Philippine s

CHAPTE R 2 - Minimum Design Loads


0.9 D+ 1.6 IV + J.6H O.9D+1.0E+1.6H


203.1 General
Buildings. towers and other vertical SUl lctu rcs and <'\11 portions thereo f shall be designed to resisl the load co mbinations speci fi ed in Section 203.3 O[ 203.4 and, where required by Section 208, or Chapter 4 and the special seismic load combinations of Secti on 203.5.
T he most critica l effec l ca n occ ur whe n o ll e or more o f lhe contribut ing loads 3rc not ac ting . All appli cab le loads sha ll be considered. includin g both eanhquake and wind, in accord ance with the spec ified load co mbin ations.

whe re:


= 1.0 ror fl oors in pl aces of publi c assembl y. ror li ve

load s in excess,of 4 .8 kPa, and for garage live load

= 0.5 ror olher live loads

203.3.2 Other Loads Where P is to be consi dered in des ign, {he applica ble load shall be added lo Seclio n 203.3. 1 ractored as 1.21'. 203.4 Load Combinations Using Allowable Stress

203.2 Symbols and Notations

D = dead load = eart hqu ake load sel rorth in Section 208.5. 1 Em = estimated maximum earthquake force that ca n be
de veloped in the structure as sel fort h in Sec ti o n

203.4.1 Basic Load Combinations

W here all owable stress design (working stress des ign) is used. structures and all portio ns thereof shall resist the rnos t critical effects res ulting from th e foll owing co mbinations of loads: .

208.5. 1.1
= load du e lO Oui ds wil h well-d e r,ned press ures and

due lO lat eral pressure of so il and water in soil L = live load , except roof live load , incl udin g any permitted li ve load reducti on Lr = roof live lond , including a ny permitted li ve load reducti on I' = pondi ng load R rain load on thc undef1ec(cd roo f r = selr-straining fo rce and e rrects arising rrom cont raction or ex pansion resulting from tcmpcrarurc cha nge. shrinkage. llloislU rc cha nge. c reep in componelll materials, movement due 10 di ffe re nt ial scttl ement . o r comb inations thcreof . IV = load due (Q wi nd pressure


= load

maximum heights

V+F D+H+F+L +T

(203-8) (203-9) (203- 10)


D + Ii + F + (L,o,. 1/)
D+ N + F +0.75[L+ T (L,or R)]

(203-1 1)

D + N+ F+ (II' o r E)

(203- 12)

No increase in a llowab le stresses shall be used wi lh these load co mbinati ons except as specifica ll y permitlcd by Secli on 203.4.2.

203.3 Load Combinations using Strength Design or Load and Resistance Factor Design 203.3.1 Basic Load Combinations
Where load and rcsi.'itancc fac tor des ig n is ll sed, stru c tures :md a ll portions thereof sha ll resist the most c riti ca l erfects rrom the fo ll uw ing co mbinati o ns of factored loads:

IA(V+ F)

(203 -1 ) (2OJ-2) (203 -3)

1.2(V + F + r)+ 1.6(L + H)+ O.S(L,o,-ll) 1.2D + 1.6(L, 0 '- R) ... ([, Lo,- O.8W) 1.2 V + 1.6IV + J,L+O.5( L, 0,-11)
1.2D+ I. OE+/i L

(203-4 ) (203 -5 )

N"_1IiOrlcJI Structural Code of tile Philippine s 6


Edition Volume 1


CHAPTER 2 .- Minimum Design Loads

203.4.2 AHernate "asic Loa d Combinations

In lieu of (he basic load combinations specifi ed in Section 203.4. I , stJ1J ctllrcs and portions thereof shall be permitted to be designed for the most critical effects resulting from the following load combinations. When using these all emalc basic load combinations, a onethird increase shall be permitted in all owable stresses ror all combinations, including W or E.


+F + 075[ L+ L, +( W or I/~: J ]

(203- 13) (203- 14) . (203 -1 5) (203- 16) (203 -1 7)

O.60D+W+H O.60 D + +H


D + L + L,(or R)

D+ L+W D + L+


203.4.3 Ot her Loads Where r is to be considered ill design, eac h app li cable lo ad shall be added to th e co mbin ati ons s pec ifi ed in See, io ns 203.4.1 and 203.4 .2. 203.5 Special Seismic Load Combinations

For both allowable stress design and strength des ign, the following spec ial load combinations for seismic desi gn s hall be used as speci fi call y required by Secti on 208, or by Chap,ets 3 ,hro ugh 7.

1.2D+/,L+ I .OE", 0.9D I.OE",

wh ere:

(203- 19) (20320)


1.0 for noors iii placcs of pu blic assembl y. for live loads in excess of 4.8 kP<I. and for glJnlge liv.:.lo<ld. ::; 0.5 for olher live loads Em := th e Il1tlXilll ll J1l effect or horizontal tllld verti cal forces as scl fon h in Section 208.5. 1.1


Association of Structurfl ! Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


Table 204- 1 Mi nimum Densities for Design Loads fro m Materials (kN/m3) Ma terial
Alumi num DilUllunous Products Asphaltum Graphite " Paraffin ........ ,........... .
PelroJeum, crude

26.7 12.7

Lead .................................. .
Lime Hydrated. k>ose ............... .................. .. Hydrated. compac1ed .................. .. Masonry. Ashlar Stone Granite Limestone. crystalline: Limestone. oolitic ........ _.. ....... .. Marble ... Sandstone ..... Masonry. Brick Hard (low absorption) Medium (medium absorption) Soft (high absorption) ......... ... MASONRY. Conc rete (solid ponion) Lightweight un its Med ium weight units Normal weight uni ts ................... ... Masonry grout Masonry. Rubble Slone Granite Limestone. crysta lline Limestone. oolitic Marble ....... ........ ... ........ ... ............ .. ................... . Sandstone Mortar, cement or lime Particle board Plywood Riprap (nol nubmerged ) Li mesto ne

Densit y


Petroleum. refined.

Petroleum. benzine ...... .

Petroleum, gasoline Pitch ................. .

Bronze .....
Cas(~slone masonry (cement. slone, sand) Cement, port land, loose .......................................................... . Ceramic tile . ........................................... .

8.8 8.6 7.9 7.2 6.6 10.8 11 .8 82.6 86.7 22.6


25.9 25.9

27.2 22.6

20.4 18.1 I S.7


Charcoal ...................... . Cinder fin ................................. Cinders, dry, in bulk .................................................... .

Coal Anthracite, piled Bituminous, piled Ligni te. piled PCilt, dry. piled ... Concrete. Plain Cinder ........ .... ... ...

9.0 7.1 8.2

7.4 7.4 3.6

16.5 19.6
21.2 22.0


23. 1
21.7 24 .5 21.5 20.4

17.0 15.7 Haydi te (bumed-clay aggregate) ......... ....... ................. ..... \4 .1 Slag ................. . 20.7 SlOne 22.6 Vermiculi te and perlite Ilggrcgalc. nonload- bcaring ... 3.9-7.9 Other lighl aggregate. load bearing .11.0- 16.5

Expanded-s lag aggregate



13.0 14.1
14. 1

Concrctc. Reinforced

Cinder .................................. .


...................... _ ............................................... . 2 1.7 Slone. (including gra\lel) ............................. . 23.6 Copper . Cork. compresseiJ ....... . ................................. ..... ....... . 87.3 2.2

C lean and df)' River. dry ....................................... .



11 .0
17.0 15.1

Earth (nol subme rged) Clay. dry Clay. damp ..... . Clay and gravel. dry ........................ . Silt. moist. loose ... Silt. moist, packed Silt, flowing .... Sand and gra\le!. dry. loose _ Sand and gra\lel. dry. packed ........... _ .... _ ............................. Sand and gravel. wet..

9.9 17.3 15.7 12.3 15. 1 17.0 15.7 17.3 18.9

11.0 14. 1

Bank scrccnings Machine Sand ..

27.0 77.3
\5.1 14 .9

S teel. cold-drawn . Slone. Quarried. Piled Basalt. grani1e. gneiss ........... _ ................ . Limestone, marble. quartz Sandstone ... .......... ..................... ....... ...... . Shale Greenstone. hornblende
TeCT3. COlla, Archi tectural Voids filled Voids unfilled


Earth (sublncrgcd)
Soi l ................. .. River mud S:lnd or ;,,1 "vel ......................... ................ . Sand o r gra\lel <lOti clay .............. ..... . Glass ... Gra\lel. dry .. Gypsum. loose GYPSUlll. w:ltlbu;Ird kc


Tin Water Fresh Sea

.... 11.3 72. 1 9.8

10. 1

. ................................ .

10.2 25. 1 1603


7.9 9.0

Wood (see Table 6.2 for relative de nsities for Philippine wood )

Zinc, rolled !'iheel


Cast Wrought

70.7 7.SA

National Structural Code o f the PI1i lippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 2 - Minimurn Design Loads

Table 204-2 Minimum Design Dead Loads (kPa) (Use actual loads when available)

0.008 0.24 0.38

Component FLOOR FILL




CEILINGS Acoustical Fiber Board

Gypsum Board (per mill

Exterior stud walls:

thickness) Plaster on tile or concrete

Plaster on wood lath

Mechanical duct allowance ....... 0.20

Cinder concrete, per mill .......... 0.017 Lightweight concrete, pcr mm .0.015 Sand, per mm ........................ 0.015 Stone concrete, per mm ............ 0.023

SOx I (X)

mill @

400 mm, IS-1l11ll

0.10 Suspended meta! lath and cement

Suspended steel channel system plaster

FLOOR AND FLOOR FINISHES Asphalt block (50 rnm), 13 mill

mortar ... .. .......... 1.44 Cement finish (25 mm) on stoneconcrete fil!.. .. ................ 1.53 Ceramic or quarry tile (20 mm) on 13 mill mortar bed ............. 0.77 Ceramic or quarry tile (20 mm) on 25 mm 111011ar bed ............. 1.1 0 Concrete fill finish (per mm thickncss) .............................. 0.023 Hardwood flooring, 22 rnrn ........ 0.19 Linoleum or aspbalt tiie, 6mm ... 0.05 Marble and mOJ1ar on stoneconcrete fill ............................. 1.58 Slate (per mm thickness) .......... 0.028 Solid Oat tile on 25 mm mortar base.. . .......................... 1.10 Subflooring, 19 mill ................... 0.14 Terrazzo (38 mm) directly on slab.. .. ................................ 0.91 Terrazzos (25 mm) on stoneconcrete fill ............................ !.53 TClTilzZO (25 mm), 50 Illm stone concrete.. ...1.53 Wood block (76 mm) on mastic, no fill.. .................. 0.48 Wood block (76 mm) 011 J3 rnm mortar base ........ ............. ...... 0.77

0.72 0,48

Suspended metal lath and

gypsum plaster Wood fUITing suspension


gypsum, insulated, 10-mm siding ................................. 0.53 SOx 150 mOl @ 400 mm, I5mlll gypsum, insulated, 10-mm siding ....................... 0.57 Exterior ~tlld wall with brick veneer 2.30 Windows, glass, frame and sash 0.38 Clay brick wythes:


COVERINGS, Roof and Wall

Asphalt shingles ......................... 0.10 Cement tile .................................. 0.77 Clay tile (for mortar add 0,48 kPa) Book (ile, 50 mill ................... 0.57 Book tile, 75 flun .................. 0.96 Ludowici .. ................................ 0.48 Roolan... . .......................... 0.57 Spanish. .. ........................ 0.91 Composition: Three-ply ready roofing .......... 0.05 Four-ply fclt and gravel ........... O.26 Five-ply felt and gravel ........... 0.29 Copper or tin ............................ 0.05 Comlgated asbestos-cement roofing .................................... 0.19 Deck, metal 20 gage. . ............ 0.12 Deck, metal, 18 gage ................... 0.14 Fiberboard, 13 1llJ11 . . .......... 0.04 Gypsum sheathing, 13 mIll ......... 0.10 Insulation, roof boards (per mm thickness) Cellular glass 0.0013 0.0021 Fibrous glass 0.0028 Fiberboard Perlite 0.0015 0.0004 polystyrcne foam Urethane foam with skin 0.0009 Plywood (per mm thickness) 0.0060 Rigid Insulation, 13 mrn . 0.04 Skylight, metal frame, J 0 nun wirc glass 0.38

1.87 3.80 5.50 7.42 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

200mm 300 mill 400mm Hollow Concrete Masonry units (Unplastered, add 0.24 kPa for each face plastered) Grout : Wythe thickness (mm) Spacing : 100 ; 150 200 1_6.5 kN/m, Density o( Un!t




CijJj'I.15 ,
1.40 . 1.53 1.63

400 .......... !~J2rJ 192-1254 " Full '2.50 ,2.63 '359'

6oii ' .. "--'i:so"

148 . 2:6 i


!Y..~~~/~11.l.}2~.r"\_~.i~X.?r Un it
1.24 1.59 1.69 1.98 2.69 1.87 2.11 2.82



800 600 .

1.34 I. 72

. 2:44 .
. 282 . 3:88

172 . 2.25

, ..

FLOORS, WOOD-JOIST (no plaster)

Joist Sizes


~gist SpacinE

- - - - _ .......
- -.----.~~-.-,

300 .

' 4(JtJ"-' . 6tJtJ"

.. ---


50xl50 .1..i 0.30


mm 0.25

21.2 .k.r~.r~ny. _p~,~~,i.tX(}r~J[.lJt !'l_ogr."Ol!t '1 .J.}? __ . 1.44 ?99. I. _ }}1_..! 1.82




0.30 i 0.30 1.50x200 50x250 i IUS .r:o..3i>~-l 50x300 0.40 0.35

0.25 0.30 0.30


1.83 .. L 1.96 2.13 2.2 . r 2.84 " 2.97!

r '1;8~ : : L. 2.39
292 . 3:97 .


Movable steel partitions ... 0.19 Wood or steel studs, ! 3 mill gypsum board each side.. . 0.38 Wood studs, 50 x 100, unplastcred 0.19 Wood studs 50 x 100, plastered one side.. .. .......................... 0.57 Wood studs 50 x 100, plastered two side ... .. ...................... 0.96



Slate, 6 mm Waterproofing membranes: Bituminous, gravel-covered. 0.26 Bituminous, smooth surface .0.07 Liquid, applied ..................... 0.05 Single-ply, sheet ................... 0.03 Wood Sheathing (per mOl thickness) ............................ 0.0057 Wood Shingles ........................... 0.14

0.34 0.48

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 -. Minimum Design Loads


204.1 General

205.1 General Live loads shall be the maximum loads expected by the intended use or occupancy but in no case shall be less than the loads required by thi s section. 205.2 Critical Distribution of Live Loads Where structural members are arranged continuity, members shall be designed using conditi ons, which would cause maximum bending moments. Tbis requirement may tic accordance with the provisions of Section 205.4.2, where applicable. 205.3 rloor Live Loads 205.3.1 General floors shall be designed for Ihe unit live loads as set forth in Table 2051. These loads shall be taken as the minimum live loads of horizontal prOjection to be used in the design of buildings for the occupancies listed, and loads <ltleast equal shall be assumed for uses not listed in this sec tion but that creates or accommodates similar loadings.

Dead loads consist of the weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building or olher struclUrc. including bUI not limited to walls, floors, roofs. ceilings. stairways, buill-in partiti ons. finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and stmcLUrill items, and fixed se rvice equipm ent, including the weight of cmlles.
204.2 Weights of Materials and Constructions

The actual weights of materials and constructions shall be: used in determining dead loads for purposes of design. In the absence of definite illfonnation, it shall be permitted to use the minimum values in Tables 204-1 and 204-2 .
204.3 Partition Loads

to create the loading shear and satisfied in 205.3.2 or

Floors in office buildings and other buildings where partition locations arc subject to change shall be designed 10 suppon, in add ition to all otiter loads, a uniform ly distributed dead load equal to 1.0 kPa of floor area.

Where it can be determined in designing fl oors that the actu al li ve load wi ll be grea ter (han {he value shown ill Table 205-1, the actual live load shall be used in the design of such buildings or ponions th ereof. Special provisions shaH be made for machine and apparatus loads.
205.3.2 Distribution of Uniform Floor Loads Where unifonn fl oor loads are i nvo l ved, consideration may be limited to fu ll dead load on all spans ill co mbination with full live load on adjHccllt spans and alternate spans. 205.3.3 Concentrated Loads Floors shall be designed to SU ppOrl safely the un iformly distributed li ve loads prescribed in this section or the co ncentrated load given in Table 205 ~ 1 whichever produces the greatest load effects. Unless otherwise specified the indica ted concentration slwll be assumed to be uniformly di stributed over an area 750 mill square and shall be located so as to produce the lIlOlximum load effects in the slruclUral mcmber.
ProviSion shall be made ill areas where vehicles are used or stored for concentrated loads, L, co nsi sting or tw o or more loads spaced 1.5 III nomi na ll y on ce ntcr without uniform live loads. Each IO(ld shall be 40 percen t of the

National Structural CoeJe of the Pl1ilippine s 6\11 Edition Volum e 1


CHAloTER 2-- Minimum Desi(Jn Loads

gross weight of the maximum size vehicle to be accommodated. Parking garages for the storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles with no repair or refueling shall have a floor system designed for a

accordance with Section 203.3 or 203.4 as appropriate, producing the greatest stresses shall govern.

concentrated load of not less than 9 kN acting on an area of 0.015 rn 2 without uniform live loads. The condition of concentrated or uniform live load, combined in

205.3.4 Special Loads Provision shall be made for the special vertical and lateral
loads as set forth in Table 205-2.

Table 205-1 - Minimum Uniform and Concentrated Live Loads

Use Category
1. Access floor systems




Computer use
. 4.8

Office use



0 7.2 2. Armories I--------------+----------i----------------------2.9 0 Fixed seats 3. Theaters, assembly areas J and auditoriums. Movable seats Lobbies and platforms Stages areas
4. Bowling alleys, poolrooms and similar recreational areas
5. Catwalk for maintenance access 4.8 4.8


o o o o

- - - - 1 - - - - .---.--3.6


6. Cornices and marquees

- - - - - - - - - - -..- .--.-.-----..- --.----.--.-----... --- _ . _--_._-----1--4.8

o o

7. Dining roOnls and restaurants

I O. Hospitals

8. Exit facilities 5 4.8 ---------. - . - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .--..----.----11----.- .--..-----..---.General storage and/or repair 4.8 - . - -..---------.--.-- --.-.-.-...---------- '- - - - - - - - 1 9. Garages Private or pleasure-type 1110tor 1.9 -'-vc"I"'1i"'c.::lc'--,,5("'0o.ra'"g"'>c'-_ _

+ __._________+____._._ . ___. _.__

0 _.0 . _ _ ." __

Wards and rooms Laboratories & operating

4.5 '


--------4.5 2

f-____~r..::o~o_"Ill.::S'- _______ . __.____

o~"'o_._~_~._. _. _______ _

Corridors above ground floor 3.8 - - - - - - -_._- --- -- - - - - - + - _ . _ - - - _ ._ _._--_.__._-_. _. _------_._._------ Reading rooms 2.9 1------_--------__---- - - - - I I. Libraries 7.2 Stack roOIllS Corridors above ground floor 3.8

4.5 _... _..._- - - -4.5


4.5 '

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -----__ ------------1--- - - - - - .__._---------_._--9.0 2 Light 60 ______--_-1----12. Manufacturing

----------_... _ . ._ . _------- _ .. _ - - - ' - - Heavy
12.0 13.4 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Ptlilippines

CHAPTER 2 . Minimum Design Loads


..,......... ,. ......

_. -.....

...... ... . ... .. .. ... . .,_ .. "-,, .......



Usc 01' Occupancy .._-- ..._'....... . _.... .. _- --- ._.,. ....... ...... Description ..,

- .. _--

Uniform Load 1 .. .. -..,.---..-.... . .. ... -. kPa

~- - ,



-_ ........ _..Load _-- _ ... - .....

9 .0

.. _.....

------Lobbies & ground floor

13. Office

Ca ll Ce llters & B PO conidors Orrices

2 .9



9.0' 9.0 11.0 ' 9.0 '

Building corridors above Brou nd floor Press rooms 14. Print ing plants Composing and linotype rooms

7.2 4.8

-1.9 2.9' 1.9' 1.9

Basic floor area

15. Rcsidelllial 8 Ex tcrior balcon ies Decks Storage 16. Rcs lroo ms

0 0


17. Reviewing sl<Incls, grands tands, Bleachers, and folding and telescoping seatin g .... ..




---_ _-_

18. Roof decks

Same as area served or Occupancy Cla ssrooms


-45 ' 45 4.5


19. Schools

Corridors above ground Ooor Ground Ooor corridors

3.8 4.8
12.0 0.0

20. Sidewalks a nd drive ways 21. Storage

Public access

Lig ht ---------.---_ Heavy



_---_._---- _..---------- --_.-









4.5 2
13.4 1


22. Stores


21 Pedcstrian bridges and walkways

Nores fOR TMnE 205/ See Scctioll 205.5 j(Jr live food reciuctiollJ. S('c S/'uil}ll 205.J.3.jint paragmph./or Ol"/'lIlI/ loud


A'{:rt' lIIbly ar('os inc/llt/l' .mel! OCCllf)(III(it',~ ar(' W"lI'mlly aC("/',\'.\ihle to til{! flublie.


dlllln' I/(//ls, Ilrill room.". Rymllfl.filllll.f. pla.l"~I"OIIIIl!.r. I'!(/Ul.~. /rrr(lc('s (Illd .I'ill/ifa l" occllpmlC'i('s that

F Ol" Jpe C"i{/('fmrf!(ls{~ rollfl'. sa Sectioll 205.-1.4, I:.:,ril/Clcilitie.l' .I-/W/l ill l"llldl' .\"I(ch 11X(',t (/lui .Iimilt,, lur .(.
(I,t /'rIITidol".\' .I'en'ill}; lII/I/I '("/ I{lfll1I

load 0/ I() o/" morc " cr.tll lI s. c.l'IcriOI' exit baIroil ii'S, ,I/(/irll'(IJ'J, fin'


Im/il idllal sll/il" tr('ml.l sh/lll hi' des;gll(,(/ to .III/'/Io,--t a 1.3 /.;N ('oll('('l lll'(I(('d !lIad plw,(,(f in a posit;ulI thaI would rall.fl' /111J.rilllllll! .~/r('ss. Swir slri"I-It'r.f ilia)' hI' de.\"I);IU:,tl fin the ul/ijt".m IO(ld ofC'1/orJlI ill tilt' Ie/hit'.
Stl~ 051'( '(;011 205 ..1.3.f('coll(/,mmgraph, /tJf (,(lIIcctl/ml('d lom/.f. Srr

1'0"'1' 2052 fi"'I'('hk/~ Im'-rier~.

flu.'.\' (In' tI.lsm ;a(('(I. but /l~('d 1/tIi c.n,:(,l'l/ 2.4 kP(I .

RI'.\irh!l/tin( o('n lp(ll/tir.f iI/dud., I'riwlIl! dwl'ifillg.f. (111(11"11111'111$ lilli' hOld guest 1"/10111.1 '.

/(lOc/.f sllall 1101 Ill:


IlIml Ihe' load for 111(' ocne{l(lIIcy wil h whl<__"

National S truc tural CorJe or


Philippinos G Edition Volume 1



CHAPTEli 2. ... Minimum Design Loads

Table 205-2 Special Loads'

Usc or Occupancy
Vertical Latera! _+_--"L",o:"""d__-i-._}__ o_"_d__

NOlexfor Table 205-2


___ C_ -a_tc-,g,-o_r'-Y___ j ___ ~~~criJ!_I._i(_"_'_I___ k_P_"_-----j __.-.:k.-.:P-,-a'---j


nJe tabulated loods orl' minimlllll /i)(Jds. Where olher ver/iml by Ihis code or reqllired hy thl' design would ((JUSI' gn'(l/er Slre.I'.\'<'S, Ihey slwll be used. Loads are ill kPo linkss ()/h('l'll'isl' illdiclIl{'d in Ihe rab/I'.

(Jnils is kNlm.
/{'rol .\'\\'0)' I){(/I'illg loads of 350 Nlm {Jarallel (Ill/I 145 Nlm perpendiclIl(lr.I' 10 sl'a( (lnd jO{)(/)ow<i.l'.

public access al site (live load)









stands bleachers, and folding and Seals and footboards


Note 3

Docs flOlllPI)!.\' 10 cl'ilings thm hlll'{' ,wjfid('1JI tlJlIll (len'.I's ji'OIII be/ow. ,I'l/ch llial o('n'ss is 1101 rt'qllircd lI'ililin Ihe sllIln' a/Jo\'!! (he cciling. 00('.\' no( IIpply II! Ct'iliIJg.l if (he IIl1ic areos ohm'!' fhe cd/ing {Ire 1101 pr(Jllidei/ with access. This hl'e loud IIt'NjIlO( IN' considered (/.1' w:lillg simu/wl/collsly lI'ilh other lil'(, /(JUd.I' imposed UpOIl (Iu' ailillg framing or ils supporting s(rw'IJ/J'{'.
The impact jacfOrs included arl' Jor cram's with .,'ted lI'ilee/.I' riding Oil ,wed rails, TIJ<'y ilia), be modified if SlIbsf(lntilllillg {ecllnical data accepwble 10 fhe bllildillg official ix SlIlimilled. Live loads Oil crt/ne support Rirders omi Iheir COlll1ectiollS shall

seating (live load) 3.

Stage accessories (live







2.4 i___________ I-'c~~.~<?,!~~oo~~._ ._~ __ ..____ .______ ~

projection and

Over stages



Ceiling framing (live load)

All uses

he taken as the lIJaximllll! ('/'{IIIC wheel loads, For IH'IU/OIII operated traw'fing crane support girders olld their cOllnectiollS, rhe imp(/ctJactors shall be I. JO. nJis applies in the ilifl'Clioll parallel to (hl' rullway mils {longitudinal}. The jaclor Jor Jorces p<'Ipelldiclilaf 10 Ihe mil is 0.20 x Ihe 11'(II/SI'('I'se Iml'eling IO(lds (trolley, cab, /looks olld IIIfI'd loads). Forccs shall be appfi{'d (If lOp oj rail (llld lIIay be disturbed omong rails of mllllip/1' rail C/,{lIIe,~ and shall he dislrilmted with duc regard for latNal s(if/tI('SS of (hc Sll'IIctllres

except over
. stages ._"_ ... _____ ..,_.

0.5 <1

supporting the.~e rails. 7 A load per lincal ml'ter (kNIIII) /() be applicd horizontally at right
(lllgk~ 10

0.25 interior walls, 1~6-.~E-'-~'l-'-c-'-va-'-t-'-o-rs-'-'-'-In-'-d:""'-+~~------ ~---------I-~~--i

dumbwaiters (dead and live ~____~I(~"~II~ls~)____~


Partitions and

fhl' fOp rail.

Intermediate rails, panel fillers (lnd thl'ir CO/lnectiolls shall be capable OJWifhstaliding (j load oj 1.2 kP(I applied horizonta!!., al

2 x total loads
(1.I 0


Cranes (dead
and live loads)

including impact

1,25 x IOlal load'\

righl (lllglcs 01'1'/' Iht' entire triblltal), area. ille/llding openings alld spaces helween rails. Reaclioll.\' du' 10 Ihis loading /lccd nol be combined with those oj Footnotc 7. v A horizontal load in kN applied (If right (lngh's /(J Ihl' I'I'hic1t~ barrier (If a heifilll of 450 1/1/11 (I/;m'e rhe parking surfllC!'. The jorce may be di.Hriiulfed (11'1'1' a 300-111I1I',Wf/lare orca,

increase ----------':xit fac;ii!T~s

total loado

serving an
occupant load

greater than

0.75 kN/m

The 111OllIJtillg : oj handrails .1'1/(/11 be such that the complcted handrail (lnd slIpportillg strU('llIn' art' cupabh' (~( \\'i(hs/(Iliding a load oj (J[ least 890 N applied ill alii' directioll 1It aNI' {loill( 0/1 Ihl' fail, Tln's(' loads s/Jal! nol /)(' (/.~'.\'lmJ('d to (lC( ('lIlIlI/lmiH'I\' with Itcm 9.
\/(~l'Iiclll membas oj stora[ie /'(Icks ,I'hal! hc prol('c/ed from impact Jorces (!( opef(llill[i equip/llelil. or rocks shal! 1)(' designed so that fiji/un' (!( 0111' l'erticalll!(,lIIber \l'il/llot CO lise cof/opse oj 1/101'1' 1/)0/1 tile bny or !J(/ys dircctly supported hy Iha/lIJember.


Balcony railings

and guardrails

50 1-=----1----1--__--

Other than exit facilities



Thl' 1.1 kN load is to be applied to (111.1' single fire sprillkler support poillt hilt flOl simult(llu'OI(.\'/Y to 01/ ,\'II/>porl joillts.

27 kN'
S('l' Noll' I()

f-------.------- 9.

Vehicle barriers J-landrails

Over 2.4

! J. Storage racks
12. Fire sprinkler



1.1 kN plus

stnJctural support

weight of

See Note 10 See Table 208-/2 See Tahfe

----- -- - -

Ii 208-/2 _. _______i.~~~c____"_______ _

Association of Structural Engineers of Ole Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design loads


Table 205-3 Minimum Roof Live Loads

,.---- -- _ . _ - - - METHOD I

I. Flat J or rise less than 4 units vcnidb.l in 12 ullit s horizontal (33.3% slope). Arch and dome with rise less than one-eighth of span.
2. Rise 4 units verti cal
10 less than 12 units vertical in 12 unit s horizontal (33.3% to less than 100% slope). Arch and dome wi th rise one-cig})!h of span 10 less than

Tributary Area (m') to 20 20 to 60 lOver 60 Uniform Load (kPa)

Uniform Load 2 (k Pa)

METHOD 2 Rate of Reduction ,



(percen tage)





0 .08








three-eighths of span. 3. Ri se 12 units vertical in 12 units horizolllal (100% slope) and greater. Arch or dome with risc three-eig hths o f



0 .60

0 .60
No reduction permifted

span or greater.
4. Awnings except cloth covered . " 0,25 0,25 0.50 0,25 0.50 025 -- ---, 0,50

5, Greenhouses,


lath agri cu ltural buildings . 5

----- ------- - ------ ------ ------,.,... ".

houses and

For sJ1ectnl'l'urpos~ mnf.f. -W't: Sl'ct/OII 205.4.4. 5u Sections 205,5 (1//(/ 205.6 for /itf!/ond reductions, Th(' rare (If "'dllC/ioll r ill EqullIi(lll 205/ ,fh(1I1I)~ (IS ;lIdicatf'd ill Ih~ lobiC'. '/1". max;1I/lfm redllnion. R, s/ItIIIIl()Il'xcecd Ih ~ l'{l/lfC' illfJiI:nI('d ill the /OhI~. A fI(1I roof is (III)" mnj wil/) a slope le.n tlul/J 1/4 wlil I'erti, (I/ i ll 12 lill i/of Ir nrhmllll/ (2% slo!,e). The 1;1'(' /11(1(/ fllr filii raoff is ill (ldtiilinll /(J lilt J'rmdiIrg hKul required h.I' Sf'nim/ 206.7. SI'(' dl'jilll/imf it! S,,tioll 202. Sl'e SC'c/ifm 205.4.4.fllr , 'WII 'c'lllm/i'd load "('(Illiremenu .for lU'(>I,"hOlHC rool flU'wbers,

2()5.4 Roof Live Load s 205.4, I General

Roofs shall be designed for the un;( live loads. L" set fonh in Table 205-3, The li ve loads shall be assumed to act vertically lipoll the area projected 011 a horizontal plane.

For th ose conditi ons where light ~g agc metal preformed structural .sheets serve as the SUpp0l1 and finish of roofs , roof slructum l members <lITangcd to create continuity shall be considered adequate if designed for full dead loads on all spans in combination wi th the most cri tical one of the following superimposed loads: I. The uniform roof live load. Ln set forth in Table 205) on all s pilns. 2. A conccnlr<ued gravity load, Ln of 9 kN plnced on any span supporting a tributary ,uea greater than 18 111 2 to creat e maximum st resses in the member, whenever this loadi ng creales greater stresses than those caused by the uniform live load . The concenl rated load shall bc placed on the member over a length of 750 mill along the span. The concentrated load need 110t be applied to more than one span sillHl!tanc()usl y,
Water <'lCculllulmioll as prescrihed in Section 206.7.

205.4.2 Distribution of Luads

Where uiliform roof loads arc involved in the design of $tructural Illcmbcr$ arranged to create continu ity, consideration may be limited to full dc,ld load$ 011 all spans in co mbination with full roof live loads on adjacent spans and on al ternate spans.
Exceptio'l: Altenzate spa~1 loading need flot be considered where the uniform roof live load is 1.0 kPa 'or more.


National Structural CO(j G of U18 PhiliPPUHJS 6 Edition VOIUI11e 1



CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design l.oads

205.4.3 Unbalanced Loading Unbalanced loads shall be used where such loading will result in larger members or connections. Trusses and arches shall be designed to resist the stresses caused by unit live loads on one half of the span jf such loading

The live load reduction shall not exceed m i' Ci,-'~: l4 t ;n garages for the storage of pri vate pleasure cars havius. a capaci ty of not more than nine passengers per veh icle. 205.6 Alternate Floor Live Load Reduction

results in reverse stresses, or stresses greater in any portion than the stresses produced by the required unit
live load on the entire span. For roofs whose structures arc composed of a stressed shell. framed or solid. wherein s tresses caused by any poim loading arc distributed throughou t the area of the shell, the requirements for unbalanced unit live load design l11<1y be reduced 50

As an alternate to Equ,Hion (205~ I ), the unil live loads set forth in Table 205~1 Illay be reduced in accordance wilh Equation 2053 o~ any member, including Oat slabs, having an inOuence area of 40 m 1 or morc.

205.4.4 Special Roof Loads Roofs 10 be used for special purposes shall be designed for appropriale loads as approved by Ihe building official. Greenhouse roof bars, purlins and rafters shall be designed to carry a 0.45 kN concentrated load. LT. in addition to the uniform live load 205.5 Reduction of Live Loads The design live load determined using the IInit live loads as sel fMh in Table 205-1 for floors and Table 20S-}. Method 2, for roofs may be reduced 011 any member supporting more than 15 m2, including Oat slabs, except for floors in places of public assembly and for live loads greater than 4.8 kPa. in accordance wit h the following


= influence area, 1112 = reduced design live load per square meler of area supponed by the member L" = unreduced design live load per square meter of area supponed by the member (Table 205-\)

The influ ence area AI is four times the tributary area for a co lumn , two times the tributary area for a beam, equal to the panel area for a lW() ~ way slab, and equ al to the product of the span and th e full flange width for a precast T-beam The reduced live load s hall nOI be less Ihall 50 percell I of the unit live load La for members receiving load frolll one level only, nor less than 40 percent of the unit live load La for other members.

R = r(A -15)

(205-1 )

The reduction sha ll not exceed 40 percent for members re<.:eiving load from one level only, 60 percent for other mcmbers or R. as detemlined by (he following equation:

R=23. IO+DIL)




of floor or roof supported by the member, square meter, m 2 = dead load per squ are meIer of area suppo rted by th e member. kPa = uni t live load per square meIer of area supported by the member. kPa = reduction in percentage, %. = rate of reduction equal to 0.08 for nOOni. Sec Table 205-3 for roofs

= area

ror storage loads cx<.:eeding 4.8 kPa, 110 reduction shall bc

Innde. except that design live loads on co lumns may he

reduced 20 perce nt.

Associa tion of S tru cturFlI Engineers of the Pllilippinf)S

CHAPTER 2 .. Minimum DeSIgn Loads


206.1 General JII addition to the olher design loads specified in this chapter. struC[UrC5 shall be designed to resist Ihe loads specified in thi s section and the special loads scI forth in Table 205 2. Sec Section 207 for design wind loads, and Section 208 for design earthquake loads.

206.2 Other Loads Buildings and ot her slnlClures and pOri ions thereof shall
be designed to resist ali loads d ue to app licable fluid press ures. F, lateral so il pressures, If. p ~ nding loads. P, and self-straining forces, T. Sec Seclion 206.7 fo r po nding loads for roofs .

206.5 Interior Wall Loads Interior walls, pcnnancn! partitions and temporary partitions that exceed I.S 111 in height shall be designed to resist all loads to which they are subjected but not less than a, L , of 0.25 kPil applied perpendi cul ar to the wa ll s. The 0.25 kPa load need 1I0t be applied simultaneously with \vind or seismic loads. The defl ec tion of such walls under it load of 0.25 kPa shall not exceed 1/240 of the span fm walls with brittle finishes and IIl20 of the span for wall s with flexible finishes. SC,e Table 208-12 for earthquake design requirements where such requirements are more restricti ve.
Excepti(J1J: ..,,'

Ffexible,' jdiding orpor1dki~par(iiioJ):;-,~re. n~l. req~jred 10 ",!f.el ." Ih!! .::{iJaft.aiiii defl.i!h!iM"((jd.@jfl <:b~( ;'(1I!i~1 be

p'rov;siorjs ojtbis,co'i;J[' . . .
206.3 Impact Loads
The live loads specified in Secti ons 205.3 shall be assumed to include il llow3ncc for ordinary impacl conditions. Provisions shall be made in the structu ral design for use s nJld loads thaI in volve unu sual vibration and impact forces. Sec Section 206.9. 3 for impact loads for cranes, and Section 206.10 for heliport an d helistop landing areas.

a~fhori4.7 j(r: ":t~ ~~~~Rp'qf#~g- ~U:fi~i.~ te~~)o' ;fn"et , the

...~.: : -.

206.3.1 Elevators All elevator loads shall be increased by 100% for impacl. 206.3.2 Machinery Fo r the purpose of design, the weight of machinery and movi ng loads shal! be inc rea~cd as follows to allow for
impact: I.

206.6 Retaining Walls Rerain ing walls shall be designed to resist loads due to the lateral pressu re of retained material in accordance with accepted engi neering pract ice. Walls retainin g draincd so il, where the surface of the retained soi l is level, shall be designed for a load, tI, equivalent to that exerted by a nuid weighing not less than 4.7 kPa per meter of depth and having a depth equal to that of the retained soil. Any surcharge shall be in addition to the equivalent nuid pressure.
Retaining wal ls shall be designed (0 res ist sliding by at leas t 1.5 limes the latera l fo rce and overturning by at least J.S limes the overturning lIloment, using allowable stress design load s.

Eleva tor Illachincry Light mac hinery, shaft - or motor-dri ven

100% 20 %


Reciprocatin g machinery or power-driven units 50% Hangers for floors and balconies

206.7 Water AccullJulation All roofs shall he designed with suffi cie nt slope or C limber to cnsure adequate dra inage after the long- term dcOec ti on from dC'ld load or shall be designcd to rcsisl ponding load, P, combined in accordance with Section
203 .3 or 203.4 . Ponding load shall include water
accu mulation from any source due to deflection .

All percentages shall be increased where specified by the manufacturer.

206.4 Anchorag e of Concrt!tc and Ma so nry \Valls
Concrete <l nd m;lsonry wa lls shall he ,lIlchorcd as required
J 04 .3.3. Such anchorage shall he c:lpablc o f resisting the load co mbinations of Section 203.1 or 203.4 using the greater of th e win d or c<lrthquake loads requi red by this chapter or il minimullI horizontal force of 4 kN/rn of ",;]11. substituted for E,

by Secti on

206.8 Uplift on Floors and Foundations In the des ign of baseme nl floo rs and similar approximately horizontal c1emellls below grade, the upward pressure V.I water, where appl ic nb le. shall be take n <IS the full hyd rostatic pressure applied over {he entire area. The hydrostatic load shall be mcnsured from the underside of the co nstrllction. Any other upward loads shall be included in the design.
Where expansive soils are presenl under fOtl ndalions or

the founda ti ons, slabs, and other co mponents s h,dl be designed to tolerate the mo ve ment or

s l abs-() n ~g round .

National Structural Code of the Plli!ippines 6 Edition VoIU01 0 1

2- 16

CHAP TEI1 2 - Minimum Design Loads

resist the upward loads caused by the expansive so il s, or the expansive soil shall be removed or stabili zed around
<md beneath the structure.

206.10 Heliport and Helistop Landing Areas

In addition 10 other design requireme nts of this chapte r, hcliport and helistop la nding or touchdown <ueas shall be designed for the [allowing loads, combincd in accordance wi lh Scc lion 203.3 or 203.4:

206.9 Crane Loads 206.9. 1 Gellera l

The crane load simi I be the ra led cHpacity of lhe erllnc. Design .Ioads for the runway be.lllls, including conn ections .1I1e1 SUppOIl bracke ts , of moving bridge cr,lI1cs and monorail cranes shall include the max imum wheel loa ds of Ihe crane and the vertical impact. lateral. nnd longi tudinal forces induced by the moving cra ne.


Dead luad plus <IctuaJ weight of th e helicopter.

Dead load plus a si nglc CO llcc lllrHted impact load, L , covering 0.1 m2 of 0.75 li mes the fuily loaded weight of the heli copter if it is equipped wit h hydrau lictype shock absorbers. or 1.5 times lhe fully loaded we ight of the helicopter if il is cq uipped wi th a ligid or s kidtype landing gear.

206.9.2 Maximum Wheel Load

The maximum wheel loads shall be the wheel loads produced by Ihe weighl of Ihe bridge. as appl icable, plus Ihe sum of the rated capacity and (he weight of (he trolley with the trolley posi tioned all its ru nway whe re Ihe resulting load effect is ma ximum .

The dead load plus a uniformlivc load. L, of 4.8 kPa. The rcq uircd liye load may be reduced in ac.cordance with Seclion 205.5 o r 205.6.

206.9.3 Vertical Impact Force

The maxi mum wheel loads of the crane shall be increa~ed by th e pe rcentages shown below to determine th e induced vertica l impact or vib ration force:


Monorai l c ran es (powered) Caboper:lIcd or remotely operated bridge c ra nes (powered)

25 % 25% 10%

2. 3.

Pcnd antoper:lled bridge cra nes (powered )

Bridge cranc,"i or monorail cranes with hand gcHrcd ridge. trolley and hoist

206 .9.4 L'lIeral Fo rce

The latera l force on crane runway bcams wi th electrica lly powered trolleys sha ll be calculated as 20% of the sum of the rated capaci ty of the crane and the weight of the hoist [lnd trolley. The lateral force sha ll be assu med to act horizontally at the tracti on surface of a runw ay beam, in ei ther direction perpendicular to the beam, and shall be distributed with due regard {Q the latera l stiffness of the runw,IY bea m ill1d support ing struct ure.

206.9.5 Longiludinal Forces The longilUdinal force on cra ne runw,lY bcallls, e.xcept for
bridge crancs with hand-geared bridges, Sllllll be calculated iI.... 10% of the lll<lxillluln wheel loads of th e cra ne.. The longitu dinal forc e sha ll he assumcd to act horii'.o lllall y tlI the trilct ion surfacc o f II r u n WilY hea m, in eithcr (i irct:li(lIl parall el to the bea m.

As socia tion of Structural [:n9ineers of the PhilipPil1 cs

CHAPTER 2 ~" Minimum Design Loads


APPROVED. jurisdiction.






207.1 General 207.1.1 Scope Buildings, towers and other vertical structures, including the Main Wind-Force Resisting System (MWFRS) and all components and cladding thereof, shall be designed and const!1lc!cd to resist wind loads as specified herein. 207.1.2 Allowed Procedures The design wind loads for buildings, towers and other vertical stl1lcturcs , including the MWFRS and component and cladding elements thereof, sha!! be determined using
one of the following procedures: (I) Method I Simplified Procedure as specified in Section 207.4 for building meeting the requirements specified therein; (2) Method 2 - Analytical Procedure as specified in Section 207.5 for buildings meeting the requirements specified therein; (3) Method 3 - Wind Tunnel Procedure as specified in Section 207.6.

BASIC WIND SPEED. V Three-second gust speed at JO rn above the ground in Exposure C (see Section as determined in accordance with Section 207.5.4 and associated with an annLlal probability for 0.02 of being equaled or exceeded. (50-years mean reCllrrence interval). BUILDING, ENCLOSED is a building that does not comply with the requirements for open or partially enclosed buildings. BUILDING ENVELOPE. Cladding, roofing, exterior wall, glazing, door assemblies, window assemblies, skylight assemblies, and other components enclosing the building. BUILDINGS, FLEXIBLE. Sleoder buildings that have a fundamental natural frequency less than I Hz. BUILDING, LOW-RISE. Enclosed or partially enclosed building that comply with the following conditions: I.

207.1.3 Wind Pressures Acting on Opposite Faces of Each Building Surface In the calculation of design wind loads for the MWFRS and for components and cladding for buildings, the algebraic sum of the pressures acting on opposite faces of each building surface shall be taken into account.
207.1.4 Minimum Design Wind Loading The design wind load, determined by anyone of the procedures specified in Section 207 . 1.2, shall be not less than specified in (his section. Main WindRFol'ce Resisting System

Mean roof height h less than or equal to 18



Mean roof height II does not exceed least horizontal dimension.

BUILDING, OPEN. A building having each wall at least 80 percent open. This condition is expressed for each wal! by the equation Ao c 0.8 Ag where BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED is a building that complies with both of the following conditions:

The wind load to be llsed in the design of the MWFRS for an enclosed or partially enclosed building or other structure shall not be Jess than 0.5 kPa multiplied by the area of the building or structure projected onto a vertical plane norillal to the assllmed wind direction. The design wind force for open buildings and other structures shall be not less than 0.5 kPa multiplied by the area AI as defined in Section 207.3.

the total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds the slim of the areas of openings in the balance of the building envelope (walls and roof) by more than 10%; and the total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure exceeds 0.5 m2 or I percent of the area of that wall, whichever is smaller, and the percentage of openings in the balance of the building envelope does not exceed 20 percent.

2. Components and Cladding The design wind pressure for components and cladding of buildings shall not be less than a net pressure of 0 ..5 kPa acting in either direction normal to Ihe surface . 207.2 Definitions
The following definitions apply to the provisions of Section 207 .

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 2 --- Minimum Design Loads

These conditions equations:

A ..

are expressed




GLAZING. Glass or transparent or translucent plastic sheet used in windows, doors, skyl ights, or cu rtain wal ls.
GLAZING, IMPACT n ES ISTANT. Glazing that has been shown by testi ng in accordance with ASTM EI886 and ASTM 1 996 or other approved test methods 10 withstand the impact of wind -borne missiles likely to be generated in wind-borne debris regions during design winds. HILL. With respect 10 topogr;'lphic effects in Section 207.5_7 , a land su rface charac terized by strong relief in any horizontal di rection (Figure 207~4) IMPACT RESISTANT COV EnING. A covering designed to protect glazi ng, which has been shown by testing in accord ance with ASTM EI 886 and ASTM E 1996 or other approved test methods to withstand the impact or wind-bOl:ne debris missiles likely to begenerated in wind~b(}rnc debris reg ions during design winds. IMI'OnTANCE FACTOR, I ... A ractor that accounts for the degree of hazard to huma n life and damage to property. WIND -FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM MAIN (MWFRS). An asse mblage of souctural elements assigned to provide support and stabil ity for the overall st ructure. The system generally receives wind load ing from more than one surface. MEAN ROOF HEIGHT, h . The average of the roof eave height and the heigh t to the hi ghest point on the roof surface. except that. for roof angles of less than or equal to 10, the mean roof height sh<lll he (he roar heave hei ght.
OPENINGS. Apertures or holes in the building cIwciope that allow air to now lhrough the building envelope and that arc designed as "open" during design winds as defi ned by these provisions.

> 1.10 A",

Ao > smaller of (0.5m 2 or 0.01 Ax) and A",IAs; S 0.20

nUILDlNG OR OTIIER STRUCTU RE, REGULA RSHAPED. A building or other structure having no unusual geometrical irrcguhuity in spatial forlll. nUII-DING RIGID. A building or other st ru cture whose fundamental frequency is greater than or equal to I H z. n UILDING, SIMPLE DIAPHRAGM. A building in which both wi ndward and leeward wind loads arc transmiHcd through Door and roof diaphragms to the: same verri cnl MWFRS (c.g . no stnlctural separations). COM PONENTS AND CLADDING. Elements or the building envelope that do not qualify as part of the MWFRS . DESIGN FOnCE, F, is the equivalent stati c rorce to be llsed in the determination of wind loads for ope n buildings and other structures. OgSIGN PRESSURE,p, is the equivalent stati c pressure to be used in the determination of wind loads for buildings.

EA VE HEIGHT, h . The di stance from Ihe grou nd surfacc adjacent to the building to Ihe roof cave line at a particular wall . If fh e height of the eave v<lries along the \v;111. the average height shall be used .
EFFECTIVE WIND AREA is the area used to determine Gel'" For componclH and cladding elements, the effective wind area in Figures 207-1 f through 207- 17 and Figure 207-19 is the spa n length multiplied by an effective width thaI need not be less than one-third the span length. For cladd ing fasteners , the effective wind are:'l ~ha ll not be greater !lum the area thai is tributary to an individual rastener.
ESCA RPM ENT. Also known as scarp. wi th resp!xt to tOlhJgraphic cffc(;t i ll Section 207.5.7. a cliff or steep slope generally separ;Hing two levels or gc nlly sloping a reas (sec Figure 207 -4).
FJH~ E HOO F. Roof with a conrigllr<l tioll genc:nllly conforming 10 those shown in Figures 207 18/\ through 207 1t{J) (l1)oJlosiope. pitched. or (roughed) in an opel! building with no enclosing walls lJlldCrll ca lh th e roof

OTHEn STRUCUTU n ES are nonbuilding stru ctures including poles, masts. trussed towers. and bill boards {hilt are not Iypically occupied by persons but arc also covered by this Code. RECOGNIZED LITEHATURE. Pub lished research findings and tcc hnicnl papers Ihm arc approved.

IUDGE. With respecl to topographic crfects in Sc(;t ioll 207.5.7 an elongated crest of a hill ch;\f<\ by stro ng relief in two directions (sce Figure 207-4).

sII r fa ('(~.

Associ ,ltlon of Stru ctu ra l Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTEf1 2 - Minimum Design Loads


WIND-DORNE DEBRIS REGIONS. typhoon prone regions located:


Area, wi thin

Within 1.6 km of the coastal mean high water Iinc

where the basic wind speed is equal 180 kph.

or greater tlwn


In areas where the basic wind speed is equal to or greater than 190 kph.

207.3 Symbols and Notalions The following symbols and notation apply only to the provisions of Section 207:

A = effective wind area, 1112 Aa ::: ampJilUde factor for estimation of


[or other

AI ::: area of opcn buildings and other struclUres cit h l~r norillal to lhe wind direction or projected on a plane normal to the wind direction , m 2 Ac ::: the gross area of that wall in which A(I is identified,

Agi :::

the sum of the gross surface areas of the buildi ng

envelope (wall s and roof) not including A $' rn 2

All A"i

A"S' As

B lJo


:;: : total area of openings in a wall that receives positive ex ternal pressure, m 2 :;;: [he sum of the areas of openings in th e bui ldin g enve lope (walls and roof) not including A", 1112 == total area of ope nings in the building envelope. m2 ;:: gross area of the solid freestandin g wall or solid sign, 111 2 = width of preS$ure coefficient zone, 111 == horizontal dimens ion of a bu ilding, lower or other s tnlcture measured normal to wind di rection, III == horizon tal dimensio n at the base of a structu re, III = horizontal dimension <u the top of a structure, In == average horizontal dime nsion of a structure, or taken as average of Bo aJld Ih. III

b :;: : mean hourly wind speed factor in

Table 207-5

Eq. 207- I 4 frolll

3-second gust speed factor from Table 207-5 ;: force coefficient to be used in the dClcnnination o f wind loads for olher structures eN == net pre..'isure coefficient to be used in determination of wind loads for ope n buildings ;; external pressure coefficient to be used ill the l detennination of wi nd loads for buildings C :; lUrbulcil cc in tensity faclor in Eq. 207-5 from T'lbl e: 207-5 f) :; diametcr of a circula r s lmcturc or member, III D' ; depth of protmding elements such as ribs and spoilers, III Do = su rfacc drag coefficient P ; design wind force for other st ructures, kN G :; gust effcct factor for rigid buildings; al!lo coli lcd "simplified dynamic response factor" and is C/

b ;

eq ui va len t to Gf with R (resonan t response factor) assumed as zero Gf ; gust effect factor for MWFRS of flexible buildings and othcr structures, including poles, masts, billboards, and trussed lowers; also called "dynamic response faclor" G(.~m ;;combined net pressure coefficient for a parapet GCp = product of external pressure coefficient and gust effect factor to be used in the dcterillinatio n of wind loads for buildings GCp/ ;; product, of equivalent extemal pressure coefficient and gust effect factor to be used in the dctenninalion of wind loads for MWFRS of low rise bu ildings GC~,; = product of imernal pressure coefficient and gus t effect factor fa be used in the determination of wind loads for buildings gQ ;; peak factor for backgrou nd response in Eqs. 2074 and 207-8 CN ;; peak factor for resonant response in Eq. 2078 g, ;; peak factor for wind response in Eqs. 207.4 and 207-8 N ;; height ofhilJ or cscarpment in Figure 207A, III II = mean roof height of a building or height of other structure, except that cave height sha ll be used for roof angle Oof les s than or equa l to 10", III fir = roof eave height at a part icular wall , or the average height if the eave varies along the wall '\1" = impo rtance factor I; ;; intensity of turbulen ce from Eq , 207-5 kill ::: we ight distribution factor for est im ati on of tl\ for other structures K f ' Kz. KJ ;; multipliers in Figure 207-4 to obtain K :f K,f = wind directionali ty faClaf in Table 2072 K" ::: veloc it y pressure exposure coefficient eva lu ated at heigh t z;; II K= ;; veloci ty prcssure exposure coelTicient evaluated at height z K., :; : topographic factor as defined in Section 207.5.7 L :; horizontal dimension of a building measured parallel to the wind direction. m ,.-" ::: distance upwind of crest of hill or escarpment in rig 207A to where the difference in ground elevation is half the height of hill or escarpment, III L: = integral length scale of turbulence, 111 .
L, ;; horizontal dimension of return corner for a sol id frees tandin g wa ll or solid s ign from Figure 20720.


= mass

illlegra l length scale factor from Table 2075, III ratio. o r the rati o of att ached masses (c.g. <lnteIHl<!S, cables, lighting, ,1Ild othe r appu rt enances) at the top 5% of the tower or other vert ica l structure to the 10lal mass of the (owe r or other structure alone; for attached masses Ht lower levels

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6


Edition Volu me 1


CH AP TER 2 .. Minimum Design Loads

of the tower. an equivalent mass ratio shall be taken Mn :::; mass factor for esti mation of III for other stru ctures N, = reduced frequency from Eq . 20712 11/ ::;: building natural frequency, Hz " = design pressure to be used in the determination of
wind loads for buildings. kPa PI- ::: wind pressure acting on leeward [ace in Figure 207-9, kP" flllt! ne t des ign wind pressure from Eq. 207-2, kPa P'~f')= ncl design wi nd pressure for Exposu re B at II::: 9 III and I .. = 1.0 f,om Figure 2073 , kPa PI' ::: co mbined net pressure On a parapet from Eq. 207 -20, kPa /JJ :::; si mplifIed design wind pressure from Eq . 207- 1, kPa PJ I) ;;: si mplifi ed design wi nd pressure for E xposure B a.1 II = 9 m and I .. = 1.0 from Figure 207-3, kPa PII' :::; wind press ure acting on windward face in Figure 2079, kPa Ph = plan-shape factor for cS lil11al iOIl of "I for other st ructu res Q = background response factor from Eq. 2076 lJ ::: velocity press ure, kPa q" ::: velocity pressure evaluated at height z ::: ii, kPa qi ::: velocity pressure for internal pressure determinatio n, kPa qp ::: ve loci ty press ure at lOp of parapet, kPa q~ ::: velocity pressure evaluated at height z above ground , kPa R ::: resonant re spo nse fa cto r from Eq. 207-10 Rna::: aspect rati o factor for cstimalion of for other strucLUres, eva luated at the base widlh , Bo RII , R,.. II,. values from Eq . 207 - 13 Ri ::: reduction faclOr from Eq . 207- 16 Nil :: va lue from Eq. 207- 11 s ::: vertical dim ension of th e solid freestanding wall or . solid sign from Figure 207 -20, m. r ::: rise-to-span ratio for arched roofs. V = basic wind speed obtained from Table 207-1, kph. The basic wind speed corresponds to a 3-second gust speed al 10 rn above ground in exposu re category C Vi := ullpartitioned in le rnal vo lu me, m 3 \I: :::: mean hourl y wind speed al heightz, kph W ::: width ofa building in Figures 207- 12 and 207-14 A and B and width of span in rig urcs 207 ~ 13 and 207 -15 , III X := distance to center of pressure from winciwHfd edge in Figure 207-18 .111 x ::: tli stancc upwind or down w ind of crest ill Figure 207 4, III 1. :::: heig ht above ground level. In Z :::: cquiva lclll height of ~tnJc turc, III


:;:; nominal height of the atmospheric boundary layer

used in thi s standard Values appear in Tab le 207-5

Z mitl :::: exposure constant from Table 207~5

3second gust~speed power Jaw exponent from Table 2075 = reciprocal of a from Table 207 5 Ii ::: mean ho url y wind-speed power law exponent III Eq . 2071 4 from Table 207-5 fJ ::: damping ratio, perce nt critical for buildings o r othe r structures PI := slructural damping ralio, percent critical for other structures Ba := aerodyn amic dampin g rat io, percent crit ical for other structu res e rati o of solid area to gross area for open sign, fa ce or a tru ssed tower, or lattice structure A. ;:;: adjustme nt fac tor for building height and exposure from Figures 207-2A and 207-3 E = integral length scale power law exponent in Eq. 207.7 from Table 2075 ,/ = value used in Eq. 207. 13 (see Section p :;:; roughness factor B :;:; angle of plane of roof from horizontal, degrees v :;:; heighHo -widtb ratio for so lid sign
(J. :::

207.4 Method I - Simplified Proeedure 207.4.1 Scope A building whose design wind loads arc determined in accordance with this section shall meet all the cond ition s of Sections or 207.4. 1.2. If a building qualifies on ly under Secli on 207.4. 1.2 for design of its components and cladding, then its MWFRS s hall be designed by Method 2 or Method 3. Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems For the design of MWFRSs the bui lding must meet all of the following condi tions:


The bu il ding is a simple diaphragm building as defined in Section 207.2 . The building is a low-rise building as defined in Secti o n 207.2. The bu ilding is enclosed as defi ned in Section 207.2 and conforms to the wind -borne debri s provisions of Section 207.5 .9. 3. The building is a regular-shaped buildin g or SlruclUre


4. 5.

as defined in Section 207 .2.

The building is not classified as a flexible building as defined in Sec tion 207.2


The building docs not have response charac terist ics ma king il subject to across wind load ing , vortex

Association of Structural En9in eers o f the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Desig n Loads

22 1

shedding, instabi lit y due to ga lloping or nutter; and does not have a site location for which channeling effects Or buffeting in the wake of upwind obstructions warran t special consideratio n.

windward and leewa rd net pressures, fJJ shall be determined by the following equation: (207-1 ) .1 Minimum Pressures The load effects of the design wind pressures from Section 207.4.2. 1 shall not be less th an the minimum load case from Section 207. 1.4 .J assllming the pressures, PSI for zones A, B, C, and D all equal to +0.50 kPa, while assumin g zones E, F, 0, and H all equal 100 kPa. Components and Cladding


The buildi ng has and approximately symmetri cal cross-sec tion ill each direction with either a flat roof or a gable or hip roof wit h 0::: 45. The building is exe mpted from torsional load cases as indicated in Note 5 of Figure 207-10, or the torsional load cases defined in Note 5 do not con trol the design of any of the MWFRSs of the building.

8. Components and Cladding For the design of co mponcms and cladding the bui ldi ng must meet all [he conditions: 1. The mea n roof height h must be less to 18 m. than or equal

Net design wind pressures, Pnc" for the components and cladding of buildings designed using Method I represent the net pressures (sum of internal and external) to be applied nonnal to each building surface as shown in Fig. 207-3. Pntl shall be detennined by the following equation:


The building is enclosed as defined in Secti on 207 .2 and conforms to the wind-borne debris provisions of Section 2075.9.3.

(207-2) Minimum Pressures

The posi tive design wind pressures, PfIt"/, from Section


The building is a regular-shaped building or structure as defined in Section 207.2.

The building docs /l ot have response charac teristics making it subject to across wind loadin g, vortex shedd ing, ins ta bility due to galloping or flutter; and does nol have a sile location for which channeling effects or buffeting in the wake or upwind obstructions warra nt special co nsideration . The bu ilding has either a nat roof, a gable roof with 0 < 45, or a hip roof wI O:s 27.

207.4 .2.2 shall not be less th an +0.50 kPa, and the negative design wind pressures . PnCfl from Section 207 .4.2.2 shall not be less th an -0.50 kPa. 207.4.3 Air Penneable Cladding Design wind loads de termined from Figure 207 .3 shall be used for all air permeable claddin g unless approved les t data or the recognized literature demonstrate lower loads for the type of air permeable cladding being considered . 207.5 Method 2 - Analytical Procedure



Procedure 207.5.1 Scope A building or other struct ure whose design wind loads are de termined in accordance with th is section shall meet all of the following conditions:

The basic wind speed V shall be determined in accordance wilh Section 207.5.4. The wind sha ll be

assumed to come fro m any horizont al directi on. 2. 3. 4. An importance factor I". shall be det ermined ill
accordance with Section 207.5.5.

The building or other structure is a regularshaped bu ilding or slmcture as defined in Secti on 207.2. The building or other st rll cture does not have respo nse win d loading, vortex shedding, instability due to g~l lI opin g or flutler; or does nol have a site locmioJl for which chanlle ling effect or buffeting in the wake of upwind obstruc tions warrant special consideration.

An ex posure category shall be determined in acc ordancc wi th Secti on 207.5 .6. A heighl and exposure adjustll1cnt coeffi cient ,A, shall be determined from ri gu res 207~2 and 207~3.


207.4.2.I I \:Jain Wind-F'orcc Resisting System SimpliJicd de sign wind pressures, p... for the MWFRSs of low -rise simple diaphragm buildings represellt the net pressures (sum of internal and ex ternal) to be applied 10 the Ilorizoillal and ve rti cal projectio ns of btli lding surfaces as sho wn in Fi gures 207- r an d 207-2. For the horizontal pressures (;I.o nes A, B, C. D), PJ is the combinat ion of the

207.5.2 Limitations The pro vis ion of Sect ion 207 .5 take i nlo consideration the load ma gnifi cation effecl caused by gusts in resonance with al ong-wind vibrat io ns of llexib le building or other structures. Buildings or other st ructures not mee ting the

National Structural Code of U"l e Phi lippine s 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 2 - Minimu m Design Loads

requirements of Section 207.5.1. or having unl/suaJ shapes or response characteristi cs shall be designed usi ng recogni zed literature documenting such wind load effects or shall usc the wi nd tUHnel procedure speci fied in Section 207.6. Shielding
There s hall be no reductions in velocity pressure du e to apparent shieldin g aflord cd by buildin gs and other structures o r terrai n features.

207.5 .4.1 an d 207.5.4 .2. The wind sh,,;\ D;: come from any horizon tal direction. Special Wind Regions

:::'l ~ : \1! p i'd ;\\ Air Permeable Cladding Design wind loads delcmlincd from Section 207.5 shall be used for air permeable cladding unless approved lest data or recogni zed literature demonstrate lower loads for

The basic wind speed shall be increased whcu.:: rc.:;ords O f experience indicate that Ihe wi nd speeds arc higher th an those refl ected in T able 207-1. Mountainous lCITa in, gorges, and special regi ons sh~ill be examined for unusual wind conditions. The authority havin g jurisoicl ion shall , if necessary, adjust the values given in Table :W: i to . account for higher local wind speeds. Such ndj u'c\ il)C iJ! shall be based on meteorological infonnation and an estimate of the basic wind speed obtained in accordance with the provisions of Secti on 207.5.4 .2. Estimation of Basic Wind Speeds from Regional Climatic Data Regional climatic data shall only be used in lieu of the basic wind speeds given in T able 207 1 when: ( I ) approved extreme-value statis tic al -analysis procedures have been employed in reducing the data; and (2) the length of record, sa mpling error, averaging time, anemometer height, data quality. and terrain exposure have been taken into account. Limitation Extreme typhoons have not been considered developing the basic windspeed distributions. Wind Directionality Faclor The wind direc ti onality factor, Kill shall be determined frol11 Table 207 2. This fac tor shall on ly be applied when used in conjunc tion wit h load combinations speci fied in Sections 203.3 and 20104 .

the lype of air perm eable cladding being considered.

207.5.3 Design Procedure

I. The basic wind speed V and wind directionality factor Kd shall be detennined in accordance with Secti on 207.5.4 and Table 2072 respecti vely.


An importance factor I,v shall be determined in accordance with Section 207.5.5.

A n exposure category or exposure ca tegories and ve locity pressure ex posure coefficient Kt or Kit , as applicable, shall be dctennined for each wind direction in accordance with Section 207 .5.6.


4. 5.

A topographic faclOr K!,t shall be determi ned in accordance wit h Secti on 207.5.7. A gus t effect Factor G or GI , as applicable, shall be determined in accordance with Section 207.5.8.
An enclosure classification' shall be determi ned in accordance with Section 207 .5.9.


Ime rn al pressure coe ffi ciclH GC,li shall be determined in accordan ce with Section 207.5. J I. J


External pressure coeffi cients Cp or GC.~'I' or force coefficients CI' as applicable, shall be determined in accordance with Secti on or 207.5.1 U. respec t ively.
Velocity pressure q, or q", as applicable, shall be determined in acco rd ance with Section 207.5 . 10. accordance with Section, 207.5.12. 207.5. 14, and 207.5 .15. as appl icable. 207.5.13.


I O. Des ign wind load p or F sljaiJ he detc rm ined ill

207.5.4 Basic Wind Speed Thc bas ic wind speed, V, used in the delenninmion of des ign wind loads on buildings and other structures shall be as given in Tab le 207-1 except as provided in Sections

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


Table 207 -I Wind Zone for the Different Provinces of the Philippines

Table 207-2 Wind Directionality Factor, Kd Structural Type Buildings Main Wind Force Resisting System Components and Cladding

Zone Classification Wind S ced)

Albay, Aurora, Batanes, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Catanduanes, Eastern Samar, Isabela, Northern Samar, Quezon, QUlIlllO, Samar, Sorsogon Abra, Agusan uel NOlte,
Agusan de! SU[, Aklan,

Directionality Factor Kd*

Zone I (V= 250 kph)

0.85 0.85

Arched Roofs


Antique, Apayao, Balaan, Batangas, Benguct, Biliran, Bohol, Buiaean, Camiguin, Cariz, Cavitc , Cebu , Compostcla Valley, Davao
Oriental, Guimaras, Ifugaa, Ilocos Norte, lIocos Sur, Iloilo,

Chimneys, Tanks, and Similar StlUcturcS Square Hexagonal Round

0.90 0.95 0.95


Zone 2 (V = 200 kph)


Zone 3 150 kph)

_ ..___ ._~ ___ ~__

Kalinga, La Union, Laguna, Leytc, Marinduquc, Masbatc , Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, National Capital Region, :"Iegros Occidental, Ncgros Oriental, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, Pampanga. Pangasinan, Rizal, Romblon, Siquijor, Southern Leyte, Surigao del NOiiC, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Zambalcs BasiJan, Bukidnon, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del SUf, Maguindanl1o, Misamis Occidental, North Cotabato , Palawan , Sarangani, South C. otabato ,Sl.dtan Kudarat, Sulu, Tawi~tawi, Zamboanga del NOlie, Zamboanga de! Sur,

Solid Signs


Open Signs and Lattice Framework


Trussed Towers Triangular, square, rectangular All other cross sections

0.85 0.95

Dir('Cfionalif}, Factor Kd has been calibrated with combinations of loads speciji~d ill Seclioll 203. This fin'lOr shall only he applied when IIsed in C()lIjuIIClioll wilh load combillatiol/S specified in Section 203.3 alld 203.4.

Z'lll1~""ll~_~_b-"ga y_ _ __

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6


Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEH 2 Minimum Design Loads

207.5.5 Importance Factor

An imp0l1ance factor, 1\\., for the building or other structure shall be determined from Table 20 7~3 based on building <lI1d structure calegories listed in Table I03 ~ I.

Surface Roughness D, Flat, unobstructed areas and water su rfaces. This category includes smooth mud flats and salt flats. Exposure Categories
Exposure B. Exposure 13 shall apply w here the grou nd

207.5.6 Exposure For each wind direction considered, the upwind exposure category shaH be based on ground surface roughness that is determined from natural topography, vegetation. and cons tru cted facilities. Table 207-3 Importance Factor, IIV (Wind Loads)
~,.----:-~----'--r-" ""-" Occupancy Description I. Categ0.'2'

surf.'lCc roughness condi tion, as defined by Surface Roughness D. prevails in the upwind directi on fo r a dist:mce of at least 800 III or 20 times the height of th e building, whichever is gremer.

Exception : For buildings whose mean roof height is less than or equal to 1Q m, the upwind distance may be reduced to

Exposu rc C. Exposure C shall apply for all cases whe re Exposure B or D does not apply. Exposure D. Exposure D shall apply where lhe ground surface roughness , as defined by Surface Roughness D, prevails in lhe upwind direction fo r a distancc greater than 1.5 km or 20 times the building height, which is greater. Exposure D shaH extend into downwind are,IS of Surface Roughness B or C for a distance of 180 m or 20 times the height of the building. whichever is greater. For a site loca ted in the transition zone between exposure
categories. the category resulting in the largest wind

- .. - ...- ........ - -_..


Esscil ti al
-.- -~ -

-_._._- ._-

1.15 1.15 1. 15 ---. _.. __ ... _1.00



Spccial q~c~e.~~~r Standard .9(;1?~p~I~C.)'.

V_- ' -_ Miscellaneotls 0.87 '--_ _ _ _ _..1...-_ _ _ ___ _


see Tah!!! !03 } /0/' t)'{)(!S (If (lCCII/ffl/tCY



('(Ich Wind Directions and Sectors For each selected wind direction i.H which the win<1 loads are to be evaJualed, the exposure of the building or Sll11cture shall be determined for the two upwind sectors ex tend ing 45 either side of the selected wind directi on. The exposures in these two sectors shall h~ de termined in accordance with Sections tlnd and the exposure resulting in the highest wind loads shal! be used to represent the winds from thaI direction. Surface Roughncss Categories A ground surface roughness within CilCh 4Y' sector shall be detennined for a distance upwind of the si te as defined in Seclion from the categories defined in the fo llowing text . for the purpose o r assigning an exposure cClIcgory as defined in Section Su rf:)cc Roughness B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas, or other tcrrain " .witl1 numerou s close!y spaced obstnlctions having the size of sing J(> family dwell ings or larger. Surface noughn css C. Open tcrrain wit h SCilHerc.d obstructi ons havin g heights generally le:.;s than 9111. This category includes nat open coullIry. grasslands. :'lIld all watcr surfaces in regions with records of ex treme
typhoo ns.

forces shall be used.

All imermediate exposure be/ween the precedi"g categqries is permilled in a transition zone provided that it is determined by a rational analysis method defined in rlie recognized literature. Exposure Category for Main Wind-Force Resisting System Buildings and Other Struc!ures
For each wind direction considered wind loads ror the design o f the MWfRS determined from f-igUfc 7.07 '() :-; hall be based o n the exposure categories defined in

Section 207.5.().] . Low-Rise Buildings . Wind loads for the design of the MWFRSs for low-risc huildings shall he dcterm ineD using a velocity press ure qh hased ;;) the exposure resulti ng in the highest wind loads for any wind directioll at the sile where. extemal pressu re coc fficieJlts GCp'( given in Fig. 207-10 arc used.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

225 Exposure Ca tegor y for Components a nd Cladding Components and cladding design pressures for all buildings and other structures shall be based on the exposure rcsuhing in the highest wind loads for any

direction at the site. Velocit y Pressure Exposure C oefficient
Based on the exposure category determin ed in Sec tion

Notes: J. Case I: a. All compotlttllS and cladding. b. Main wind force ruisring s)'stem in J owrise buildings desig,,~d using FiGure 207/0. Cast 2: a. All 1II0i" wind forct rrsislillg ;rySfCmS in bllildines e:ccepl ,hCJSt in low rise buildings dtsig,,~d ftling

Figure 207 10.

h. Ail main wind force resislillg s),SI'IIIS ill olirer
nI t!

sfrucrurtS. vl'locifY pressllre (!XPOl'II/'(1 wc/fi(:ie lll K, moy be ilefC mrilled

f rom Ihefollowin c!orlllufa:

For, a ve loci ty press ure ex posu re coefficie nt K( 01' K h , as applicab le, shall be determined from Table 2074.

z < 4.5 III

For a site locCHed in a transition zone between exposure categories, thai is, ncar to a change in ground surface roughness, intermediate values of K: Or K", between (hose
shown in Table 2074, are pennitted, provided that they are determined by a ralional analysis method defined in the recogni zed literature. Table 207-4 Velocity Pressure Exposure Cocrticienls', Kh and Kz Hcigh l Exposure (Note I)
above Ground leYel "

For 4.5 III S as al


'<I NOIe: l. shal/iwi be mlcl'n less ,han 9.0 "'lor Cou / in eJ.posure B. J. a nnd II ar~ I(lblllo,~d in Table 2075. 4, Lil/ear illlt!fpolofion for ;1Ifennedialt values of heiglll l is (lCCeIJfable. 5. Exposllre cmegoriu ore dejilled ;tt Section 207.5.6.

7--1 {


201.5.7 T opog raphi c E ffects Wind Speed-Up Over Hills, Ridges, and Escarpmen ts Wind speedup effec ts at isolated hi lls, ri dges , an d escarpments constitutin g ab ru pt cha nges ill th e genenJ

C"." I

I--=' O("-':~"-')-:C5'- "--C -l. 7 -0 --C ) ~i7- -0.8S-----j:()-3--


OUt'S 1& 2

Cases 1& 2

......_... ... - ....


7.5 - ".... _ ....... ,.

0.70 0.70 0.70 0.76 0.81 .... 0.85 0.89 0.93

0.62 0.66 .. ...._-...

0.90 0.94

I. I 2

12 15 18 21 24 27 30 36 42 48

.--_ .." .
0.76 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 0.99 ..... 1.04 1.(19


0.98 ... ..... ... .. ... 1.16 . . - .... 1.04 1.22 1.09 1.1.1
I 17

lOpography, located in any ex pos ure category, shall be incl uded in the design when buildi ngs and oth er site conditi ons and locations of structures mee t all of the follow ing conditions:

1.27 1.)1



110 1.43 1.48 1.52 1.5.\

0 .1)1)

1.26 1.31 1.36 1.39 . ..... 1.43
[ .46

The hill. ridgc , or escm'pment is i sol~Hed and ullobstructed upwind by other similar topographic features of compar;'lblc height for 100 limes the height of thc topographic fCaiure (1001-1) or 3.2 kill whichever is less. TIlis d istance shall be measured horizontally from the point at which the height H of lhe hill . ridge. or escarpmcm is determined. The hill, ridge. or escarpment protl1ldes above the height of upwind len'ain featu res within a 3.2 kill rad ius in any quadran l by a faclOJ' of two or more .

1.04 1.09 1.13 1. 17 1.20 1.28

. .


.. ..... ... -


...1. 13 '.
1.17 1.20 1.2R

I .S8
I ,(J !


90 105 120 135

1..\3 1.59

1.68 1.73

The structure is localed as shown in Figure 2074 in thc upper one- hall' of rt hill or ri dge or nca r th e crest or an esc arpmcnt.
llmll l)f' eq u:d 10 4.5m for Exposur~s C :lIld D and 18m (or Exposure B.

1.4 I

1.41 1.47 1.52 1.56


1.6:1 1.69
1.73 1.17

1.82 1.86

5. II is greater





N,JIlonal Structura l Code of U1H PI1ilipPIncs Gill Edition Vo lum0 1


CHArJTER 2 - Minimul1l Design Loads Flexible or Dynamically Sensitive Structures Topographic Factor The wind speedup effect shall be included in the calculation of design wind loads by using (he faclOr Kl , :

For flexible or dynamically sensi ti ve suuctures as defined in Section 207 .2 the gusteffect factor shall be caiculated by
(207 8)

where K I , K1 and KJ are given in Figure


If site condi ti ons and locations of structures do not meet all the conditions specified in Seclion the KlI ::: 1.0.
207.5.8 Gust Effect Factor The gUSl effect facto r shall be calculated as penniUed in Sections 207.5.8. 1 to, using appropriate values for natura] frequency and damping ra lio as permitted in Section Rigid Buildings For rigid buildings as defined in Section 207.2, the gust effect factor shall be taken as 0.85 or calculated by th e fonnu la:

gQ and g" shall be taken as 3.4 and 8R is given by

8R =J2 In(3,600Il J )+


~21n(3.6001l J )


R:;::;: the resonant response factor is given by


pRn Rh R IJ (0.53+0.47R{.l


R -(
n -


+ IO.3N,)"'/l


(207 11 )

N, =



where (2075) where

=:' __ I_( I _,,-2")for l/>0

'/ 27/'

(207 l3b)


=1 f Off) =0

where lhe subscript t in Eq. 207 ~ 13 shall be taken as h, B, and L. respective ly, where ii, 13.) artd L are defined in Section 207.3. .. , ::: the intensity of turbul ence at he ight Z where Z ::; the equivalent height of the SlrUl:lUrc. defined as 0.6h, but not less tlmn lmi" for all building heights. Zmin and c are listed for each exposure in Table 2075; gQand g,. shall be taken as 3.4. The background response Q is given by:


::: building natu rHI frequency :;: ;: Rh selling '/ = 4.611 Ih/V;,



:;: ;: Rn sellin g

1J ::;

4.611 I En /V:

= RL setting 'I = 1 5.4I1IL/~


i B~" )0.63


fI ~

= damping ralio, percent of critical


mean hourly wind speed (m/s) determined from Eq . 20714

V- =b , 10



- z _

( )"


where B. h '-Ire defined in Section 207.3: and Li :::: the intcgml length sC;:lle or turbulence at the eq ui valent height given by

where band !i arc constant s listed ill Table is the basic wind speed in kph.


and V

In which f aile! E are consta nts lis ted in T;lble 207~5 .

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippin es

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


Tablc 207-5 Terrain Exposurc Constants

I~xposurc Wind-Borne Debris

Glazing in buildings located in wind-borne debris regions shall be protected with an impact-resistant covering or be impact-resistant glazing according to the requirements specified in ASTM EI886 and ASTM EI996 or other approved test methods and performance criteria. The levels of impact resistance shall be a function of Missile Levels and Wind Zones specified in ASTM EI886 and ASTM E1996.


z, (m)


a ---=--b
c _.



Do --_._._.. . f (m) --





-B C D ---7.0 9.5 11.5 365 275 215 117 119.5 ----- 1111.5 0.84 1.00 1.07 --_ .. _. ... _.1/4 1/6.5 1/9 .... 0.45 0.65 0.80 --_._... 0.30 _._._0.20 0.15 .. 0.010 0.005 0.003 ..---150--100 200 1/3 1/5 118 9 4.5 2.10




minimum height used to ensure that {he equiv3knt height


greater or




for tmssed lowers, the height of (he

trnnsmission cable above ground, or 0.611 ror buildings and other structures. For 11:5 z. . ,". i shall be taken as z,o,o' Multiple Classifications Rational Analysis

In lieu of the procedure defined in Sections and detcrmination of the gust~effcct factor by any rational analysis defined in the recognized literature is pennittcd. If a building by definition complies with both the "open" and "partially enclosed" definitions, it shall be classified as an "open" building. A building that docs not comply with either the "open" or "partially enclosed" definitions shall be classified as an "enclosed" building. Limillitions
Where combined gust-effect factors and pressure coefficients (GCp ' GCp ;' and GC"f) are given in figures and tables, the gust-effect factor shall not be determined separately.

207 .5.10 Velocity Pressure

Velocity pressure, CJl> evaluated at height z shall be calculated by the following equation: (207 -15) where K" is the wind directionality factor defined in Section, K~ is the velocity pressure exposure coefficient defined in Section, KZI is the topographic factor defined in Section and q" is Ihe velocity pressure calculated using f:q. 20715 at mean roof height h. The numerical coefficient 47.3 x 10-6 shall be used except where sufficient climatic data arc available to justify the selection of a different value of this factor for a design application. Other Structures

Procedures for calculation of the gust effect factor for other structures sha!l be taken from Section 207.7. Dynamic Properties

Values of natural frequency and damping ratio when lIsed as input parameters in calculations of the gust effect factor shall be obtained from full-scale measurements of the actual structure, from computer simulation. or from the estimation formulas given in Section 207.8.

207.5.9 Enclosure Classifications


207.5.1 I Pressure and Force Coefficients Intel-nal Pressure Coefficient

Internal pressure coefficients, Gc.~)l' shall be determined from Fig. 207~5 based on building enclosure classifications detennined from Section 207.5.9.


For the purpose of determining internal pressure coefficients, all buildings shall be classified as enclosed, partially enclosed, or open as defined in Section 207 .2. Openings
A determination shall be made of the amount of openings in the building envelope to determine the enclosure classification as defined in Section 207.5.9. I. Reduction FHclor for Large Volume Buildings, Ri

For a partially enclosed building containing a single, unpartitioned large volume, the internal pressure

N;;ltiotlal Structural Code of the Philippines


Edition Volullw 1


CHAPTEr:l 2 Minimum Design l.oads

coefficient, GC~II> shall be multiplied by the following reduction factor, Ri : Parapets Main WindForce Resisting System

The pressure coefficicnts for the effect of parapets on the MWFRS loads arc given in Section


Aog Components and Cladding The pressure coefficients for the design of parapet component and cladding clements arc taken from the wall and roof pressure coefficients as spccified in Scction 207.5.12 Design Wind Loads on Enclosed and Partially Enclosed Buildings General Sign Convention Positive pressure acts toward the surface ilnd negative pressure acts away from the surface. Critical Load Condition Values of extemal and interna! pressures shall he combined algebraically to determine the most criticill load. Tributary Areas Greater than 65 m'
Component and cladding clements with tributary areas greater than 65 1112 shal! be permitted to be designed using the provisions for MWFRS.


area of openings in the building envelope walls and roof, in m2 = unpal1itioned internal volume, m3

= total External Pressure Coefficients Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems External pressure coefficients for MWFRSs e,l arc given in Figures 207-6, 207-7, and 207-8. Combined gust effect factor and external pressure coefficients, GCl'f' are given in Figure 207-10 for low-rise buildings. The pressure coefficient values and gust effect factor in Figure 207 10 shall not be separated. Components and Cladding
Combined gust-effect factor and external pressure coefficients for components and cladding GCI ) arc given in Figures 207- I I through 207-17. The pressure coefficient values and gust-effect factor shall not be separated. Main Wind-Force Resisting Systems 207.5.1 1.3 Force Coefficients

Force coefficients Cj arc given in Figures 207-20 through 207-23.

207.S.12.2.1 Rigid Buildiugs of All Heights

Design wind pressures for the MWFRS of buildings of all heights shall be determined by the following equation: (207-17) where
'I Roof Overhangs Main Wind-Force Resisting System Roof overhangs shall be designed for a po~itive pre~sure on the bottom surface of windward roof overhangs corresponding to C~, :::: 0.8 in combination with thc pressures dctcrmined from Llsing Figures 207-6 and 207I (). Components and Cladding For all buildings, roof overhangs shall be designed for pressures determineo from pressure coefficients given in Figures 207-1 Ill. C. D.



::::; q; for windward walls evaluated ilt height ! above the ground = q" for leeward 1\I(I/lS, side walls. and ron\< evaluated at height II = (fir for l\Iilldw(/rd walls, sid~ wails, leeward \\':111.and roofs of enclosed huildings ;lnd fOl" neg :il l\"\: internal prcssure evaluation in p,lrtially encloscd buildings ::;: q; for positive intcrnal pressure CVallJ;ili("~l partially enclosed buildings \vherc hei):I, defined as the level of the highest opening Ii; ~:L,"' building that could affect the positive For buildings sited in wilj.: i Ill' pressurc.

I\ssoCi,ltICHl of Str"UCllJ('ll E:nqinnus of the PhilipPines

CHAPTER 2 -- Minimum Design Loads



debris regions. glazing that is nOt impact resistant or protected with till impac t resislanl cove ring, shall be treated "s an opening in accordance wi th Secti on ror positi ve int ernal pressure evalUilli on. qi may conserv<lli ve ly be e valuated at height" ('Ii = ql.) = g US! effect factor from Sec ti o n 207.5.8. = external press ure coefficient from Figure 207-6 or 2078. = internal pressure coefficient from Figure 207-5 q and <Ii shall be evalutlieq llsin g exposure defined ill Secti on 207.5 .6.3. Prcss ure shall be applied si muil nncousl y on wi ndward and leewa rd walls a nd on roof s urface as defi ned in Figures 2076 and 2078.

away from) the fro nl (exterior) side of th e parapet lJlI = ve loci ty press ure eval uated at the top of the parapet Gel''' = combincd net press ure cocfficient = + 1.5 for wind ward parapet = - I .0 for leeward pa rapet Design Wind Load Cases

, ! j,
i LowRise Building

Altern atively, design wind press ures for the MWFRS of Jow -rise bu ildings shall be dete rm ined by Ihe fo ll owing equat io n:

Th e. MWFRS of buildings of all heights, whose wind londs have becn dctcrmin ed under the provisions of Seclions 207.5. 12.2. I and 207.5.1 2.2.3, shall be des igned for the wind load cl-l ses as defined ill Fig. 207-9. The eccentri cit y e for rigid structu res shall be meas ured frolll the geometric cent er of the building face and shall be considered for eac h principal axis (ex. ey). The eccentri city e for nexible structures shall be determi ned from the fol lowing equation and shall be considered for each principal ax i s (ex. e ,.):
e= -

e Q + 1.7/ , J(g"Qe Q )' + (CN Re R ) '


(2072 1)

1+ 1.71, J(g"Q)' +(gR R)'



=- velocity pressu re evalu ated at mean roof

height 11 using exposure defined in Secli on 207 .5 .6.3 :::: external press ure coeffi cient frol1l Fi gure 207 10 = intemal pressure coeffi cient froll1 Figure 207-5

wh ere

=- eccentricity e as determined for rigid structures

in Figure 2079 = distan ce be tw een til e clastic shear cent er and centcr of Ill:lSS of each fl oor

(GCIJj ) (GCI ,,)

/ " g Q.Q. gR. Ii shall be as defined in Secli on 207.5.8 The sign of the eccen tricity e shall be plus or minus. whichever causes the morc severe load effect. fl exible Buildiugs

Des ign wind pressures for the MWFRS of flexible bu ildi ngs shall be delc nnined !'mlll the following cqu<ltion:


whe re q. qi. Cpo and (CGpi ) arc as defi ned ill Secti on 207.5. 12.2.1 and (Ij = gust effect facto r is defined as ill Scclion Parapets

Olle-sto"ry buildings with h less lhan or equa} . to 10 IrIJ bujldj!,g~ tWO ~'or!~~ 9' less framed . 1V;,h Iight'{rame co~'si . !:ti~n..- j:m'q QlIt(4l"ngs. /)Vo sto.r!es or I~s~ wit~'!/. '. . . p'lr.}JgM.f~lfeta"~nifF!trdesignet:tli>'-load c( k t!'i" ba:siMtlff~Fjkur~;'2b7S9: ,c'" " " ,:' , " '. Compollents and Cladding 207.5.1 2.4.1 Low-Hisc Bui1dings and Buildings with h S 18 III

The dcsign wind press ure for the e ffect of parapets on MWFRSs of ri gid, lo w-rise. or Oexibl e buildings with nat , gable, Or hip roofs shal! be uctel'lllined by the following cq u<lIion:
P,. =qpGC,.


Design wind press ures on com po nent II lld cladd ing c le ments of lo w-risc bui ldin gs wit h h ~ 18 In s.lall be detcnn ined from (hc fo ll owing eq uation :

= combined net pressu re 011 the p<lfapcl due 10 the

1'='1'[ (GC,.l -(GC,,,) 1

the combina tion of tile Ilet press ures fro m fron t and bac k pa rapet surfaces. Plus (a nd minus) signs sign ify net prc!';s lI rc ;Klin g toward (and


where C/J. = velocily pressure cvaluated at mean roa r heigh t h using exposure defined in Section 2075 :6.3

National Structura l CoeJe of tile PJ'IilipPlnes 6 Edition Vot ume '1



C HAPTER 2 _. Minimum Design loads

(Gep ) = external pressure coefficients given in Figure 207- 11 through 207- 16 (CCIl ;)=. internal pressure coeffi cient given in Figure 207-5
207.5. 12.4.2 Buildings with" > 18 111
Des ign w ind press ures on components and claddin g fo r



all buildings with h > 18m shall be determined from th e followin g equation :
(20 7-23) where q

:::: veloc ity pressure evaluatcd at ill;.,' k',' . r the parapet :::: eX lern al press urc coeffi cients fro m Figu res 207 1 1 throu gh 207 -1 7 ~ int ernal pressure coeffici ent rrom Figu res 2()7~5, based on the poros ity of the parapet C!l\,(ljupc.

Two load cases shall be co nsidered. Load ~ ',,' /'.: ~ ~a ll consisl o f applying the app licable posit ive w;,11 prc:-.:-. u rc from Figure 207-I IA or Figure 207- 17 !t o illI: !-;"(lIl( surface o f the parapet while appl yi ng I!:-.: ;ll'i;il'I!, le negati ve ed ge o r corner zone roof pressure flt .1l1 I-igu res 207- 11 throu gh 207-1 7 to the back surface. Load Case B $hall consist of applying the applicable posil ive wall press ure from Figure 207-IIA or Fi gure 2.(J' ) I'J 10 th e back o f the parapet surface, and appl yi ng Ihe :Ipplicab le negat ive wall pressure fro m Fi gure 207- i I A or Figure 207- 17 to the front surface. Edge and corner Wiles. sha ll be arranged as shown in Figu res 207- 11 thronl~h 207 -1 7 . GCp shall be detcnn ined for appropriate i''iO{ Ing le and effec tive win d arca from Fi gures 20 7~ 11 Ih)'();II',h 207 ~ J 7. If intcrnal press ure is present, both load t.:::::;;.', ,' .hnuld bc. evaluated un der positive and negati ve internal press ure. 207.5.13 Des ign Wind Loads on Open Bui ld ings with Monos lo pe, Pitch ed , or Troughed Il oo fs General 207.13. J.1 Sign Convention Pl us and min us sign s sig nify press ure ac tin g towa rd and away from the lOp s urface of the roof, fcspeCl ivtdy. C ritical Lo ad Condition

for wi ndward walls caicuialcd <II height l above the ground :::. qh for leeward wall s, side wall s, and roo fs. e valuated at height if
=. {h

;;:: q" for windward walls, side walls, leeward walls,

and roo fs o f enclosed buildings and for negati ve inte rnal pressure e va lua tion in partia ll y e nclosed buildings qi :::. q: for posi ti ve internal press ure eva luation ill part iall y cilcloscd bu ildi ngs where heig ht z is defined as the level o f the highes t opcning in the building thaI could affect the positive internal pressure. For buildings sited in wind-born e debri s regions, glazing th at is not impact res is(ant or protec(cd wit h an impact-resislant coveri ng , ~h all be treated as an opening in accordance with Section For pos itive inte rn al pressure eval uati on, qi may conserva tive ly be evaluated at height " (q ; = q,,) ( Gel') :::: ex ternal press ure coefficient from Fi gure 207 I 7 (GC,,;) = internal press ure coeffi ci.ent given in Fi gure 207-5 q and qi shall be eva lu ated using exposure derined in Sec ti on Alternalive Design Wind Press ures for Components and Cladding in Buildings with 18m

< 27m Alternati ve to th e req uirements o f Sectio n 207. S.12.4 .2, the design o f compo nent s and cladding fo r build ings wit h a mean roo f height greater tha n 18m and less tha n 27 m
values from Figures 207-11 through 207- 17 sha ll be used on ly if the heighl to wid th ratio is o ne or less (except iI:\ pe rm itt ed hy Note (, of Figure 207-17) an d 10'1. 207-22 is used . Parapets The dc:\ ign wind pressure o n (hc compollc nts and c huJdin g clc lllellls of parapel:-; shall be designed by the


Net pressure coeffi cien ts eN incl ude contrib utions from top and boltom surf5ccs. All load cases shown for cnch roo f angle shall be illv C'stiga led. Molin Wind-Force Resisting Systems

Th e net design pressure fo r the MWFRSs of l1)olloslopc, pi tched, or troughed roo fs shall be dCh.nllillt ~ d I,'! t!i~~ following equat ion: (207-251 where

rol lowing equation: G

ve-lod lY press ure cvalu,l1 cd at mean roo f height II lIsi ng lh e ex pos ure as defi netl in Section 207 .5.0.3 tlm t results in the. high~s! Wii ld l\lads ror any wi nd direction at the site = gust crfect factor from Seclion 207.5. X

Associ;llion of Stru ctura l Engin o(HS of the P illiippines

CHAPTEH? . Minimum Design I.oads

2-3 1

= net pressure coc nicicnt determined

207- 18A through 207-1 8D

from Figures

= projected area



the wind



Cf is specified for the actual su rface area, mZ

For frcc roofs with an angle of phme of roof from horizontal 8 less than or equal to Y' and containing fascia panels. Ihe fascia panel shall be considered an inverted parapet. The contribution of loads on the fasc ia to Ihe MWFRS loads shall be determined lIsing Section with If,. equal to q". Component and Cladding Elements Rooftop Structures and Equipment for Buildings with II :S 18((/

The force 011 rooftop structures and equipment wi th Af less than 0.1 O/3h locat ed on buildings with Ii $ 18 III shall be determined from Eq. 207-28, increased by a factor of 1.9. The factor shall be permitted to be reduced linearly from J.9 to J.O as th e value of Aj is increased from 0.101317
to Bh.

The net design wind pressure for component and ctadding elcments of lllonosJope. pitched, and troughcd roofs shall be dClcnnincd by the following equation :
(207 -26) Structures Supporting Antennas, C'lblcs, and Other Attachments and Appurtenances



= velocity pressure evaluated at mean roof hcight Ii using Ihe exposure as defined in Section that resu hs in Ihe highest wind loads for any wind direction at the site = gust-cffect faclOr from Section 207.5.8 = net pressure coefficient detcI1l1ined from Figures
207-19A through 207-19C

The wi nd loads on all stl1lclures supponing attachments and appu11cnances including antenna and cablcsuppol1ing structures shall take into account the wind loads on all supported antennas, cables, 3l1achmcllls, and appul1enances. Guidance on wind loads on su pported antcllntlS shall be obtained from the TfA- 222-G (2005) sta ndard unless sufficient suppolling evidence can be obtained from recognized literature or frolll wind tunnel tests. Guidance on wind IOilds on supported cables shall be obtained from the ASCE Manual of Practice #74 (G uidelines on Electrical Trclnsmission Line Structural Loading) except that the gust effect factor for cables as give n in Section 207.7.3. or unless sufficient su pporting evidence can be obtai ned from recogn ized litermure or from wind tunnel tests.
Thc wind loads on suppo rt ed antennas, cables. illlachments, ilnd appuncll,mccs shall be applied at the lo(.:ali on of support 0 11 the support i ng structure.

207.5.14 Design Wind Loads on Solid Freestanding Walls and Solid Signs

The design wind force for sol id freestanding walls and solid signs shall be determined by the followi ng formula :
(207 -27)




velocity pressure evaluated at height II (defined in Figure 207-20) using exposure III Section = gus t-effect factor from Section 207.5.8 = nel force coefficient from f-igure 207-20 ::: the gross area of the solid frees tandin g wall or solid sign , rn z

= th e

207.6 Method 3 - ""ind Tunnel Procedurc

207.6.1 Scope

207.5.15 Design Wind Loads on Other Structures The design wind force for other strlJclllres shall be dctcnnined hy the following equation:

Wind tunnel tests sh<1 11 be used where required by Section 207.5.2. Wind tunnel testing shall be permitted in lieu of Methods I and 2 for any building or structure.
207.6.2 Test Conditions

whcre velocity prcssure CVillU <lt cd al hcight l of the. centroid of <lfC<1 It, u sing C}lpOSUfe defined in Section = gust -effect factor from Section 207.5.K = force (:oclTicicnls from Figures 207-2 1 through

Wind tUllnel les ts, or s im ilar em ploying fluid s olhcr than air. lIsed for the determinat ion of design w ind loads for any building or ot he r stnlcl urc. sl1<l1l hc conduc ted in accordance with thi s secti on. Tests for the determination of mean and nuclllfliing forces ,mel press ures shall meet .!l1 of lhe following conditions:

G C,


Thc nalunll atmos pheric bmllld<lfY la ye r has been modeled III account fo r thc variati o n of wind speed wit h height.

N;ltlonal ~.;trllctu{t!1 Co(Je of !lIe Plli1ipPl1l8S


Edition VoIUlIlc! 1


CHAF)TE:li 2 ._. Minimum Design Loads


The relevant macro-integral length and micro-length scales of the longitudinal component of atmospheric turbulence are modeled to approximately the same scale as that L1scd to model the building or structurc. The modeled building or other struClure and arc surrounding structures and topography geometrically similar to their full-scale counterparts, except that, for low-rise buildings meeting the requirements of Section, tests shall be permitted for the modeled building in a single exposure site as defined in Section
The projected area of the modeled building or other Slructure and sUlToundings is less than 8 percent of the test section cross-sectional area unless correction is made for blockage.

" Gf where

. ...... .. _ - - - - _ .. ........

1+ O.85gep!Q' + /I'

(207 -29) (207-30) (207 -31)

1+ 0.85gp


P~ 4.9J75;: (10/ z)""



......-.... II~ 0.017 (,".z) J fJ V.








The longitudinal pressure gradient in the wind tunnel test section is accounted for. Reynolds number effects on pressures and forces arc minimized. Response characteristics of the wind tunnel instrumentation arc consistent with the required measurements.

The peak factor g shall be taken as 4.0. The value of e shall be 0.75 for electrical transmission towers and poles other cases. The parameters that with cables, or 1.0 for define the wind field characteristics, specifically Do, a:, I, i', b, and i'i, shall be obtained from Table 207-1 I. The effective height "2 shall be taken as two-thirds the height of the tower eI3h), but not less than 2m;" as listed in Table 207-11. V; is calculated using Eqn. 207-J4.
207.7.2 Billboard Structures, Free-Standing Walls, and Solid Signs For billboard structures, free-standing wai!s, and solid signs with height-to-least-horizontal dimension greater than 4, the procedures in Section 207.7.1 shall be used. Otherwise, the procedures in Section shall be used. 207.7.3 Cables Por cables, Equations 207-29, 207-30, and 207-32 shall be used together with: (207-33)


207.6.3 Dynamic Response

Tests for the purpose of determining the dynamic response of a building or other structure shall be in accordance with Section 207.6.2. The structural model and associated analysis shall account for mass distribution, stiffness, and damping.

207.6.4 Limitations Limitations on Wind Speeds

Variation of basic wind speeds with direction shall not be perrnitted unless the analysis for wind speeds conforms to the requirements of Section
207.6.5 Wind-Borne Debris

where B is the total length of the cable.

Glazing in buildings in wind-borne debris regions shall be protected in accordance with Section
207.7 Gust Effect Factor for Other Structures

207.7.1 Poles, Masts, and Trussed Towers For other structures such as poles, masts, trussed towers, and the like, that function as communication towers or antenna-supporting structures, electrical transmission towers and poles, structures supporting lighting equipment, and the like, the gust effect factor shall he calculated by

207.8 Estimates of Dynamic Properties When values for nalUral frequency and damping ratio as required input parameters in the calculation of the gust effect factor for buildings and other structures arc [1'lt available from full-scale measurements of (he ::"1(1:1 structure or from computer simulation, the cst::, . ' .J formulas given in Sections 207.8.1 and 207.8.2 sh,dl uc used.
207.8.1 Approximate Fundamental Frequency Buildings For buildings, the natura! fre.qucncy III may be llsing the following general formulas:

eSlilll ':l ; :!

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAFfEH ? - Minimum Design I. cads




Strength level

207.8.2 Approximate Damping Ratio General

For wind loading purposes, the total damping ml io Illay be taken as 0.015 for co ncretc slruclures, and 0.010 for slcel and oiller Siruciures.


6711z 50llz

56/Jz 4211z Free-Standing Trussed Towers and Billboard Structures For free-slanding (russed towers. nnd billboard siructurcs,
(he natural frequency "1 may be es timated using Ihe Poles, Mast" Trussed Towers, Bi ll boards,

and Simila r S tru ctu r es Allcrmtl iveiy for poles, masts. trussed towers, billboards, <lnd simi lar Slfll ctures, the SIJ1lclllntl damping ralio fJs at service- leve l condi ti on may be taken .IS

following formula:
,,=107/M , / h " II ,, 1,1 fA " ..

(20734) (20735)



= 1.25(ItIBor0 2


/ IJ,

~ 0.003 /J, = 0.16 II




(0",/ )' +0. 15



is the serv ice le ve l natural frequency.

I'll = 0.9 for Iri;'lngu!nr (3-legged) towers, and 1.0 for other conditions. A~I = 1.0 for service-level condition, and 0.R3
for strength-level co ndit ion. Bulo is the average tower width, or average of the base and top widths, or no and nil respective ly, fo r tapered to wers. km shall be (aken as 2.6

The structu ral dampi ng mlio fl, m stre ngt hlevel co ndition for poles, masts, trussed towers, billboards. Hnd the like, may be taken as

~ 0.004 /J , = 0.23 Iz
whe re III is the st rc ngth lcvc l natura l frequ e ncy.


for billboards, poles, masts, an d non-tapering lowers and

ol her stru ctures.

Alternmi ve ly. for frcc- slanding lowers or billboard Sl ruCltirc.s ill the Philippines withoul <luached antennas or cab les.
Plan-shape Triangular Others Service-level Strength-level

The aerodynamic damping ratio fJ" at se rvice-l ev:'! condition for lrussed lOwers, billboard s, and the like. In:. be taken ,1S

/1 1



~ 0 .007


81/11 91/11

68111 75/11

is the service level natural frequen cy.

For antellna towers or electrica l tra nsmissioll lowers in the Philippincs wilh I1mss ratio IIIr a'i 5% (or approximalcl y 3 ilII3Chcd alltennas):
Plan.shape SgUiJrC Triallgul:lr

'nlC <lcrodynamic damping nllio fl.. at :';(reng{h~k"';::1 condi tion for trussed lOwers. bi ll boards. :JIld the like. m;,y he laken as

fl" = 0 .0 11

~ 0.007

for Wind Zone i or 2.

Service- level

8111z 7]111

Strength -level 68111 6111z

or for V> 162 kph,

(207" I)

fl. = O.lK~) ~ 0 .007





207.8. 1.3 Pol es, M '1 StS, SuJid Signs, Guyed Structures, Cahles, .1IId O ther Structur'cs

or for V :S 162 kph w here

(207. ;.<)

For poles. mas Is. sol id signs, guyed stnJclurcs. cables. and other structures. thc naturill rrc(luellcy mily be estimated from rull -sc ale IllC<lsurcrncnts or compuler sim ulation taking inlo 'h;<.:(JU IlI the clTect of tension -o nly clement propc l1ies and olher 'Iltachlllc nts.

"l is the strength-Icvel na::lr,,1 frcquency.

The acrodYllamic damping ratio /1" Illily be ohtilincd fmm a more detailed analysis with the ilpproprialc hasic wind speed Vas parallle(er. the hourly mean wind speed from E<j. 207-14. a Illode shape exponcilt of ].0. unit mass at the base, a nd so lid il y ra ti o I:: a nd drag force cncfTicicllt Ci evaluated at the cffc(:l ivc heigh t.

Nill ional Stru clul',tl Code of lhe Phil i pplrH:!~ (-) :! , Edition Volul'll n 1

2 -3~


2 Minimum Design l.oeds

The 100ili damping ratio ,Bshall be taken as

fl =fl, + fl. ,,; 0.06

J)(IClIlll c n(s


American Society of Testing and Materials (AS'j'M) ASTM Inlemalional 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

207.9 Consensus Sland:t ..ds a nd O lher Referenced

This section lisls the consensus slandards and other

section :

documents which .Ire


by reference within thi s

Assor..iiltion of Stru ctural Enginer:m.; of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


.... Transverse WALLS AND ROOFS


.... -



,I. 5. 6,


Pn_~SItH.f ,\'/10""1 (11'(, applied (0 I/:e /101';:011101 fllld n~rlical proiectlO/l.s. for ('xpo.ntl"(' n. ell Ii =- 9 m. I .. = I ,f), om! K" ~ J.0. t ft/iust /() mile!" t'omlilious usmg Equalioll 207-1 , 111l! (oad pa[Wr'II.f ,tltOlt'1I slwll he applied 10 ca(," ("orner of/he building ill lui'll n.t the reference c<mler. (S<'!: Figure 20710;. For III(' c/".tigll o/1I1t' fungi/lIllil/ol M WFRS use 0, alit/locale the wile ElF. Gill bOlluc/ory a llhc' mid-/(,l/gIII of lite buildillg. Load cases I (l1/(1 ]lII l/sl he checked Inr 25 < 8 ;S 45, Load case 2 of 2Y' is provided OIl (V fo r i llll'f 1W/(1tioll betll'l.'efl 25 0 /0 30, PIllS alld mimls signs sigllif y pressures acting IQ II'f) I't/ and away /ro m the p roje<.'{ed sur/aces. n!,I"pecl i l'< 'Iy. For ro(~{s lopC',~ o lllerihal! those shown, lineCJr illtl!l]m!(1lioll i,~ p ermifled , The IOta! horizoll/a//oad shall 1101 be less IIl(ln (hat determined by assllming /1s c () ill zones B & D, nil! zrme pr('ss lJl'es I'cpresen / the/allowing: 1/0rizOIllai pn).~,wrl' ;on's ,- Sum o/Ihe windward atul /eewllrd f/(~t {.W/Il q{ illferna/ (1l1d external) pressures 011 \Jer/ h:al proje-clioll 0/'


A - t.:' ld w ne

oj 1\'0/1

C - In ferior 1011(' O/ lI'CJII

D - I nferior W il l! of roof

IJ ., 1;'1/{1 :one (~rrooJ


V('rl h'o//m'sslII'c Z(JII("f - N e! (.~lIm O./ill /I 'nIa} lind eXl er/lfIl) pres,wrl's 01/ horizonlo! projali(U/ (~f' E - /;'m/ :!OII(' of lI'i"dl\'(lr(/ roo/ G - 11I1('rior 10m' 0/ wjllt/ward rmif r -, /;'1/(1 ZO/l(' o./il'cward roof I I- Inferior zOlle o/It'cword 1'00./ 11'11,'1'<' =01/1' I~" rlr (J /il/I,\' /Ifl (/ nJ()/ overhang on the windward ,tid,' of thl' /milding, U,H' Emt (111(/ G OII for the prt~,nllrt! /lOri:OIl(lIl jlJ'(Jjl" IUJl/I!f lire (wC'r /tmrg, OverJumg,{ (III ,he I('cwftnl (IIUI,fitle edgt',f shl/II hal'(' ill(' luuir :Of/(' prl'~.flln> (fJlJ'Ii~'d, NmfllioJl:



II + ,

If) IIl' I'('l'lrl II} le/ul horizontal di"'(~J/sioll or f) 411, whic/rel'f!r i,f slII/IIft,,-. hrt! /lilt I('.{,r ,11m/ ('il/lrr 4% HI it'U,I" /lIJri:mll(l1 or 0 , 9111 , ML'(II/ rmd'/lI'iglil, m, ,'X('('pi ,hal em'e I!n);"/.fhalllw !ls('dln/' mq((lIIgitx < In, AlIl::le (?(,,//IIi(' (?(r()t~{Jhll" '10";;11111(/1. degrc('5,

Figure 207 J Design Wino PrcsslllcS on

Wall s and Roo fs of Enclosed Buildings w ith h"; 18m, Main Wind - Force Resisting System -- Method J
National Stru ctural Code of the PI1ilippin es 6 Edition Volum e 1


CHAPTEF< 2 .-. Minimum Design Loads


Adjustment Factor for Building Height and Exposure A Mean roof height (Ill)
4.5 6.0 .. 7.5 9.0 11.0 12.0 13.7 15.2 16.8 18.0


C D 1.21 --.. . 1.47 1.29 1.55 1.35 1.61 1.40 1.66 1.45 1.70 1.74 1.49 1.53 1.78 1.56 - -1.81 --1.84 1.59 1.62 -~~





1. 00 1.00 1. 00 1.00 1.05 1.09 1.12 1.16 --_._._--1.19 1.22



Basic Wind


Vcrtical Pressures, kPa


_ ... _ - F
-0.45 -0.48 -0.52



-0.79 -0.79 -0.79

-0.55 -0.55 -0.55

-0.35 -0.37 -0.40


G Oh


-1.1 I -1.1 I -1.11

-0.87 -0.87

25 30 to 45





o to 5
10 20

15 ._.._._---_ .. _-_.

Figure 207-2 Design Wind Pressures on Walls and Roofs of Enclosed Buildings with h $; ! 8m, Main Wind-Force Resisting System _. Method I
Association of StrlJcturai Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum De sign Load s


Flat Roof

Hip Roof (r<O :5 27")

Gable Roof (0::;7")

[ ] Interior Zones Rook :zoo. 1 I w.... . z.on. "



Gable Roof (7< 045)

End Zones
RcloOf . Zone 21 Waite Ion. 15

. . . Corner Zones


~ . z.oo. 8


Pn's."ul'I' sholl''' art! applh'ti llorll/(//Iu ,11(' .\'/Irftu:e. for ('XI'(/,\ /I/"(: /J.


h "" 9111,

I~. <.~

1.0. and K:. = 1,0, A (( 1 0 of/WI" cclIJdiljolls IIsing

Eqllllfirlll 207 1.

l'llis (lm/lllinlls siN,II'v .I'igllf/j' pressu re.l" (/eli,,}.! 10 1l"(/ l'd (l ml (tIl'IIY from {he .vllif aces. I'f!spec lil/' /y.



FOI" hip roo/i' wilh


e::; 25. lone 3 shall he 11'l'11I(~d as lOll e 2.

For 1'{li'l'I i" I' I"ind {/I'f'(I.I' h<.'/ \\ '(,(,II (hose ~ i \'(m . \'o /lle may he "lItl'l]l o/a(('d, o{/!('rwiSI' IIS(, fhe 1'' ','lI(: a,\'socia/ed will, (he lower e!ll'cli\lc wind Nllffllhm :
1/ ' "

II} pern" 11 oj lellsi horizol/tlll n.9111.

dim"/Is ;oll 01"

()Ab. 1\"/tidw l'('r is xfI/(/lIer,

bill 11111 I(':ro,f

dum (, j/her 4 % o/ll'dS! horiZ(}lIIul dimel/sio/l m '


., M('(II1


11ll{1t6glt!. III m. I'XC'('/l1 thllt C'dVi' h (I.~hf shalf ht' lI. w dIiw rO<~(lI /1glf!'" < /0, All}.!'!' n/p/ml(' u(l'(wffrl)/11 Iwn:rJ/lIUI. rlt'W'j'I '.r,

Figu re 207~3 Design Wi nd Pressures on Wa lls & Roof of Enclosed

Bll ildings with II S I R Ill , Componen ts and Cladd ing - Meth od I
National Struc tural Coda o f th e Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



2 ._ . Minim ul11 Design Load s

B tilIdlO gs II I an dE . eIgHt :. xposure, Ie Mean roof Exposure heigh! (m) B .. C 4.5 ." 1.00 1.2 1 _M. 6.0 1.00 .1.29 1.00 7.5 1.35 1.00 9.0 l AO 11 .0 1.05 IA5 1.49 12.0 1.09 13.7 1.12 1. 53 15.2 1. 16 1.56 16.8 1.1 9 1.59 1. 22 1.62 18.0

Adjustment Factor fo r

D I A7 1.5 5 1.6 1 1.66 1.70 1.74 1.78 1. 8 1 1.84 1.87


Ne! Desig n Wind Pressure, /J'Kh kP" (Exp osu re 13 at " =I0 111 with 1= 1.0 and Kd = 1.0) Effective Roof Basic Wind Speed V (kph ) wind Ang le Zone area (0) 150 200 250 (m' ) I I I I 0<0 <7 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 .l 1.0 2.0 4.5 9.5 0.3 0 0.29 0.26 0.24 0.30 0.29 0.26 0.2 4 0 .30 0.29 0.26 -"._"_._ 0.24 -075 -0.73 0.71 -0.69 -I. I 2 -0.95 0.55 0.51 0.47 0.55 0.51 0. 85 0.79 0.73 0.67 0.85 079 .. 0.73 0.67 0.85 0.79 0. 73 ---0 .67 -2 .09 -2.03 -1.96 - 1.91

0 .5 1

O A7 OA4
0.5 1 0.4 7

... - -- 1.0

- 2.0 4.5
9.5 1.0 2.0 4 .5 9.5

0.55 .0 55 - - ._- -.......:L~ ___.

0:44 0.55 0.51 0.4 7 0.44

-0. 8 1 -1.90 -1 .57 1.1 4

O A4
0.55 0.5 1 0.47 0.4 4

.. -3.50 -3.1 3 -2.64 -2.26

-5.27 -4.37 -3.1 --_..7 ,--2 .26


.---- ----0.81

Figure 20 7 3;). (co l1t 'd) - Design Wind Pressu res on Walls & Roo f ofE tlc loscd : l3 uildings with It 5" 18 Ill , Components and Cladding ... Me thod I

Associa tion or S(ruClllfaJEngineers of the Phllippill!'!S

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


Net Des ign Wind Pressure, POOh kPa (Exposure B at II =10 In with J = 1.0 and KJ = 1.0) Effective Roof Basic Wind Speed V (kph) wind Angle Zone area (deg) 250 150 200 (m') I I I 1 e > 7 to 27 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 I 1 1 0 > 27 1o 45 2 2 2 2 3 - -_ . 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 1.0 2.0 4.5 9.5 1.0 2.0 4.5 9.5 1.0 2.0 4.5 9.5 1.0 O.4J 0.40 0.34 0.30 0.43 0.40 0.34 0.30 0.43 0.40 0.34 0.30 0.69 -0.69 -0.67 -0.64 -0.62 -1. 20 - 1.10 -0.97 -0.88 -1.77 -1.65 -1.50 -1.39 0.78 0.71 0.62 0.55 0.78 0.71 0.62 0.55 0.78 0.71 0.62 0.78 0.71 0.62 0.55 0.7 8 0.71 0.62 0.55 0.78 0.71 0.62 1.20 1.10 0.95 0:85 1.20 1.10 0.95 0.85 1.20 1.10 0.95 -1.9 1 - 1.86 -1.78 -1.73 -3.33 -3.06 -2.71 -2.44 -4.92 -4.60 -4. 18 -3.86

1.23 1.20 1.1 5 1.12 1.23 1.20 1.1 5 1.11 --- 1.23 1.20 1.1 5 1.1 2 1.35 1.28 1.21 1.14 1.01 1.35 1.28 1.2 I 1.14 1.0 I

1.23 1.20 1.15 1. 12 1.23 1.20 1.15 1.11 1.23 1.20 1. 15 1.12 1.35 1.28 1.2 1 1.14 1.01 1.35 1.28 1.2 I 1. 14 1.0 I

1.91 1.86 1.78 1.73 1.91 1.86 1.78 1.73 1.9 1 1.86 1.78 1.73

4.5 9.5 1.0 2.0 4.5 9.5 1.0 2.0 4.5 9.5 1.0

0.67 0.64
0.62 0.69 0.67 0.64 0.62 0.69 0.67 0.64 0.62

-0.75 -0.7 1 -0.66

-0.62 -0.88 -0.84 -0.79 -0.75

-1.98 -1.84 -1.73 -2.44 -2.33 -2. 19 -2.09 -2.44 -2.33 -2.19 -2.09 -2 .26 -2 .17 -2.05 -1.95 -1.73 -2.79 -2.60 -2.36 -2.17 -1.73

-0.84 -0.79 -0.75 -0.8 1

4.5 9.5 46.5 1.0.. -_.... _--_

0.75 0.72

1.99 1.87 1.77 1.56 2.09 1.99 1.87 1. 77 1.56

-0.78 -0.74
-0.70 -0.62


". -

5 ..-.--_.-

5 2.0_-_._.--_. - -5 4.5 -. 5 9.5 --_.

5 46.5

-0.26 . 0.72 ~_ .024.. __ "- - 0.67 -0.22 0.64 -0.20


..0.75 .




Figurc 207-3h (conl'd) - Design Wind Pressures on Walls & Roof of Enc losed Buildings wi!h " .:S I R 111, Components <lIld Cladding - Method I

Nation;;)1Stru ctural Code of the Ph ilippines 6 Edition Vo lume 1



CHAPTE:!, 2 - Minimum Design l.oads






X (Downwind)



X (Do





._--- K, Multiplier

K, Multiplier

K3 Multiplier

0.2 0.25 0.30



0.29 0.36 0.43 0.51 0.58 0.65 0.72

0.17 0.21 0.26 0.30 0.34 --0.38

3-0 Axisym.

0.21 0.26 0.32 0.37 0.42 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00

2-0 Escarp 1.00 0.88 0.75 0.63 0.50 0.38 0.25 0.13 0.00

All Other Cases

1.00 0.67 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

3-0 -.-



2-0 Escarp

Axisym. Hill _._

OAO OA5 .0.50 ._---_.






1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.67 0.10 0.74 0.78 0.61 0.45 0.20 0.55 OA7 -- .. 030 030 0.41 0.37 0.20 .0.40 0.30 0.14 0.22 0.29 ._-- - 0.50 ----_ .. . -----0.09 0.17 0.22 ..- --_.0.60 0.17 0.06 0.70 0.12 0.04 0.14 0.09 0.80 -, ,--0.11 0.03 0.90 0.07 0.02 1.00 0.08 _._ .._ .. _---~ ---_. 0.02 0.00 0.01 1.50 (1.00 0.00 0.00 2.00





For m!l/('.\' HIL,. and :JL,. other {liall (ho.H' shoWI/, lineal' il1lerpolalioll is perm/lied.


IfIL;, > 0.5, (lSSIIIII(, /-1Il.;, ,":0 O.5jbr ('valuating K,l1lJd slIh.I'(i!lIfe 211/or ,.,Jor {'will/Olillg K., alld K.lMliltipli('rs al"e based 011 rhe (lSSl/lI1ptiOIl rllal approoches 1111' hill OJ" escarplII(,lI( a/ollg fhe dircctioll oj"maXi/llllfl1 stope.


!l '" lIeighl o!"hifl or escalpmellt re/(I{il'(' 10 Ihe IIpwind /erroill, III, /,1, c, /Ji.v/ollce IIfI\\'illli o(eres/ (0 where (he d((rerence ill g/'Olind del'atioll is hal(thc heighl o(lli/! or K I ~~ "-oclor 10 (U'COIIIl(./(){" shape <?({opographic/(!(I(/I/"e alld maximum .Ipeed-lip e(T('cl, K: ,.~ Fac(or (I) IICCOIlllt/Of' reduclion ill .Ipeed-lip with dislance up1l'illd or dOll'lIl1'illd (!(c/"esl. K, '" Factor /0 ac('olilltf()/" reductioll ill ,Ipeed,up wilh hdghl ah()\'(' /oud terraill. X /)islilllce (1I/)lI'll1<1 01' dOll'l1l1'illd) /i'Olll Ihe ("J'esl to fhe hili/ding site, III. Z " /feight olio\'(' /01'0/ ground Icl'('3. III


j{orizon/ol aflcl/I{(IfiOIl flu'for.

/" ., lIeighl alll'/!II(1lionfllC/ol".

Figurc 207-4: Topographic Factor, K/I _. Mcthod 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

2-4 1


K, determined from table below

f ,

Parameters for Speed-Up over Hills and Escarpments K,I(HlL,,) Hill Shape Exposure Upwind )' of Crest D B C 2-dimensional ridges (or valleys 1.30 1.45 1.55 1.5 3 with negative H in K,I(HlL,) 2-dimensional escarpments 0.75 0.85 0.95 2.5 1.5 3-dimensional axisym. hill 0.95 1.05 1.15 4 1.5


of Crest 1.5
4 ,


Figure 207-4 (cont'd): Topographic Factor, K" - Method 2

NJlionn! Structural Coele:: of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

Enclosure Classification Open Buildings Partially Enclosed Buildings

0.00 +0.55 -0.55 +0.18 -0.1 8

Enclosed Buildings




Plus and minus signs s ign ify pressures acting toward and away from the internal sUI/aas. respectively.

2. 3.

Values of GCp' shall be used with q, or q" as specified in Section 207.5.12. Two cases shall be considered to determine 'he critical load requirements for the appropriate condition: (i) a positive value ojGCpi applied to all ifltemal sw/aces (ii) a Ilegative value o/GCpi applied to all internal sUl/aces

Figure 207-5 Internal Pressure Coefficients, GCpi on

Walls and Roofs of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed and Open Buildings for all Heights Main Wind-Force Resisling System/Components & Cladding - Method 2

As sociA ti on of StruCILJfal Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTE R 2 - M inlll1l1lll Design






-_ q,r;C p





q "Gc"


figure 207-6 External Pressure Coefficients, C" on




Wal ls and Roofs of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings for all Heights Main Wind-Force Resisting System - Method 2
Nation,)1 Structural Code of the Pililippines 6'" Edition Volum e 1


CHAPTEH 2 -- Minimum Design Loads


Wall Pressure Coefficients, C LIB Co All values 0.8 0-1 -0.5 Leeward Wall -0.3 2 >4 -0.2 Side Wall - - - Ali values -0.7 Surface Windward Wall -

Usc With


RoofPrcSSUfe Coefficients, C" fOf use with Windward


Wind Direction ----_.



Normal to ridge for () :: 10

_ _ "m

Normal to ridge for () < 10 and Parallel to ridge for all 0

_ ... _------

Angle, () de )rces Angle, IJ Idegrees) > 60 10 10 15 >2 a 45 IS 20 10 25 30 35 --_. -0.7 -0.5 -OJ -0.5 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2 -0.6 0.0 ::: 0.25_.. -0.18 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.010 --05 -0.5 0.0 -0.9 -0.7 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2 -0.6 0.5 -0.18 ._-.:2.lL _ 0.0' 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.010 --1.0 -0.7 -0.7 -0.6 -OJ -0.2 0.0' -0.5 -0.6 -1.3 ** 0.0 -0.18 :: I.Q_ -0.18 -0.18 0.2 __ ~ 02. __ 00111 ... Horizontal distance from * Value is provided for interpolation purposes, Cp - windward edge o to hl2 -0.9, -0.18 ::: 0.5 hl2 to II _ -0.9,-QJL 1-------.. II to 211 -0.5, -0.18 ** Value can be reduced linearly with arca over > 211 which it is applicable as follows: ---_.-0.3, -0.18 Reduction Factor Area 1m') . . .1.3 , -0.18 to h12 < 9 1.0 .. _-._1.0 23 0.9 ---------,-_._---> h/2 -0.7, 0.18 > 93 0.8 ---,-..- ----- -----." .... ,.,--------------..-----. -













4. 5, rI. 7,

FIllS alld lIIillllS sigl1.\' sigll({I' pre,I'slIn's (lcling IOw(/rd (llId (1\\'oyJi'ollllhe .I'll/fixes, respeclively, Linear interpolalion is permil(edJiJr value.t (~f LIB: hlL (llId () othel' Ihall shown. Interpolation shall only he ('wTied out b('tween )lo/ues o(the salll('.I'i Where no valu(' o(lhe same sigll is given, assume O,OIbr illl<'I]JOlalio/l purposes. Where 111'0 values ()I(~, are fisled, {hi.\' illdic(lies Ihal the windw(lrd roofslope is subjecled 10 eilher posilive or lIegalille pressures (lnd Ihe r()(!(SlnlCI, shall he desigllcd/i:n- bOlh conditiOlls. II/IC'/potalioll for inlermcdiale ratios olhlL ill Ihis case shall ollly he carried oul belweel/ (~, l'allle,l' (~f like ,I'(f!,11 For mOllos/ope roo/i', {,lIlire rQ(~(,wljiJce i,l' eilher a windward OJ' leeward sill/ace. Forjlexihfe huildingl' 115e appropriale G, a.l delermilled by Section 207,5,8. Reier 10 Figure ]07- 7(i)r dOilies (llld Figure 207-8(i)/' arched /'oof~ NOlalion: fJ ~ I IOl'i20nla/ dimension o(/Jlli/dillg, ill m, IIlNI,wred normal 10 willd direclioll L Iloriwlllal dimC'nsion of buildillg, ill m, measured paJ'alfd 10 wind direclioll. 1/ M('(l1I r()(?( heighl in III, ex('c/ilihol ('()I'(' heighl ,dl(dl hI' us(,d/or 0 :S /() degn't's, I- ,-- lIeighl (lho\!(' grollnd. m.
(! GII.I'I




({:, ,qlo VelocilY pn'x,I'lII'(', Nlml. ('wlll/llled (II /'("I,/)('Clilll' height. f) Angle ofll{(lJI{' o(roor(rolll horizonlal, degrees. For IIWll.Hlnl roo/i'. the lop horiuJ!/1a1 sl/rfrU'(' (llId feew(Jrd il1cfil1('(/ Sll/jiU'1' ,I'half 17(' Irealed as lecw(lrd sllIjiwes/i'olll Ihe lah/(', Fxn'jlls/ilr MWFR,<,,' ',I' ollhe l'oo(co/lsiSlillf: (~/mo/JIelll /'c,I'islingfmlllcs, IiiI' 10101 horizonlo! shear shalf 1/01 h(' 1("I's Ihll/l Iha! d('/erlllilled hi' Ii,', '('('{il willd(hrc('s Oil l'oo(,wr(ace,I'. For mo/slopes gn'lIll'1' Ihal! 80", II.1'C (~, 0.8

Figure 207-6(cont'd) - External Pressure Coeflicicnts, e p on Walls and Roofs of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings [c)r all Heighls Main Wind Force Resisting System -- Method 2 Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


2 -- Minimum Design Loads


+0. 8 +0.4 +0.'

:?J'l --0
A (h 0 10 =025)

A (hoID=O) \




~ 7~


/ V


A (holD 2: 1.0)

C (h"ID=O)


" ----- ____ "" ,-- ----::::. -/-,

C (holD 2:0.5)




/ \


/ "I, - -j-/

"~ V

B (h"ID=O)


--- 0.'

B (hoID2:0.5)




Ratlo of Rise to Diameter, flO

Noles: 1. Two load cases shafl be considered' Case A. C,. l'{Ilucs between A and Band belween IJ arid C shaff be dl~/erll/il/ed by linear interpolalion along arcs 011 (he dome parallel 10 rhe lI'illd directioll; Case B. C" shall be Ihe cons(anl value of A/or ():5 25 degrees, and shall be determined by linear intelpolalion/i"Ol11 25 degrees 10 Band from B 10 ,.


Values del1o(e C~, to /;I~ used wilh q(ho ~-/) where hI) +fis the height al the top 1~{tlW dOllJl'.
PIlls and millllS signs signijj' pressures acting toward alld away/rom the sw:{acl's. respectively (~, is COllstall1 0/1 the dome slIrfilCefor orcs o(cirdes perpendicular to fhe wind direction; /or ('.wmp/c, lhe (lrC" jills.I"ing Ihrough IJ-/J,/J and a/I II!', p(lmlld 10 B-I1-/1, " For wI/lies o/Ir,lD IW(I\eell{flro.I'1' hl"led on Ihe graph ('UI"I'('.I', 1i1l('(J1" illierpo/a(ioll sha/l be j1amil(l'd. (I = 0 degrees on dOllie spring line, () ~, 90 degrees af dl)lIIl' cellter fOp point, lis measured{rom spring lilli' {o fop The 100al horizol1(a/ shear shall !lot be less (hall that delermined hy netlecting wind(r)/"(YI' all ro(lsJII/ocl's For/1D value'S /I'SS (hall 0.0.5. lise Figure 207-6.



'Figure 207-7 External Pressure Coefficients, C~) for loads 011 Domed Roofs of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings and Structures for all Heights Main Wind- Force Resisting System - Method 2

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHIIPTE H 2- Minimum Design Loads

Roof on elevated structure Rise- ta-span ratio, ,. 0 < ,.< 0.2 0.2 < r < 0.3 0.3 < r< 0.6

Windward quarter -0.9 1.5,. - 0.3 2.75/'-0.7 1.4,. Center half -0.7 -,. -0.7 - r 0.7 - r -0.7 - ,.

Leeward quarter -0.5 -0.5 -0.5


Roof springing from grou nd level

I. 2.

Wlrell tlse rise-Io-spar! ratio is 0.2.$r:S 0.3. alternate coefficients given by 6r-2.1 .thoU also be used/or ,he windward Quarter.

Notes: Values listed are/or Ihe '/cferminOliOIl oj average loads all main wincl force resisting systems. Plus mId mimi.! signs Signify pressures actillg IOlVord and alVoy from the sill/aces. respectively. For wind directed pamllcllo the (lxis oJlhe are/J. use pressure cocjficiellfsfrom Figllre 107-6 with wind dil'e('(ed parallel 10 ridge. For components and cladding: ( I) AI roo/perimeter, use Ihe exlemal pressure coelJiciellls ill Figure 207/ ,lI'ilh 0 h(Jscd on spring line slope and (2)/or remail/ing roof areas. lise exlernal pressure coefflcielJ(J' of this table mrdtll)/ictl hy 0.87.


Figure 207 -8 External Pressure Coeffic ients, Cp for loads on Arched Roofs of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings and Structures for all He ig ht s Main Wind- Force Resisting System/Compo nents and Cladding - Method 2

Association of Structura l Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimulll Design Loads


O. 75P >'Y

0. 75Pwx



0. 75P"",






0. 75Pwx MT ~ 0. 75 (p"" + Pu ) Bx ' x "" = O . I5B x

0. 75P" MT = 0.75 (P",,+ P.r) B T. ,

0.563 P,.J( 563 Rr-r 0.563 Pwx L-L -.L...l-...L.....L...JO MT = 0.563 (Pwx + PIX) Bxex+ 0.563 (Pwr + PH) Brer

I'-1- r- -r- -1~rT- r- r-t-'


e, -



Case 1. Full design wind pressure acting 011 the projected area perpendicular to each principal axis of the structure, considered separa tely along each principal axis.
Case 2. Th ree quaners of the design wind pressure acting on the projected area perpendicular to each princi pal axis of the structure in conjunct ion with a torsional moment as shown, co nside red separately for each principal axis.

Case 3. Wincl loading as defi ned in Case 1, but considered to act simultaneously at 75% of lhe specified value. Case 4. Willd loadi ng as defined in Case 2, but considered to act simultaneously at 75% of the specified value.
NOll's '


/){'.~igll wind pre.Hures/n/' windward and Ic('word fa ce.( slta" be d('lcrmilJcd in a/'{'on/ rlllct! wilh IIII' provi.riolls o(Sec/s. 10 7.5. 11.2. 1 {1m/ l fil. 5.ll.l . .l (IS (lflplirah/e l or buildings 0 1 (Ill hcighlJ. /Ji(lj.!I'(/I".~ .f/lOlI' plan vi{' w'f olh/.i/dins:.
Nolo/iflll :

dc.rigll fln's.W/l'e (JCfi11f; ill Ihe x. y prillC/lm/ (lxi.f. nspl'(f/\'('~)'. /. ('('lIardlucl' d(,\' i~1I pre.uw'(' fiNing in tlu~ x. y prine/jNII (lx i..-. rt!.ljJt'ctively. (' ((' 1', ('1) -- /;'c'('('II{ricity/iw liJe x, y prillcil)(l{ (lxis oJtl1t! structure. f'(!.\pt:cliw ()'. A "I ,- TO/ :~il/lJiI! /IIOIII/'Itt pel' IIl/il heiglrt (lClilll,: abolll a \'l'rl/ca! axi.~ Il/lhe blli/ding.
Por I'

~. Willi/ward/aCt!

PI r P I1

' ;'

Figure 2079 Design Wind Load Cases for All H eights Main Wind-Force Resis ting System - Method 2

Natlonat Structural Code of lI,e Philippines 6 ' Edition Volu me 1


CHAPTEH 2 ... Minimum Design Loads


(~ ./ .....
~ .. 0


... ,-....



- , -

/ ..

/ ~~

Transverse Direction




Longitudinal Dlrectlon BASIC LOAD CASES

Figure 20710 External Pressure Coefficients. Ge,.on Low Rise Walls & Roo[, of Enclosed. Partially Enclosed Buildings with" ,; I R m. Main Wind Force Resistin g System Method 2
I\ssoci8\ion of Stru ctural Engineers of 1118 Pililippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


Roof Angle 0 (degrees) 0-5 20 30-45 '----90 ...

No!l'.\" :

Buildin Surface I 0.40 0.53 0.56 0.56


3 -0.37 -0.48 -0.43 -0.37

4 -0.29 -0.43 -0.37 -0.37

5 -0.45 -0.45 -0.45 -0.4 5

6 -0.45 -0.45 -0.45 -0.45

IE 0.6 1 0.80 0.69 0.69

2E -1.07 - 1.07 0.27 0.69

3E -0.53 -0.69 -0.53 -0.48

4E -0.43 -0.64 -0.4 8 -0.48

-0.69 -0.69 0.2 1 0.56

I. 1.

PIII.~ om' //lilli/X signs signiJjl pr(!.\'slIrc:.' (K/illg (oward and (Ill'oy/rom Ihe slIrjiu.y!.f, re.rpeOillcly.

For l'(lIU1~:"

other thl/1/
ill turllS


show". iiI/cor illfl'lpolofiolJ ;.1' pCl'lllif((!(J,

3. 4

711(' bllildillg must be designed for all wind directions r ising Ih(, R loading patterns .f/IOWI/.
ImiMi/1; {:orlll'r

nil! load pllltems

are applht! 10 l'lll:h

as tile Reforellce Corner.

Comhil/o/iOlls o.f eXlema/ IIml illlcmal pre.ts/m!s (see Figure 1075) shall be evalllnted a.f reqllired 10 obtain lite mOM .revere

For 111(' torsional/Dad cases showlI below. the pres.tures ii, lOlles desiglltl/ed wilh a "'" (1 T. 2T, IT. 4T) shaff be 25% of Ihe full desigll willd prC.fsures (zolle J. 2. 3. 4). 6. xce}Jlioll : Qlle -"ton'), buildings with len Ilion or equal 10 10 III buildillgs fWO slories or less framed wilh light !rollle CO lls/mel ion. lIIul huildillgs fwo swries or Jess dcsignated willi fll'xible diaphragms lIeed not be designed for Ille larsiOllof lond cases. 7. TOl'siall(lllomlillg sha/J apply fa of( eight basic load palle,."s 1I.<:illg Ih e figllres below applied at cflch referellce comer. 8. Excepi for momt!lII.resistillg frames. tile total horizonlal sllMr shaJl IIot be less Ihon Ihat determilled by lIeglecting willd farces 011 raul sllI/ace.f. 9. For the (/t'.<:ign of tfte MWr"RS providing laleml rt'Sislanc(! i" a dil'eCli(J1I parallel f() a rit/ge. lille' orlor flat roO/f. lise 0 =- 0 0 atld loca/e flte la/IC 213 boundfll)' (// rhe midlcl/glll olthe Imildillg. 10. The /'oolpr(!ssure coefficicfJ! GC~f. II'hell neg(llil'e ill zolle 2 or 2E. shall be applied ill zOlle 212 E. for a dis/(UJce [ram the edge 0/1'00/ equal 10 0.5 limes (he horizontal dimension 0/ rhe building paml"" 10 Ihe directioll ollhe MWFRS being design ed or 2.5 lim('s Ihe efll'e heigill. hr. at Ihe windward 11'(1/1. whichever is less: lite remainder of zone 212 E. extending 10 {he ridge line .l'lwll usc rhe preSS/Ire coe.Oicienl GC"lfiJl' zone 3/3 e. j 1. No/(uiOIl.' II ~ 10 pl~I,(,(!1/1 (~f Icasl horiZO/lwl dillle'lI.n'OIl or O,4h, which ever is ,fIIf{//"~r. hut 110/ It!!>.\, IIwll eit/wl' 4% (llc(Jsl horiZOIl/(J1 dimem';rm



MlUJII rno/height. m, except thm eIJl'(~ heighl slllJlI be uset/forO :; I(YO = Angle alp/one ofroo[from horizontal. degrees

Transvel se Direction On!Ilt'LJdlnal Direction

Torsional Load Cases

Figure 207- 10 (conI 'd) EXlernal Pressure Coemcien'" GC"ro ll Low-Rise Willis & Roof., of Enclosed, Partia ll y Enclosed 8uildings \~ilh II :5' 18 m, Main Wind-Force Resistin g System-Method 2
National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volul11 e 1


CHAPTEF{ 2 Minimum Design Loads

o (!)


-1.8 -1.6 -1.4



J.-- c-""-- i'--..


..-" c:


-1.0 .0.6 .0.4 .0.2



~ Q)
~ ~

---- ----: ~

C/) C/)

+0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8


c: L.


2 X


L----- I----"

k- ..-



9.3 18.6


Effective Wind Area, m



4. 5.

Vertical scale denotes G(~ 10 be used lI'illl q;,. Horizontal scale denotes effective lI'illd area, II!" PIlls and lIli/IUS signs sign!()' pres.l"Ures acting toward alld away/rom the swflees, respectively. Each compOllell! shall be designed/or /l/aximulII pO.l'ilil'(, and !legalil'!' pressures. Jia/!I('s oJG(~Jor wol/s shall be reduced by 10% when 0::; If)"

,~ 10 percellt of !(,II,V! horizontal dimellsioll or (JAil, \Ihic/)el'('r is sma/la. hut 110t less lholl either 4~-{' {~/ least horizontal


dimensio/1 or (), 9 III Meall J'()(!/heigiJf. III, except {hal {'(lve height shall he IIsed/llrO ::; 10" C~ Angle (!fplonC? o/n)(!f/rom hori;:oll/(//. degrees.

Figure 207-! I A External Pressure Coefficients, Gel' for Loads on Walls of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ~ 18 In Components and Cladding ~ Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

l~l .-- <V, - - - 1- - ---, ,


-r --------l-- --,,,<v
--" ----1-


CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


, ,






;1=-L<V""-.1.:-_-""':Oc:..-_-_---'--_-...:"'-_ _ -_-:,-,0~3

... c



Rc bf

Q. o


u -2.0

C> 3 .0

u' ar an g



!i: Q)




o f! :J
a. tv c ....



I~ ~.,\


''" " ~

-1.0 < . < .


S~&@1.1 -1.0



0 .9 1 .9

0.9 1 .9 4 .6 9 .3 18.6 46.5 92 .9

1 "-


S ., . ... . f-0{i)


< . 0.1




4.6 9 .3 16.6 46 .5 92.9

Effective Wind Area, m 2



EffacUve Wind Area, m 2


J. 4. J. 6.

Vertical ""ale denotes G (~, to be used lI'ilh q~ . lIuriU)lff(l1 scali' denote.\" "jlee/iI'c! 1I'illd (Ire(} A, m:,
1'111.,' III/(/ mill1/5 sign.~ signify preS.fUI'('S (I eliflg toward lind tlw(ly Ji'om the .wl' f ilces. rt'.,.,u!c'lil'l!ly. hoc" COlllpUIII!1If .f/wl/ be d esiglled for IIl(JximUTII pO.filil'C (l11(/III!J;alil'c pre.HUH'.f.

For 0 S 70 ,


Ftw bllildings SifC't/ within .tf}()SIIr(,

o/GCI'/rom Figure 20758 .f/mll be used. co/culaled preSSIIt'{'S sh(lll be nllllfil'li::d l~r 0.85



Nolc ll;,m:
II '"

J(}'l~ O//ClI.d IwriU)IIW/ dilll{'II.~iul/ 0/11 .{llIgle ,sf/lm module or I)


4". wlJiclu'ver is .wwller. hilt lIolless thcm dlher" perct'''! of

It'O,l'f lU}r;u11ltal dilfl(!lIsimr (~rll.fill~/ matlll/f! 0"/ II ,., HI"t' hl' I/:1I1 .t/wll b(' /Ised j i/I' () $ 10" W <"' IJIII/dillS !lidlh, /1/ (}:" Allgll' ~rp/ml(' c~rroojfrmn Jwn;ontlli. dl'grt>es

Fig ure 207-1 113 External Pressure Coem c ient', Ge" on Gable Roofs of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with" " 18 III Co mponents and Cladding - Method 2
National Stru ctural Code of th~) Philippines 6 'h Edition VOl lHl'l8 1


CHAP TEr< '2 .- Minimum Design l.oads




I I r


I I I r I













1:-1-._.-._ ._....J]
' r-

t= i-(J)-::--:




., .4 it3 o

c '0




, .,

., .
.8 .2

z z .4 z .2



,. .,

"" "

-+ .....

. . -Q}



..J -4 .

e .,

1 .0


'" E

c ...

... ...

.. .. .


... .... .
". .3 = ..




-3. 81-@-.----..

-'-r-'-- ~'



3 .8
3. 4r..-..

if Ql

'\ '\. .__..

-- I-



z S ... ... ...e

C ...

-3 .0 e .,.8 .,. ''" " e z



Z. 4


: -(j)-@&(F'
0.9 1 .9 4.8


-2.0 .,-. 0 .1


0.9 1 .9 4 .6

-+ _. 9.318.6

Z .,



9 .3 18.6

41~ . 5

'::-:: 92.9

EffectJve Wind Area, m'

EffectJve Wind Area, m'

I. 2.


e s 27

4. 5.

Vertical senft! dC/JOit's Gel' to be Il,H:d II'llh q~ . lIori:mulIl salle del/ofes eIfective wind area, ill !illll(Jl'~' 1JI('lt" :", III I, sigl/s signify p""ssw 'cs (Iclillg IOlI'ord (lml (lway/rom III(' .wlI/nC('.f. r('.o:pf'("(jW/),. E(u:h component .{Iwl( be dl'SIgllcd fnr fllllximlim pn.nfil'(.' (lnd " ego/ille I'res,u/I"(s. Vallles t!fGCpfor roof OI'trh(lIlg.f il/ell/rle pl'C",r.urre c(1rltributiolufl'om bOlh IIppt'r /lilli/ower slIr{f/(;(.... edge / r idge sirips and pressllf"(' c()l:fl/cit'llIS {"r ridJ.:.{.r l!fguh/('d midi- shal/lIppi!' 011 I'uell hip. For hip roo!'; willi 7 < () ~ 1
PillS (llId 1i ! :II11S


/,'or '"i' w l?fr wilh 0:::: 25. Wile' 3 ,r/mll h<'/rcu/ct! II.r ZOI/C' 2 No/a fioll.\:
Il '" If) jlern'lI f ~rf('(lsl hOri201l(liI {1i1ll ('n<:i(lII.~ or (J.t/II , II'hkh{>I'(!" is .H1l11l1er. hilI Iwl !t'ss thall ('illl('l" 1%


'!{ it'rUI

"/lri~(mllll dillll'l!..iu;;

orfJ.9 m

h ,~ Mean 1'(J(!f Jwight. m. ext'ept thtlt ('IH '(! /r etg"l .Ihall be fl.snl jiJI' (}:5 {} ~~ Angle (~f plane f!f 1'01!lfmlll horizonw/. IJ('gl'('{!'\'


Figure 207- 1 IC External Pressure Coefficients, Ge" Oil Gable/II ip Root:, of Enclosed, Part ially Enclosed Buildings with II ~ 18 III Components and Cladding ._. Method 2
AssOcitHion of S trlJ cturf:ll Engineers of the: Phil ippine s

CHAr'TER 2 . Minimum Design Loads

2.. 53

ftft/ft -j- _l L ~ JQ2 :.r&321__











+- r -1 @: -@- -:


G) r@1



_---_ .._.....

__. _ - - - - '




..r I:
0.6 ...-.-..--..---


... 4~----- ' - - -

---+-~---I...--- --_ ---+-+--1---1--1


'0 .,.4 e----- .-..J---I--I----I--I---.-

..., - - - - -..-- --- -_....)---1-10-..----- .. --..

" o "

:;: _(2) &~_+=+-_. ___


.._____.. ___ ._ .'0


-.-1---- 1.- -.-..._-.

..... _ ....

.0 .

--------_.._..- - -

- - ..

[...(1)-(2)'&@-- -.:--: == -.,~ ..--.. -..--- -.-.....

-____ _____ ___ L _____ _




0.. (ij

~ en en ~

, . I-----+----+---=~"'+-I_-I- 1.'

.....__..__._-1--- - - --- -- - - ....--.

1.4 - - ' ' ' - ' - - - - . - - _ . -

1.' . - - - - - .....- ...- ......--. --..- ..- - .---.- . - .





9,3 18.6

46.5 92.9



1.0 0.1




9.3 18.6

46.5 92.9

Effective Wind Area, m'


Effective Wind Area, m'

GABLE ROOFS 27 0 < 0 :s 45

I. Vertical w:a/c dClJotes (j(~, to he IIsed 1I'111t qh


ilorizontal scale dello!es


wil/d area,


Plus and millll.l" ,~igl/s sigf1[{j' pressllres acting {Oln/rd and (1woyji'olll Ihe siujiu:es. respectively.

I:'(/cll cOIIII'0I1(,1I1 shatl he desigllcd/o}" maxinll/III positil'(' olld /lcgalivc pressures

Value.l" o( C;C;.jin' mO/OI'er/ulIIgs illclurie pressure cOlllrihulioll.ljiom holh IIpper and lower .l"1II.f(lces.

10 percellt O(/CO.It /iori::OIua/ dimcllsioll.l or OAiI. whichl'v('!" is S/II(lI/t'!". hut !lot less thall eithC'r

4% (?f lells! hOl"ium/ol dimellsioll

() '0

II '" Meall }"oo(hr'(l;/II. III AI/gIl' ofplul/(, o(mo//i"Ol1l hOI"/;:(}ntlil. d('gr('{'.1

Figurc 207-11 D Extcrnal Pressure Coefficients, G(~) on Gable Roo(\ of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h $ ! 8 m Components and Cladding - Method 2
Nc)(ional Structwal Code of

Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 2 -- Minimum Design Loacls



0.3 to 0_7

w, = 0.25 to 0.7.1


011 Ihe


o/jla(, stepped 1"IJ()f.i ,\"11011'11 ill Figure 2()7 /2, the


d("I'igllolioll.\' olld prI'SJIII"(' coefficiellts

."/;ml/i "!

1/ /J shalf appzv, except lliar at the 1"()(!/~lIp"er 11'(11/ inICl".I'CClioll(s). ::0111' 3 .\'ha// he {reared (IS zone 2 (lnd ZOIW ) shu!! h, 1,'01('(/ t:x ZOIl(, 1. Posifin' wlll/('.\" of GC:~. (,(/110/ to tho.\'{' /hl" walls ill Figur(' ]{)7j fA sl1r11/ apply (III (he crosshatched (/n'O.l' sholl'/! in Figure 207-12.
2. N%/ivlls : h .~ 1.5111 ill Figure 20l f 2. hllll/Of greater fhall 30 m

h '" Meall J'()(!f height. //I hi ,- hi or II! ill Figure 207-12: II'~ h/ -j 11 :: h, :0: 3 III, h/h ,~ (U /0 0.7 W c", /Juilding width ill Figure }07-/2 W,'''' If / o/" W!or WI ill Figu/"e207/2. If ~' IVI + W., or WI -I We -1- WI W/Il' '" n.25 {0 0.75 o ""' Angle o(plane (!{/"()(?flio/11 horizollfal. d('grees

Figure 207-12 External Pressure Coefficients, Gel' on Stepped RnolS of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with Ii ,; 18 III Components and Cladding -- Method 2
Association of Structural Engineers of the PhilipPines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


, ,

: , ,
1 -_._.!!W ---_ __


2 .6


3 .0
2 6f-2 2 .4 2 .2

10'<0 <30"

2 .6

30'< 0 S 45'

2.6 . 2.5

0. 2 4i-<?>
() 2 .2 C,!) . .2.0





.... c

2 .0
1 .6




-- -'\..


if Ql

1 .6
1 .4 1 .2




.... C

L '\..

-- -----

_ -- _.- f--..

1.7 1.6 1.1

4------ _. 1. 2 -, -- .. if Ql 0 .. 1 . o ()
. 1.
<{) . 8

1. B .1.6






1 .7

_. .: -- f--.


Vl Vl


1 . 0 <{). B
.{). 6 .{). 4
.{). 2


--- _ -


2 - - -- - - - - _ _--


-- I - .... - --


.... x


0-'-<{). 2

ro c

+0. 2

+0 .4 +0 .8



+0.4 +0. 6





--- 1 -

-_. - - +0 .

.... x



I-.- _.



0.91 .9

4 .69.318.646.592 .9

0 .1


. --

.- -

- - I-

+ 0.8


0 .91 .9

4 .69.318.646.592.9

Effective Wind Area, m 2

Effective Wind Area , m 2




V('/'fical.u'ai, d('lIf1il'.f Ge" to /1(' /If('t/II";lh 1 /. lfor;::OI/W/ sc:a/( (kllolt'... t1fi.'clil't! wind Ort'll. 11/ PIli!/: 1111(1 mfllllS Jil:tls signify p n 'ssld'C'S (WI llig IOU"m "I' IMd lIu-ay/rom Ihc' .nfljil( es. r,,~p(cllI't~, r 1 ;(1('11 compl}//('III,\'/udl 111' t!('.\igl1('(! fill' 1/I11.limulllluHifll'l' (lm/III'C(llin' W'('.f,tllrc:S.


For (J

/0 0, I'all/t's ofG<'~.lio lll Figwv l1J7-11 shall hi'

/w/,( '/'Ilf

Now/iolls: (I ~, If) 1){'n'('II' fllt'asl llOl'i.7(II1I(11 dim(' /lS;OII,\' uta ,~jl/.~:/( '-"'I'(111 IIIod"/( III' (JAil. It'hidll'l'('1' is SII/(/II.-I', hl/IIIOf h's, \' ,h(/I/ ('iI/wI' 4 "I"'(I,fl/lOl'I:ml/a/ dillll'lI,f/rJ/l of fI ,flll~/I! 'V){}1I /1111(1"1,, Ill' 0. 9 11/ It '" ,\Iewl I'r",/I/('I;/II. m . {'X(,I!I" 11/(/1 "c/I' I' h(j)!hl ,\'!Jall hi' " .H'd/orl}::: IfJ" It' ." IJuiidillg modllll! widrh, 11/



AI/gil' of"It/l/(, ofronf(rom hori:onltll. t/(',I!.r('l',{

figure 20713 EXlemal Pressure Coe m cicnls, Ge" on Mullisl'an Gable Roofs of Enclosed. Parlially Enclosed l3uildings wilh " ,; I Rill

Componen ts and Cladding - Method 2

National Structural Code

or the Philippines 6U1 Edition Volume


CHAPTE:H 2 -.. Minimum Design l.oads

l-:r i-----~-----L~ ~L ,
N ____

-2.8 2.6


, , , ,

' ,





1M ' 0: , : ,

CD 1


, , ,

!4-, ,
, ,

,: ,

, ;~ ;(2

, , I


-1.8 1.6

""-->__ L__'

. J.i_- _-_- __;_- _-_- _-!. .r_~. . .J- - ~



'" '"








-0.4 -0.2

c: ...

+0.4 +0.6









9.3 18.6

46.5 92.9

Effective Wind Area,m 2

~w --~

MONOS LOPE ROOFS 3" :::: 0 :::: 10"

Noles : I.
Verli(."(I/.\"(xJfe denores (;C:~ (() be used with qh


/ /ol"i:olllill sca/I' denoles {!Ueclive willd al"ea A. m.

PIlls (Il1d minus signs sign(fjl pressures acting IOll'(JI'd 0111/ (j\\'(J.l'/i"Oln the ,I"wfnces. I"especril'e/y. Each compollent shall be designed/c)/" maxilllum posilil'(, (lnd ncgatil'e pressurc.\". For () ~ 3". wl/ues (~rG(~,f/"()1II Figure 207/ III shoff he u.\"ed



(/ ,- /0 perCClI1 (~lI('asl horizollial dimellsions or O.4h, \l'lIichell('r is .wwf/e/". bur nor le.u dUIII ('ir!!('/" 4 p('I"n'lIl O(l{'(/S! hon21111fo!
dilll('II.1"IOII or O. 9 111 II co 1,,'alJe height sholl he uscd/i."ll" ():S /OG W'" /Juilding width, 11/ (J ", Angle ojp/ww o/roo/from horizontat, degrees

Figure 207-14A External Pressure Cocfticients, Gel' on Monoslope Roofs 3 < e ~ 10 of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with h ~ 18 III Components and Cladding -- Method 2
Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAvn::F 2 _ .- Minimum Design Loads




"" IdJ






~ I:





.J'0'ii~~~~=l=+=~ -2.8 i="



-2~ 1-----1--+":---1-+--1---

-2.4 f------I-i-"--',,,I--I--+--l--I



"" IdJ


L _ __ ______ _ __ J


~ e

-221----+-+-+-+-r---j-1 -2.01------11--1--+-+-1--- .. .0 I! 1-=:----- ---1--+--+-1---1---1.8 r@~----k::,,-+-i. --. - 1 - 1.6 IA -~I- ----1--+--j


.~1.~ I--{B_l-_--_-~_-_--+,~-~--~--:O--t~=t'---=::t=t=!~:H
-Ur-------I---j).8 - - - - - -- - - - ---I--- - - - - - j ) A -






as E

. C 1 - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - -.0---------- -- . _- --- +0.4 ALLZON"RS


~2t~~~~t=j:~~j==t=~~ --- m
Effective Wind Area, m'


NOles '


f {orizol/lill

dCI/o[('.\" G(~,



to hI' IIsed \\-illl q" e{fective I\"illlf al"('(1 A.


I>IIIS lil/d

lIli/IIIS .\igll.~

sigllil.i- pres,l"IIl"e.\' (lclillg toward and (/\\oy./iolll fire .I'III/OC(,S. res/wclil'ely


each COIII/HIII('111 sh(lll he d(,s(i~lIed/()r mi/ximllll! po.vil/\'e (lild I/egalil'{' prex.I"II/'e.\'.


If) /)('l"n'lIl o(l('os( /wri::()Iliu/ diml'lIsionl' OJ" O.4h, w/iic/iCI'cr dimcnl'i()11 or O. 9 111 II Mel/II roof'/I('(I!,lir,1II Jj' Iluitdill,!!. lI'ill/h , III o ": Ang/e o(p{(J/1(' 1!/mo(ji'Olll hori::oll/ol, dc,!!.n'I's

i ,l' .1'11)(///('1',

hilt 1I01/('.\'.\' thall ('ililc/' 4 pcrcCllt o({ensl horizontol

Figure 207-1413 External Pressure Coefficients, GC~J 011 Monoslopc Roofs 10 < of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings with II :s; J 8 III C()Jl1pol1cnts and Cladding .- Method 2

eS; 30

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEH 2 - Minimum Design Loads

... ... 4 ~(SPANAI

, 3

-4 .1

~.--. @i.-----~m--mf 3:::

__ : I

-4 .0

: ,


1 , , :

1 , , '
0), ii"' 2 i'6

3. 3 .






, , , ,

: ,


' :

;,;i j ~i - ------ --Kr 3:::

c: QI '0


." ." , .,.








-2. 0



"" '" '",



~ -\

-2 .6







'" "--


-<l . -<l -<l.' -<l,2





. . ! . . .w- - - I

~ x

c: ....

+0.2 +0,' +0 . +0 .


+1 .2 +1.4 0.1

0.9 1.9



-- 9.3 18.6


+0 .7 +0.6
+1 .1


46.5 92.9

Elevation of Building (2 or More Spans)

Effective Wind Area, m'

No r!'!.;


V"/"I;('(t/ scah' dlII(J(I!.~ eel' to II(' USN} wilh q" Ilm'hul/wl scale clt'1I0Il'S l'ffi:ctil'e wind ort'a A,

II ....


Plus ali(I millllX ... i~II'<: slf,lI iji' PI'/,.\'SIW<'S I1Clillg f()\~ 'fI,.d (lilt! (111'(1)' /rom Iht.! .l'Ifrf (IC<',f, rl!sp{'Clil'l'(I"


Had, ('0111(10111.:111 shafll)(' 1/(.\"igIJl'dji,,. /IIt/rimll'" ;10.\";I;l'(.' (1/11/ Fo r" ~ tfJD, I'(tfl/{'S I~r (j(.~,jh )ll' Fi};ur(' 107 // shall hi! IIsed.

/wgllfil'c: PH!SSllres .

Now/ioll.\': - /0 1U'l'c('tI/ or/('(/.~I Iwri::collia/ dlll/I'IISiml.\ O/'

r/iI1U'II.\'iml or

n 9111


wll/ ch e l'I'r

is smalh>r. hili 110'

"',u (/1111/ (,i,//('r .f /)('/H'1If o.//('OSI /wri=mllo/

h MC'a1/ nxifhl'l,l4hl, m. 1 ',I t'C'Pl lh{lf ('1II.,. Ilt'ix1ilsltllll hI' 1I,\'(r/ (or 0 S. /00 II' ... IJllilrlmg 11I0r/llit' wit/lh, 11/ () ~ "'''1:1('0./plm/(: fll rao((nml Jwri=Ollwl, t/t'grC'l!s

f'igurc 207-15 EXlcrtl.1 Pressure Cocmeienls,


on Sawloolh Roofs

or Enclosed, Partial ly Enclosed Buildings with II S 18 Componen ts and Cladding -.- Method 2
Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippine s

CHAr'TER 2 -- Minimum Design Loads






External Pressure Coefficients for Domes with a Circular Base Negative Positive Positive 0, degrees Pressures Pressures Pressures 61 - 90 0-90 0-60 ------+0.5 +0.9 GC, ._.- - -- -0.9 - - - - _..

2 3 4 5.

Verlical gale denotes

PlU,I" and


to be used I\'ilh (j(h{) + J) where (fit)

+ f) is [he heigh! althe

lOp of lire dome.

in us signs signify pr(,ssures aClil1g /oll'ard and awayjmln IIie SUI/aces, respec/il'ely. Each componeili shall be designed for moximulIl posilive and negative pressures. Values app~l' (o 0::: h,ID:5 0.5. 0.2 'S.jlD:-:: 0.5. () '" () degrces 011 dome spring lillc. () ." 9() degree.\" (II dome celller top pOinf.I is 1I/('(JsuI"cdji'om spring tim'



Figure 207-16 External Pressure Coefficients, GC;, on Domed Roois

of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Buildings and Structures with all Heights Components and Cladding - Method 2

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6'" Edition Volume 1


CHAP1H, 2 -- Mlnimurn Design Loads

3. 4 3 . 2




--.3 .2




2 .8 2. 6 2 .4 2. 2





-- i'-.

- -'-- . 2 .3

1. 8


1 .6 1.4 1 .2


"'------ ---


1 .8 1 .6



-<>.8 -<>.6



'--..... I----

-1 .4


1.0 -o.g

'- fl'
, , ,



o f---.+1l .2 +1l.4 +1l.6 +1l.8

, ,

i , ,


, , ,

0.9 1.9

J-- j-----'

+0.6 +0.9

+1 .0


, ,
, ,


4.6 9 .318.8 46.592.9

Effective Wind Area, m2

_________ _ ___ _ "--' _ _ _ _-L-l




V('rfir/II scale dellOle, ,' (;C,./o he IIsed wirh q, or q..

3, 4.

7, S.

I/on :(/l/w/ snli(' del/Ole:; effeclil'c will/I ar('(1 A. 11/ PIII.~ /lmlmil/l/.f signs , t igl/W' preHUI'('S ae/illg 1 0 l1l/lrd fllld (lII'(I),/rom lhl! .nu/rICe-.f . re.~/)(!(, I ;vdy. u'w II: willi JJOJilil'l' v(lf/u's (?fGCr (//1(/ q" wilh /1l.'f,;(llil'C' "lIfm:,,' (~rGCI' hlW/l {'OI/lPOIU'III.f/wll hf' d" .fil:l1I'ti/"rllJ(HinwIII (JO,fllh 'e tlIuJ nC'}:(llil'l? pn'!i.WrI'I', ('v l'Okirillf drt' {or rtk>/r lI'ilh allg/(- 0 :5 10. For ut/wr roo/III/Kles (lIId J:cmmt'/I)'. u.\"(~ G(~ " III,,('.f/I"OIll Ffl:!ln' l ill- il (II,d l llf,'lId,m l q. lwst'd 01/ ('XI>OSlII'(: ae./im:d;" St'CI;OI/ 107_ 5 6. , .' 1/(1 jlal"f1(Wf {'I/Imllf} O/" highl'r (i1(11/ {J,Y //I i.r prm'idl'd aroumllhl' p('rim("j'r I~rlh(' 1'(,1II/ lI';{}' f) "5 1(''', :LOlli'} .~/IIIIII)(' /1'('ul('d 1I.\' I.IIm'l,
No /(/(;olls :

10/11'1"/'('11/ (!{ft'fI ,\'{ hori: Olllu/ dill/l' ILI-jOU,I', IUll lJOt l('s,I' rhull 0. 9 !II " ;.' Alel/II rOlf/wigh" m, ('x('('pl ,IU/ll'II\'I' IId}.!1I1 simI! III' /1,1'/'11 (or(} ::; IO il ~ ""/g"IIII)(",,(, ground, III
(j ,.

r; - AI/}.:/" "(plum' o(mof(Him hO!'l:mtllll t/r};r cc.r

Figure 20717 External Pressure Coefficients


on Walls and Roof.'\

of Enclosed, Partially Enclosed Bui ldings wilh" > 18111

CO lnponcnts and Cladding - Method 2
Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads






Wind Direction

y= 0


Load Case A Clear
C NW 1.2 -1.1 -0.6 -1.4 -0.9 - 1.9 -1.5 -2.4 -1.8 -2.5 - 1.8 -2.4 -1.6 -203


Wind Direction


y = 180

/.T,//// ///77/,////
Wind Direction y ~ 180 Obstructed Clear Wind Flow Flow C NW C NW C N1 0.2 -0 .5 1.2 -1.1 -0. 1 -1.1 -0.2 0.9 1. 5 0 .3 0.8 1.6 0.4 1.3 1.6 1.2 0.6 1.8 1.7 1.8 0.5 0.7 1.3 2.2 0.6 2.1 2. 1 2.6 1.6 I 2.1 2.2 1.7 2.7 1.9 1.1 2.2 2 .5 0.8 1.4 2.1 2.0

Roof Ang le, 0 0









Wind Direction y ~ 0 Obstructed Willd Flow Flow C NW CNt. OJ -0.5 -1.1 -0. 1 -I -I 0 -1.3 -1.1 - 1.3 -2.1 0 -1.6 -1.5 -0.3 -2.3 -1.8 -1.5 -0.5 -2.3 - 1.8 -1.5 -0.6 -2. 2 -1 .8 -1.3 -0.7 -1.9

Wind CNt. -1.2 -0.6 - 1.5 -0.8 - 1.5 -0.6 -1.7 -0.9


-CN~_ -1.2 -0.6 - 1.2 -0.3 - 1.1 -OJ

-I 0 -I 0.1 -0.9 0.3 -0.9 0.4

- 1.1 -1.8 - 1.1 - 1. 8 - 1.2

I. ].


Cm- allti (~L dl'/I/wt III~I JlY('S.rIII"('.~ (C<JI1lribulioll!;ji-om lOp (wd haltom !iW!W."(I.I) jar windward ami leelVal'd halfo! roo/sill/ace.... re.fjll!t'fiwfy. Clt'flr wind flow dCfl/OI('s rdolil'e1y /IIW/Jsfrucln/ldnd fiow with hlockng(~ It!SS rhall 01" equal (0 50%. Obsfructed willdflow denoles objects ludow roof illhihilillg lI'iml/low (::> 500/0 blockage). For I'll /lies off) bmw('{'11 7.5 0 alld 45, linear illtC!'1'oiflliol/ is permiued. For WIllies v/O le.fs l/tall 7. :; .... lI.ft: ''',lIlos/ope roof /0(1(/ cm:Oicit'III ....
PIlls a1l(/ mitlllS sf}.:lI.\' .flgnj[v Im',H"lwe:; acting lUII'llI'd:; iJlld aWlly/rom the top rQ(ifsUliace. I"'clil'cly.

5. I'i.

All /aod ClI:;t'-$ sholl'lIfiw (>lIdl roof{1/1J:le sholl /It' I//\'(':;{igatl'd





IIwizoll(al (iimt'llsiOIl.r ofrm!{, Meml rim! heighl. m


ill lire


WII/d direclio/l, m

n '" Augle t?{phllll' o/moffi{)IIIIl()ri;::tmla/. dI'W'('('s

Figure 207-18A Net, Pressure Coefficicnts, eN on Monos lope fre e Roofs 8,; 45,)' ~ 0".180" of Open Buildings
Nationa! Stru ctu ra l Code of the Philippines 6 h Editio n Vo!urnG 1

)' '"" /JJr('cfioll flwilltl. drf,I'I!I'.t

Main Wind- Force Resisting



CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

=> 1=0

Wind Direction

Roof Angle, 0 7.5 0 15 22.5 30 37.5


Wind Direction y _ 0, 180 Obstmcted Wind Load Case Clea r Wind Flow Flow ---_._.



-I -I


1.1 0.2

-0.3 -1.2 -0.4


f------.o0 13



0.1 1.1 -0. 1 1.3 -0.1 1.3 -0.2 1. 1 -0.3

0.1 -0.8 0.3 -0.9 0.6 -0.6 0.9 -0.5

-1.6 -0.9 -1.2 -0.6 -1.2 -0.8 -0.7 -0.2 -0.6 -0.3 -0.5 -0.3

-1.7 -1.6 -1.2

-0.7 -1.1 -0.6 -0.9 -0.5 -0.7

PITCHED FREE ROOFS 8!5 45, Y = 0, 180



C'H fllld C"'"L t/('IJ()/C' I/e'l {JH!UIIH'!, (cIJII(ril"'fioll.f from /(If! (lild Imllam sfll/acC'.f) /rw willdw(/rd alld h'(!ward 1111 If of mq{ sUlfaces. r(".~fI(~( ri ' -1'~1' Clenr II-jllllj/o\\' (Ii.'l1o/c's rl:'faln'('~)' flIl()h.W1ICfc'(/ ."iml jlOII' willi "hkkagl' it'....f dum or equ(ll 10 50% Oh.f/I'U('/l't/ wind JIm" ,',

o"jet'ls heloll' roo/inhlbifing wi"d flow (;, 51Y',1, blockage).


For I'all/('.\" 11/0 bdll'('I'1f 7.Jt> IIml 45 , fill/~tlr ;1//1''1)o/l1liol/ ;.f pcrmiffld. For ndues of 0 les.f ,hUll 7,.s", lise mmmslfJpl' r,;.,.



PIf;s (llId JII i/llls sigllx !.igll!ly pr(',~,ql1"l'~ tlc ling IQII'(ll'ds nllcl (lway/rollllhe fOp!il('(', AII/llod I '(m'.~ s/'m..,1 for cal'll m~fllng/(' ,~/UlII hI' illllf.'slignlcd,


I . ." l/orj:;()I/fa{ dill/I'IIS;OIH o{l'tllIl 1I/('f1.mrnl i ll III(' a/olll! wil/d din'clio l/, II "" Me(ln nm{ heigili. III ' .
;' :'0 /)in'{'/ioll o{llil/(l. de}!I'('(',\'


(} "

AII,~/I' ofpiml(' lI{n)t!(/i 'om

1101'1::0111(11, t!cgl'l'I'.\

Figure 207-1813 Net Pressure Coc f'ficicllts. C,., on Pitched force

Roofs e:5 45, )' = 0, 180 of Open Buildings wi th J lei ght h to Length L ratio , 0.25 :5 hlL:5 1.0

Main Wind-Force Resisting System

Association 01 Stru ctLlral Engineers of the Pllilippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


Wind Direction



Roo r Angle, 0 7.5 0 --_.._. 15 22.5 30 37.5 45 Load Case





_ _____




Wind Directi on y - 0, 180 Obstructed Wind Clear Wind Flow Flow C NII' CNI CNIf' eN/. -0.5 - 1.1 0.3 -1.6 -0. 2 -0.9 -0. 8 1.2 -0. 5 - 1.1 - 1.2 O A -0.8 0. 1 1.1 -0.6 -0.6 -1.2 - 1.1 -0. 1 -0.1 -0.8 -0.8 0.8 -1 .3 -I A -0.4 -0.3 -0.5 -0. 1 -0.2 0.9 -0.3 -1.3 -0.6 - IA -OA -0.3 0.2 0.6 -1.2 -0. 3 - 1. 1 -0. 9 -OJ -0.4 0.5 .. 0.3 .. _.
_ ~ ~L_

TRO UGHED FREE HOOFS 6:S 45, Y = 0, 180


C"fr (ll/d


dCllofC' lief pr('SJIII'("S (colllriblllioll.{ from lOp tlIUI IJO/(om .nll!u('e.f)Ior wil/dward all d leell'tJnl halfof rc1()f.5/lrfilCC.~.


" 5.

C/(>nr wmff flow d ellOU',l' relo(/I'('(v 1fl1O/J.<;iI1lC/ed ",indflow wilh blockage less thatl or eql/a/lo 50% ObslIll(:lc:d 1I'illd/lo11' dC1ltJ/t's obJect.r be/ow roof ;uhibitillg w /1Id flow (> 50% blockage). For \'(I/II("J l~rO belln'c'/I 7.5 0 (111(/ 45, linea/' jl/((,I'flo(ution is ,wrmiued. For I'(lhu'.t 010 less th(lll 7.5, N.H! mOllosfop<, r()(~rlotld (oefJichmu.
I'{ux ll lld lIIillll.\ .1'iW IS siJ: I1 (l.i' p n!.\'.mr('s (le/ illg lowards mId away/ro ll1 l he lOp m o.r.~ 1IJf(j(;l', re.ljJ('clil,eI)'. All food (' (I.''' '.\' show/1 fhr ('(I e), /'01?f angle .\'II(lfI he if/I'C', \ligal('d. NOla/jOlIS: I, ~: 110l'i1.IIIIIIII dill"'llsiolls I!f I m~t: fI1 ('(I.I'II/'et/ ill ,hl' a/o il!!, wind din'('(ioll. //I 11'-- M('wl /'(I(~r"dgh f. m
;' ". /)iq 'ClffllI (~rll'illd. (/t'gr(,l'I; fJ Alm~It'llfJlI(JII(, ofmo/fi'of1l Iwrizol/(rll, df'grC'C'.\


Figure 207 - 18C Ne t Pressure Coefficien ts , C.. 0 11 Troughcd f ree Roofs 8 $: 45, Y= 0, 180 of Open Bui ldings wit h Height h to Length L rati o, 0.25 S hll. " 1.0

Main Wind Force Resisting System

National Stru clural Code of the Pllilippin es 6 Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEF< 2 ... Minimurn Design Loads





from Windward Edge

from Windward Edge

from Windward Edga


Wind Direction y=90


Roof Angle

Wind Direction y=90


Wind Direction y=90

Obstructed Wind Flow

D istance [rOll1 Windward Edge

Load Case

Clear Wind Flow -------_._-_._-



-1.2 0.5 -0.9

- ~ .- - -

All Shapes


Os; 45 0 B 0.8 . _ - - - -------_.- -------_. - - - - - - - - - All Shapes

> IT,::; 211

A ---.----B

-0.6 0.5


0::; 45
._---_.> 2h

..- ....

. .... ...-..
~ ~

._ .....-

All Shapes

-0.3 0.3

-0.6 0.3

f-OS; 45



TROUGHED FREE ROOFS a s 45, y = 0,180

No(es: I. 2. C\'(/(,110((,.\' /Jd pressures (coli/rih/{{ioll.~.(iom (OP (lild ho/lolII sill/aces) Clear wil1d .flow denotes 1'('/llIil't:/y IIl1ohslruc/ed wind .flOIl' with h/ockage h'.I".\ Ihml or equal 10 50% ()hS/l"llc/ed wind .I/O1\" d('noles ol~i('Cf.r he/ow /"()(?j"inhihi{illg lI'indflol!' (> 50% l>/or/.:age) 1'1/(.1' and minlls .\"igll.\ sigIJ!/)' pre.Hl/reS (lClillg IOlVords alld aW(Jy(i"o/IJ Ihe fOp roOj"SWjllt:" /"e.I"/lCClil'e/y All load C(JS(!.I' S!to\\'II'/()/' ('ach l'Oo((lngl(' sh(lll be inFestig(l/ed For mOllos/ope mol;" wilh (hela less l!tall 5 degn'('s. ex l'olIiCS shown applr 01.1'0 for C(1ses lI'iJ('I"(' gOl/Jmo () degr(,es (/I/d O,tJ5 1r'.1"S liJ(l1l or <'<{UII! fo hll,less Ihan or ('qllal 0.25. ,)'('(' Figure 207IRA/or olher hlL values. Nola/iolls:



I. It

HoriZOI1{ol dimellsioll.\" a/roof," lI1easl(lwl ill fhl' a/ollg \\"il1d direclioll. Mean I"()(?//wiglil. 11/ )' ~, Direcfioll of wind. dcgrccs () ' '" Angle a.lplo!l(, ofro(dfrom horizon/al. degree,r


Figure 207-18D Net Pressure Coefficients, on Troughed Free Roofs 8:5 45', )' ~ 0, 180 0 of Open Buildings wilh Height h to Length L ratio, 0.25 :5 hlL:5 1.0 Main Wind-Force Resisting System
Associat"ion of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 2 _. Minimum Des ign Loads




'-_._ - - - - -

Roof Angle




Obstructed Wind Flow Zone 1 Zone 2 - 1.8 0.5 - 1.2 0.8 -3.6 - 1.2 0.8 -1.8 0.5 - 1.8 -1.2 - 1.2 0.5 -1.2 0.5 1.2 0.8 -1.7 -5.1 -2.6 -1.7 1.2 -2.6 0.8 -2.6 -I. 7 - 1.7 0.8 0.8 -1.7 -2. 1 1.8 -3 .2 1.2 -4.2 -3.2 1.2 -2 .1 1.8 -3.2 ----2.1 1.2 -2.1 1.2 -2.1 -2.3 -3.5 1.6 2.4 -4.6 -2. 3 -3.5 2.4 -3 .5 1.6 -2.3 -2.3 1.6 -2.3 1.6 - 1.9 2 .1 3.2 -2.9 -3.8 -1.9 2.1 -2.9 3.2 -2.9 2.1 -1.9 -1.9 -1.9 2. 1

Clear Wind flow Area 0 Zone 2 Zone I Zone _ .2.""C 3 < a' 2.4 3.3 1.8 1.7 - 1.1 1.2 I 0' >0\ < 40 2 1.8 -1.7 -1.7 1.2 - -1.1 0.8 1.8 > 4a"2 1.2 -1.1 1.2 - 1.1 1.2 - 1.1 0.5 < {[2 3.2 -4 .2 2.4 -2.1 1.6 - 1.4 1.6 >n2, < 4a 2 7.5" 2.4 -2.1 2.4 -2.1 -1.4 1.2 1.6 > 4a 2 1.6 -1.4 1.6 - 1.4 -1.4 0.8 1.6 < a' : 1.9 3.6 -3 .8 2.7 -2 .9 1.8 2.4 15 . >a~ . .~~_cC._ 2.7 -2.9 _..._--2.7 1. 8 - 1.9 1. 8 - iT ~ 1.8 > 4a' 1.8 .. -1.9 1.2 ._-_._- ----_ .. .. -------< oJ 5.2 -5 3.9 -3. 8 2.6 3.2 2 .5 30 > 0 2, < 4a 2 3.9 3.8 3.9 -3.8 2.6 -2.5 2.4 > 4a 1 2.6 -2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 -2.5 1.6 < (J l 5.2 -4 .6 3.9 -3.5 2.6 -2 .3 4.2 >a~, < 4(1' 45 3.9 -3.5 3.9 -3.5 2.6 -2.3 3.2 > 4(12 2.6 -2.3 2.6 -2.3 2.6 -2.3 2.1




N o les:

I. 1.

('({'lIr wind fllll\' d('lIo/ex

C~.:d(,,/OW lief pn'.uUn!.f (("(}II/l"iblltioIlJlrolll top amI )w/lom slUfi" :(~~) rdllliwly wlOh\,tnw(,d willd IIt)w with h/oe/mgt' le.u l/'lI II (II' equlIl to 50%. Oll'\"{n/( t{~d
IS pf'rmiltc'd

!Vimll'o1\' dl.!t",IC'.'i objet:ls



roof il/hihitill~ willtll/nw (> 50% hlockfIMe). Fl)r I'(dllC!.~ ,?fO 111111.'1" Ih(ln tho.'w.\"hoWII, lill('ar jllff!'1wfaliOlI
PIlL.. flml
lIIillll." ...iKIlS

.~ .

-'''if,lIi(y pn...... IlI"('.~ tlClillf, low(ll"(lt (lml away from till' fop nmf'~ '''..'(I(."('. r('.'\II(("(iI'(~I. CompO/WI/IS /11/(/ daddiltJ! c'/ellle-1I1s shnlJ he ,Ic~\i.f!,md/m positive' nlld lIeRlIlil't' ""f!,~SI'rt' ("oe.Uici('lll.\" showl/,
Nora/il)/l,I': (/ '"" jO ';-'r; (!( I"{/'\'I hOl'i:nlllfil rlill /Clfs irllls
" ,\fe{/II I'of!(h cighf, III

0..111, whid,,w1' i.l smaller hill

/lO( (e,I',I'

Ihrlll 4% (l(er/sf hm'/zoll/al diIlH'"Siofls or

n,9 ",

'11111';;;1111/(/1 dimell ,l'jOiI O{hllildillg IIIctl,wreri ill '/llolI).! wind din ' nioll. f) ,~ AII}!./l' (lli i/mll' flf /'Imf limll horiUIllff/I. (h'.~nl"~


e" 45 ofOpcn i3uildings wi th Height" to Length L ratio, 0.25 "hlL:5 1.0

Components an d Cladding
Nationa l Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume

r igurc 207 - 19A Net Pressure Coefficients.

eN 011 Monoslopc Free

, 1


CHAPTER 2 Minimum Design Loads

, ......... L
3 2 1 1 2

L " .. ...... 1

2 2



Roof An g le

Effective Wind Area

>a 2 , < 4a 2 > 4a 2

Zone 3 2.4 -3.3 -1.7 1.8 - 1.1 1.2 2.2 -4 .2 -2. 1 1.7 -1.4 l.l 2.2 -3. 8 J.7 2.9 - 1.9 1. 1 2.6 -5 2.0 -3.8 1.3 -2.5 2.2 -4.6 1.7 -3.5 1.1 -2.3 C lear Wind Flow Zo ne 2 - 1.7 1. 8 1.8 -1.7 1.2 1. 1 2.4 -2. 1 2.4 -2. 1 1.6 - I. .4 2.7 2 .9 -2 .7 2.9 -1.9 1.8 3.9 -3.8 3.9 3.8 2.6 -2.5 3.9 3.5 3.9 -3.5 2.6 -2.3 Zone I . I. I 1.2 --1. 1 1.2 - 1.1 1.2 1.6 -1.4 - 1.4 1.6 - 1.4 1.6 - 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.9 ' 1.8 1. 9 -2.5 2.6 -2.5 2.6 2.6 -2.5 2.6 -2.3 2.6 -2.3 2.6 -2.3 Obstnlcted Wind Flow Zone 2 Zone I Zon e 3 -1.2 I 0.8 - 1.8 0.5 -3. 6 0.5 0.8 0.8 1.8 - 1.2 1.8 0.5 -1.2 0.5 - 1.2 0.5 -2. 6 0.8 -1.7 1.6 5 .1 1.2 -1.7 0.8 1.2 -2.6 1.2 -2.6 .1.7 0.8 -1.7 0 .8 0.8 - 1. 7 -3 .2 1.2 -2. 1 2.4 -4 .2 1.8 -3.2 1.2 -2. 1 1. 8 -3.2 1. 8 -2. 1 1.2 -2 .1 1.2 -2.1 1.2 -2.3 3.2 2.4 -3 .5 1.6 4.6 1.6 2.4 3 .5 2.4 -3 .5 1.6 -2.3 1.6 -2.3 1.6 -2.3 - 1.9 -2.9 2.1 4 .2 -3.8 3.2 - 1.9 -2.9 2.1 3.2 -2.9 3.2 2.1 1.9 2. 1 -1.9 2.1 1.9

< a'



< a'
>a 2, < 4a 2 > 40 2
>0 2,



< a' < 4a 2 > 4a2 < a'



>a 2 , <

> 4a 1


< a'
>a 2 , < 4a 2 > 4a 2


I. 2.

C" d{'I/OtI! 11('1 /J /" ('s.fllres (colllnblttioJlsjrom I(}P mId h()tt.:lIIr .wr filce.\) Ch'a,. wilUljloh' di'1I0(e.f /'ela tj\'f!~V lI/wiJSirllCl('d windj1t1 w lI'illl blockage /c,ts thall or c'l/flul to 51Y'/", Oh.I'I/1/Cttd mol inhibiting 11-;l/d flow (> 50% h!ocllllgf.') For w,fuf!$ % otlier thall rhose shown, Ii/wlll' iIlWrpo/a/ioll is flmm ilted. PillS a lld millu.{ .figlls s;gll~{j' pre fsllr(!S n c(mg towards alltl nll'(J.I'/rom tlu' top rooJslltfa ce. nslu.Cl il'(,~I" Compollellts (/1/(1 daddillg C'/('lIl{'lIts shall be' desigl l('d/uI' pO,fitll'l.' lIlItl /Ij'gcllll'(! pre.'i.mre COt~tJidt!IIlJ ,f/wl1'fI . Notaliml,( '
f/ a


;11(1 Jlo", (/('110 1<' .$ obj(!(:ts



If)'):' oj It'ItSlllI1ri1 Imla/ riiIJ/f'II,fjrms 01' 0 .411. h'IIkht"C'I' is


bltl I/(JIIts.'i 111(111 J ~"'; oflC(UI liol'j:'olllrll ,/iml'fu jll/lf 01' n.9 til


17 M "IIII



/, ~ 110";:011/01 dillJel/siull (~rlmitdi"g m('II.'iI/I'(,t!

(I '"

a loll,!!. wi/ld (Jill,{t;OIl . III

IIII};II' of/Jlml(' o/ruofli'ml/




e,; 45 (l fOr cn Bu ildin gs with I'lei ght" to Length L rati o, 0.25 S hi!.'; 1.0
Component s nnd C ladding
Association of Structu ral Engineers of the Philippin es

Figure 207-1 9 B Ne t Pressure Coe ni cients,

eNon Tro ilghed Free

CHAf' TER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


l_--_--_--_ L_--:-~-=---0<10' O;e: 10'


! \

Roof Angle

- ---0

7.5 0




Zone 3 2.4 - -3 .3 1.8 - 1.7 L2 - I. I 2.4 -3.3 1.8 -1.7 > 40 2 1.2 -1. 1 < a' 2.2 -2.2 2 < 4(1 2 1. 7 .... - 1.7 .--- >a>, 4(12 ...l:.L - I . 1 -2.6 --~>1I J., < 4a? 1.4 -2 > 40 2 - 1.3 0.9 < (11 -2 .2 1.6 2 > 0 , < 4a 2 1.2 - 1.7 > 4a 2 0.8 -1.1

Effccl ive W ind Area - ---,.-< a' > (1 2, < 4(/2 > 40 2 < a1 2 >a , < 4a 1

Clea r Wind Flow Zo ne 2 1.8 - 1.7 ---_. - 1.7 1.8 1. 2 - 1.1 1.8 -1.7 1. 8 -1.7 1.2 -1.1 1.7 - 1.7 l~ -I 7 I I -I I 1.4 -2 1.4 -2 1.9 -1.3 1.2 - 1.7 1.2 -1.7 1.8 -1. 1 Zone 1. 2 J.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1. 1 1. 1 Obstru cted Wind Flow Zone! Zone 2 Zone 3 - 1.2 -1.8 0.5 -3.6 0.8 I - 1.2 -1.8 0.5 - 1.8 0.8 .0.8 -1. 2 0.5 - 1.2 0.5 - 1.2 0.5 -1.6 -4.8 -2.4 0.5 I 0.8 -2.4 0.5 -1.6 0.8 -2.4 0.8 0_5 O.S -1.6 - 1.6 -1.6 0.5 - 1.2 0.5 - 1.8 I -2.4 0.8 -1.2 0.8 -1.8 0.5 0.8 - 1.8 ---_. 0.5 -1 .2 0.5 - 1.2 -1.2 0.5 1 0.5 -2. I -2.8 0.8 - I.~-1-~1- . - 1.4 0.5 -2.1 -1.3 0.8 -2. 1 0.8 0.5 - I .4 - 1.4 -1.3 0.5 -1.4 0.5 -1.2 -1.8 0. 5 - 1.1 I -2.4 0.8 - 1.2 - 1.8 0.5 - 1.1 0.8 -1 .8 0.8 - 1.2 0.5 - 1.2 - 1.1 0.5 - 1.2 0.5 I - I. I - 1.1 -1.1 -1.1 -1.1 - 1.1 - I. I -1.1 - 1.1


0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8

NOles :

eN tinfOIl' 111'1 pn's.wrl'S ("ollfri /)/ffilUl .,-/nll1/ lOp (111(/ iWl/om ,n uf(u:('.'i)
Clem' lI'imlJlm,' t/l' IW(t'S n'llIfil 'l'~)' /limbs/melt'" willi/ jim ." with h/tlci;ag(> k~.\ I"f1Il ,II' ,'q ual II} 50%. Ob.~fnl( 1I!11 lI"illd lloll"d('l/ ofes objt'cls mof il/!tihi/Jlll: \I'illdjl()\\' ( > 5fJ% hfo('/'(IJ:('j. For l'<IIIIe'.I' a/II ath ..,. thflll Ihoxe .,-llt/WI!. /il/('/Ir ill/("1;o/fllioll ix p"nllilleel 1':1i. 011(/ m im(.\" .figtls .vigll/ji' pH's.wn's /tefmg /o 1l'IInls (11111 aWflyji'()/11 the tol' nu!/slIIj(/Cl'. r,-~~p( '(fi ndy. COl~I"(}I/(IIf., ({lid claddi ng ( 'hfI/('''/.~ .I}/(/II II(' dl'.{iglwd./i}l posilil 'e (/mlll('gl1fil'I' preS."ll'(' " oeOiCI{'II/,f slm,.'I/.
Na/afiolls : (} 10% 1!(lnl.l'1 /tor iWIII,,1 "illll'll sioll.\' or (J Ail, u,h icht'\'('r ix SlI1ol/(,1' hut 1/01 /t'.I',\' I/'all 4'!'~ o(ll!(/ ,I'I horizonfa l dimemiol1.\' or
" /'.1('(1/1 m{}rtll' lj~h l , //I


'1 5.

fi .

n.9 m


/(Ol'/zoll /al dillH'II.I' itl l/ ofhlliltiillJ:,

lII('tl.~IfIl'(/ 11/ (/I()II.~

\\'im/ dir('('litm.


(J '"""~

AI/KI t' ,!fplwl(' t!frm!l.Ii'lltll !wl'i::oll lai. d(Xrccx

Ro{) f:~

Figu re 207- 19C NC I Pressure Coefficients, e,v 0 11 Troughed Free 8:5 45 o f Open Buildi ngs with Il e igh! " to Length L rati o, 0,25 S hlL S 1.0 Compon ent s and Cladding
Nat io nal Stru ctural Code of 1110 Philippin es 6

Editi on Vo lume 1


CHM') TEH 2 - Minimum Design Loads

~ ..."" .!:'.... _--- -j


, I --p-j-'"



;j J~H~'
Ratio, "II! 1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.2 < 0. 16 Regi on


./ i F\ --II.. _ ...

r_ -:::.:_=======--==.:::::=:.:.:=-....::_ __

;;:'-"'1]-"'.1"'" ,....'j ":lJ r


tU N


(UN --.

.-..\ -



...-..!ti.CASE A &
0. 1 1.70 1.75 1. 85 1.85 1.90 1.90 1.90 0.2 1.65 1.70 175 1.80 1.85 1.85 1.85 0.5 1. 55 1.60 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.80 1.85

< 0.05 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.95

.2 2.25 1. 50 3 2.60 1. 70 1. 15

CASE B Aspect Ratio, Bls 1 2 4 1.45 lAO 1.35 1.4 5 l.S5 1.50 1. 65 1.60 1.60 1.75 1. 70 1.70 1.80 1. 80 1.80 1. 80 1.80 1.80 1. 80 1.80 1.8 5 C r, CASE

._-_......_-----_.-----5 1.35 10 1.30 20 1.30 1.40 1.55 1.70 1.85 1.90 1.90 30 1.30 1.40 1.55 1.70 1.85 1.90 1.90 40 1.30

lA S
1. 55 1.70 1.80 1.80 1. 85 .._._

1. 55 1.70 1.80 1. 85 1.85

l AO
1.55 1.75 1.85 1.95 1.95


- --_.__..
Re gion 10 3.75* 2.4 5 1.85 0.95

.."_._-_._-"-_...-."Aspect Ratio.

Aspect Ratio, /31"

13 4.00' 2.60 2.00 1.50 1.35

o tos
s to 2s 2s to 3s 3s to lOs

4 2.90 1.90 1.30 1.1 0

5 3. 10' 2.00

330 2. 15 1.55 I .Q5


7 3.40' 2.25 1. 65 1.05

8 3.55 ' 2.30 1.70 1.05

9 3.65' 2.3 5 1.75 1.00

o tos
s to 2s

r2~.2="lJr .:~~;~~~- "~T l:;c~~;~~;'~~ I ~ ~I- .. -I

oom I,,.....,.,
- .-- Nll/e.~ :

2s to 3" 3s to 4.> 4s to 5s

> 45 4.30' 2.55 1.95 1. 85 1.85



>~ --

....- . _--

. ~ ~...:-=--=.


-~- -


"'8 -...

-- - - _ . --- - -

1.10 0.90 5.1' to l Os ._. _._ -_.. .. . ..........> lOs L 0.55 - -- -- .Yc.5


-----Opt'lIjllg.t .~hall

I. !.

The ferm "signs" ill "Olt'.<; hi'/OW (lIsa 0l1lllie.f tn ':rreeSfatuJilig wall.f ", Sigll.t I> 'if" opef/ing.t comprising I('ss ,hem 30% of 'he gross arM Or"(' da.'f.~ifit'J (IS .{(,Iitl .~i1!'u. f~,.cc ("(WOh."'lIt.( (nl" .foNd ,fi/!lu' "'itll
/n hr! IIIt,lHfJlied IIJ' {II!' redllctinn /actnr ( 1_ (I_c) 1') . Tn all",1' holh 1I01"IImi uml ohli'l"(' willd dirj'f'limlS. t/Jrlllllnwillg CI'l'.t('f :'ilia/( be'Ir>tI

he' IJ"!"II/ it/t'd


For slil .:: I:

CASE A: }"nu/ll'lII lj,,"':!' ucts Iwrll/lIl /(I flu.'jil(."t, a/IIU' sigll fhrough III(' g c'ofl!f'/ric n'II/I'r. CASE r!'sufl(IIII .fill"(C' (/(I.t Iwrmol to fil!' flu'r> q(f/W .fi}!11 (I I U (/i.fWIICC'/ I"O/ll rI,(, ,f.:1'Imll'tric <'ell/t'r IIIWI/I"d IIIl' 11"111(/"'((1'/1 ".!Kf <'f/lml to n.] (imc'.f Ilu' m'('I"u8c' width 0/ tlu' sigll. 1'-,,,. /J/J? 2, CASE C 11111.1' ( rll.f(J /)f' ("I) /I,1";(/"I"('d: (""ISI;' n'.I'It!III/lI .ri)l"n'.~ a('ll1ol"lI/(// 1/) {/II'/U ("l' of file si),!11 Ih ro ug h Ihl' gCOIII <' f";(" ('('Ilfers IIleach I"t'gi(ll/, Fo/" sl/J <. I : .



TIl(' ,WIII(' ("IISI'S



I/hOl'(' ("XCI'li/lha//11('

l'w(i("(l I/o("(lIioll.l'

I?/".Ih (' I 'C.W IWIl/ fO/"( 'f' S IIC'I,"III" 11111 dis tall C(' 0/111\'(' I ii, ' g ('/llIwlri, ' ( '1' /1 1, '1"

"'11111/ /1) (J.f}.i

l illl (,,\' IIi ('

heil:'" U/f!'" .~il: '!. FOl" CAS/;' C ",he/"(' .tn, > nJ" {tltn' cfJt:lfirit!lIf.f "';',,11 h(' 1III1IIiplh(III.I' Ih(' I"1'11t'cliflll /(Ir 'lm (I .S


Um'ur illlcq)()/ntioll ;,~ IX'r",iff('I/ filr ,'ulllC'.' or,rllt, /ll.f (IIu/I.,A of ill'./" 'htlll .f/lOlI'lI. 711(' "R'~ I(}II" ill III" luhh' IIhm't' j.f tllr' /WI"i:" , .lIal tll.'llIIu','/rm' , wwdwurr! rdgc
Not(l/i,III '

/I ""' Illwi:'fllllal ditll('/I.~irlll 1I(.,;gll,

Ii = 1f1'i~/1I
.1' "

fir fir" .~iKII.



I: r.:. /(alillll(.lollIl an'a

I'f'I"th'ol {liml'll.nOlI or lilt: ";j!II . 11/ ,;, J!/"o,f.\:a/"('tI


L, :-. I IIIr"i:milu/ dil/ll'II,fillll {!{ /"('1111'1/ cm"cr,

Figllre 20720 Force Coefficients, Cion Solid Freestanding Walls & Solid Signs of all Height s Other Strllctures ... Method 2
Association of

Engineers of the Ptlilippu)cs


2 -. Minimum Design Loads


,.-- --


. ___._ ___...___LYp.<'.gf Surface _. _____ -...



1.4 1.1 J.2 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8

._----2 . 0~

.jguarc (wind norma! to

Square (wind along di~gonal) Hexagonal or Octagonal



(1)~ >5.3, D in

._._----.__ ..!.1...~ ._----- All All 1.0 - .1.0 All Moderatelt Smooth 0.5 Rough (D'ID = 0.02) 0.7 Vert rough (D'lf) -: 0.08L _ _ -_. 0.8

1.5 1.4 0.7 0.9 0.2 J.2

q, in kPa

__. _ _



._- - - - - -


I. 2.


711(' d!'sign wind force shall he ("alculated based on the area of/luI structure projected 0/1 a plane I/omw{ /0 Ihe wind directioll. The force slwll be assumed to act parallel 10 fhe wind directioll. Unear illte/po/alion is permilled for hiD values OIher [hall sholl'lI. Nowlion: /lnder f) '" Diameler of circu/or cross-section ond Icast horizolllal dimen~iolls (~rsqu(lre. hexagonal or octagollal cross-sectiolls al elevolion consideration, m; D' '" Depth (~(prol,./(dillg elements sllch (IS ribs alld spoilen'< 111: II '" Heigh( (?is(rucrure. 111: and q; '" Velocity pressure ('valuated at heighr z above ground. kP(I .



Force Coefficients, (; on Chimneys, Tanks,

Rooftop Equipment and Similar Structures of AI! Heights Other Structures Method 2

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAr-'TE!, 2 .. Minimum Design l.oads


Rounded Members

flat Sided Members


D,Jq; " 2.5 D,Jq; ,; 5.3


Dfq, >2.5 Dfi >5.3

0.8 0.9 1.1

<0.1 0.1 to 0.29 0.3 to 0.7

2.0 1.8 1.6


Noles: /. 2. 3. Signs lI'ilh openings comprising 30% or //lore a/the gross area are ch1.l'sijied {J.\' OpCII signs The calculalion oj the desigll wind forces shafl he based an the area 0/ 0/1 e:tposed members and eiemcl1H projected (0 (he wind directioll. Forces shall be assumed (0 (lct paral/ello the wind direcfioll. 71lc area A/collsisten! with Iheseji.Jrce coe/ficiclI/s is Ihe solid area projected norma! 10 the willd riil"/!Clioll.



plant' lion:


c "0 Ralio o/.wlid area 10 gross area 1J "" Diameter 0/ a typical round member. m (j: '" Velocity pressure evaluated af heighl z aiJol'{! ground. kPa

Figure 207-22 Force Coefficients, Clan Open Signs and Lattice Frameworks of All Heights Other Structures - Method 2

Association of Structural Engineers of Ole Philippines

CHAI"TEP 2 .. M'nil1llll1ll)""'[J1l Loads


Tower Cross Section


4.Oc 2 -5.98+4.0
.. .....

Triangle ' - - - - - - - _. ... -

_ __._......_...

--4.7c+ 3.4

Notes: I. For all lI'il1d directions considered. Ihe IIrea A, ("ollsi.I'fell/ wilh {he ,I'!'ec!liedj()/"("(' ('ot{{1icicl!l.\' shall be rhe solid area (?(a IOll'er/lxl' projected 011 rhe plane o/r/Jmf{lce/of {he lower segment under cOllsideration The specijied;;,,.ce cm/jieien!,\' are/ill' {OIl'as will! structural allg!e,I' or .I'imilllljll1l-sided members. For lOwers cOlllaining rOllnded mem/)el".\', il is (/('ceptable to mulliply lhe .I'pec(jil'd .FJrei' ('o{~((icicllix h.l' the /iJ/IO\\'illg faclOr when d('fcrmilling wind/orees 011 .mel! 1II('lIIben '
fUll:! + f).57, /)liI I/O!;:' 1.0



IVilld threes shalf be applied in the direcliOlls re:m/tillg in m(/XilllUIII membel" ji)N'('S and reactiolls. For t{)l\'NS with square erO.IS.I'r!(tion.I. wind (orc!!s shall be fIIUlliplied by Ihe j()ffowillg/aclOl" when the wind is direcled along a IOIVC'r di(lgonal


0.751:.1)//11101 > 1.2

calclllilled lI.I'illg

5. (;

Wind /orce.l Oil lower appllrtenallces slich (l.\' ladders. conduil.\". lights. ('{('\'IIlO!".\". ('1(" sha/l he coe/ficir!ntsjor Ihe.I'e elements. Nolatioll: ""' Ratio {?j'solid area to gross area O/OIlC lower/ace for (hc segmel1lllndel" comic/emfioll.

appropriate force

Figure 207-23 Force Coefficients, Croll Trussed Towers orAl1 Heights Other Structures .~. Method 2

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHM'lEP 2 .. Mirllfllurn Design l. oa(15


120 "

122 "

.~----~-- .--- ." -

..- -..--~-----~.




N 20"





V (200kph)

V (250kph)





v "'


.1 . ...

. . . . - ....... . _ j

Figure 207-24 Referenced Wind Zone Map oflhe Philippines

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippine s

CHAPTloH 2 - Minimum Design Loads




COMPONENT is a part or clement of an architectural, electrical, mechanical Or structural system.

COMPONENT, EQ UIPMENT, is a mechanical or electrical componclll or elemenl that is part of a mechanical and/or electrical system . COMPONENT, FLEXIBLE, is a compa nen., including ils attachments. having a fundamental period greater than 0.06 second. COMPONENT, RIGID, is a compo nent, in cludin g its attachments, having a fundamental period lcss than or eq ual to 0.06 seco nd . CONCENTRICALLY BRACE D FRAME is a braced frame in which the members are subjected primarily to axial forces. DES IGN BASIS GROllND MOTION is that ground motion that has a 10 percent cha nce of being exceeded in 50 years as determined by a si te-specific hazard analysis or may be detemlin cd from a hazard map. A suite of ground motion time hi 5toric5 with dynamic propcr1ies representative of the si te chara cteristics shall be used to represent thi s ground mo ti on. The dynamic effects of the Design Basis Ground Motion ma y be represented by the Design Response Spectrum. See Sec. ion 208.6.2. DES IGN RESPO NSE SPECTRUM is an elastic response spectnllll for 5 perce nt equ ivalclH viscous damping used to represent the dynamic effects of the Design Basis Ground Motion for th e des ign of structures in acco rdance with Sections 208.5 and 208.6. This response spectrum may be either a site-specifi c spectru m based 0 11 geologic, tectonic, seis mological and soi l charac teristics assoc iated wi th a spccific site or may be a spectrum conslmcted in accordance with the spect ral shape in Figure 208-3 using the si te-specific va lues of Co and C,. and multiplied by the accele ration of gravity, 9.815 m/sec'. See Section 208.6.2. DESIGN SEISMI C FORCE is .he minimum .ota! strength design base shea r, fa ctored and distributed in accordn nce with Section 208.5 .

208.1 General 208.1.1 Pnrpose

The purpose of the earthquake provisions herein is primarily to safeguard against major stmctural f.1ilurcs

and loss of life. nol to limil damage or maintain fun ction.

208.1.2 Minimum Seismic Design

Structures and portions thereof shall, as a minimum, be

designed an d constructed to resist th e effects of seismic

gro und motions as provided in this section.

208.1.3 Seismic and Wind Design When the code-prescribed wind design produces greate r effects, the wind design shall govcm, but detailing requirements and limi tations prescribed in thi s sect ion and

referenced sections shall be followed .

208.2 Definitions
BASE is the level at which the earthquake motion s are

considered 10 be imparted to the structure or the level at which the structure as a dynam ic vibrator is su pported.
BASE SHEAR, V, is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of a structure. BEARING WALL SYSTEM is a stmc.u ral sys.em wi thout a comp lete vertical load-carrying :; pacc frame. Sec Section 208.4.6 .1. BOUNDARY ELEM E NT is an elemen t at edges openings or at perimerers of shear wa lls or diaphragms.


BRACE D FRAME is an essentially ve rtical truss sys.em of the concentric or eccentric type that is provided to resist la tera l forces. BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM is an essentially complete space fmme that provides support for gravity loads. Sec Secti o n 208 .4.6.2. CANTILEVERED COLlIMN ELEMENT is a column clement in a la te ral-Iorce-res isting system thaI ca nti levers from a fixed base and has minimal moment capacity at the

top. with l'lIcral forces applied essent iall y at the tall.

COLLECTOR is a me mber or clement provided to tra nsfer latera l forces from a portion of a stmcllIre 1 0 vertica l c lements o r lhe latcnll-forcc-rcsisting system.
National Structural Code of the Pililippines 6 Edition Volume 1

?. 74

CHI\PTEH :2 .. MlflirnUIl1 De sign l.oads

DIAPI-IIlAGM is a horizon wl or ncarly horizontal system acting to Irnnsmil lateral forces to the verticalresisting clements. The tern) "diaphragm" includes hOI'izont<l1 br[lcing syste ms.
DIAPHRAGM or SHEAR WALL CHORD is the boundary clement of' a diaphragm or shear w<1 11 that is assumed to takc axial stresses analogous to the nanges or a beam. DIAPllnAGM STRUT (drag stru t, tic, coliector) is the element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load that collects and transrers dia phragm shcfIr to the verticalresisting clcments or distributcs loads within the diaphragm. Such members may take axial tension or compression. DRIFT. See "story drift."
DUAL SYSTEM is a combinatio n of momcnt-resisting frames and shear walls or braced frames designed in accordance wi th Ihe criteria of Section .

MOMENT-RESISTING WALL FRAME (Mlt\\T) IS masonry wall frame especially detai led to provide ductile behavior and designed in conformance with Section 708.2.6.

ORDINARY BRACE D FRAME (O BF) is " steel bnlccd fralllc designcd in accordance wit h {he provisions of Section 527 or 528 or concrete-braced frame designcd in accordance with Section 421. FRAME MOMENT-RESISTING ORDINARY (OIHRF) is a momcnt- resisting fi'ame nol meeting special detai ling requi rements fo r ductile behavior. ORTHOGONAL EFFECTS are the earthquake load effects on structural eleme nts common ( 0 the lateralforce~resisting systems along two orthogonal axes. OVERSTRENGTH is a characteristic of stl1lctures where the actual strength is larger than the design strength. The degree of ove rstrength is materia l-and
systc m~d cpen dcllt .

ECCENTRI C ALLY BRACED FRAME (EBF) is a steel-braced frame designed in conformance with Sect ion 528. ELASTIC RESPONSE PARAMETERS arc forces and defonnatiolls determ ined from an clastic dynamic analysis lIsing an unreduced ground motion representation, in accorda nce with Sect ion 208.6 . ESSENTIAL FACILITIES arc those st nlctures that arc necessary for emergency operations subsequent to <I natural disas ter. FLEXIBLE ELEMENT or SYSTEM is one whose deformation undcr la teral load is significantly largcr than adjoining parts of the system. Limiting ratios for dclini ng specific ncxibl e elemcnts are sct fOrlh in Section 208.5.6. HOIlIZONTAL BRA C ING SYSTEM is a horizonta l truss system that serves thc samc fun ction as a di<1phragm. INTERMEOIATE MOMENT RESISTING FRAME (Ii\1RF) is a concrete rrame designed in accordance wilh

Pil EFFECT is the secondary effec t on shears, axial forces and moments of frame mem bers due to the action of the vertical loads ind uced by hori zontal displacemen t of the stnlCture resulting from various loading.
SHEAR WALL is a wall designed to resist latern l forces parallel to the plane of the wall (sometimes referred to as vertical diaphragm or stlllctural wa!!). SHEAR WALL-FRAME INTERA CTIV E SYSTEM lIses combinations of shear walls and fmmcs designed to resist latera) forces in propol1ion (0 the ir relative rigidi ties, cons idering interaction between shear wa lls and frames on alI levels. SOFT STORY is olle ill which th e lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent of the stiffness of the story above. Sec Tobie 208-9. SPACE FRAME is a three-dim ensional struct\ !ral system, wi th out bearing walls ) composed of mCIri!)(".iS inte rconnected so as to function :'IS a complete sclfcontained unit with or \vithollt the <lid of horizontal diaphragms or noor~bracjllg systems. SPECIAL C ONClcNTHICALLY BRACED FRAME (SeBF) is a .s lccl~braccd frame desi gned in conformance.: with the provisions of Section 526. S PECIAL MOMENT-RESISTING FRAME (SMRF) is a morncnl-resisting frame speciall y detailed 10 provide

Scction 412 .
LATICRALFORCE- RESISTING SYSTEM is that part of th e structural system desi gned to res ist th e Design Se ismic Fon.;cs. MOMENT- IU:S ISTI , G F I(AMI-: is " [',\l11C in which members and joints Me cap.lblc or resis ting forccs prinwri ly by Oexure.

I\ssOClatlOI) of Structural En91tlCerS

or th.n Phl liPPUW5

CHAPTEF :2 .," Ivlinirnum Desi9n LOCld~;



ductile behavior and comply with the requirements given Chapter 4 or 5,

SPECIAL TRUSS MOMENT FRAME (STMF) is a moment-resisting frame specially detailed to provide ductile behavior and comply with the provisions of Section 525 . STORY is the space between levels, Story x is the story below icvel x. STORY DRIFT is the lateral displacement of one level relative to the level above or below. STORY DRIFT RATIO is the story drift divided by the story height. STORY SHEAR, V" is the summation of design lateral forces above the story under consideration. STRENGTH is the capacity of an clement or a mcmber to rcsist factored load as specified in Chapters 2, 3,4, 5 and 7. STRUCTURE is an asscmblagc of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist lateral forces. Structures may be categorized as building structurcs or nonbuilding structures. SUBDIAPHRAGM is a portion of a diaphragm used to transfer wall anchorage forces to diaphragm cross tics. VERTICAL LOAD-CARRYING FRAME is a spacc fl'amc designed to carry vertical gravity loads. WALL ANCHORAGE SYSTEM is the system of clements anchoring the wa!! to the diaphragm and those clements within the diaphragm required to develop the anchorage forces, including subdiaphragms and continuous tics, as specified in Sections alld \VEAK STORY IS one in which the story strength is less than 80 percent orthe story above, Sec Table 208~9,
208.3 Symhols and Notation



ground floor area of structure to include area covered by all overhangs and projections, 1112 the combincd effective arca of the shear walls in the Ill'st story of the structure, 111 2 the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal planc in thc first story ora shcar wall, m 2 the torsional amplification f~lctor at Level x numerical coefficient specificd in Section 20g.7 and set fc)rth in Table 208-12

seismic coef'flciellt, as set forth in Table 208-7 numerical coemclent given in Section C,. ~ seismic coefficient, as set forth in Table 208-8 D dead load on a structural element De = the length of a shear wall in the first stOI), in the direction parallel to the applied forces, m E, E", Em' E,. = earthquake loads set forth in Section 208.5.1, N F I , FII.I;~"" design seismic force applied to Level i, 17 or ,r, respectively, N f'~) "" design seismic force all a part of the structure, N Fpx =-:-: design seismic force on a diaphragm, N F[ = that portion of the base shear, V. considered concentrated at the top of the structure in addition toF,ION f = lateral force at Level i for use in Equation 208- I 0, N g ;;:: acceleration due to gravity;;:: 9.815 m/sec 2 h" h",hl , ~"" height above the base to Level i, 11 or \ respectively, III = importance factor given in Table 208-\ I" = importance factor for llonstructura1 component as given in Table 208-1 L = live load on a structural clement =: level of the structure referred to by the Level i subscript i "i = 111 designates the first level above the base = that level that is uppermost in the main Level n portion of the structure that level that is under design Level x consideration "x I" designates the first level above the base IH maximum momellt magnitude .N" near~SOllrec factor uscd in the determination of' C in SeismiC Zone 4 related to both thc proximity of' the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes as set forth in Tables 208-4 and 20S -() N,. C~ Ilear-sourcc factor Ilsed in the determination of C, . in Seismic Zone 4 related to both the proximity of the building or structure to known faults with magnitudes as set forth in Tables 208-5 and 208-6 PI ;;:: plasticity index of soil determined in accordance with approved national standards R '''' llulllerical coefficient representative or the inherent overstrength and global ductility capacity or lateral-foree-resisting systems, as set {()I'th in Table 208-11 or 208-13 ,. ;-,. a ratio used in determining p. Sec Section 208.5 . 1 S,,,, Sf), Sc, Su, Sb SF soil proflle types as set f()rth in Table 208-2 )' ... clastic fundamental perind of' vibration of' the structure in thc directioll under consideration, sec II the total design lateral force or shear at the base given by Equalions 208-4, 208-.\, 2086. 208-7 or 208-11, N V,_ '-'" the design story shear in Story x, N

C C[








National Structural Code of the:: Philippines 6


Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEH 2 .. Minimum DesI9fl l.oads

in Sections and, N Wi. IV,\' that portion of W located at or assigned to Level i or x, respectively, N FVp ::~ the weight of an element Of component, N W,n ;.=; the weight of the diaphragm and the clement tributary thereto at Level x, including applicable loads defined 111 Section portions of other, N Z seismic zone factor as given in Table 2083 b. M ,-.c: Maximum Inelastic Response Displacemcnt, which is the total drift or total story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to the Design Basis Ground Motion, inclueling estimated elastic and inelastic contributions to the total deformation defincd in Section, 111m As = Design Lcvel Rcsponse Displacement, which is the total drift or tOlal story drift that occurs when the structure is subjected to thc design seismic forccs,
"0 the total seismic dead load dcfined

the design approach used in the design of the structure, provided load combinations of Section 203.4 are utilized.
208.4.2 Occupancy Categories

For puqJOSCS of earthquake-resistant design, each structure shall be placed in one of the occupancy categories listed in Table 1031. Table 2081 assigns importance factors, I and 1/1' and strLlctural observation requircrocnts for each category.



- Seismic Importance Factors

Occupancy Category'

Seismic Importance Factor, J


Seismic Importance 2
Factor, I" 1.50 1.50 1.00
._- .

I. II.

Essential Facilities Facilities

1.50 1.25 1.00


III. Special




horizontal displacement at Level i relative to the base due to applied lateral forces, f,' for use in Equation 208-10, mm Redundancy/Reliability Factor given by Equation 2083 Seismic Force Amplification Factor, which is required to account for structural overstrength and set forth in Table 20811

Structures 4


Occupancy Structures 4 Miscellaneous structures

J .00

1.00 1.00


, See Table 103-1/0/' occlipanL)' categol)' listing. TlU' limitatioll of 1,,/or pond COllllectiollS in Sectioll shalf be 1.0 for the entire connector.

208.4 Criteria Selection 208.4.1 Basis for Design The procedures and the limitations for tile design of structures shall be determined considering seismic zoning, site characteristics, occupancy, configuration, structural system and height in accordance with this section. Structures shall be designed with adequate strength to withstand the latera! ciisplacements induced by the Design Basis Ground Motion, considering the inelastic response of the structurc and the inherent redundancy, overstrength and ductility of the lateral force-resisting system.

Structural Ob.H!IWllion reqllireme!1ls are given in Secrioll /()7.9. For anchorage a/machinery and (~qUlj)/ll('nl reqlliredfor I!fe-s(ljery sy.\lellls. Ih(' willie (~f I" shall be taken 0.1" 1.5.

208.4.3 Site Geology and Soil Characteristics

Each site shall be assigned a soil profile type based on properly substantiated geotechnical data using the site categorization procedure set forth in Section 208.10 and Table 2082.

The minillluill design strength shall be based 011 the Design Seismic Forces determined ill accordance with the static lateral force procedure or Section 20B.S, except as modified by Section 20R.6.5.4 Soil Profile Type

Where strcngth design is uscd, the load combinations of Section 20.1.:1 shall apply. Where Allowable Stress Design is llsed, the load combinations of' Section 203.4 shall apply. Allowable Stress Design may be uscd to evaluate sliding or overturning at the soil-structure interrace regardless of

Soil Profile Types SA, Su. Sc. So and S/;, are defined in Table 2082 and Soil Profile Type SF is defined as ", ., requiring site-specific evaluation as follows:

Soils vulnerable to potentia! failure O!: collapse lil" seismic loading, such as liquefiable soils, quick iind

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAP1TR 2 - Minimum Design Loads


hi g hly


clays, and


weakly 208.4.4,1 Seismic Zo ne The Philippine archipelago is divided in lo lwo seismic zones o nly. Zone 2 covers the provinces of Palawan, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi while the res t of the country is under Zone 4 as shown in Figure 2081 . Each slnrcture shall be assigned a seismic zone factor Z. in accordance with Table 208 3. Table 208-3 Seismi c Zone Factor Z

cemented soils.
Peals and/or highly organic clays , where th e Ihickness o f peal o r highly organic clay exceeds 3.0
Ill .


Very high plasticil y cla ys wi th a plasticity inde x, PI > 75, where Ihe depth of clay exceeds 7.5 m.


Very thick soft/medium stiff clays, where the depth o f c lay exceeds 35 m . .

~~Z ~O ~N ~E=-__+-__~2~__-+_____ 4~___ J

0.20 0.40] Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source Faclor

The cril e ria sci fo rlh in Ihe definition fo r So il Profile Ty pe SF requiring site-specific evaluation shall be considered. If th e s ite corresponds to these criteria. the si te shall be classified as Soil Profile Type SF and a sile-specifi c

evaluati on shall be conducted.

Table 208 -2 . Soil Profile Types Soil Profile Type
Soi l Prol1lc Nam e I
Generic Desc riplion

A verage Soil Properties for Top 30 m of Soil Profile Shea r Undrained SPT, N

In Seismic Zone 4, each Site shall be assigned nearsource factors in accordance wilh Tables 2084 and 208-5 based on the Seism ic Source Type as set forth in Sectio n
The va lue of Nfl used to detcnnine Co need not exceed 1.1 for structures complying wit h all the following condition s:
I. The soil profile Iype is SA . So, Sc or S'l'

VCI~ci,~' V,
> 1500
760 10 1500

---.- - .--Hard SA 1-.._ .. Rock


(blowsl 300 nlln)

Sll ca r St r'cngth ,
SI! (kPII)

. _- -' -


P ~ 1.0.
Except in single-story stnlclures, residential building accom modatin g 10 or fewe r perso ns, private ga rages, carports, sheds and agri cu ltural buildings, momclH frame syste ms designa ted as part of the lateral forceresi sting sys tem shall be special moment-resisting frames , The exceptions to Section 5 15.6.5 shall not appl y, except for co lulllns in oncstory build ings o r columns at the lOp story of mullistory bu ildings. None of the following stru ctural irregula rit ies is presem : Type 1,4 or 5 a fTable 2089, and Type I or 4 of Table 208 10.






360 to Soi l ad > 50 > 100 760 so n Roc k Sliff Soil 180 10 1.1 III 50 10 Pro Ii iI! 360 50 100 Sofl Soi l < 180 < 15 < 50 Pro fil e Soil Requi ring Site-spec ific Evaluatioll . See Section 208.4 .3. 1
f} III




Suit Pmfile 7)'/X' Sf: alw iJld/i(/e.{ (lilY .w il profile


\1 '__

more 'hall of soft cia)' (leJim'd as a .w i/wilh plas /icily index, PI :- 10, <10 p er('('11I (/lId ,f. < 24 kPa . The Pla.~/ic:i~~' 'lldex, PI, arrd
11' - . .

lI'i," Seismic R esponse Coefficients Each structure shall be assigned a seismic coefficienl. en. in accordance with Tab le 208-7 and i1 se ismic coefficient. C,~ in accordance w ith T< lb le 20XS. Seismi c SOllrce T ypes Table 2086 defines the Iypes o r seismic SOllrces. The location and type o f seismi c so urces to be used for design shall be established based 0 11 approved geological data; sec Figure 208-2A. T ypc A sources shall he dete rmined ('rolll Figures 208-2B. C. D. E or the most recent mapp ing of ac ti v~ 1 :1UIIS by th e Philippine Inslilu te of Volcano logy and Seismology (PHIVOLCS).

,h e '

I/W i.f/lIIl! 1'0111<" 1/,

\hall b e

d ('l < 'r mill('d i ll occOI dfll/ C'1!


(lf IPI"lH'l'ti IUI/iwwl ,t l om/nrd.\.

208.4.4 Si t e Se ismi c Hazard C hara c t<.'r is lics

Se ismi c ha zard duracteristics for Ihe site shall be eSlahlished based Oil the seismic zOll e lind proximit y of th e S lt ~ to ;u.: tive seismic sources, site soi l pro fil e c haracteristics ilnd the st ructure's importance f' IC{Or.

National S tru ctLJ n~ 1 Code of til e Philippines 6


Edition Volum e 1


CHAPTEFo( 2 Muul1lum

Dc:!~ lun


Table 208-4

ear-Source Factor N"

Table 208-6 - Seismic SOllrce Types'

Seismic Source

Closest Dista nce To Known Seism ic So ut'ee 2


S5k lll

2 10k 'll
1.0 _I L

Seismic Source Type ----

~ ;:i \~,':c ~;:'"


- . --~

;",'r :

Seismic Sour'cc

ca pable that are of large

1\'1ax i~;;;-~-\1;nl-e;~

D\ ti lt ;~~t.'ll

.. M. ~ll.~!! "d.!2...11L.

- - - - -- ........._ _L<2.. _ ....... __._

'fab le 208-5

.... _ ..


Ncar-Source FlI<: tor, N,,)

Closest Oi stance To Known Seismic Soul"ce l


ma gnitude


15 km


events have a

M ,? 7.0


$ 5 km




1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0 1.0



hi gh rate of seismic ac ti vity. All faults other (han Types A and



6.5 ~ M < 7.0

Paults that are not capable of producing Jarge magnitude earthquakes and have that a relatively low rate of seis mic activity.

Notes/or Tahle's ]08.4 and 108.j :

TIl(' Nl'aT-Sauro.! Foctor m;l)' hI' based 011 tilt' IiI/ifill' illlel]1OluluJII of 1'1IJII('.~ jiJr distal/CeS 0Ii11'1' Iilol/ lhos(- shou'l/ i" til(' lahle .

The closes! di.HIUIC(' to .'u'ismic








mil/imuflt diJt(lIl(,(' betwe"" til(' sifl~ (llid thl' urca i!l'Jcribl'd lIy tIl(' verticaf projer'lion of {he ,WI/rei! Oil llie ,1'llijiICI' (i.e .. slIIfaC(' projection (~/jillllt p lul/e) . 77w XIII/aCe projectiol/ lI('ed IWt il/{'/lId(' porrioll.~ of ,II, .I'Olln 'l! al dt'pfhs olIO kill or gn'tlla. TIlt' largest value 0/ 'he Nt'(lI'Sourct' Factor cOJ!sid~'ring I//! source.I' shall IJ(' IIsed/or ",'sigll.


SuhduClio/! S()lIr(,(',\' shall be I!m/ll(lled on

site-specijlc basis.

Table 208-7 - Seismic CoefGcient, So il Profil e

Seismic Zone Z



Z ~ O.4

SI! So

S" S,
S,. -

0. 32Na OAONa OAON, OA4N. OA4N. See Footllote I a/Table 2088

0 . 16 0.20 0.24 0.28 0.34 Tab le 208-8 .. Seismic Coefficie nt, Cv

Soil I'rofile Type


Seismic Zone Z

Z" O.2

Z.. O.4

S" SB Sc

0.20 0.32


51) S,


SF L._ _ .

St'C' FOrlilJole I a/ Table 108-8

OAON" 0.56N,,_ __ 0.64N,. - - 0.9611'" - - - -

Sitt"-V)('dlic ~I'(}{('dmin" illl'l':>liglllic)f/ lIlId dYlI(lmic JI/(' j CSlJOII.f C' sh(l/J lu" ' < 'lji}l m('d to dC/I'I'mill(, .teiJIII;( C()('j]ir:il'lll.f

Association of Structural


of tliB PhilipPlnmj

CHAPTER 2 .. Minimum Design Loads

2-79 Moment Resisting Frallle System 208.4.5 Configuration nequirelllents

Each structure shall be designated as being structurally regular or irregular in accordance with Sections 208 .4.5. 1
alln Regular Structures

A structural sysfem with an essenti ally complete space frame providing support for gravity loads. Momentresisting frames provide resistance to lateral load primarily by flexural action of members. Dual Syslem

Regular stnlctufcS have no significant physica l discontinuities ill plan or ve rtical configuration or in their
lateral- lo ree-resisting systems such as features described in Section the irregular

A structural system with the following features: I.


An essentially complete space frame that provides supp0l1 for gravity loads. Resistance to latera l load is provided by shear walls or braced frames and momentwresisting frames
(SMRF, IMltF, MMRWF Or steel OMRF). The moment-resisting frames sha ll be designed to independenlly resist al leasl 25 percenl of Ihe design Irregular Structures


ilTcgular structures have significant physical discontinuities in configuration or in their lateral force-resisting systems. Irregular features include, but
are Ilot limited 1 0. those described in Tables 208-9

base shear.
3. The Iwo syslems shall be designed 10 resisl Ihe lola l

alld 208 10. All slruclu res iu occupancy Calegories 4 and 5 in Seismic Zone 2 Ileed 10 be evaluated only for verlical irregularili of Type 5 (Table 2089) and horizonlal irregularilies of Type I (Table 208-10).

design base shear in proportion to their relative rigidities considering the interaction of the dual system a l all levels. Cantilevered Column Syslem A structural system relying on cantilevered column elements for lateral resistance. Undefined Structural System A sl ruclural syslem no l lisled in Table 208 11 . NonbuiJding Structural System


Sll1Jcturcs having any of the features listed in Table 208 9 shall be designated as if having a vertical irregularity.


Where I/O stmy drift ratio under design lateral forces is greater thal/ 1.3 times rhe story drift ratio of rhe stDlY above, the SfnJcture may be deemed 10 not have the stroctural irregularities of Type J or 2 in Table 208-9. The story drift ratio for the top two slories need not be considered. The stDlY drifts for this de/ermina/ion may be
calcuiated negiecliflg torsional effects.

A struc tural system conforming to Section 208.9.

208.4.7 Height Limits

Structures havin g allY of the features listed in Table 208-10 shall be designated as having a plan irregularity.

Height limits Cor the variolls structural systems in Seismic Zone 4 arc given in Table 20811.

208.4.6 Slnlclu,.J Systems Structural systems shall be classified as one of the types lisled in Table 208-11 and defined in Ihis seclion. fleadng Wall Sys tem

ExcepJion: . Regu!ar slruCllJres may exc.~ed /III~se limits by not more than percent for unoccupied st'1lctures, which we not. .. . accessible to tHe general public.


208.4.8 Selection of Lateral Force Procedure

A structu ra l sys tem without a complete vertica l Joadcarrying space frame. nCilring wall s or bracing systems provide su pport for all or most gr;wily loads. Resistance 10 latera l load is provided by slH!Hr Willis or braced
frames . Bllilding Framo Syst em

Ally structure may bel and certain structures defined below shall be, designed usin g th e dynamic lateral -force procedurcs ofScclion 20R.6.

A slructural system with (ill cssc!llially complete srmce fnllnc providing SliPPOrl for gravity ResistClllce to late ral load is provided by shear walls or braced fr:lJnes,

NatiofliJl Struc tural Code of It'll.'! Pililippin es 6

Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEH 2 -- Minimum Design loads

Tablc 208- 10 Horizon[al Structural Irregularities Tab le 208-9 Vertical Stmcturallrregularities Irregularity Ty pe and Definition Reference Section Irregularity T ype and Definition

Rer"'cn cc




Stiffness Irregularity - Soft Story A soft story is one 111 which the Int eral stiffness is less than 70 pcrccnt of th at in thc story above or Icss th an 80 perccn t of the average st iffn ess of the three stories above. Weight (Mass) Irregularit y Mass ilTegularity shall be considered Itc1l1 2

Torsional Irregu larit y - To Be Considered \ Vhell Diaphragms Are Not Flexible be Torsional irregularity shall co nsidered to exist when the maximull1 story drift. computed

208.8 .2.8

Item 6

to exist where the effective mass of

any story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacen t story. A roof that is lighter than Ih e ncar below need not be considered.

208.4 .8.3 item 2

including accidenta l tors ioll. at one end of the st ructure transverse to an axis is more than 1.2 Limes the average of the story drifts of the two ends of the stnJcture.

Rc-Entran[ Cor ner Irreg ularity


Vertical Geometric Irregularity

Vel1i cal geome tric irregularity shall be co nsidered to exist where thc

horizontal dimension of the latera!force-resisting system in any stolY is

208 .4 .8.3

Ite lll 2


Plan config urat ions of a stmcture and its latera l-foree-resisting system contain re-C nLT"dnt co rn ers. where both projections o r the stru cture beyond a re-entrant corner arc greater thHn 15 percent of th c pl nn dimensi on of the stmclure in the givcn directi on. Diaphragm Discontinuity
Irregulari[y disDiaphragms with abrupt continuities or variati ons in stiffness, including those having ClI to ut o r open items G and 7

morc than 130 percent of that in an

adj acent story. One-slory penthouses need not be co nsidered. In-Plane Discontinuily III Vertical


Lateral-Force-Resisting ElclHCllt Irregularity

An in-plane offset of the lateral-I oadresisting clements greater th an Ihe

208.5.8 . 1


length of those clements. Discontinuity In Capacity - \V rak

Sto ry Irreg ularit y A weak story is one in which the

areas greater than 50 percent o f the gross enclosed area of the di aphragm, or changes in effect ive diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 percent from one story 10 the next.

208.8.2_8 ItemG

Out-Or-Plan e Ofrsets Irreg ularity Discontinuities ill a Illtera l force path, such as out-of-planc of(,cts of Ihe

208.5 .8.1

Item 6;

stO ry strcngth is less than 80 perccnt

of that in the story above. Thc story strength is the to[al strength of all 208.4 .9. 1 5.

seismic-resisting clements sharing the story for the direction under consideration.

vertica l elements Nonparallcl Systcms Irregu lari ty Thc vertical latcral-Ioau-resisting elcments ,Irc not parallcl to or symmetric about th e major orth ogo nal axes of Ih e lateral force-resisting systems.

515 .7

208.8. 1


Association of Stru ctura l :n9incefs of tile Phllipplll n~,

CHArYlH, 2 ." Minimuill Design Loads

2-81 Simplified Static

The simplified static lateral-force procedure sct forth in

Section may be used for the following stnlcllHCS of Occupancy Category IV or V:

soils at the site and shail conform to Section 208.6.2, Item 4. 208.4.9 System Limitations Discontinuity
Strucfures with a discontinuity in capacity, vertical irregularity Type 5 as defined in Table 208-9, shall not be over two stories or 9 111 in height where the weak story ha;; a calculated strength of less than 65 percent of the story above.


Buildings of any occupancy (including single-family dwellings) not more than three stories in height excluding basements that usc light-frame


Other buildings not more than two stories in height

excluding basements. Static

The static lateral force procedure of Section 208.5 may be

used for the foHowing structures: 1. 2. All stmcl1Jres, regular or irregular in Occupancy
Categories IV and V in Seismic Zone 2.

Exception: . Where the weak story is capable of!i~sisting a total lal(rqi. . seismic' force of n" times.. jlii design fore. .',,<.. , .. prescribed in Section 208.5. Undefined Structural Systems For undefined structural systems not listed in Table 208 II, the coefficient R shail be substantiated by approve' cyclic test data and analyses. The following items shail be addressed when establishing R:
I. Dynamic response characteristics, Lateral force resistance, Overstrength and strain hardening or softening,

Regular stilletures under 75 III in height with latera! force resistance provided by systems listed in Table 208-11, except where Section, Item 4, applies.
Irregular stnlctures not morc than five stories or 20


in height. 4.
Stmctures having a flexible upper portion supported on a rigid lower portion where both portions of the stnlcture considered separately can be classified as being regular, the average story stiffness of the lower portion is at least 10 times the average story stiffness of the upper portion and the period of the entire structure is not greater than 1.1 times the period of the upper portion considered as a separate structure fixed at the base.


Strength and stiffness degradation,

Energy dissipation characteristics,


System ductility, and


7. Irregular Features

All structures having irregular features described in Table 208-9 or 208-10 shall be designed to meet the additional requirements of those sections referenced in the tables. Dyn,"nic
The dynamic lateral-force procedure of Section 208.6 shall be used for all other structures, inclu.ding the following: I. Structures 7S m or more in height, except as permitted by Section, Item I. Structures having a stiffness, weight or geometric vertical irregularity of Type I, 2 or 3, as defined in Table 208-9, or structures having irregular features not described in Table 208-9 or 208-10, except as permitted by Section Structures ovcr five stories or 20 111 ill height in Seismic Zone 4 not having the same structural system throughout their height except as permitted by Section 208.6.2. St!1lctures, regular or irregular, located on Soil Profile Type SF, that have a period greater than 0.7 second. The analysis shall include the effects of the

208.4.10 Alternative Procedures

Alternative lateral.,force procedures using rational analyses based on well-established principles of mechanics may be used in lieu of those prescribed in these provisions.

2. Seismic Isolation

Seismic isolation, energy dissipation and damping systems may be used in the design of structures when approved by the building official- and when special detailing is used to provide results equivalent to those obtained by the use of cOllventional structural systems.



National Structural Code of the Philippines 6


Edition Volume 1



2 ... Minil'fH.Hll Design l.oads

208.5 Minimum Design Lateral Forces and Related Effects 208.5.1 Earthquake Requirements Loads

For braced frames, the value of ri is equal to the maximum horizontal force component in a single brace element divided by the total story shear. For moment frames, ri shall be taken as the maximum of the sLIm of the shears in any two adjacent columns in a moment frame bay divided by the story shear. For columns common to two bays with moment-resisting connections on opposite sides at LeVCI i in the direction under consideration, 70 percent of . the shear in th,1t column may be used in the column shear summation. For shear walls,

208.s.l.l Earthquake Loads StJ1lctures shall be designed for ground motion producing structural response and seismic forces in any horizontal direction. The following earthquake loads shal! be used in the load combinations set forth in Section 203:
(2081 ) (2082) where:

shall be taken as the maximum value or

the product of the wall shear multiplied by 31 'wand divided by the total story shear, where I,.. is the length of the wall in meter. For dual systems, ri shall be taken as the maximum valur: of ri as defined above considering a!llateral~load-resisting elements. The lateral loads shal! be distributed to clements based on relative rigidities considering the interaction of the dual system. For dual systems, the value of p need not exceed 80 percent of the value calculated abovc.
p shall not be taken less than 1.0 and need not be greater

= the earthquake load on an element of the structure



E, .

resulting from the combination of the horizontal component, Ell> and the vertical component, E, .. the earthquake load due to the base shear, V, as set forth in Section 208.5.2 or the design lateral force, Fp, as set forth in Section 208.7. the estimated maximum earthquake force that can be developed in the stlUcture as set forth in Section, and used in the design of specific elements of the structure, as specifically identilled in this code. the load effect resulting from the vertical component of the earthquake ground motion and is

equal to an addition of o.~/Dto the dead load effect, f), for Strength Design, and may be taken as zero for Allowable Stress Design. .0" = the seismic force amplification factor that is required to account for structural overstrength, as set forth in Section p = Reliability/Redundancy Factor as given by the following equation: (20R3) where: ("""

than 1.5. For special moment-resisting frames, except when used in dual systems, p shaH not exceed 1.25. The Ilumber of bays of special momcnt-resisting frames shall be increased to reducc r, such that p is less than or equal to 1.25.
/!.,xception: All may be taken as the average floor area in the upper setback portion 0/ the building where a larger base area exists at the ground floor.
When calculating drift, or when the structure is located in SeismiC Zone 2, p shall be taken equal to ! .0.

the maximum clement-story shear ratio . For " given direction of loading, the element-story shear ratio is the ratio of the design story shear in the most heavily loaded singlc clement divided by the total design story shear.

The ground motion producing lateral responsc and design seismic forces Illay be assumed to act nOll-concurrently in the direction or each principal axis or the structure, except as required by Section 20X.8.1. Seismic de'l(.1 load. /-V, !s the total dead load :lnd applicable portions or other loads listed below. I. 2.

In storage and w,lrehousc occupancies, a minimulll or 25 percent orlhe floor liv(, lo,HI shall be applicable. Where a partition load is used in (he floor design, load of !lot kss (hall (l.S kNhn~ shall be included. Total \'.'eight included.

For fIny given Story Level i, the elcl1lent-stolY shear ratio is denoted as r,. The maximulll elemcnt-story shear ratio 1'''''1\ is defined as the largest of the clement story shear ratios, r" which occurs in any of the story levels at or below the two-thirds height level oCthe building.


permancnt equipment shall be

Association of Structural Enqirwers of tile Phi!IPPIrl(?5

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design



20B.5.1.2 Modelling Re(IUircmcnts The mathemat ical model of the ph ysica l slructure shall include all elements of the lateral-force-resisting system. Thc 1110del shall also include Ihe sliffness and slrenglh of elemen ts, whi ch arc gignificanl 10 the distri bution of forces, and shall represent Ihe spatial distrib ution of the mass and stiffness of the structure. In add ition, th e model shall comply wilh the fOllowing:
1. Stiffness propcl1ics of reinforced concrete an d masonry eleme nts shall cons ider the ciTcels o f cracked sec tions.

The total design bilse shear shall not be less than the





In addition, fo r Seismic Zone 4, the total base shear shall also not be less than the following:

v = O.BZN,. 1 W



For steel moment frame systems, the contr ibution of panel zone deformatio ns to overall story driti sha ll be included.

20B.5.2.2 Structure Period The va lue of T shall be determined from one of Ihe following melhods:

20B.S.1.3 Ph Effects
The resulting member forces and moment s and the story

Method A:

drifts induced by Ph effects shall be considered in the evaluation of overall Slnlctural frame stability and shall be evaluated using the forces produci ng the disp lacements of tJ-s. P6 need not be considered when the ratio of secondaJY moment to primary moment does not exceed 0.10; the ratio may be evaluated for any stOty as the produci of the tolal dead and Ooor live loads, as required in Section 203, above the stOty times the se ismic drift in that story divided by the product of the seismic shear in that story times th e height o f lhat story. In Seismic Zone 4, P6. need'"not be considered whcn the story drift rati o docs not exceed 0.02 , R.
20B.S.2 Static Force Procedure

cor all buildings, Ihe value T may be approximaled from the following equalion:
T = C/"II)
31 4



C : : : 0.0853 for steel momen t-resis ting frames.

for reinforced concrete momentresisting frames and eccentrically braced frames. C, = 0.0488 fo r all other bu ildings.
== 0.0731

Allernativcly, the value of Cr

or mClSOt1r)'

structures with concrcte shear walls may be taken as 0.0743 1.fA: .


The val ue of A, shall be determined from Ihe followi ng

equa ti on:

208.S.2.1 Dcsignllase Shear The total des ign base shear in a given direction sha ll be determined from the following equati on:
(208 -4)

(208- 9)

The value of exceed 0.9. 2.

Del hl1used in Equation

(20B-9) shall not

The total design base shcar need not exceed the


Method Il :

V = - - - '- W

2.5C, 1


The fundamental period T' may be calculatcd lIsi ng the structu ral properties and deforma tional characteristics of th e res isti ng elemcnts ill a properly su bstantiHted analysis. The <Hwlysis shall be in accordance with the requi rements Ill' Seelion 208 .5. 1.2. The value of T from Melhod 13 shall !lot exceed a vallie 30 percent greater than the value of T ob tained from Method A ill Seism ic Zone 4, and 40 percell1 in Seismic Zone 2.

N8tioJ'lai Structural Code of the

Philj ppl!'l~~S Gi ll Editi on Vo lum e '1


CHAPTEH 2 - Minimum Oesign Loads

Table 208- 11 A Ear1hquake-Force-Resisting Stmctural Systems of Concrete

-~ - -

Basic Seismic-Force Resisting Syst m

2. 8 2.8 2.8 2.2 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8



System Limitation and Building Height Limitation by Seismic Zone, m Zone 4 Zone 2

A. Bearill/i Wall Systems Special rein forced concrete shear walls

OrdilHuy reinforced conCrete Shf:I ' walls

4.5 4.5 5.5 5.6 5.5





B. Buildill!: Frame Systems Special reinforced concrete shear walls or braced frames

Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls or braced frames


frames C. Aloment-Resistill/( Frame Systems

Intcnncdiatc precast shear walls or braced

Special reinforced concrete moment frames InlCnllCdiate reinforced concrete moment frames
Ordinary reinforced concrete moment fra mes



50 50

8. 5 6.5 6.5 4.2 4.2

D. Dual Systems Special reinforced concrete shear wall s Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls E. Dual System with Intermediate Momellt Frames SjJCcial reinforced concrete shear walls Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls Shear wall frame interactive system with ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames and ordinat.I reinforced concrete shear walls F. Cantilevered Column BuildillJ! Systems Cantilevered column elements G. Shear Il'all- Fram e imeractioll Systems

10 50

2.2 5.5


Association of Structural Engineers of the PI)ilippin8s

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Load s


Table 208-11B EarthquakeForce Resisting Structural Systems of Steel System Limitation nd Building Height Li mi' ion by Seismic Zon e 04 Zone 2

Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System


A. Bearill!! Wall Systems

Light steel-framed bearing walls with tension only bracing Braced frames where bracing carries gravity load Light framed walls sheathed with wood stntctural panels rated for shear resistance or steel sheets Light-framed wa lls with shear panels of a ll ot her light materia ls Light-framed wall systems using flat strap bracing Steel eccentrically braced frames (EBF), momen t-resis ting connections at co lumns away from links Steel eccentrically braced frames (EBF), non moment-resisting connections at columns away from links Special concentrically braced frames (SCBf') Ordinary concentri cally braced frames (OCSF) Light-framed walls sheathed with wood structuralpanels I sheet steel panels Light fmme wa lls with shear panels of all other materials Buck lin g-restrained braced frames (BRBF), 110 n l1lolnc llt-resisting beam-colu mn connection Buckling-restrai ned braced frames, mOlllcnl resistin.e beam-colunm connections Specia l steel plate shear walls (S PSW)

2.8 4.4 4.5 4.5 2.8

2.2 2.2 2.8 2.8 2.2



' J


..' 0


B. Buildill!! Frame Systems

8.5 2.8 NL

6.0 6.0 3.2 6.5 2.5

2.2 2.2 2.2 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 3 3 3 3 3



.__ ." ..


_.. _.

..- .. -


., o
. ..

C. MomentResisting Frame Systems

Special moment- resisting frame (S MRF) Intermediate steel moment frames (1M!') Ordinary moment frames (OMF) Speciallruss moment framcs (STMF) Special com posi te steel and concrete momenl frames In lermediate co mp<?s itc moment frames Composi te pa rtiall y restra ined moment frames Ord inary co mposite moment fra mcs

8.0 4.5 3.5 6.5 8 5 6



.. .


3 3 2.8 2.8

N .

.. .._-_..N

D, Dual S,'slems wilh Special t.lomelJl Fram es


Steel eccent rically braced frames __ S Spcci,lI stcel concent rica lly braced framcs___ ---- - 7-.Co mposite steel and concrete eccentri ca ll y 8 braced frame - - - -_._.

! , ..

_ .

:. '

2.8 ... - - - - - - - 111


NL =i NL

._ .



National Structuml Code of !he Philippines 6 Edition Volum e 1


CHAPTEH '2 .- MlIlllllum DesIgn Loads

Table 208-1 1B(eonl'd) Ealihquakc-Force-Resisling Sll1Ielural Syslems of Sleel

Basic Seismic-Force Res ist in g System

7.5 8 8 4.2 8.5 4.2 7.5 4.2 6 5.5 3.5 5 2.2 1.2 1.0 2.2

2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 3

... .. - -.-_ System Li mii i'. ; !: lIi ;1 1l <i Building Height Limitation hy Seismic Zone, 111 Zone 4 Zone 2 .." .



Composite steel and concrete concelltric ally braced fiam e Composite steel plate shear wa ll s Buck ling-restrained braced fmllle
Special Slee l plate shear wa lls Masonry shea r wa ll wit h slee l OMRF Sleel EBF with sleel SMRF Stecl EBF wi lh slee l OMRF


10 10 10


. -- ...... --

50 -_. _-----. --

- - ------.NL -- . .-----.

-NL _ _-_ NL


_h ...


Special concentrically braced frames wi th steel



OMRF E. Du al SJ'stem witlt Intermediate IWomelll Frames Special slccl co ncen lrically braced frame Composite steel and concrete concentrically braced frame Ordinary co mposite braced frame Ordinary composite reinforced co ncrete shear walls with stee l elements I"~ Calltilel'ered Columll Buildill!! Systems Specia l steel moment frallies fnterl11cdiatc steel moment frames Ordinary sleell110ment frames Cantilevered colu mn elements G. Steel Systems lI ot Specifically Detailed fo r Seism ic R esistance, Excluding Cantilever S},stel1ls

Special concentrically braced frames with steel






Table 208- 11C Earthquake-Foree-Resi$till g Structura l Systems or Masonry System Limitation and Building Height Limitation by Seismic Zone 1 m ZOlle 4 ...Zone 2

Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System

2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8

A. Bearing IVal/ S~lste ms Masonry shear wa lls 11. Buildi,,!: Frame Sl,.w ems Mason~ shear walls C l'1oment-R esi.*ifiIlK Fram e SJ'stemJ Masol1JY moment-resist ing w<l1I frames JMMRWF) D. Dllal Sy .<lem.l' Masollry s hear walls w ith SMRF Masonry s hear wa lls with steel OMRF - Maso lllY shear wa lls wilh concrete IMRF ---_.. Masonry shear wa!ls with Illa ~~~nry MMRWF

4.5 5.5 6.5 5.5 4.2 4.2 (,.0


50 50 50 50 50


--. -

_. _.



As socia tion of Structural Engineers of the Phil ippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


Table 208- 11 D Earthquake-Farce-Resisting Structura l Systems of Wood System Limitalion and Building Height Limitation by

Basic Seismic-Force Resisting System


Seismic Zone (meters)

Zo ne 2 Zone 4

A. Bearing Wall Systems

Li ght- framed wa lls wi th shear panels: wood s tructural panel wa lls fo r s tructures three sto ries or less H eavy limbt!r braced frames where bracing carries Rravi ty load Light-framed wa lls with wood shear panels walls for structures three stories or less All other li gh t framed walls Heavy timber-braced frames where bracing carries gravity load Light-framed walls w ith shear panels: wood structura l panel walls for structures three sto ries or less Ordinary heavv timber-braced frames 5.5 2.8 NL 20

2.8 NA NA 2.8 2.2 NA NA 2.2 NL NL



B. Building Frame Systems

6.5 5.6 2.8 NL 20

The fundamental period T may be computed by using the following equation:

20 2.2 NL where the value of C. shall be based on Tab le 208-7 for the soil profile type. When the , oil properties are not know n in sufficient detai l to determine the soil profile type, Type SD shall be used in Seismic Zone 4, and Type


T =21[

(208 -10)

SE shall be used in Seismic Zo ne 2. III Seis mic Zonc 4, the Nea r- Source Factor, Na. need not be greater than 1.2 if no ne of the following structural irregu lariti es are present :
I. 2. Type 1, 4 or 5 of Table 208-9, or Type I or 4 ofTable 208-1 0.

I ,


The values of jl: represent any latera l force distributed approximatel y in accordance with the principles of Equations (208-13), (208-14) and (208-15) or any other ralional distributi oll. The c lastic de Oect ions. 0;, shall be calculated using th e applied lateral forces,r,. Simplified Desig n Base Shear Structures conforming to the req uirements of Section 208.4.8. 1 may be des igned us ing this procedure. .1 Ilase Shear The total design base shear in a given direc tion shall be dctennincd rrom the ro llow ing equa ti on :
V ~--- W Vert ical Distribution The rorces at each level shall be calcu lated usi ng the following equation : 3C0 w. F .::: __ x 11 ' (208-1 2)


where the value of C(l shall be dctermined as ill Section I. .3 Applicability Section s, 208.5.1. 3, 20 8.5.2. 1,, 208.5.5, 208.5 .9, 208.5.10 'lJ1d 208.6 shall not apply when lIsing the simp lified procedure.



(208-1 I)


N(llional Stru ctural Cod e of the PhilipPines 6 Edition Vo turn e 1



CHAPTEI< 2 -_. Minim urn Design l.oads

1.1 The flexible upper portion shall be designed as a separate structure, supported latera ll y by the rig id lower portion, using the appropri ate values of Rand p.
1.2 The rigid lower portion shall be designed as a

Where used , !:lid shall be taken equal to 0 .0 l limes the

SIOIY height of all Slories. In Seclion 208.8.2 .8, Equalion


separate structure using the appropriate value s of Ra nd p . The reactions from the upper pOl1ion shall be those detennined from the analysis of the upper portion amplified by the rat io o f the (Rip) of the upper portion over (RIp) of the lower

shal1 read




ex ceed Ca ~11pX' but shall no t be less than

O .Sea wpx .

and llo shall be laken from Table 208-1 L 208.5.3 Dctcrm.ination of Seismic Factors
208.5.3,1 Determination of llo
Fo r spec ific e le ments of the structure, as s pec ifically Combinations along Different Axes In Seismic Zone 4 where a structure has a bearing wall system in only one direction, the value of R used for design in the orthogonal direction shall not be greater lhan thaI used for the bearing wall system.

identified in this code, the minimum design strength shall

be the product of the seismic force overstrength factor


and the design seismic forces set f0l1h in Section 208.5. For both Allowab le SUess Design and Strength Design, the Seismic Force Overslrength Factor, flo. shall be taken from Table 208- I I . Determination of R The value for II shal1 be taken from Table 2081 I. 208.5.4 Combinations of Structural Systems Where com binations of structura l syste ms arc incorpo rated inl o th e same stru cture, the requirements of this sec tion shall be satisfied. Vertica l Combinations

Any com bination of bearing wall systems, building frame systems, dual systems or moment-resisting frame systems may be used to resist seismic forces in struCtures less than 50 m in height. On ly combinati ons of dual systems and special moment-resisting frames shall be used to resist seismic forces in structures exceeding 50 m in height in Seismic Zone 4. Combinations along the Same Axis Where a combination of different structural systems is utilized to resist latera! forces in the same direction, the value of R used for design in Ihat direction shall not be greater than the least value for any of the systems utilized in that same directi on. 208.5.5 Vertical Distribution of Force The lotal force shall be distribu ted over the hei ght of the stru clure in confom1ance with Equations (2 08-1 3), (208 14) and (208- I 5) in the absence of a more rigorous procedure.

The value of R used in the design of any story shall be less than or equJI to the value of R llsed in the give n direction for the story above.
Exception: This requirement Ileed not be applied 10 a slory where the dead weight above that stolY is less than 10 percellt of Ihe fatal dead weight a/the Slruc[we.

" v =r~ + IF;

(= 1

(208-1 3)

Thc con ccntrated force F, at the top, wh ic h is ill additi on




shall be dc::rmined fro m th e equation:

Structures may be designed using th e procedures of Ihis section unde r the following condit ions: The cnli!"!.: stru cture is des ig!1ed using the lowest R or thc tilleral force-res is ting systems used, or
I. The following Iwo-stagc slatic anal ys is procedures
Illa y be used fo r struc tures con forming 20X.4 .R.2 _Itelll 4. 10

F, =o.07TV

(208-14 )

Sectio n

The value of T used fo r the purpose of calculati ng J-~ shall be Ihe pcriod thaI corres ponds with the desig n base shear <IS computed usin g Equation (208 -4). PI need 110t ex cced O.2:V a nd may be cons ide red as zcro where '" i': 0 .7 second or less. The rcma in ing porti on of th e b;n. :.1. r shall be distributed over the height of the SIlth: llil"C, includ ing Level II. according to the foHow ing equation :

A!:'sociatlon of Structural EIl91 ne ers or the Philippines

CHAPTEH 2 - Minimum Design Loads



= (V - F,)w,."-,.

(20S-ls )

208.5,7 Horizo nta l To rsio n al Mo m ent s Provisions shall be made fo r th e increased shears resuit ing

L W ihi

At each level designated as x, the force F, shall be applied over the area of the bu ilding in ac cordance wi th the mass distribut ion at that leve l. Struc tural di splacements and design seismic forces shall be calculated as the e rfect of forces F, and F, applied at the appropriate levels above the base. 208,5.6 Ho r izo ntal Dist ri b nti on of Shea r

from horizontal torsion where diaphragms are not flex ible. The most severe load combination for each
clemen! sha ll be considered for design. The torsional design moment at a given story shall be the

moment resulting from eccentricities between applied

desi gn lateral forces at levels above that story and the vertica l-resisting elements in that story plus an accidental

torsion. The design story shear. V .n in any story is the sum of the forces F, and F, above th at story. V, shall be distri buted to the various elements of the vertical lateral fo rce~resi s ti ng system in proportion to their rigidities. considering the
rigidity of the diaphragm. See Section for rigid e lemen ts that are not intended to be part. of the lateral
fo rc e~

The acciden tal torsiona l moment shall be determi ned by

assuming the mass is displaced as required by Section

208 .5 .6. Where torsi onal irregularity exists, as defined in Table 20S- 10, the effects shall be accounted for by increasing the accidenta l torsion at each level by an amplification rae tor, A n determined from the following equation:

resisting systems.

Where diaphragms are not fl exible, the mass at each level shall be assumed to be disp laced from the calculated center of mass in each direction a distance equal to 5 percent of the building dimension al that level perpendicular to the direc tion of the fo rce under considerati on. The effec t of thi s displ acement on the story shear distri bu tion shall be considered.
Diaphrag ms shall be considered flexi ble fo r the purposes

(208 -1 6)

Om,/! =


the average of the displacements at the extreme points of th e structure at Level x, mOl the maximum displacement at Level x, mm

of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the max imum lateral defo rmation of the diaphragm is more th an two limes lhe average story dri ft of the associated story. This may be determined by comparing the compu ted midpoint in ~pl ane deflection of the
diaphragm itself und er lateral load with the story drift of adjoining vertical-resisting elements under equi va lent tribu tary l.te ra l load.

The val ue of Ax need no t exceed 3.0 208.5.8 Overturn ing

Every structure shall be designed to resist lhe overtull1ing effects caused by earthquake forces speci fied in Section 208.5.5. At any level, the overturn ing moments to be resisted shall be determ ined using those seismic forces (F/ and F,) th at act on levels above the level under
consideration. At any level, the incrementa l changes of

the design overturnin g moment shall be di stributed to the various resi sting elements in the manner prescribed in Section 20S.S.6. Overturning effects on every element shall be carried down to the fou ndation. See Sect ions

207. 1 and 208. 8 for combining gra vi ty and seismic fo rces.

I ,

! i I
~ ,

j ,

National Stru ctural Code of the Phil ippi nes 6'" Editio n Volume 1

._n, o o!- ( .' .' . ..



CHAP1TF< 2 ... Minimum Design Loa ds

6. 20B.5.8.1 Elements Systems Supporting Discontinuous

20B.5.B.l.l General
Where allY portion of the lateral load-resisting system is discontinuous, such as fo r vertical irregularity Type 4 in Ta ble 208-9 or plan irregularity Type 4 in Table 208 10, concre te, masolllY, stee l and wood e lements supporting s uch discontinuous systems s hall have the design strength

Steel clements designed primarily as flexu ral members or trusses shall have bracing for bo th top and bottom beam fl anges or chords at the locut ion of the support of the discontinuous system and sha ll comply with the requirements of Section 515.6. 1.3. Wood elements des igned primarily as flexural members shall be provided with lateral bracing o r solid blocking at each end of the clement and at the ro" nection location(s) of the di scontinuous system.

to resist the combination loads resulting from the special

seismic load co mbinations of Sect ion 203.5.

20 B. 5.B.2 At Foundation
Sec Sections 208.4.1 and 308.4 for overturning moments to be resi sted at the foundation so il interface.

th~ qbi1nfithjfj;ljJ.'iech'oif:~03.5 need nbt exce~ the m{lilmum fo.rceiliat caJlbetransferred 10 Ihe element . !>y Ihe-:1ciletai-fQti:~'resijrin$ System.
! : ~;'\" .~ . ' ,~1;

.t. :., ' ., .' '.' :: '.. .

20B.5.9 Drift
Drift o r horizontal displacements of the structure shall be com puted where requi red by this code. For both Allowable Stress Design and Strength Design, the Maximum In elastic Response Displacement, 6.,.,. of the structure caused by the Design Basis Ground Motion shall be determined in accordance with this section. The drifts corresponding to the design seismic forces of Section or Section 208.6.5, /), S, shall be detennined in accordance w ith Section To determine /),U, these drifts shall be amp lified in accordance with Section Determination of L1s
A static, elastic analysis of the lateral rorce~res i s ting system shall be prepared using the design seism ic forces from Section 208 .5.2. 1. Alternatively, dynamic ana lysis may be performed in accordance with Secti on 208 .6. Where All owa ble Stress Design is llsed and where drift is being computed, the load combinations of Scction 203.3 shall be used. The mathematical model shall comply with Section The resuiting defomlati ons, denoted as 11.<;. sha ll be determined at all critical loca tion s in the structure. Calcu lated drift shall inc lude translational and torsional deflections.

2. Qq~.crflf~lqos;:~1fpl!.qrlil!g IigJ:lI-/rame wood ,shear >V(JJ):sxstems or ilghJ.;ji-qme sleel and wood structural
pa~elshe~r wall sYSiemi:

,;.: . .: : .

fo r A ll owable Stress Design, the design strcngth may be detennined usin g an allowable stress increase of 1.7 and a resistance factor, , of 1.0. This increase shall not be combincd with the onc- third stress in crease perm itted by Section 203.4, but may be combi ncd with the duration of load increase pennitted in Section 615.3.4. 20B.5.8.1,2 Detailing requirem ents in Seismic Zonc 4
In Seis mic Zone 4, e lcmcnls support ing discontinllous systems shall meet tbe following detailing or mem be r limitfltions:


Reinforced co ncretc or rcinforced masonry clcmcnts designed primarily as axja l~lo ad members shal! compl y wit h Section 42 Reinforced conc rete elements designed primarily as flex ura l members and supporting other than ligh tfram e wood shear wa ll system or light-fra me stee l and wood structural panel shear wall systems shall comply with Sections 421.3.2 and 421.3 .3. Streng th compu tations for portions of slabs dcsigned as support ing elcment s shall include only those portions of th e slab tlw.! comply with th e requirements of thesc


20B.5,9.2 Dct enllinatio n of /)'",

Th e Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, tJ.,\{.

shall be comruted as follow s:

(208- 17)

Masolll)' clemcnts des igned primari ly as carrying mcmbers shall co mp ly with 706. 1. 12.4. Item I. and 70g .
' L~ial - I o ad

Sec tions



Masonry cl ements des ign ed primaril y as ncxural members shall compl y with Sect ion 70X.2 .6.2.5.
Steel clemc nts designed prill1;lrily as :lxi'II-load membe rs sha ll compl y wilh Sec ti ons 5 15.4.2 il nd 515.4 .3.
() f

Alternatively, 6. M may be :computed by Ilonlinear time

his/DI)' analysis in accordance with Sec/ion 208.6. 6. The analysis lIsed to determi nc the Ma ximu m In clastic Response Displacement AM shall considcr P6 effecls.


Stfllclu(tll EngIneers of thA

Phiti pprn e ~

CHAryrEF, 2- Minimum D"sign Loads


208.5.10 Story Drift Limitation Story drifts shall be computed using the Maximum Inelastic Response Displacement, 11 M . Calculated Calculated story drift llsing !!.'d shall not exceed 0.025
times the story height for structures having a fundamental period of less than 0.7 sec. For structures having a

representation and shall be performed using accepted

principles of dynamics.
Structures that arc designed in accordance with this








requirements of these provisions.

208.6.2 Ground Motion

The ground motion representation shall, as a minimum, be one having a I O-percent probability of being exceeded in

fundamental period of 0.7 sec or greater, the calculated ,tDlY drill shall not exceed 0.020 times the stOIY height.

50 years, shall not be reduced by the quantity R and may be one of the following:
An elastic design response spectlllm constructed in accordance with Figure 208-3, using the values of and C. consistent with the specific site. The design


l'lzese drift limits may be exceeded when it is demonstrated that greater drift can be tolerated by both stmctural elements and nonstructural elements that could affect life safety. The drift used in this assessment shall be based upon the Maximum
Inelastic Response Displacement, LlM .


acceleration ordinates shall be multiplied by the acceleration of gravity, 9.815 mfsec 2



There shall be no drift limit in single-story steelframed structures whose primaty use is limited to storage, jactories or workshops. Minor accessOlY uses shall be allowed. Structures on which this exception is used shall !lot have equipment attached to the structural Fame or shall have such equipment detailed to accommodate the additional drift. Walls that are laterally supported by the steel frame shall be designed to accommodate the drift in accordance with Section

A sitewspecific elastic design response spectrum based on the geologic, tectonic, seismologic and soil characteristics associated with the specific site. The spectrum shall be developed for a damping ratio of 0.05, unless a different value is shown to be consistent with the anticipated structural behavior at

the intensity of shaking established for the site. 3.

Ground motion time histories developed for the specific site shall be representative of actual earthquake motions. Response spectra from time histories, either individually or in combination, shall approximate the site design spectrum conforming to Limitations
The design lateral forces used to determine the calculated drift may disregard the limitations of Equation (208-6) and (208-7) alld may be based 011 the period determined from Equation (208-10) neglecting the 30 or 40 percent limitations of Section 208.S.2.2, Item 2.

Section 208.6.2, Item 2.

For stJ1lctures on Soil Profile Type Sr, the following requirements shall apply when required by Section Item 4:

4.1 The ground motion representation shall be developed in accordance with Items 2 and 3.
4.2 Possible amplification of building response due to the effects of soil-stl1lcture interaction and

208.5.11 Vertical Component

The following requirements apply in Seismic Zone 4 only. Horizontal cantilever components shall be designed

for a net upward force of O.7Ca/~r In addition to all other applicable load combinations,
horizontal prestressed cOlllponents shall be designed using not 1110re ill;!n SO percent of' the dead load for the gravity load, alone or in combination with the lateral force efJCds. 208.6 Dynamic Analysis Procedures

lengthening of building




inelastic behavior shall be considered.


The vertical component of' ground motion may be defined by scaling corresponding horizontal accelerations by a factor of (wo- thirds. Alterna;ivc factors may be used \vhen substantiated by ~itew specific data. Where the Near Source Factor, Nil' is greater than 1.0, site-specific vertical response spectra shall be used in lieu of the factor of twothirds.

208.6.1 General
Dynamic analyses procedures, when used, shall conform to the criteria established in this sectiol1. The analysis shall be b;lscd 011 an appropriate ground Illotion

208.6.3 Mathematical Model

A mathematical model of the physical structure shall represent the spatial distribution of the mass and stiffness of the structure to an extent that is adequate for the

Nation;:]1 Structural Code of the Philippines G Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEIi: '2 ..

Miflllllllnl Oesl~Jil


calculation or the significant rcntures of its dynamic response. A three-dimensiona l model shall be used for the dYlllllllic analys is of sll1lc(ures wit h highl y irregular plan config urat ions such as those havi ng a pla n ilTegularity detl ncd in Tab le 208- J 0 and hav ing a ri gid or semi- rig id diap hmg m. The stiffn ess properti es used in th e analysis and ge neral mathematica l modeling shall be in accordance \-vith Section . 208.6.4 Description of Analysis Procedures Hes!,ollse SpectrullI Allalysis An elasti c dyn.lI mic ana lys is of a st ru cture uti lizing the peak dynamic response of all modes hav ing a signifi cant contri bution to total stmclura l response. Peak moda l responses arc calcu lated usi ng the ordinates of the appro priate response spectrum curve which correspond to th e modal periods. Maximum mod<1 1 contribut ions arc combined in a stat istical manner to oblHin <til approximate [olal slmc(ura l response. Time History Analysis

combined by recognized methods. When lhr eedimcnsiona l modcls arc used fo r analysis, mo dal interactio n efleClS shall be considered when co mbining modal IlH1X im<1. Rl'dutlion of Elastic Response Parameters for Design Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced for purposes of design ill acco rda nce with the foll owing itcms, \\. itll th e limitation th at in no case shall th e Elas ti c Response I)aramciers b ~ reduced sllch thaI the co rresrond ing des ign base shear is less th an th e Elasti c Response Base Shear divided by Ihe va lue o f R.


An analysis of th e dynamic response of a structure at each increment of time when the base is subj ected to a specific ground Illotion time history.
208.6.5 Re sponse Speclrll III Analysis

For all regular structures where the ground motion representalion comp lies wilh Seclion 208.6.2, Item I, Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced such that the correspond ing design base shear is not less than 90 percent o f the base shear detenn ined in acco rdance wilh Section 208.5.2. For all regul ar strucrures where the ground motio n reprcscntati on compli es with Sect ion 208.6.2 , hem 2, Elastic Res ponse Parameters mny be reduced such that the co n esponding design base shear is not less than 80 percent of the base shear detelmined ill accordance with Section 208 .5.2 . f<or all irregula r stru ctures, regardless of th e ground Illotion re presentation, Elastic Response Parameters may be reduced sllch that the cOITespondi ng design basc shear is not less {han 100 percenl or the base shear determined in accordance wit h Section 208.5.2.


208.6.5. 1 Res ponse Spectrum Represe ntation and Interpretation or Results The ground motion represl'll!<ltion shall be in accordance \v ith Section 208.0.2. The corresponding response parnmclcrs, including fo rces. momen ts and displacC'lllcnts, shall be denoted <is Elasti c Res ponse Parametcrs. Elas tic Response Para mc{C rs Illay be rrduccd in acco rdance with Sec lio n 208.6.5 .4. The base shCHr for a given direct iol1 . de term ined usin g dynamic analysis must not be less thall th e value obtained by the equivalent lateral force meth od of" Section 208.5 .2. In this case, alt co rresponding rC!-ipo nse P,lr(l1l1ctcrs arc adjusted pro portiona tely. Number or Modes

The corresponding reduced design seismic fo rces sha ll be used for design in ~ccordance wilh Section 203. Direclion a l Errecls

Directiona l effec ts fo r horizontal groun d Illotion shall con form 10 the req uirements of Sectio n 208.5. 1. The effects of vert ica l ground moti ol1s on horizontal cantilevers and pres tressed elements shall be qmsiciered in accordance with Section 208.5.1 t . Altcrnately. vertical seismic re s p o ll s ~ Illay be determined by dynamic response me thods ; in no case shall the response uscd for design b(.: Jess than that obtllinc<1 by the slatic mc th od.
208. 6.5.6 TO"sion The analysis sllflll HCCO Ulll ror to rsionall'flcc{s. including ;Jct:jdcn t ~1 torsional efrects as presc ribed in Sect ion 20X.5.7. Where thl'ccdimcn:.;ional mode-Is :lrc uscd for ana lysis, erfects of accidcnwl torsion shall be accou nted fiJI" by appro priate adjust ments in the model slich il f; adjust men t of" mass loca lions. or by equ ivale nt statio: procedures such as pro vided in Sect ion 208.5.0.

TilL' requ irc mcnt of Section 20K.6.4. 1 II1<1t all signifi cant modes be inc ludcd may he sCltisfied hy demonstrating lhat for the modes cOJlsidered. <II least 90 percent or thl.! participating mass of the strurlure is im:ludcd in th\.' calcu lation of response I(w each principal hori7.ontal direct ion. 208 .6.5,] COlllhini llg Modes The pcn k member j()]"ces. di sp lacements. slory f()fI:cs, story shears ;llld base reactions I()r" l~ ach mode shall be
Assod:ltlon of Structural

Eil~J l ntw r s

of the PhlilPPll leS

CHAVITf, 2 - Minimum Design Loads

2,93 Dual Systems Nonlinear Time History Analysis Nonlinear Time History

Nonlinear time history analysis shall meet ;bc requirements of Section 208.4.10, and time histories sblll be developed and results detennined in accordance with the requirements of Section Capacities,eI characteristics of nonlinear elements shall be modci<:d consistent with test data or substantiated analy<s, considering the Importance Factor. .The maxirm::n inelastic response displacement shall no(be reduced ,:lid shall comply with Section 208.5.10.

Where the latera! forces arc resisted by a dual system as

defined in Section, the combined system shall

be capable of resisting the base shear determined in

accordance with this section. The moment-resisting frame

shall conform to Section, Item 2, and may be

analyzed using either the procedures of Section 208.5.5 or those or Section 208.6.5.

208.6.6 Time History Analysis Time History

Time-history analysis shall be performed with pairs of





history Design Review

When nonlinear time-history analysis is used to justify,. . structural design, a design review of the lateral- force resisting system shall be performed by an independcd engineering team, including persons licensed in ihc appropriate disciplines and experienced in seisrnic analysis methods. The lateral-foree-resisting system design review shall include, but not be limited to, the following: I. Reviewing the development of sitespecific spectra and ground-motion time histories.

components that shall be selected and scaled from not less than three recorded events. Appropriate time histories shall have magnitudes, fault distances and source mechanisms that are consistent with those that control the design-basis earthquake (or maximum capable earthquake). Where three appropriate recorded groundmotion time-history pairs are not available, appropriate simulated ground-motion time-history pairs may be used to make up the total number required. For each pair of horizontal ground- motion components, the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the 5 percent-damped site-specific spectrum of the scaled horizontal components shall be constructed. The motions shall be scaled such that the average value of the SRSS spectra does not fall below 1.4 times the S percent-damped spectrum of the design-basis earthquake for periods from O.2T second to I.ST seconds. Each pair of time histories shall be applied simultaneously to the model considering torsional effects.
The parameter of interest shall be calculated for each timc.- history analysis. If three time-history analyses are performed, then the maximum response of the parameter of interest shall be used for design. If seven or more timehistory analyses are performed, then the average value of the response parameter of interest may be used for design.

2. 3.

Reviewing the preliminary design of the lateralforce-resisting system. Reviewing the final design of the lateral-forceresisting system and all supporting analyses.

The engineer~of~record shall submit with the plans and calculations a statement by all members of the engineering tcam doing the review stating that the above review has been performed.

208.7 Lateral Force on Elements of Structures,

Nonstructur.1 Components and Equipment Supported by Structures 208.7.1 Gener.1
Elements of structures and their attachments, permanent nonstructural components and their attachments, and the attachments for permanent equipment supported by a structure shall be designed to resist the total design seismic forces prescribed in Section 208.7.2. Attachments for noor- or roof-mounted equipment weighing less than 1.8 kN, and furniture need not be designed. A ttachments shall include anchorages and required bracing. Friction resulting from gravity loads shall not be considered to provide resistance to seismic forces. Elastic Time History Analysis

Elastic time history shall conform to Sections 208.6.!, 208.6.2, 208.63,, 20S.6.5.4, 20S.6.5.5,, and Response parameters from clastic time-history analysis shall be denoted as Elastic Response Paramcters. All clemcnts shall be designed llsing Strength Design. Elastic Response Parameters may be scaled in accordance with Section

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6


Edition Volume 1



2 -' MlOimwn Design l.oads

When the stmctural fa il ure of Ihe lateral-force-resist ing systems of nonrigid equi pment would cause a life hazard, such systems shall be designed to resist the seismic fo rces prescribed ill Section 208.7.2. When permissible design strengt hs and oth er accept ance criteria arc not contained in or referenced by this code, such criteria shall be obtained from approved national standards subject to the approval of th e building official.

Forces dctcnnillcd lIsing Equation (20 r.:-:,j \..>:. t: .-, .(;; shall be lIsed to design members and cO IH;\'c! j ;".~') (:;;11 tra nsfer these fo rces to Ihe scismicn""' '1;;' ...: .... ~i....:l -". M embers and connection design Shidi l.i 'tC 1 1,.:. ;' f'IJ co mbi nati ons (11)(1 rac tors speci fi ed in S~ C!ii.)n . ~0 3.3 ll l" 203 .4 . The Reliabi lity/Redundancy Factor, !), may be taken eqLlal to 1.0. For appli cabl e (orees and Component p,.' : ' O Jl ': ( Modification Facto rs in connectors for c;\"l<..~ r i )l p. ;: ;.j diaphrag ms, refe r to Sections 208.8.2. 3, 2tnU\./ . .. Hi f-orces shall be appl ied in the horizontal di rc<.:I!OH::, \'.Ih il:!:

208.7.2 Desigll for Total La tHai Force

The total design lateral seismic fo rce, FI" delenn incd from the fol lowing equation: shall be

(208 - 18)

result in [he 1110st crilicalload ings for design .

Altern atively, Fp may be calculated using the fo llowing equ ation:

208.7 .3 Specifying Lateral Forces

Design speci fi ca tions for equi pment sha ll either spcci r/ Ihe design lateral fo rces prescri bed he rein or reference these pro visions.

F = P

aCI( II)WP P 1 R +

) ---L

(208-1 9)



Except that I'~' shall 1I0t be less than O.7C,/pWp and

need not be more than 4C~JpJ1~) .

where :

the clement or componcn! atta chme nt elevation wiLh respect LO grade. fi x shall n01 be taken less tha n 0.0 . h,. = the stnlClure roof elevation wit h respect 10 grade. n,l = the inslruc ture Componelll Amplification Factor that varies from 1.0 to 2.5.


208.7.4 Relative Motion of Equipment AII. chment, For equipment in Categories I and II bui ldin gs as dcfincti in Table 103 1, th e lateral-force design ~; h a l! considc) (l,c effec ts of rela tive motion of th e poin ts of attachmen l to the structure, usi ng the drift based upon AM. 208.7.5 Alternative Designs Where an approved national stand ard or approved physical tes t dala provide a basis ror the earthquake resis tant design of a particular type of equipment or other nonstructural component, sllch a standard or data may be .lcccplea as a basis for design of the items wit h thc fo llowing limita ti ons:

A va lue for "" shall be selecled from Table 208-12. Altemalively, this factor may be detenn ined based on the dynam ic properti es or e mp irical da ta of the co mponen t and the structure thai supports il. The va lue shall not be taken less th an 1.0.
Rp is the Componenl Response Modification Factor that shall be taken from Table 208-1 2, except that Rp for anch orages shall eq ual !.5 for shall ow ex pansion anch or bo ilS, shallow chem ical anchors or shallow castinp lace anchors. Sha llow anchors are th ose wit h ti n embedme nt IcngtlHodiamcter ratio of less tha n 8. When anchorage is co nstructcd ofnonducti lc mate rials, or by lise of adhesive, Rp shall equal 1.0.


These provisions sha ll prov ide minim um va lues for th e design of the anchorage and th e mem bers an d connections th at transfer the forces to th e seismicresisting system.


The force, I;~h and the overturning mo ment used in the design of th e nonstl1lctural component sh;\!1 ,i' . be less than 80 percent of the vn lucs that WO\i ~.: obtained lIsing these provisions.

The design latcnd forces determined using Equat ion (208 I R) or (208- 19) sha ll be distributed in proport ion I() the mass dis Lri bulioll of fhe element or component.

Associat ion of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


Table 208-12 Horizontal Force Factors, ap and Rp for Elements of Structures and Nonstructural Components and Equipment
- - - - - -- _._ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ . _ --- -- - - - - - , - - , - - - - - - - , - - - - - , Category Element or Component ap Rp Footnote

--------------------'-----'-------'---!-----I I. Walls including the following:

................... __ ..

a. Un braced (cantilevered) parapets


3.0 3.0

._-_ . .._-- 2
- -- --

b. Exterior walls at or above the ground floor and 1, Elements or Structures

p_~r:.~p~~~ br~~e~_ a~.oy~th_~ir__~~~1t~I:~~_f_ g~~.~jty

. ..

-- -------~ ---

c. All interi6r~bcaring and non-bearing walls

1.0 2.5 1.0 2.5

3.0 4.0 3.0 3.0

... _.....-

2. Penthouse (except when framed by an extension of the stmcturai frame)

3 walls. See also Section 208.7.2

. CO ,l;1cci;O-[~;-'f~~-p-~~'f;~b;:i~-~tcd-st;;;-~iu~a"j -ci ~~~;e~-t~-~ti~c~---

I. Exterior and interior oll1amentations and appendages.

2. Chimneys, stacks and trussed towers supported on or



_.~ __ ......_"._ __._ . _. . ~ .. __ ..._ ...... __ ._ __ ~_._.~~ __.__ .. _ a. Laterally braced or anchored to the structural frame at 2.5 3.0 .~. P5?it_)t_~~l~~ _t!1~i~ _ _ c_~.!.~~~r~ __()f ~!:l~.~.~" _......_ ..... _ ..____ " .......__..___ .~_. _.~ .. _ ....___ ._____ _ b. Laterally braced or anchored to tbe structural frame at 1.0 3.0 O!' ,~bov.c .theil: centers o.f m~ss _. .." ._...~ .. __ ~ .. __._,_. __._______ ______ ~. __._ _ _
2.5 3.0 4.0
- -----t----~

3. Signs and billboards

2. NOllstructural Components

3.0 5 tl.la_t~JJ.m_ in ..l!~.jg!.l~. __ (i!lclud~_c:()n!e~~s). __ . ______;____.. _._.. _. _.... __ ._ .__._______ _ _1 6. 0nchorage and lateral bracing for suspended ceilings and 1.0 3.0 3, 6, 7, 8 hght fi.~~_u~es ........__ .._____ .. _. __ ... _ ______--1
7. Access floor systems

4. Storage racks (include contents) over 1.8 m tall. 2.5 . .. --------.-----5. Permanent floor-supported cabinets and book stacks more 1.0

1.0 1.0

- ~ ~- . ~--


---- - -

8. Masonry or concrete fences over 1.8 m high

9, Partitions,
.~___;_~-_:_;c___;- -- .- - . -- . --~- - -.- - .----.-- -

3.0 3.0

-- ---- -_ ..




I . Tanks and vessels (include contents), including support


systems. 2. Electrical, mechanical and plumbing equipment and associated conduit and ductwork and piping.

_ .. -


I 3. Any flexible equipment iaterally bt~aced or anchored to the 2.5 3.0 stnlctural ft~atl.lC at a point_ ~e!.ow tl~~_t~_~~.~!t.~r ofmas~ 3. Equipment 4. Anchorage of emergency power supply systems and essential communications equipment. Anchorage and support systems for battery racks and fuel tanks necessary 1.0 3.0 for operation of emergency equipment. See also Section 208.7.2 5. Tcmporary containers with flammable or hazardous 3.0 1.0 _ _ __._ __ ._~ _ _ .~ ___.____ _.._.!.1.1,ltcriaJs._____ _ _ _ ~ _ __..~~ ___,___._ _ ._______+_----1--I. Rigid comroncnts with ductile material and attachments.
4., Other

..... 5-:io,T4:.. 11,1.2 _

17, 18

5, 10, ll, 12,13,14, 15, 16

- -19

1.0 1.0 2.5 2.5


2. Rigid components with nonductile material or attachments

J. Flexible components with ductile material and

altacllmcllts. 4. Flexible components with nonductile materi,!! or attachments.

3.0 1.5

National Structural Code of tile Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1

1 h



2 ,-. Minimum Design Loads

Notes/or Table 208, J2

I See Section 208.2 Jor definitions ojj7exible componellls and rigid component,I'. I See Sectioll and 208.8.2. 7./ar COIlCl'ele (Jnd ma.wllIy 11'(/1/.\' and Sectioll 20S. 7.2 for cOllnccfio/lsjiu" pond wl/nee/orsji),. jWllc{s. J Applil'S to Sci,l'mic ZOIl(,S 2 and 4 only.

Ground supported steel storage racks lIIay he designed IIsing Ihe prol'i.\"jo/l,I' (~f'S(,Cfi(Jl/s 208.1), Lood and /"esi.\'{III1C1'jilC/o/" design /lilly be ".\wl JiJr the design oj cold.jonned sfeel 1111'111/;<'1;\', pl"(JI'ided sei,\"lIIi(' dO'ign /hrce.\" are i'ill/o/ to or grea/e!" 11/(111 {hose ,Ipeei/ied ill Sec/ioll 208.7.2 or 208.9.2 as appropriate.
OI1/Y anchorage or resfrail1l.I' /leed be designed

Ceilillg weight shall include all Iig"fJixfures and olher equII)lIIl!n! or parliliollS Ihal are lalemlly xupporled II.!' Ihe ceiling For purposes of determilling fhe .Ie/slllicjoree, (l ceiling weight o/nolless (han 0.2 kPa shall he used.

1 Ceilings eonslrucled of lath and plaster or gypsum board screw or lIail (Jtlached to slI.Ipellded memher.l fh(lt supp()rt 0 c('iling {It 0111' level extelldiJlgfrom wall to wall need not be ana~!'zed, provided (he walf,l' (lre I/of over 15 lIIelers oparl. Light jixrures and /l/eclwllical services illstalled ill metal slI.Ipellsioll sy.l'lel/ls for aco/lstical IiII' (llId lay-in panel cei(ings shilll he independently supporledJrolll Ihe SIn/crure abol'l! as specified in VBe Standard 25-2, Parr II/,

W,Ior accessjloor systems shall be the dead /otl(1 of the (lCCessjloor system pIllS 25 percenf'q(lhe/loor livc load pIllS a 0.5 kPo parlilioll load allowal/ee. Eqllipment includes, but I:V /lot limited to, boilers, chillers, heal exchallgers, pumps, tlirjwlldling IIl1its, cooling tOl\'ers, control pal/e/s, motors, switchgear, trallsformers and life-safety equipment. II shall indude major cO/lduit, dUelillg and piping, which serl'ices such machill(")' and equipmenl and/ire sprinkl'r systems. See Sec/ioll 208. 7.2I()r addilioll(ll rcquireml'III.I'jor t/e/{'/'minillg ar/i)}' nonrigid or flexibly mO/lnted eq!(lj)ment. Seismic res(raints may he omilledFom pipiflg and duct supports ((all fhe/rAlowing condiliOlls are sa{i.~lied: Latera! molioll (?((he 1)lI)illg or duel lI'il! not calise damaging impacl lI'i[h Olher systems motiOIl of rhe piping or duct does not cause impact I?fFogife appurlentlnces (e.g. , sprinkler hem/s) with pll)ing or structllral member. supports oIless than 300 mm in length halle top cOl/nections Ihm callnOI del'elop mOlllenfs.



IUThe piping or due[ l:~ made of ducri!e materia/willi ductile connections.

II J Latera!

olher eqllipmenl.

'14 Lateral mOliOIl o/lhe PII)illg or duct does 1I0t cause loss q( system vertical support.
11.1 Rod-III/lip, 116 Support 11

membcn cantile\'ered lip Fall! IhC'/loor are checkedj(!r slability.

Seismic res/milliS may be omilledji'Olll electrical raceways, meh as cable trays, con(hlil and Ims ducts, i/allthej(}/fllwing ('Oll(/iliol/.\ (Ire saliVied: Lateral 1II0lioll of [he Nl('C'II'ay wi/lllol calise damagillg impact lI'ilh olher syslems L(l/eral moliOIl o/the raceway does /lot cause loss (?fsy.~tem vertica! SlippOr/. SlIpporls o(less than 300

I.' 1
I.' "

I.' J Rod-hllng 1.'.<Support

in lenglh hOI'<' rop cOlllleuiolls Ilwl callnot del'<,loll //lOll/ellis

members ct/I/tilel'ercd upFoIII fhejloor are checked/or siahilil)'


Piping ducls (lnd electrical race\I'ays, which IIIIIS[ he /III/Cliol/o! Iollo\\'ing all e(luhquoke. spllnlling /J('/lI'l'ell di[li>rell/ hllildillgs or slructural ,1),.1'/('111.1' .1'//111/ be sI41iciellilyflexible 10 withstand Idatil'" lI1olio/! oj.I'I{/lporl POilllS assllming out-or/lhIlS" /IIOliU!l.I Vibration isolalors supporting equipment sil(1/1 he designcd j()r hl/eml l!lads or reslmined /iml/ displacing laterll/~1' hy oilier 111('(111.1' Reslrai!1l shall also be pnll'ided. \I'lliell limits valiea! displacelllcnt. .weh that hI/era I reslraillt.l do nOI hecome diwngoged. (1/, (111(/ R,,/iJ/' eqllll)ll1el1l supporlcd (In I'ihration I:wiators shall be lakell as 2.5 and 1,5, reSpeClil'e!y, except Ihal [( Ihe isolalioll mounling Fame is supported by shalfow or e:q)(ll/sioll allchor,~, Ihe design forces .f<)r fhe (/lIcllor,\' calculaled hy Equalion (20!) . 18).or (208 - /9) (incl/lding limits), shalf be additionally II1Uflll)/ied by/actor (42.0.


15 Equipmellt anchorage sha/lIlO{ be designed such tllatloads are re.~isfed by g/'Q\Jityjikliol! (e.g., /ricriol/ dips). 16 Expansion (I/lcllor,\', which are required to r('siSI seismic loads in lellsioll ..\'hal/ 1101 be present.

where operational \'ihNlling loads are

/.lo\'('lIIen[ (?( compon('nts wilhill dectrical cllbillet.I, rack,ol/d skid-mounter! equipll/{'II! (ll/d portiOIl,I' (:/skid-lIIl11l11led e/ectrOIlWc/llll1iclIl equipmenl (hat ilia.\' calise damage 10 other compollents /).1' di.lpillcing, shl/If he reslrirled lIy IIl1llchlll('l/t 10 a!lchored ('(/'IIIIIII{'III or support/rallies. /Jatteries


racks .1'110/1 h(' restrail/cd agaill.H


aI/ direcliOIl dll(' 10 ('orlhqurlke(o/,c('.\'

5;eismic reSlrllillls lIIoy incll/dc .I'/raps, chaillS. holls, harner.l or olher lII('chollislIIS fhat pn'I'(,I/{ sliding. /ol/ing alld IIr('(lch ojrllJ/lllilllllcll1 I!I/lollllllab/e and toxic materials. Friction/illn's IIf(lY I/of he IIsed 10 r('.I'i.l'1 lotl'rof III(/(lI' ill III(' l'e.I'lroilils IIntes.\' flosilil'{' II/,lil; restrailll i.1 provided which {'IISIII'('S [hal fhc/i'ictioll/or('es act c()/llil!l/O/ls~l'.

Association of Slructuml EIl~Jille8rs of the Philippines


;> - Minimum DElsiqn I.oads


; 208.8 Detailed Systems Design Requirements ; 208.8.1 General ;' All s(nlctural framing SYSICIllS sha ll comply Wilh the i requirements of Section 208.4. Only the elements of the ':" designated scismic-force-resisting system shall be lIsed to resist design forces. Thc individual components shall be designed to resist th e prescribed design seismic forces acting on th em. The components shall also comply wit h the specific requirements for the material contained in ~ Chaplers 4 through 7. In addition, slich framing systems and components shall comply with the detailed system design requiremcnts contained in Section 208.8.

208 .8.2 Str uctural Framing Systems pour typcs of general building framing systems defi ned in Section 208 .4.6 are recognized in th ese pro visio ns and
shown in Table 208-1 1. Each type is subdi vided by the types of vCl1icaJ c lemen Is used to resist lateral seismic forces. Special frBming requirements arc given in Ihis section and in Chapters 4 through 7. Detailing for C ombinations of Systems

For componcnts common 10 different structural systClns, the more resl rictive dctaillng requircmen(s shall be used. Connections

All building components in Seismic Zones 2 and 4 shall be designed to resist the effe cts of Ihe seismic forces prescribed herein and the effects of gra vity loadings from
dead and flo or live loads.

Con nections that resist design seismic forces shall be designed and deta iled on the drawings. Deformation Compatibility All stnl ctural framing elements and their connections, not required by design to be part of the lateralMforee-resisting system, s hall be designed andlor detailed to be adequate to mainlain suppor! of design dead plus live loads whell subjected to lhe ex pecled deformations caused by seismic forces . P6 effects on such clements shall be considered. Ex pected deformations shall be detcnnill ed as the grea ter of the Maximum inelastic Response Displacement, 11 M cons idering PI1 effecls determined in accordance wit h Section or the defollnation induced by a story drin of 0.0025 limes the story height. W hen computing


Consideration shall be given to design for uplin effects caused by seismic loads. fn Seismic Zones 2 and 4, provision shall be made for th e effects of earthquake forces actin g in a direction other than the principal ax es in each of the following circumstances:

The structure has plan irregularity Type 5 as given in

Table 208-1 0.

r I


The stnlcture IlHs pJan irregularity Type I as given in

Table 208-10 for both maj or axes.

expecfed deformations, the stiffening effect of those clemen ts not part of the laleral-fo rce-res isting system
sha ll be neg lected.

A column of a structure forms pat1 of two or intersecling lateral-forcc~rcs i sling systems.


axial load ill the column due to seismic forces ~f'ting in either direction is less than 20 percent of the ~olunlll axial load capacity.
The requirement that orth ogona l effects be considered may be sat is fied by designing slich elements for 100 perccnt of thc prescribed design seismic forces in one direction plus 30 perce nt of th e prescribed design seism ic forces in the pi! rpcndicular direction. The combination requiring th e greater com ponent strength shall be used for design . AIIl'rnat ively, the erfects of the t\I./O ortho!.!o nal directions may be combincd 011 a square rOOI of thc~ SUIll
of the sqllorcs (SRSS) basis. When the SRSS mcthou combining directional c ffecl s is used, eilch Icrm compulcd shall be assi gned th e sign Ihat will result ill (he 1110st

For clements not 1'<111 or lhe lateral-force-resisting system, the forces inducted by the expected delonnation may be co nsid ered as ultimate or factored forces. When co mputing Ihe forces induced by expected deformations, Ihe restraining effect of adjoining rigid structures and nonslructural elCIl.1enlS shall be cons idered and a rational va lu e of member and restraint stiffness shall be used. Inelasti c dcfonnations of members and connections may be considered in the evaluation. provided the assumed ca lculn tcd capacities <Ire consistent wilh member and connection design and detailing. For concrete and masonry clements that are pan of the Ia(c ral - fOfce-resi sting system, the assumed fl exural and shear stiffness pro pcl'lies sha ll not exceed one half of th e g ross section pmpcrlics unless fl rational crackcd ~ scction ilna lysis is performed. Additional deformations Ihat Illay result from foundcHinn ncx ibilily and diaphragm deflections shall be considered. For concrete clements not part or the hllera l- forcc~rcs i st iJl g sys tem, see Section
421 .9.

~ the


conservative result.

National Struc tural C()(~c: of ll'l~: PhiliPPines

(J lh

Edi ti on Volul'llo 1


CHAf'TEH 2 .. MirlHmml Design Loads Adjoining Rigid Elements

Moment-resisting frames

and shear walls may be

enc losed by or adjoined by more rigid clements. provided it can be shown that the participation or failure of the

A positive connection for resist ing horizontal forl,.:c aCling parallel to th e member shall be provided for each h( am , gi rder or truss. This force shal l not bc less thall (L ). ..../ times the dead plus live load. Collector Elements Collector e!ements shall be provided that are capable of transferring the seismic forces originating ill o!hn portions of the struc tu rc to the clcment providing : he resistance to those forces.

more rigid elements wi ll not the vertical and

lateml- load-resisting abi lity of the gravity load and ' lateral-fo rce-resisting sys tems. The eflccts of adjoining rigid clements shall be considered w'l':en assessing whe ther a structure shall be des ignated rcguial or ilTcgular in Section 208.4.5. Exterior Elements

Exterior non-bearing, non-shear wall panels or elements tiltH are attached to or enclose the exterior shall be designed to resi st the forces per Equation (208-1 8) or
(208-19) and shall accommodate movemen ts of the struct ure based on 6 M and temperalure changes. Such clements shall be suppo rted by means .of cast-in-place concrete or by mechanical connections and fasteners in accordance wi th (he following provisions:

Collector clements, splices and their connc<.:lio1":<: 10 resisting clements shall re sist the forces d elen ni~lcd ;11 accordance with Equation (208-20). In addition. co llector clements, splices, and the ir connections 10 resisting elements shall have the design strength to resist the combined loads resulling from Ihe special seismic load of Sect io n 203.5. Exception:


Connections and panel joints shall allow for a relative movement between stories of not less than two times :-I tOly drift caused by wind, the ca lculated story drift based on 11M or 12.7 mm, whichever is greater. Connections to permit movement in the plane of the panel for story drift shall be sliding connections using slotted or oversize holes, connections that penni! movement by bending of steel, or other connections providing equiva len t sliding and ductility capacity. Oodies of connections shall have sufficient duct ility and rotation capacity to preclude fnlcturc or the conc rete or brittle failures at or ncar welds.
The body of the connection sha ll be designed for the force determined by Equation (208-19), where lip ~ 3.0 and "" ~ 1.0.


/11 st/velures, or portions thereof, braced entirely by lightframe wood shear walls or light-frame steel and wood stmctllral pallel shear wall systems, col/ectol" elen;(,l1ts, splices and connections to resisting elements /l eed olil)' he designed to resist forces in accordance with Equutioli (208-20).
The quantity .\1 need not exceed the maximum force that can be transferred to th e collector by the diaphragm Hnd other clements of the lateral-force-resisting system. For Allowable Stress Design. the design strength may be determined using an allowable stress increase or 1.7 and iJ resistance factor, $. of 1.0. This increase shall !lot be combined with the one-third stress increase permitted by Section 203.4, but may be combi ned with the dura tion of' load increase permined in Seclion 615.3.4. Concrete Frames




All fasteners in the connecting syste m, such as bolts, inserts, welds and dowels, shall be designed for the forces determined by Equation (20819). where R, ~ 1.0 and a, ~ 1.0.
Fnstcncrs embedded in concrete sh,1I1 be attached 10, or hooked around, reinforcing steel or otherwise termi nated to cfTcctivcly 'transfer forces to the rcinfo rcing stcel.

Concrete frames required by design to be part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall conform 10 the following:


In Seismic Zone 4 they shall be specinl 1ll0llwnt resisting frames.


In Seism ic Zo ne 2 th ey sha ll, as a minimum, be inlcrmediatc moment-resisting framcs. Tics a nd Continuity Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry W:tIlS

All parts of a stntclurc shall be intercollnectcd and the conncctions shall be c<lpable or transmitting th e seismic fort:c induced by the pans being connected. As a minim ulll, any smaller portion orthc bui lding shall be tied to the rcm.tinder of the building with c1elllcnts having at lea st" strength to resist 0.5 CJ limes the weight or the smaller portion .

Concrete or masonry wa lls sha ll be anchored 10 ;1/ 1 noo l and roofs that provide QUI-or-plane lateral support of" the wa ll. The anchorage shall provide a positive direct cnn neclion hetwcen the wall and fl oor or roof COII!'ltruc{ioll c"pab le of resisti ng the largcr or the horizontal forces spec ified in this section <Il1d Sections 20().4 and 20~.7. In addition. ill Seism ic Zone 4.

Assol.iatJon of Structural EngIneers o f IIH~ PtlilipPJf10S

CHAPTEf, 2 -- Minimum Design Loads


diaphragm to wall anchorage using embedded straps shall have the straps attached to or hooked around the reinforcing steel or otherwise terminated to effectively transfer forces to the reinforcing steel. Requirements for developing anchorage forces in diaphragms arc given in Section Diaphragm deformation shall be considered in the design of the supported walls. Olll-of-Plane Wall Anchorage to Flexible Diaphragms This section shall apply in SeISmic Zone 4 where flexible diaphragms, as defined in Section 208.5.6, provide lateral support for walls.

" F+"F. , L., ,

---,'' ' --'' -'- w,,,, " w; 2: i",x

The force


F"., determined from Equation (208-20) need not exceed! .OCr/wp.\"> but shall not be less than O.5CJwp J:'

Elements of the wall anchorage system shall be designed for the forces specified in Section 208.7 where Rp ~ 3.0 and Q p ~ 1.5. In Seismic Zone 4, the value of Fp used for the design of the elements of the wall anchorage system shall not be less than 6.1 kN per lineal meter of wall substituted for E.
See Section 206.4 for minimum design forces in other seismic zones.

\Vhcn the diaphragm is required to transfer design seismic forces from the yertical~resisting clements above the diaphragm to olher vertical-resisting elements below the diaphragm due to offset in the placement of the elements or to changes in stiffness in the veliical elements, these forces shaH be added to those detennined from Equation




Design seismic forces for flexible diaphragms providing lateral supports for walls or frames of masonry or concrete shall be determined using Equation (208-20) based all the load determined in accordance with Section 208.5.2 using a R not exceeding 4. Diaphragms supporting concrete or masonry walls shaH have continuous ties or struts between diaphragm chords to distribute the anchorage forces specified in Section 20S.8.2.7. Added chords of subdiaphragms may be used to form subdiapluagms to transmit the anchorage forces to the main continuous crossties. The maximum length-to-width ratio of the wood structural sub-diaphragm shall be 2Y,: I. Where wood diaphragms are lIsed to latera!ly support concrete or masonry walls, the anchorage shall Zone 2 conform to Section In Seismic and 4, anchorage shall not be accomplished by lise of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal, wood ledgers or framing sha!lnot be used in cross-grain bending or cross-grain tension, and the continuous ties required by item 4 shall be in addition to the diaphragm sheathing. Connections of diaphragms to the vertical elcments in structures in Seismic Zonc 4, having a plan irregularity of Type I, 2, 3 or 4 in Table 208- I0, shall be designed without considering either the one-third increase or the dun:tion of load illcrease considered in allowable stresses for elements resisting earthquake forces. In structures in Seismic Zone 4 having a plan irregularity or Typc 2 ill Table 20g~IO, diaphraglli chords and drat! Illcmbers shall be designed considering illdcp~'lldcnt movement or the projecting wings or tile structure. Each of these diaphragm



When clements of thc wall anchorage system are not loaded concentrically or are not perpendicular to the wall, the system shall be designed to resist all components of the forces induced by the eccentricity.
When pilasters are present in the waH, the anchorage


force at the pilasters shall be calculated considering the additional load transferred from the wall panels to the pilasters. However, the minimum anchorage force
at a floor or roof shall be that specified in Section I, Item I. 6. The strength design forces for steel clements of the wall anchorage system shall be 1.4 times the forces otherwise required by this section.



The strength design forces for wood elements of the wall anchorage system shall be 0.S5 times the force otherwise required by this section and these wood
clements shall have a minimur" actual net thickness of63.5 mm.

6. Diaphragms

The dcOcction in the plane of the diaphragm shall not exceed the permissible deflection of the attached clements. Permissible deflection shall be that deflection that wil! permit the attached clement to maintain its structural integrity uncleI' the individual loading and continue to support the prescribed loads.
Floor and roof diaphragms shall be designed to resist



the forces determined following equation:





National Structural Code of the PhilipPines bill Eclition Volume 1


CHAPTER 2 -. Minimum Design Loads

c lements shall be des ign ed for the mo re severe of the

following two assumptions:

a. b.

sha ll be designed to provide the s trength required [ 0 res ist [he displacements induced by the minimum lateral forces

Motion of the projec ting wings in the same direction.

Motion of the projecting wi ngs
jn opposi ng

specified in this section. Design shall conform to the

applicable prov isions of other sections as modified by the

provisio ns contained in Section 208.9. C riteria

Exception: This reQl'irell!e!1! (TIllY. be deemed.. satiifl.ed if. .-.the procedllr!2S of;ec(ion 20R,'6 in cOlljullctio~ with a Ih reedimellsiQllpl . m.odel haye ..been IIsed to. de(ermine the lalera/ seismic forces for design. F raming Below the Base The strength and stiffness of the framing between the base and Ihe foundation shall not be less than that o f the supers tructure. The special detailing requirements of Chapte r.; 4, 5 and 7, as appropriate, shall apply to columns supporting discont inu ous lateral-force-resisting clements and 10 SM RF, IMR F, EBF, STMF and

The minimu m design seismic forces prescribed in th is

section a re a( a le"c1 that produces displacements in a fi xed base, clastic model of the s tructure, comparable to th ose expected of th e real stnl ctllre when responding to the Design Basis Ground Motion. Reductions in these forces using th e coefficient R is permitted where the design of nonbu ilding st ructures provides sufficient strength and ductility, consis tent with the provisions specified herein for buildings, [0 resi st the effec ts of seismic ground mo tions as rep resented by these design forces. When applicable, design strengths and other detailed design criteria shall be obtai ned from o ther sec tions or their referenced s tandards. The des ign of nonbuilding s tJUctures sha ll use the load combi nat ions or factor~ specified in Secti on 203.3 or 203.4. For nonbuildin g st ructures designed usi ng Secti on 20B.9.3 , 208.9.4 or 208.9. 5, the Re li ability/Red undancy Fac[or, p, ma y be taken as 1.0. When applicable design strengths and other design criteria are not con tained in o r referenced by this code, such criteria shall be obtained from approved national standards. Weight W

MMR WF system elements below the basel which are requ ired to transmit the forces resulting from lateral loads
to the foundation.

208 .8.2.9 Building Sepa rations All structures shall be se parated from adjoining structures. Separations shall allow for the displacement t!",. Adjacent buildings on the same property sha ll be separated by at least 6 ,tfT where (20821)

and 6,1(1 and 6.m, arc the displ acemen ts of the adjacent buildings.
When a structure adjo ins a property lin e nOI commo n to a public way, that structure shall a lso be set back from the property line by at least th e displacement tl" of that

The weight, W, for nonbuilding struct ures shall include all dead loads as defined for bui ld ings in Section 20B. S. I.1. For purposes of calcu lating design seismic rorces in nonbuilding struc tures, W shall also inc lude all nonnal operating contents for items such as tank s, vesse ls, bins and pipi ng. Period





Smaller separations or property line seiback.i.::/~ay b.e permitted '.vlten justifieq .by ralia/ial ' Oil

eXpected ground motions. :- .:~!.~-'

The fundamental period or the structure shal l be determined by rational methods slIch as by using Method fl in Section
208.9. 1.5 Drift The drift limitations of Sec lion 208.5.10 need not appl y to nonbuilding struc tures. Drift limitations sh,!!1 lIe established for stnl ctural or no nstructural elenH~Il! '; ' railure would cause life hazards. PA effects ;-.j;.,j! be co nsidered for s tructures whose calcula ted drills c:\cccd the values in Secti on 208 .5. 1.3.

208.9 Nonhuildi ng S tru ctu res 208.9.IGcncra l 208.9.1'. 1 Sco pe NOllbuilding st ru Ctu res include
s truc tUl' c~

al l


supportin g

other than buildings that ca rry gravity loads and res ist th e effects or earthq uakes. NOllb uildin g stru ctures

Association of Struc tural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAP TEli 2 Minimum



'. InteracCion Effecls : In Seismic Zone 4, Slruclures thai support flex ible ; Jlonstnlctural clements whose comb ined we ight exceeds .25 percell I of the weight of the stnlct ure shall be designed

208.9.5 Other Nonbuilding Struclures

Nonbuildi ng structures that are not covered by Secti ons 208.9.3 and 208.9.4 shall be designed to resist design seismic forces not less th an those determined in accordance with the provisions in Section 208. 5 with the foll owing additi ons and exceptions:

i:considering interaction effects between the structure and

: lhe supported elements .
o 208.9.2

Laleral Fo rce

:jjlllemJediote momeJJl-resisling frames (IMRF) may he (; ,used ill Seismic Zone 4 for non-building structures in ". Occupall( V Calegories III alld IV if (1) Ihe slrllctllre is ~' less than J5 m in height and (2) rhe value R used ill .; reducing ca/clliated member forces and moments does 110/ ; exceed 2.8.

-f. ~.'Exceptiofl: if

! {ateraJ-force procedures for Ilonbuilding stmctu fcs w ith 'structural syslems similar to buildings (those with ~;tructural syslems which arc listed ill Table 208- 11) shall },e selecled in accordance with Ihe provisions of Section ".208.4.

The factors Rand D. shall be as set fo rth in Table 208-13. The tolal design base shear determined in accordance with Seclion 208.5.2 shall not be less than the following:


(208-23 )

Additionally, ror Seismic Zone 4, the lotal base shea r shall a lso no l be less than the following:

V ~ 1.6ZN .J W R
, 2.

(2 08-24)

;: 208.9.3 Rigid Siructures

The venical distribution of the design seismic forces in structures covered by this section may be dc(cml ined by us ing the provis ions of Section 208.5.5 or by usin g the procedures of Secti on 208.6.

! :Rigid


structures (those with period T less than 0 .06 . 'second) and their anchorages shall be designed for the laleral force obtained from Eq uati on (208-22). (208-22) The force V shal l be di stributed according to th e distributi on of mass and shall be assu med to ac t in any horizontal direc tion. 208.9.4 Tanks wilh S upport ed Bottoms

Exception: For irfelW.lar s~ciures assigned ' to Occupancy Categories r anq.fI that plinnPt b~ modeled as a. Single mass, the proceduresoIS.dion 208.6shall be used.
3. Where an approved nationa l standard provides a basis for lhe c8I1hquakeresistant des ign of a particular ty pe of non bui lding st ructure covered by this section, such a standard Illay be used, su bject to the limi tati ons in this section:

t F

Flat bottom tanks or other tanks with supponcd bOtlOIllS, founded at or be low grade, shall be designed to resist th e i' seismic forces calculated using the procedures in Section 208.7 for rigid st11JClUreS considerin g the en tire we igh l of the tank and its contents. Altemative ly. sHch tanks may be designed using one of the two procedures described belo,w:

The seismic zones and OCCUpl1llcy categories shall be in co nformance with the provisions of Sections 208.4.4 nnd 208.4.2,respecli ve ly. The va lues for total latera l . force and tOlal base overturn ing moment used in design shall not be less than 80 percent of {he values that wou ld be obta ined lIsing these provisions.
208.10 S ite Catego rization Procedure


A res ponse spectrum ana lysis that includes con sideration of the acllla l ground Illotion anticipat ed at th e sile and th e inert ial cffects of the co nla incd nuid. A design b<lsis prescribed fo r th e particu lar type of lan k by an approved natio nal sl,lJldard, provided that the se ismic zones and occu pancy categor ies shall be in confo rman ce with the provisions 01 Sections 208.4.4 and 20R .4.2, respec ti vely.


208.10 . 1 Scope This sect ion desc ribes the procedure fo r dClcn nin ing Soil Profile Types S. , th rough S,.. as defi ned in Tab le 208-2.

Natiorli:1 1Structural Code of the Philipp ine s G Ecliti on Vo lurn(; 1


2- 1U2


2 _. Minimum Design Loads

Table 208-13

R and flo Factors for Nonbuilding



(H > 3 m of peat and/or higL:/ where H = thickness of so il ).

Very high plasti city clays

,''C:' "..

I. Vesse ls, including tanks and

5. (11 > 7.5

2,2 2 .0

with PI > 75).

pressurized spheres, on braced or

unbmccd legs. 2. Casl- i;l-pl acc cOllcrclc-silos ';;1(1 chimneys having walls con tinuo us to Ihe foundations

6. 7.

Very thick sofVmedilllll stiff cI ,y.; (H > 36 '~l).



3. Dfsl~ibu lcd- ~11~ss ~~llIikv~;

such as sl acks, chimneys, silos and skirtsupJ)ortcd vertical vessels.

-- ----.
2.9 2.0

~ep!id~i; ,\, - .,; ..". '!i\:.

irii,Qll iM's,q(('Pi:i!kt
la ' S .

4. Trussed to~~~ rs '(f~ccs-[a~ding or

guyed), guyed stacks and
clljlll':t~Ys: ~

2.9 2.2 3.6

2.0 2.0 2.0

estabJishi!4 bjigeoJiCim;c'qj.!/Ibi4.

Tjlle ..~i d nol be' 'OSS""'2;! "t4eJer:inill~s .(hQI P!" jii,' be pr.eSe'1ftii. the #fe or .i~ . Ihe evenl Ihat



.;/Ji rno.wni"'~ _ ., ,e ,>,,:~'; ~'fee, TfPe SD slu.!! l i;;;~-~

~'J'1' ~

5. Caruilcvcrcd column -Iype

6. Coo ling towers.

The criteria set forth in the definition for Soil PfO filc Type

SF requiring site-specific evaluatio n s ha H be .... 01i:.. idered. If

the si te corresponds to these cr iteria, Ihe s ite shall be classificd as Soil Profile Type S,' and " si te-specific evaluation shall be conducted.

.- ':i.- Bi~-s ';'~~j h~ppcrs 0;; b ~~~~~i ~;..

.. ,~!.~:~:.~c.~~_ I.cS_s ..

-. 2.9
~ ~

... .. .....

2.0 2.0

8. Stomgc rack s.
9. Signs and billboards.
10. Amu sement stru ctures and

3.6 3.6 v" Average Shear Wave Vol "cit)'

Vs shall be detennined in accordance wit h the following equation:

(208-25) 208.10.2 Definitions Soil profile types are defined as follows:


'Iard rock with Illcasmcd shear wave veloc ity, I ' . > 1500 IIl/s . Rock wi th 760 IIlls < I'. 5: 1500 IIl/s. Very den se soil and soft rock with


V, n

thi ckness of Layer i in m

= shear wave velocity in La yer i in


360 rnls < v.! :::; 760 ll1/s or with

ei ther N > 50 o r s,, ;' N, Average Field Standard Penetration Resistance and N tl" Average Standard Penefration
Resistance for Co hesion less Soil Layer'
N and Nell shall be determined in accord ance wi th tbe following eq uati on:

Ion kP a.


S tiff soi l with 180 IIl/s'; v.,,; 360 IIlls o r wi th IS'; N,; 50 or 50 kPa ,; s,,'; 100 kPa .

1\ so il profile wi th l's < J 80 Ill/S or any profile wit h more than 3 III o f soft c la y defined as soi l wi th PI > 20, W IIIo " ~ 40 perce nt an d x" < 25 kPa .
~o il s

(208 -26)


requiring .:) it c~s pcc i(j c evaluation :


Soi ls vulnerable to poten ti a l ra ilurc or co llapse under se is mic loading s lich as liqucliab lc so ils, quid nnd highly sensitive clays, co llaps ible wcnkly cClllcrHcd soils.




Peals andlor highly organic clays

thickness of L.ayer i in mill

Ass ociation of Structural Engineers of tile Philippin es

CH;\PTE:H:? ~




2 ~103

ds = thc total thickllc!is ofcohesiolllcss soillaycrs ill thc

top 30 In N, :~ the standard pcnctralion resistance of soi l layer in

accordance with approved nationally recognized. standards

208.10 .2.3 s,,, Avera ge Undrained Shea r Strength

and fracturing. Where hard rock conditions are known 10 be continuous to a depth of 30 m, surficial shear wave velocity measUJ emcnls may be extrapolated 10 assess V.I" The rock catego ries. Soi l Profile Types 5',{ Hnd Sfl. shall not be used if th<.re is Illo rc than 3 meters of soil between the rock surface (did the bottom of' the sprcttd footi ng or mat rou ndat io n. The definitions prese nted herein shall npply to the upper 30 meters orthe site profi le. Profiles co nt aini ng d isti nc tly differen t so il layers sllall be su bdivided into those la:if:rs designated by a number from I 10 11 at the bottom, whe re there are a tota l of 11 dist inct laye rs inl hc upper 30 meters. The symbol i the n refer to c illY one or the hlyers between I and 11.
208. 1 I Alt ern a ti ve E arthqu a ke Loa d P.-ocedur c The earthquake load proeedur" of ASCE/SE I 7-05 may be
used in determin ing the carthquake loads as an alternative

shall be determined in accordance wil h 1he fo llowing





the total thickness (I OO-d,) of cohesive soil layers in the top 30 m the undrained shear strength in accordance with approved nationa ll y recognized standards, 110t to exceed 250 kPa Soft Clay Profile , SE

procedure subject to re liable res(~a rch wo rk commissioned by the owner or the e n gi neer~oll ~ record to provide for all data req uired due to the non~avai l a b i l ity or Phi\'olcs~ iss ued spec tra l accelerati on maps for all areas in the
Philip pines.
T he e ng ineer-on ~ reco rd shall be respo nsib le fo r the spect ral acce leration and oth er rcla! i.:d data not issued by Phivolcs used in the delerminatioJ: of the earthquake loads. This altemative earthquake 1 03.1 procedure shall be subject 10 Peer Review and approv~d of the Bu ild ing

The ex istcn ce ora lOla I thic kn css of sa lt clay greater than 3 III shall be in ves ti ga ted where a soft clay layer is defi ned by Sli < 24 kPa, 11'' ' ' '::: 40 percell ! and PI > 20. If these criteri a are met, the site shall be class ified as Soil
Profi le Type Sf. 208.10.2 .5 So il Profil es So SD a nd S f Sites wi th Soil Profile T ypes Sc. So and Sf sha ll be
classi fied by using one of the following three methods with l-:<; . Nand Sj' computed ill all cases a5 speci fied ill


Section 20X.1 0.2.

2. 3.


for the lOp 30 meters



N Ii,,' the top 30 meters (N me thod).


Nm lor cohesionle," soil laye rs (PI < 20) in Ihe top III and average Sj/ for cohesi ve soi l layers ( . nl .> 20) ill the top 30 ill (.I'" meth od). Roc k "rolil es, S ., and S/I

The shear W;lVC velocity for rock, Soil Profile Type 5fl , shull be eithcr Illc,lsurcd Oil site or estima ted by a
gcotec hllical eng inee r, cnginee ring gco logisl or

scislllologist for cOlllpelellt rock wi th 11l0dCf<11c fracturi ng and wC~j(hcrjng . So fieI' and Illore high ly rractured and weathcred rock sha ll either he Illc;lsured on site for !-ihcar Wavc velocity or classilicd as Soil Profile Type Sc.
The ha rd rock. Soil Profi le Type

S.,. category ,hail be

Supported by :>.hear wave ve locity measurcmen t cither 011 site o r ' on profiles or the S~lIllC rock typc in the salllc forma tion wit h tin equal or grea ter degree or weathcring
N;il innal Slruc!ural Code of Ole Pllil:ppines (jli' Edilion Volurnn 1


CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loatls


Active Faults and Trenches the/Phi ppines

/ {J

- - - Acttve Faull:

~()Ij<l ine- trace certain apptolOmate offshOre projedlon - - - - da$he:d ~t'\e- trace approWnat~

" 00'

Trench Transform FalA

COlislon lOOO TrendHelat&d faUls
Roadshlighw;J ys

e CitylTown




,, '"


' .00'



127 00'

Figure 20S-2A. Seismic SO llrces: Active Faults and Trenches in the Philippines
Associati on of SlruC luHl l Enginecl"s of tile Pllilippin es

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


ilO 00'


122 00'

121 00'

Active Faults in N<frtheri?Philippines




_ _ _ Active Fault: solid line- onland :
dashed line- offshore
$ capital CltyfTown




Figure 208-2B. Seismic Sources: Active Faults in Northern Philippines

National Structural Cod e of the Philippines


Edition Volume 1

?~ 1 06

CHAPTEH 2 ~ lViin illlwll Design toad~




I N 00'

us 00'

116 00'

OG cl"


East Central Philip p~n~ s

_ _ Active Faul!: solid hn:: ,-,[".i_. . dashed line- otfshol c
C<l pital CltyfTown




, - -- - --


I ,

L _ _ __

II . )

_ __

11 to:!'


Fi g ure 20X- 2C Scis mic Sources: /\(;Ii vc Fau lts in Ef1 s! Central Ph ilippi nes

CHAP TER 2 - Minimum Design Load s


, ,'



" : , ; " I

1 ,", ,



- /l0lY



;:~, .. ,:'


S." .leu


. ,"7' .'




10 00'

\!O 00'

Figure 208-2D. Seismic Sources: Aclive F<lu lts in Wesl CcnlraJ Ph ilippines
N8tionHI Structural CocJe of the Philippine s 6

Editi on Vo lume 1

2- 108

Cf~Af>TER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


- - _ Acttve Fault: solid lin e- onland ,

... ... dashed line- offshore


Capital cltyrrown


IlJ 00'

Figure 208-2E. Seismic Sources: Active Faults in Southern Philippin es

Association of Siructurul En9incers of the PhilipPin es

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


-------------------------------_._._-- -- -- -- - - Co nt ro l Periods
1~ =

CJ 2.SCa

= n?T




f f f

--J......------'-_ __ J _ _ _

~ ""O""""'_ _ _ .L_____'__ I _. _ _ _

.L-._.L._ _ - ' - - - : ___ - ' _ _

.J..- .

o 0.2

Period (TITs ) Figure 208-3 - Design Response Spectra Table 209- 1 - Soi l Lateral Load Design Lateral Soil Load' kPa per m width Acti ve pressure At-rest pressure 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 16 16 16 16 16 Nole b NOle b Nole b NOleb

Description Of Backfill Material ' Well-graded, clean gravels; grave l-sa nd mixes Poorl y graded clean gravels; gravel-sa nd mixes Si lly gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand mixes Clayey gravels, poorly graded grave l-and-clay mixes Well -graded , clea n sand s; gravelly sand mixes Poorl y graded clea n sa nds; sa nd-gravel mi xes Si lly sands, p oo rly graded sand-s ilt mixes Sand-si lt clay mix wi lh plastic fines --- Clayey sa nds, poor/ w aded sand-clay mixes Inorga nic sills and clayey sil ts Mixtu re of inorganic silt and cla y Inorgan ic clays of low to mediu m plasti city Organ ic silts and silt clays, low plasti ci ty Inorganic clayey sills, elaslic silts Inorga ni c clays of high plast icity Orga ni c clays and si lty clays
U I/.I'lIiloMe (I.I ha("~fi /lm a(eri{//

Unified Soil Classification GW GP GM GC SW SP SM SM- SC SC ML ML-CL CL OL MH CH

5 5


7 5 5 7 7

10 10 Note No te Note Note

0 1-1

b b b b

D esig ll Infernl .fOlI IOllds fin! .~i1'(11 lfJr moi.rl COlldiliollS for lite spec!/ied sail.f til Ih eir opfimldl1 d elisi/it's. AOftnJ jh/d ('(mr/lllolls shall gflll(!ln. Suhmcrgcd or .W llrmf('d .\"oil IH t'.I'.flll ".\" .Ifroff inc/udt' Iht' wcighl of Ifl(' huoyllill Joil ,,11I.~ Ih" hydro.Hafie lo(/ds.

'! he dc/illifioN (mri dO,l".\i(ic(l l io ll oj".wi f moll'I'iuls shofl hI' ill (In'o rr/ollce lI"illl ASTM f) 2487

Nallon (-l l Stru c tural CO(j(~ of 11'18 PhlliPPI f"H:)S

r/' Edition Vo lun1e


CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

1 tilr







Figure 20RA Referenced Seismic Map of the Philippines

Association of Structural Engineers of the PhilipPines

CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads


209.1 General Basemenl , foundalion and re.aining walb' shall be designed to resist lateral soil loads. Soil loads speci fi ed in Tab le 209-1 shall be used as the minimum design lateral soil loads unless specified otherwise in a soil invest.igation report approved by .he building official. Basemenl ,valls

210.1 RoofL1r;>inage Roof dra inage -::ystclIls s hall be designed in accordance wi th th e provisio ns o f the code havi ng jurisdiction in the area. The flow C,1 j>:1 Clty of secondary (overflow) drains or scuppers shall no t be less than that of the primary drains or scuppers. 210.2 Design Rain L, ads Each portion of a rot f shall be designed to sustain the

and other walls in which hori zon tal movement


restricted at Ihe top s hall be designed fo r at- reSI pressUi ,' . Retaining walls free to move and ro e a. the lOp ar,; permitted to be design ed for active pressure. Design lateral pressure from surcharge loads shall be added to Ihe laleral earth pressure load. Design lateral pressure shall be increased if soils with expansion potential are present at the site.

load of rainwater that \,\/i ll accumulate on it if the primary

drainage syslem for t hat portion is blocked plus the unifonn load caused by water that ri ses above the inl et of Ihe secondary drainage " ystem at its design flow . (210-1)
\\ ' ICre;



addiLional depth of water on the undeflcctcd


above the inlet of s(-condary drainage system at its design flow (i.e .. the hydraulic head), in mm = , t,'plh of water on the undefl ected roof up to the

in let of secondary drainage system when the

prinary drainage sy,;rcm is blocked (Le., the stati c
heac), in mm

rain I" all the untie " lected roof, in kN/m2

When the phrcY) c "undeflcc: ~d roor' is used. deflections from loads (inclding dead I, ad s) shali not be co ns idered when dClcrmininh.' I.he amount ')( ra in on the roof. 210.3 Ponding lnst :l bility For roo fs wilh a slop, less tiu n 6 nlln per 300 mm (I 19 degrees or 0.0208 rnd 'a n), the desig n calculati ons sha ll illclude verification 01" adcq ;late s tiffness to preclude progressive deflec tion in accc- rdance wilh Section 8.4 of ASCE-7-0S. 210.4 Co ntroll ed Drainage Roofs equ ipped with hard , a..e to control the rate of drainage shall be equi pped .y :th a secondary drainage

system at a higher clevation \:!l~\t limits accumulation of water 0 11 the roof above that c ',: .Iil li o n . Such roofs shall be designed to susta in the 10[;\ )[ rainwater that will HCCtllmlialc on them to the c ~V. Ilion of th e secondary dra in age system plus the uuife tll load ca used by W(lter thaI rises above th e in let or the sc:. ~(ndary drainage system at its design flow determined fre ',1' Section 210 .2. Such
roofs shall al so bc checked for !.o nd in g instability in accordance with Section 2 10.3.

National Structural Code of the Philippin es 6 Edition Volun1e 1

1 h


CHAPTER 2 - Minimum Design Loads

first fl ood plain management code, ordi nance or standard,

"Existing construction" is also referred to as "ex isting structures. "

211.1 Ge neral


STR ucr UR E.



W ithin flood hazard areas as established ill Section 211 ,), all new construction of buildings, structures and port ions

FLOOD or FLOODl G , A general and temporary Or complete inundation of no rmally

of buildi ngs and structures, including su.bstantia l improvement and restoration of S4bl;(antial damage to
buildings and structures, shall ' he designed and cons tructed to resist the efTects of flood hazards and flood loads. Fo r buildings that are locall' J in mOre than one flood hazard area, the provisions assvci ated with the most restrictive flood hazard area shall apply,
211.2 Definiti ons

condition of partial d,y land from : I.


The overflow of inland or tidal waters.

The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface wa ters from any source.

The fo llowing words and term's SI13II, fo r the purposes of this section. have the mean ings show n herein. BA SE F L OOD , The fl ood having a I -pc rcent chance of be ing equaled or exceeded in any given year. BASE FLOOR ELEVATION. The e levati on o f th e base fl ood, incl uding wave height, rel ati ve to th e datum to be

FLOOD DAMAG E-RESISTA NT MATERIALS. Any construct ion material capab le of withstanding direct and

prolonged COrHacl with floodwaters without sustai ning any damage that requircs more th an cos metic repair.
FLOOD HAZARD ARE A, T he greater of the fo ll o w ing

two areas:

set by the speci fi c national or loc al govern me nt agr.:ncy.

BAS E M E NT, The porti on o f " bu ildi ng havin.g its floor subgradc (below grou nd level) nn all sides, D ES IG N FLOO D. The flood associated w',th the greater of the following two areas:

The area within a fl ood plain subject to a I-percent or greater chance of fl oodin g ill any year.


The area designa ted as a fl ood hazard area on a co mmu nity's flood haznrd map, or olhen-vise legally
des ignated,

FLOOD HAZARD AR E A SU BJ ECT TO HIGH VELOCITYWAV E ACTION, Area within the flood hazard area that is subject to high velocity wave action. FLO ODWA y, The channel of the river, creek o r Olher watercourse and the adjaccnt Itllld arcas that must be reserved in order (0 discharge the base flood without


Area with a flood plain subject tn a lpercent or greater c hance of flooding in any year; or Area designated as a nood haZc1.rd arca on a community 'S Oood hazud ma'i), or olhelwisc legally

cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more

than a designated height.


. The e levation of the

"oesign Oood," includi ng W 3 ve heigh t, relative: to the datum specified on the co n ' nu ni ty's legally designated
flood hazard map, The desif".1 fl ood elevation shall be the elevation of the highes t ex sting grade of the building's

LOWEST FLOOR. The fl oor of the lowest enclosed

area, including basement, but excluding any unfinished or

flood -resistant enclosure. lIsable solely for vehicle

perimeter plus the depth J11 1,mber (in meters) speci ried on
the flood hazard map, DRY FLOO DP R O O F r\'G, A combinatioll of design modifications that resll ;!s in a building or structure, including the attelldant u :,I ity and sanitary faci lities, being water tight with walls ' mbstantially impermeable to the passage of water and v lith stru ctural components havi ng the capacity to resist h) ads .1S identified illlhc code. EXI STI NG C ONS" ,. RUCTlON , Any buildings and st ru ctures flH" \\"1 !ich the "s tart o f co nstructio n"

parking, building access or limited storage provided that

such enclosure is not built so as to render the structure in

violation of this section. ST A RT OF CONSTIWCfl ON , The diltc of permit issuance for new cOllslruclioll and substantial

improvemcnts to existing structures, provided the actual star! of construction, repair, rccC)nstlllction, rehab ilitatio n, addit ion, plilcement or ot her improvemen t is within 180 days afte r thc date of issuancc. The actual slllrt of
co nstru ction means the fi rst placement of perman ent co nstruction of a bui ldi ng (inc lud ing n manufactured

co mmcnced be fo rc the effective dat c of th e co mmunit y 'S

home) on a site, such as th e pou rin g of II slab or footings,

Association of Structura l Engineers of Ule Ph!lippines

CHAP TEH 2 ... Minimum Design l.oads .


installati on of pilings or construction of colurnmi. ,:" Pcrnnncnt construction docs not include land preparation ;. (slid, as clearing, excavation, grading or filling) , the It instaJlarion of streets or walkways, excavation for a f basement, footings. piers or foundations, the erection of :. temporary fonns or the installation of accessory buildings K such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or ~ not parl of the main building. For a substantial n improvement, the actual "start of construction" means the r. first alteration of any wa ll, ceiling, floor or other t structura l parl of a building, whether or not that alteration , affects the externa l dimensions of the building.
, SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. Damage of any origin t sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the i structure to its before-damaged condition wou ld equal or exceed 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred. SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. Any repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of a building or stru cturc, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the improvement or repair is started. If th~: structure has sustained substantial damage, any repairs arc considered substantial improvement regardless of the actual repair wo rk performed. The term does not, however, include either:

211.5 Flood Hazard Documentation The following documentation shall be prepared and sealed by an engi neer-of-record and submitted to the bui lding official :
I. For construction in flood hazard areas not subject to

wave action:

1.1. The elevation of the lowest floor, inc luding the basement, as required by the lowest floor elevatio n. 1.2. for fully enclosed areas below the design flood elevation where provisions to allow for the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters do not meet the minimuTJ) requi rements) construction documen ts shall include a statement that the design will provide for eq ualization of hydrostatic flood forces. 1.3. For dry flood-proofed nonresidential bui ldings, construction docu ments shaH include a statement that the dry flood -proofing is designed . 2. For construction in flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity wave action:

2. I. The elevation of the bottom of th e lowest horizontal stmctural member as required by th e lowest floor elevation.

Any project for improvement of a building required to correct existing health, san ita ry or safety code viol ations identified by the bui ld ing official and th at. are the min imum necessary 10 assure safe liv ing
condi ti ons,

2.2 Constmction documen ts shall include a statement that the building is designed, including that the pile or column foundation and building or structure to be attached thereto is designed to be anchored to resist flotati on, collapse and latera l movement due to th e effccts of wind and Oood loads ac ti ng si mul tan eously on all building components, and other load requirements of Chapter 2.
2.3 For breakaway wa lls designed 10 resist a nominal load of less than 0.48 kN /m 2. or more th an 0.96 kN /ml, construction documents shall include i;l statement Ihm the breakaway wall is designed .

2. Any alteration of a historic sll11cture provided thai the alteration wi ll nOt preclude the structure's contin ued
designation as a historic stru cture.

211.3 Establishment of F lood Hazard Areas To establish flood hazard areas, the governing body shall adopt a flood hazard map and supporting data. The flood hazard map shall include, at a minimum, areas of special
flood hazard where records are available.

211.4 Design and Construction The des ign and construction of bui ld ings and structures located in flood hazard areas, inc luding flood hazard a rCHS Subject 1 0 high ve locity wave actioll.

National Structural Corle of tile Philippines 6 Edition Volurnc 1


Associat ion of StrlJcluml EngIneers of the Philippines

NSCP C101-10



Association ()f Structural Enginccrs of thc Suite 713, Future Point Plaza Condominium 1 112 Panay Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines 1100
Tel. No : (+632) 410-0483 Fax No.: (+632) 411-8606


Email: i\;-i~P9}}EJ1~{~~gmniLQL1~. \V chsi tt': ht f p:iIww\'~'

CHAPTER 3 - Gen eral & Excavalion and Fills

3 1

Table of Contents
SECTION 3()1 GENERAL ...................................... ............................................................................................................... 3 301. I Scope ......... ..... ................................................................................. ......... .......................... ..................... ...................... 3 301.2 Qualily and Design ....... ......... ..................... .. .................................... ...... ................. ..... .. ... ....... ........ .... ..... .................... 3 30 1.3 All owable Bearing Pressures ..... ..................................... ... .... .. .. ........ ........ .... ................... ................ .. ....... ... ... ............. . 3 SECTION 302 - EXCAVATION AND FILLS ........................................................................................................................ 3 302. I General ........................................ .... ... ......................... ....... .. ................................ ............................. ... ...... ..... ... ... ........ 3 302.2 Cuts .. .......................................... ......... ..... .......... ..... ..... ........... .... ................................. ...... ......... ......... ........................ 3 302.3 Excava ti ons .. .......... .. ... ..................................... .. .... .......... .. ....... .... ............................. .... .. ... ..... ............. ...................... .. 3 302.4 Fills ......................... .......................... .... ................. ......... ...... ............... .. ....... .. ..... ... ............ ...... ... .... ........................ .. .... 4 302.5 Selbacks ........................................ .................... ..... .............. .............. ... ... ....... ..... ................ .......................................... 5 302.5 Drainage and Terraci ng ... ..................................................................... ...... .. ................................................................. 6 302.6 Erosion Contro!. ...... ................. ............... ..................................... ... ....... .......................................................... .............. 6 SECTION 303 - FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION ............................................................................................................ 7 303. I General .......................... ...... ........................................ .... .............................................................................................. 7 303.2 Soil Classification .......................................................................... ..................................................................... ............ 7 303.3 Questionable Soil .................... .. ................ ............ ...... ................................. .. ....................... ........................ ........ ......... 7 303.4 Liquefaclion Sludy ...... ................................... .......................... .. .. .............. ............. .. ....................... ............ ....... ......... 7 303.5 Expansive Soil .. ............ ...... ...... .................... .. ........................... ................ ... ........................................ ... .................. 7 303.6 Compressible Soils ............................................................................ ........................................................................ 8 303.7 RepOrts.... ....................... ............................. ... .. .. ..... ................................... .. ....................................... ........ 8 303.8 Soil Tesls .................. ........ . ...... ....................... .......... ....................... . ................................. .. ...... ....................... ... 9 303.9 Liquefaction Potenlial and Soil Sirength Loss.................... ................................. ............................. .. .. 9 303 .10 Adjacenl Loads.................. .......................................... ................ .. ......................... .. ............ ........................ 10 303 .11 ....... .. .... ...... ....... ........................................ ........ .... ... ........... ....... ............... 10 303. 12 Plate Load Test ................................... .. ............ .. ........ .................................................... ................ .... .. ....... .... ....... 10 SECTION 304 - ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION AND LA TERAL PRESSURES ......................................................... 10 304. 1 From Geotechnical Site Investigation and As sl~ss m e n( ...... ,........... ....... ............. ............... .. ................. ... .. .......... 10 304.2 Pres umplive LoadBearing and Lateral Resisting Values ........ .. ......................... ....... ....... .......... ...... ........... JO 304.3 Mininlunl Allowable Pressures... .............. .... .................. . .. ....... .. _ ........ ...... . ,....... .. ........... ... .... .... ....... I J
304.4 Fou ndmi ons Adjace nt to Exisl ing Retainin g/Basement Walls.. ,...... ,............ ... .................. ......... J 1

! f
t t

SECTION 305 FOOTINGS .......................................... ........................................... .................................... ......................... 12 305. 1 General ................................................................................................... ................................................................... 12 305.2 FOOling Design .... .... ....................................................... ............... ................. .... ........... ....... .................................... 12 305.3 Bearin g Walls ................. .......................................................................... .................................................... .............. 12 305.4 S lepped Foundalions .. .............................................. ............................................................. .......... ............... .............. 12 305.5 Footi ngs on or Adjacenllo Slopes............................................................... .. .......................................................... J3 305.6 Foundalion PI ales Or Sills ........... ....... ....................................... .......... ...................... ....... ......... .. ................ ................ 13 305.7 Designs Emp loyi ng Lateral Bearin g .................................. .. .............. ..... .... ........... ....... ................ ... .... .............. ..... ..... 14 305. 8 Grillage Footi ngs .................. ......... .. .................................................... ...... ......................... .. ............................ ......... 14 305.9 Bleac her Fooli ngs .. .... .. .... .. ............. .. ..... ... ... .................. .............................................. ... ... .......... ... ...... .. ... ..... .............. 14 SECTION 306 PILES - GENERAL REQUIREM E NTS ................................................................................................... IS 306. I General .......... ............................. ......... ................... ...... ................ ...... .. ....... .................................... ......................... .. .. 15
306.2 Interco nnection ............................................. "... .... ........................ .................... .......... ,... ., ........ .. ........... ...... .. ......... 15 306.3 DClernlinalion o f Allo\vablc Loads ............... .......................................... ................................ ....... ................ ...... ....... 15 306.4 Stalic Load Test...... .. ........................ ... ............................................................................................................ 15 306.5 Dynamic Load Tes l...................................................................... ............... .. ..................................................... 15 306.6 COhl1111l Act ion .................. ................ ........................... ................... ............................... .. ... 15 306.7 Group ACl io n .................... ............................. ................ ........... ............... ....... ....................... 15 306.8 Pi les In S ubs id ing Areas.... ................ .... .......... .. ............................... 16 306.9 Jellin g .................................... ................... .................... .. .. 16

306. 10 Pro lc<.:lion Of Pile Materials ........................ ..... ... .. 16 306. 1 I Allowable Loads.......... .......... ................. .................. . ................ ....................... ..... 16 306. I 2 Usc of Hi gber Allowable Pile Stresses ............ .... .. .. ........ . ............... .. .. 16 SECTION 307 . PILES - SPECIFIC REQUiREMENTS ....................................... ............................................................. 17
National Structural COdE: of the Philippines 6

Edition Volum e 1

307.1 Round Wood Piles. 307.2 Uncased Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles .. 307.3 Metal-Cased Concrete Piles .. 307.4 Precast C:oncretc Piles .............................................................................................. ...... . .. 307.) Precast Prestressed Concrete Piles (Pretensioncd) .. 10 , ') 307.6 Structural Steel Piles .. 307.7 CoocreteFilied Steel Pipe P i l e s . . )

SECTION 308 . FOUNDATION CONSTl!UCTlONSEISMIC ZONE 4 ........................................................ " . ........... 19

308.1 General.. ~08.2 Foundation and ()eotcchnicallnvestigations . 3tnLl Footings and Foundations .. 308.4 Pier and Pile Foundations. 30X.) Driven Pile Foundations.. 306.6 Cast-In-Place Concrete Foundations.. ()

/0 ;i . ..................... .

SECTION 309 - SPECIAL FOUNDATION, SLOPE STABlLIZA TION AND MATERIALS OF CO NSTl! UCTI 0 N .................................... .............................................................................................................................. 22

30J.! Scope This chapter sels forth requircmems for exclwarions, fill s, footings and foundations for any building Or structure. 301.2 Quality and Design
The quali ty and desig n of materi als used strucltlfally :ii excavalions, fills. footings and foundations sh all conform to

CHAPTER 3 - Gelleral & Excavation and Fills


302.1 General Excavation or fills for buildings o r structures shall be constructed or protected such that they do not endanger life or property. Reference is made to Section 109 of this code
for requiremenls governi ng cxcavalion. grading and earthwork construc tio n. including fills and e mban kments.

the requirements specified in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7.

301.3 Allowable Bearing Pressures
AJlowable stresses and design formul as provided in this chaplcr sha ll be lIsed with the allowable stress design load

302.2 Cuts 302.2.1 General

Unless otherwise reco mmended in the approved geotechnical e ngineering. c uts shall confonn (0 the provisions of this section . In the absence of an approved geotechnical engineering report . these provisions may be waived fo r minor cuts not intended to support structures.

combimuions specified in Section 203.4 .

302.2.2Slol'e The slope of cut surfaces shall be no steeper than is safe for
the intended use and shall be no steeper than 1 unit vertical

in 2 unit s horizont al (50% slope) unless a geotechni cal

engineeri ng, or both, staling that the site has been investigated, and giving an opinion that a cut at a steeper slope will be stable and not create a hazard to pub lic or private property, is submitted and approved. Such cuts shall be protected against erosion or degradation by sufficient cover, drain age, engineering andlor bi otechnical means.

302.3 Excava tions

302.3.3 Existi ng footin gs or foundations which may be affected by any exc ava ti on shall be underpinned adequately or otherwise protected agai nst se ttl ement and shall be protected against lateral movemen t.

302.3.4 Protection of Adjoining Property

The requirement for protection of adjacent property and the depth 10 which protection is required shall be defined by preva iling law. Where not defined by law. the foHo wing

shall apply;

National Structural Cod e of tlie Philippines 6 Edition Vo lume 1


3 -4

CHAP TER 3 - General & Excavation and Fills

Top of Slope


: 1-115 but


Toe of
, I

: min. an .r . -, I 3 In max .. 7'

~ ~ 0.60 m3

~ < HI2 b J!! 0.6 m,> :

: mi n. and 6 m :

C ut or Fill Slope


\ 1or F-I ~ IIII S I Natura



* Permit Area Boundary
Natural or Finish Grade
Figure 3021 Setback Dimensions for Cut and Fill Slopes


Before commencing the excavation, the p e~on making

or causing Ihe excavation to be made shall nOlify in writing the owners of adjoining building not less than
10 d ays before such excavation is to be made and Ihal

302.4 Fills 302.4. 1 General Unless mherwise recommended in the approved

the adjoining building will be protected. The condition of the adjoining building will be documented to include
photographs prior to excavation. Technical docume nts pe nallllng to the proposed underpinnin g and excavation plan shall be provided the owner of the adjacent property. 2. Unless it can shown th rough a det ai led geotechnical

geotec hnical engi neering report, fills shall confonn to th e

provisions o f th is sectio n. In the absence o f an approved geotechn ical e ngineering report, these provis io ns may be waived for minor fills not intended 10 support st ruc tures. Fills to be used to suppon the foundalions of any building or struClUre shall be placed in accordance with accepted engineering prac rice. A geotcchnical invcstigation ' report and a report o f satisfactory placement of fill. both acce ptable to the building offi cial. shall be submitted when required by the building official.

in vestigation that underpinning is unnecessary. any person making or causing an exca.vation shal l protect the excavati on so that the soil of adj oining property
will not cave in or settle,

In cases where the existing adjacellt building will have morc bascmcllls tha n the proposed bui ld ing. Ihe foundati on of lhe proposed building should be designed so ;IS not 10

impart add itional lateral eanh pressures on the existing

build ing (sec scc ti on 304.4).

No (ill or other surcharge loads shall be placed adjacent to any bu ilding or slmClUrc unl ess such building or stru ctu re is capable of wi thstanding the additional vertic<ll and horizontal loads c allsed by Ih e fill or surcharge , Fill slopes shall not be constlllcted 0 11 natural slo pes Slccpe r th an I unil vcrt ica l in 2 un its horizonta l (50% slope), provided fUfiher th aI benc hes shall be made 'to kcy in the subsequent fill materia l.

As sociation of Structura l Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 3 - General & Excavation and FillS


Preparation of Ground
,__ " "inO

ground surface shall be prepared to received fill by vegetation, non-complying fill, top soil and other nSl,iW:ble materials by scarifying and benc hing in the case

be used based on ASTM D5030 -04. A minimum o[ three tests for every 500 m2 area should be performed for every lift [Q ve rify compliance with compac tion requirements. 302.4.5 Slope The slope of fill surfaces shall be no Sleeper 'han is safe [or the inlended usc. Fi II slopes shall be no stceper than I unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50% slope) unless subs tantiat ing slope stabili ty analyses justifying steeper slopes arc submiucd and approved. 302.5 Setbacks 302.5.1 GClIcral Cut and fiJI slopes shall be set back from si te boundaries in accordance with this sect ion subjec t to verification with delailed slope stability study. Selback dimensions shall be horizontal distances measured perpendicular to the site boundary. Setback dimensions shall be as shown in Figure 302-1. 302.5.2 Top of C UI Slope The top of cut s lopes shall not be made nearer [0 a s ile boundary line than one fifth of thc vertical height of cut with a minimum of 0.6 III and a maximum of 3 m . Th( sctback may need to be increased for any required interceptor drains. 302.5.3 Toe of Fill Slope The toe of fi 11 slope shall be made not nearer to tbe site boundary line than one half the height of the slope with ~, minimu11l of 0.6 In and a maximum of 6 m. Where a ft:: slope is to be located near the s ite boundary and Ih, adjacent off-site propcl1y is developed , special precaution: shall be incorporated in the work as the building offici:.:.! deems necessary to protect the adjoining propel1y fro !: damage as a re su lt of" such grading. These precautions m <! ~; include but are not limited to: I. Additional setbacks.


sloping ground The existing ground surface shall be prepared (0 receive fill by rem oving vegetation

materials, non-complying fill , lopso il and other Im:,uiltable materials. a nd by scarifying LO provide a bond Ihe new fill. the natura! slopes arc steeper than I unit venienl in 5

' units horizontal (20% slope) and lhe height is greater than 1.5 m, the ground surfucc shall be prepared by betlch ing

into sound bedrock or other co mpeten t . mated al as determined by the geotechnical engineer. TIle bench under the loe of a filion a slope sleeper than I unit venical in 5 unils horizon,.,1 (20% s lope) shall be OlleaSI 3 m wide. The area beyond the loe of fill shall be sloped to drain or a paved drain shall be provided_ When fill is to be placed over a cut, the bench under the toe of fill shall be at least 3 III wide but the cut shall be made before placing the fill and onJy after acccpt.mce by the geotechnical engi neer as a suitable found ation for fill . 302.4.3 Fill Material
Any organic or deleterious ma terial shall be removed and

I i

will not be permitted in fills_ Except as pennined by the geoteChnical engineer, no rock or similar irreduc ible material with a maximum dimension greater than 200 mill shall be buried or placed in [ills.



~~e placemem of larger rock may be permitted when

also apply:
1_ 2.

Ihe geotechnical engineer properly devises a method of placement. alld contitlf(ollsly inspects its placemellf alld approves lire fill stability_ The following conditions shall Prior to issuance of the gradinB permit, pOlential rock disposal areas shall be delineated on the grading plan.
Rock sizes greater Ihon 300 111m in maximwn dimension shall be 3 m or more below grade, measured vC!'(ically_

2_ Provisio n for retaining or slough walls. 3. 4. 5_ Mechanical s tabilizati o n or chemical lreulmen( of I~ ;: fill slope surface to minimize eros ion. Rockfall protection Provis ions Cor the contro l of surface wate rs.


Rocks shall be placed so w 10 assure filling of all voids wilh well-grotled soil.

302.4.4 Co mpa ction

All rill s shall bc co mpac ted in lifts Ilot exceedi ng 200 Illlll ill th ickncss 10 II min imuill of" CJ5 percent of maximum density as determined by ASTM Standard D- I 557. Inplace dcns it y shall be determincd in .\ccordancc with
ASTM D-1556. D-2Ifl? 1)2922. D-lO I? or eq ui va len t.

302.5.4 Modification of Slope Location

The hui lding offici'll may approve allc lllatc sctback s. Ti buildin g offici al l1lay requ ire an investigation ' ~! ' . rccollllllcn<i<l!ion by a qualified geotec hn ical engincC';' demonstrate thill th e inten t of thi s section has been sat is; .. -

For clean granular mah.:/"ials. thc lise of the foreg oing procedures is i n;'l pproprialc. Rcl,Hi vc dcnsi lY critc ri a shall
N;l!IOIl~li Slnl c tlHcll Code of !he Phi lippine s 6 Editi on Volume 1


CHAPTER 3 -- General & Excavalion and Fills

302.5 Drainage and Terracing

302.5.1 General
Unless o therwise indicated

The gradient from Ihe bllildillg pad may be I perccm fr all of the following conditions exisl Ihroughout fli .' per;;:;1
the approved grading plan,

1. 2.

drainage facilities and terracing shall conform to the provisions of this section for cut Or fill slopes Sleeper than I unit vertical ill 3 units horizontal (33.3% slope).
302.5.2 Terrace
Terraces ill !CHst 2 III in width sha ll be estti bl ished at nOI more than 10 III ve nical intervals o n all ellt o r fill slopes to contro l sUlface drainage and debris except Lhal where on ly o ne lerracc is required, it s hall be al mid-height. For cuI or fill slopes greater than 20 III and up to 40 111 in vertical height, one terrace at approximately mid-height shall be 4 m in width . Ten'ace widths an d spacing for cut and fill s lopes greater than 40 m in height shall be designed by the civil engineer and approved by the buildi ng official. Suitable access shall be provided to permit proper cleaning and maintcnance. Swales Qr ditches on terraces shall bc designed 1 0 effectively co ll ect surface water and di sc harge to an outfall. It shall have a minimum gradient of 0.5 percent and must be paved with reinforced concrete not less than 75 mm in thickness or an approved equal paving material.

No proposedji fls ore greater thall 3 m maximum depth.

No proposed finish cut or fill slope f(lces have a vertical height in excess of 3 m.


No existing slope faces steeper than 1 IInit verlh.",,: in 10 units horizontal (10% slope) hGlle a vertical hc,iglll ill excess of 3 m.

302.5.5 Interceptor Drains

Paved or Lined interceptor drains shall be in stalled alo ng the top of all cut slopes where the tributary drainage area above slopes toward the cut has a drainage path greater than 12 m measured horizontally. Interceptor drains shall be paved with a minimum of 75 mm of concrete or gu nile and re info rced. They sh:lIl have a m in imum depth of 300 mOl ilnd a minimum paved width of 750 mm measured horizontally across the drain. The slope o f drain shall be approved by the building offic ial.

302.6 Erosion Conlrol 302.6.1 Slopes

The faces of c ul and fill s lopes shall be prepared and maintained to con trol ngainst erosio n. Thi s conLrol m3Y consist of effecti ve planting adapted to or indigenous (Q the loca lity. The protection for the slopes shall be installed as soo n as practicable and prior to calling for final approval. Where cut slopes arc not subjec t to erosion due to the erosion-resistant character of the material s, sllch protection may be omillcd .

A si ngle ru n of swale or ditch s hall not coll ect runoff from a tri but<JIY area exceedi ng 1,000 m2 (projected area) without
discharging into a down drain .

302.5.3 Subsurface Drainage

Cut and fill slopes shall be provided with surface drainage as necessary for stability.

302.5.4 Disposal All drainage facilities shall be designed to ca rry waters to

the nearest prac ti cable drainage way approved by the building official or ollIer appropriate jurisdiction as a safe place to deposit such waters. Eros ion of gro und in the area of discharge shall be prevented by installation of n on ~ erosive down drains or other devices or splash blocks ,mei sed iment ation bas in s. Building pads s hall have a drtlinage gradien t of 2 percent toward approved dminage facilities, uoles!'; waived by the huilding official .

302.6.2 Othel- Devices Where necessary, check dams, cribbing, Iiprnp or other devices or method s shall be employed to control erosion
and provide safety.

/\ssociation of Structural Engu'le(;I'S of the PllilipPIl'1 8S

CHAPT ER 3 - General & Excavalion and FillS


Addit ional studies may be necessary to evaluate soil strength, the effect of moisture variation on soil-bearing capacity, compressibilit y, liquefaction and expansiveness.
303.1 General Foundation in vest igation shall he conducted and a professiollal Repor! by a Regis(ered Civi l Engineer experienced or knowledgeable in Soil Mechanics and Foundations shall be submitted at each building site. 303.3 Questionable Soil

Where the classification, strength or compressibility of the soil are ill doubt, or where a load bearing va lue superior to that specified in thi s code is claimed, the building official shall require that the necessary soil investigation be made.
303.4 Liquefaclion Study The bu ilding official may requi re a Liquefaction evaluation stud y in accorda nce with Secti on 303.6 when. during the cou rse of the roundati on investigation, all of the following conditions are discovered:

For structures to two stories or hi gher" it is recommended th at an exhaus ti ve geotech ni cal study be pcrfonncd 10 evaluate in-situ soi l parameters for foundation design and analys is. II is recolllmended that a minimum of one
borehole per two hundred, 200 11\2 of the slruclUrc's

footprint be drilled to a depth of at least 5 III into hard strata or until a suitable bearing layer is reached unless otherwise specified by th e consu lting geotechnic al e ngi nee r. The total number of boreholes per structure shou ld be no less than 2 for stJUcturcs whose footprints arc less than 300 m2 and no less (h an 3 for those sl mcturcs wi th larger footprints.
For buildings with basements, it is recommend ed that the depth of boring should ex tend to twice the least plan dimension of th e structure ' s footpri nt plus the depth of the

I. 2.

Shallow ground waler. 2 m or less. Unconsolidated saturated sa ndy alluvium (N < 15) Se ismic Zone 4.

1:.,~\:cep t ioll:

The building offiCial may waive this evaluation upon receipt afwritten opinion of a qualified geotechnical engineer that liquefaction is not probable.
303.5 Expansive Soil Soils meeting all four of the following provisions shall be considered expansive. except that tests to show com pl iance with Items I, 2 a nd 3 shall not be required if the test presc ribed in hem 4 is conducted:

An exhaustive geotech nical invcstig.ltion should also be conducted in Ci.lSCS of questionable soils, expilnsive so ils, unknown groundwater table to determi ne whether the exist ing ground wale!" table is above Of" within 1.5 m be lo w the elevation of the lowest 0001' level or whe re such floor is located below the finished ground level adjacent to th e foundation, pil e foundations, or in rock stra ta where the roc k is sllspected to be of doubtful characteristics or indicmc variati ons in the structure of" th e rock or wlwrc solution cavities or vo ids are expected to be prcse nt in the rock.
The building official lIlay req uire that the interpretation and eval uation of the resu lts of the foundation invcstigation be made by a regis tcred civil engineer experienced and knowledgeable in th e field of geotechn ica l cnginccring.

Plasticity index (PI) of 15 or greater, determined in acco rdance with ASTM D 4318.and Liquid Limi t > 50.
More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a No. 200 sieve (75 111), determined in accordance with ASTM D 422.



Marc than 10 percent of the soil parti cles arc less than 5 micrometers in sile, determined in accordan ce with
ASTM [) 422.


Ex pansion index grea ter than 20, determined in

accordance with ASTM D 4829.

303.2 Soil Classific:t lion

For Ihe pu rposes of this cha pte r) the defin iti oll ;1I1d class iri c:lli on of soi l materia ls for use in Table 304-1 sha ll

303_5.1 Design fol' Expansive Soils

Foo tin gs or foundati ons fo r buildings and strucLUres fo unded 0 11 expansi ve soils shall 1:- designed in accordance wi th Section 1805.8.1 or 1805.8.2.
Foo tin g or foundati on desig n nced not compl y wit h Section

be accord ing to I\STM D-2487. Soi l classifi cat ion shall. be based on observat ion <l nd any necessary field or l<lbora tory tests of tin:: materials disclosed by borings or excavations made in appropriate locations .

303.5.3 or 303.5.4 where the so il is rcmoved in accordance

with Sect ion 303.5.4, nor where the building offi cial
approves stabilization of the soil ill accordance with Section 301.5.5.

NotlOll al S ll"l!(:tural Code) of tile

Pl1ilippll"les G" Edition Volume 1


CHAPTER 3 - General & Excavalion and Fills

303.5.2 Foundations
Footings or foundatio ns placed o n or wit hin the active zone of expansive soils shall be designed to res ist differenti al
vo lume chnnges and to prevent st l1Jctural damage to the

suppoJ1cd structure. Defl ec ti on and rac king of the supported shall be limited to that which will not interfere wi th the usabil ity and serviceability of the structure. Found ati ons placed below where vo lume change occurs or below expansive soil shall com ply with the following provisions: I. Fou ndat ions ex tending into or pe netrating expa nsive soils shall be designed to prevent uplift of the supported structure. Foundations penetrating expansive soils shall be designed (Q res ist forces exerted on the fou ndation due to soi l volume changes or shall be isolated from Ihe expansive soil.

303.5.5 Stabiliza ti on Where the active zone of expansive soi l ~ is stabi li zed in lieu of designing footi ngs or fou ndations in accord<H1ce Wi lh Section 306.2, the soi l shall be stabili zed hy chemi cal . lreat ment, dewntering, pre-satu rati on or equ iva lent teC hni ques. 303.6 Compressible Soils If th e boreholes show tlHl t the propo!'ed slruc tul'cs arc to be buill abo ve co mpressible ti negrain ed soi ls (wi th N< 6), it is recomme nded th at conw li darion tests be perform ed ill accordance with ASTM D 2435 to determine the settl emelll parameters for the si te.
If wide, massive loads within the slmctures to be built on compressible fine -grained soils are to be expec ted for prolonged periods of time built, the settlement effects on adjacent SlruClu rc.1) shou ld be evaluated as we ll.


303.5.3 Slab on G round Foundations Momen ts, shears and deflections for use in designing slab onground mat or raft foundations on expa nsive soils shall be determin ed in accordance with WRIICRSI Design of S!abon-Ground Found~ti on s or PTJ Standard Requ irements fo r Analys is of Shallow Concre te Foundations on Ex pansive Soils. Using the moments,
shea rs and deflecti ons detemu ned above, prestressed slabs ongroun d, mat or raft foundations on expansive soils sha ll be designed in accordance wi th PTJ Standard Requ irements fo r Design of Shalfow PostTensioned Concrete Foundat ions on Expansive Soils. It shall be permitted to analyze and des ign such slabs by other methods tilat account for soils truclu re interaction, the defo rmed shape of th e soil support, the place or s tiffened plme action of the slab as well as both cemer lift and edge lift conditions. Such alt ernative methods sha ll be ra tional and the basis fo r all aspects and param ete rs of the method shall be ava ilab le for peer rev iew.

303.7 Reports The soi l classification and design bearing capacity shall be shown 0 11 the plans, unless the fou ndation co nforms to Tab le 305-1. The build ing official ma y require submission of a written repon of th e investigation , whi ch shall include, but need not be limited to, the followin g informati on:
I. A plOl showing the locat ion of all test borings and/or excava ti ons.

2. 3.

Desc riptions and classifi cati ons of the materia ls encountered.

Elevation of the waler table, if encountered. Recommendations for foundation Iype and design criteria, including bcuri ng capacity, provisions to mitigate the effects of diffcrential scttlements and ex pansive soils, provisions to mitigate the effects of liquefaction and soi l strc ngth , provisions for spec ial fo undation solutio ns and ground improvement, and the effec ts of adjaccnt loads. Expected total and differentia! settlement. Laboratory test resu lt s or soil sam ples.
Field borehole informat ion a) b)



303.5.4 Removal of Expa nsive Soil Where expansive soil is removed in lieu of designing footings or foundations in accordance wilh Secti on 302.3.2, the soil shall be removed 10 a de pth sufficient to ensure a constant moist ure contenL in Ihe rema;ning soil. FiJI material shall not cont ain ex pansive soils <1 11<1 shall comply with Section 302.3.3.
Exception: Expansive soil need not be removed 10 the depth of constant moisture, provided the confining pressure in the expallsive soil created by the fill and supported s/ruClllre exceeds the swell pressure.



co nta ining



d) c)

Project locmioll Deplh of borehole Ground elevation Grollnd water t;tblc c!cv.atio!1 Date !'tarled and finished

T he soil ciassific.ltion and dcs ignbeari ng capacity shall bc shown on the pla ns, un lc:-s the foundat ion con forms to

Tab le 305- 1.

Associatio n of Structural Engineers of tile

Pt1i li ppine~~

CHAPTr: R 3 - General & Excavation and Fills


When expansi ve soils are present, the bui lding official may
require thai speci,ll provisions be made in Ihe roundati on

Table 3033 Geophysical Tests

Field Test

design and constmction to safeguard against damage due to this expansiveness. The building official may require a special in vestigati on and report to provide these design and construction criteria.
Table 303-2 Laboratory and Field Tests
Output OatH I I ASTMJ Test I Parameter Obtained
nCS i 1!Il ~lfioJ1

ASTM Designation

Output Data I Parameter Obtained

Geophysical Tests

Seismic refract ion Seismic reflection


Laboratory I Field Test Moisture content Grain size analysis Atterberg Li mits

Classification oj .soils
D2216-05 D422-63 D4318-05 D2487-00 D854-05 D427-04 D2974-00

Moisturel Waler con lent Soil grad ation Liq uid limit, plasti c Ii mi t Classificati on of soils Specific gravity Shri nka~e limit Moisture content, ash conteiH and percent orl!a nic mutter in soi l N~w-value indicating, undrain ed so il shear

Ground Penetrating Radar


Specific Gravity Shrinkage Limit Organic Matter Swedis h Weight Sounding Test
UCT Test (Soi ls) Tri-ax ial (UU Test) Tri-axial (CU Test) Oedollleter ( I -D Consolidation) Laboratory Va ne Shear Direct Shear Test UCT for Intact Rock Standard Penetration Tes t Modified Proctor Test Standard Proc'{or

Cross hol e seismic survey


115 A 1221:2002
D2166-00 D2850-03a D4767-04 D2435-04 D4648-05 1)3080-04 D2938-95 D1586-99 D IS57-02 D698-00"

Geo-resisti vity Survey


Strength parameters Strength parameters Strength parameters Consoli dation parameters Strengt ll parameters Strength pa ram cters

Maps su bsurface geologic conditions, lithologic unit s and fractures. Maps lateral continuity of lithologic units and detects changes in the acoustic properties of subsurface geomatcrials. p-wave and !i-Wave velocity determination. elastic modul i . detcllllination CO!Tosion Potential or so ils, Electrical grounding, slratigraEhic stlldie~ _

303.8 Soil Tes ts Tables 301-2 and 103 -3 summarize the commonly used fi eld and labora to ry tests needed in determining the in-situ so il parameters for use in foundati on design and analysis. 303.9 Liquefaction Poten tial and Soil Strength Loss
When required by Section 3(H.3. the poten ti al for soil

Strength parameters N- va lue

liqucfaction and soi l strength loss during eal1hquakes shall

be cvaluated during the geotechnical investigation. The

Max imum dry densit l' tvlaximulll dry

de nsi ty

Field Density Test Cil R t,,1> Test Cone Penclnltion


Maximull1 dry
density CIl R

D ISH3-05 1)3441-05

Soil strength

~~~ ___,________,_._..._. ______ J.~~~~~.!::.~ _.. _._. ____ ._

geotech nical evalua ti on shall assess potenti,11 liqueractio n susceptib ility potentia! t:onsequc nccs of any liquefaction ;l!ld soil stre ngth loss, including estimation of differential se ttl ement. lat cr;i1 movement or reduction in fo undation ='t1i l-hcill'i ng cap;lcit y. <llld di scu ss mitigating Illea!; ures. Sud ! me:lsurcs sha ll he given consideralion in lh e design of the bui ld ing and may include. but are not limi led to, ground slabil izatio n. selet:!ion or appropr i,lt c foundati on type and depths. =,ckc tio n of <Ippropri alc structural S)'slemS to 'I(.Tollllllodat l! anli cipalcd displacements. or :lIly t:olllhin'lli o" of these measures.
The potential I'llI' liqu(:rat:tioll :llld soil stre ngth loss shall \J; ' ev,lIu;IIt.',d for a sile peak ground ac:ccler,llioll that .IS mini mum. confo rms to the proba hi lity o f cxccct!;lIl,

s pceilicd in SCd ioll 20K.fl.1. Peak grollnd Cleeclerillion m:":

hJ;lllond i S !!Ucl lJ !,ll COd (; 0 1 Ii 1(-: PI1I IIPi J1 :k:'; ((
hl:\IO!l \J()llllill'~ 1


CHAPTEri 3 --. General & Excavation and Fills

be determined based on a site-specific study taking into account soil amplifkation effects. In the absence of such a study, peak ground acceleration may be assumed equal to the seismic zone factor in Table 208-3.

303.10 Adjacent Loads Where footings are placed at varying elevations, the effect of adjacent loads shall be included in tile foundation design. 303.11 Drainage Provisions shall be made for the control and drainage of surface water around buildings and ensure that scour will not threaten sllch structures through adequate embedment. (Sec also Section 305.5.5). 303.12 Plate Load Test The plate load test is generally used for determination of soil subgrade properties for rigid foundations. If used for building foundations, it mllst be emphasized that the Depth of fnlluence is only up to twice the width of the test plate. Care must be used when extending the results to deeper depths.

304.1 From Geotechnical Site Investigation and Assessment The recolllmended allowable foundation ;in,! 1;,1' '.,; pressures slwtl be estimated from a rcasonahi y (" . geotechnical site investigation and assessment, which shall include at least the (o!lowing:

a) b) c)

Description or regional geologic

eh;!r;l,;[~' i'isiic:;;

Characterization of in-situ geotechnical conditions; Factual report on the insitu and lahora!or), :c ~;i:: performed to characterize the site rSc'.,' .\,'clinn 303.7 for a list of ill-situ and lal.1;;i<::\):Y IC:;I~ commonly carried out for geotechnical site characterization) ; Disclosure of the assumptions and tllc :,-ppliclbk. analytical or empirical models used in the allowable foundation and lateral pre:," ii \:'.; Calculations carried out and Factor til' ;! assumed in arriving at the recommended :.llluw,il.:J(' foundation and lateral pressures; and Evaluation of existing potential ge(.llogic haZ;\Fds and those that may be induced or triggered by the construction/installation of the structure.




The geotechnical site investigation and assessment shall be performed by a registered civil engineer experienced and knowledgeable in the field of geotechnical engincering. A geotechnical investigation and assessment shall !)c presented in a repoli. The repoli, together with a brief resume and a sworn statement of accountability or ' I Je geotechnical engineering consultant who prepilred :i, 11 be included in the submittals to be reviewed ,-Ull! C'\dl i '. :d by the building official or government authority in ch:\r,:,~,e of issuing the relevant permits stich as ellvirol1:n( ':al compliance cel1ificatc and/or building permit.
304.2 Presumptive LoacrBearing and Lateral Hesisting Values

When no exhaustive geotechnical site assessment and investigation is perrormed, especially when no in-silu or very limited tests arc carried out, the preSUJ11pl;\",~ k.;:dbearing and lateral resisting values provided in 'j',lbk ~W I shall be uscd. Usc of these v;lIues requires Ihal Ihe. foundation design engineer has, at the least, clnicd oul iii] inspection of the site and has hecollle familiar with tile predominant soiJ or rock characteristics or the site.
Association of Structul"al Lnqincc:rs of the


3 -- Gene ral & Excav ation and F :llls

3- 11



Presumptive JO:l<J-bcaring values shall apply to lll<Ilcrials with similar ph ysical characteristics and dispositions. Mud, prganic silt, orga nic clays, peat or unprepared fi ll shall not be assumed 10 have a presum ptive load-bearing capacity unless data from a geotech ni cal site assessmcllI and jnvcst igalion to substantiate the use of such a value arc submjued. For clay, sandy day, si lty clay and cla yey silt, in no case shaJllhc latera l slid ing resistance eKceed one-half the dead

304.3 Minimum Allowable Press ures. The recommended all owable foundali on and lateral values shall be with the allow ab le stress design load co mbin ations specifi ed in Secti on 203.4.

304.4 Fo undations Adjacenf to Exis ting Relainin g/Basemcnt "" all.1i

In cases where the adjacent building will have more basemcnls th an (he prob'oscd bu ilding, lhe foundation of the proposed build ing shqukl be designed so as not to impal1 addi ti ollallatcrnl earth pressu res on th e existing building.

It is (he responsibililY of lhe engineer-DC-record 10 determine the applicability of these presLi mptive values for Lhe Project. Table 304-1 Allowable Foundation lind Lmcrai Pressure


Class of Materials l

Allowable Foundation Pressure!

( kJ'a )

Latera l Gearing
I1 clow Nftl ura l

Lateral Sliding'

(kPaJm of

----Coeffici cntS




2. Sedimentary and Foli ated Rock
100 100 60 30 0.35 0.35

L Mass.i ve Crystalline Bedrock





3. Sand y Grave l and /or Grave l(GW & GP)

4. Well -graded Sand. Poorly-graded Sa nd. Silty Sand. Clayey Sand. Silty Gravel and Clayey Gra ve l (SW. SP, SM. SC, GM and GC) 5. el.y, Sandy Clay. S ilt y Clay and Clayey Silt (CL. ML. MI-I, and CH)





A geotechnical sire' illl'c.Higmiol! i.~ /'{' c(IIwneIJdl'dfor .wil r/os.\'ifi('(/li(1/I (Rljl'!' /0 S('rlioll JO.l). Afll/a/IlCS of alloll'able /oU/u/(lIirm p res.que (lI~' [ul'j()(n ill.t:..f hm'illl; fllllillillll/l11 wit/ill (If .loa //I1I/1I11t! (} millimum d<'I)(11 (~r JOO mill info I/lI' .wfllml gl'(ldc. Except as li med in I-nomOft! '(I ' , all iI/crease 0120% i.f o/foll'ed for I'm'" lIa(liliOlWI 300m", of \I'lfllil (1I/(lItlt'til'I'th III t/ II/t/xill/mll l 'O/lIt' ojthrei' lilli,'.,' Iilr desigl1l1/C'(/ \'(Ilile. All inr:rCII,ft! oj f1/1t!-,hird i.f {wl'lIIil/('(/ ....h('11 IIsin.': III!' (llt('n/tlft' lam/ nllllbhrll/iol/:r ill S.'rliOIf 103,4 111m illf/m/t 1";/1/1 o r earthquake
The resi.'iflltl('e 1'(I l l1eS deril'cd from 'he labie {1m IU!111Ii(l('tl /(J br il/t'I'c'f1Sl't/ by rhe /II /JII lnr I'n/lle for /'uch mlt/irilllw l .100 111m oj (/t'll/ll IrJ (I 111/1.1'/1111111/ of 15 limes th e lahular !lallle. I .w/med po/e.( fo /' u.w :s .fllch asj/ag{lIIll's fir .fig ll .\ (//1(/ {Ioks 1I.I'('d 10 supJlo rt IlIIiJdill}i .~ Ihlll (11'(' no{ ad" f'l'wty (((fi'I 'ln! hy (/ 12 111111 lliOlio!! af 11/(' groul1d .mrfacl' rill{' /I! .~/1fIrtf('rlll t(l tem! Irwds 111'1' p(, l'miw'd III IU' dt'.\igl/t't! II sing Itll cro/ /ic((rillg ('(IIIICS equal 10 111'0 1;II!('s Ifll' I(Ilm /1ll

/.alent! hctll'lIIR (1 11(/ f/idil/.~ ,,(.~i.H(lIIn' "'11\ 1)(> Iolllhitud.

C(Jeg;/'iI'1JI {() hI' lilli/lip/iN/ hy


ch'l1(J ',,~/(t.

I.ul/~I'(" didillg rC.f if{m/{'I' " (IIUt' to I,C' lIIulti/,lil'rl Ily 111(' OJ/llm'l orl'(/ . III


nul' .(Iml/ IIII' /(111'1'(1/ .I/hlmg


/'l'/ '/'('(I (J//(" ./m{f IIii' (ka t! Ir~/fl.

No iIlI'rC'fI.W' .fllalf /1(' a llowed/or OIl i llr /'('a.w' (~r wid fh .

N;)llollal S lrllcl llr~:ll Code of lilt;; PhlllPPill OS (,'

:.dltlon \lOlll l: 1f~


CHAPTER 3 - General & Excavalion and Fills

305.2.1 Design Loads

Footings shall be designeofor the most unfavo rable load effec'ts duc' to combi nations of loads_ T he dead load i s pennitted to include the weight of foundations, (ooti ngfi and overlying fill. Reduced live loads as penni tlcd in the Chapter o n Loadings are perm itt ed to be used in th e design of foot in gs.

305. 1 General
Foo lings and foundations shall be constructed of ma so nry, concrete or treated wood in conforman ce with Chap ters 4,

6 and 7. roolings of concrete and masonry shall be of

:wli d materiaL Foundations supporti ng wood sha ll extend at least 150 mill above the adjacent finish grade. Footin gs s hall have a minimum depth as indicated in Table 305 ~ I, unless another depth is warranted, as eSUIblished by a

305.2.2 Vibratory Loads

Where machinery operations or other vibratory loads or vib rati ons are transmitted to the foundations, co nsiderat ion shall be g iven in the repon to address the founda tion design to prevent detrimental disturbances to the soil due to vibratory loadings . Dynamic Soil Properties shall be inc luded where requi red .

foundation investigation.
The provisions of Ih is section do not apply to bui ld ing and foundation systems in those areas subject to scou r and water pressure by w ind and wave acti on. Buildings and

found<Hions subject


such loads shall be designed in

305.3 Bearing Walls

accordance with approved nati ona l standards. Table 3051 Minimum Requi rements fo r Foundations
NlI llIhcr of


Floors S upported (0101) .. by the -~;ii-Foundations CtHlcretc Masonrv

T hick ness of Foundation Wall

Width ~'hickncss
of of

Depth Belo w
Undis tu rbed

Bearing walls shall be SUppo!1cd on masonry or rc info rced concrcte fou ndat io ns o r pil es or other permitted foundati on system Ihal shall be of suffic ient size to suppOt1 all loads. Where a design is not pro vided, the min im um foundation requirements for stud be arin g walls shaH be as set forth in Table 305~1, unless expansive soils of a seve rity to calise differential move ment are known to ex ist.

--_ _-150


FOOlin g
(mm )

Gro und

.. _. '

Surface (111111 ) 4

.... .... 2

200 250

.. _. 200
"" -


150 175




i:.xcepl ions: I.
A o ne~story \Vood or metal{rame building 1101 used 2 for human occupancy alld 1I()l over 40 m if! floo r a rea may be cOllstructed witll walls supported all a wood foundarion plale permallelllly Illlder lile waler wble when permitled by the buildillg official.

, Wlt",-(, 1111I1 ~jW{

fl .\


flIIlth'fllll.{ IUC

mlll/rmmltllmi/J J'hnlf

1"I'{1II;"1'11 11/ SI', 'li(1/I 305. 1, Tilt' ~rrm/l(!IfIll!l' r ,hi' fllNlr flllly IN' I'.IH/wtln!

Ihl' cll' l'(l/jml


If/I' IIJI'I~frHlIIlIg.
I FIH/I/Ilmillll



"f jloorJ. . FllwU/fII;mlS _ 1//PfHlrlin.s:

IIIPI'"nillg tJII(' jloor_ Till' (ir/JlII "11',,,/)(,,/111('/1/
.ff 11/11-

TtIO[ ill mldi/;o/I UI 1111' 51i,1ll1r1l1'11 !"IIlmlll'" rfHifl' only .f/wlllJl" (1.1 rl'i/llir(!11 jf/r


IIIIIM (l1\\,(lr.1

111' bl'l,,1I' flO/l'll/iul 11.('/""


305.2 Fnoling Design

Except for special provisions of Section 307 coveri ng the dc .. igl1 uf' piles. all p0l1io!ls of footing s .. hall he designed in m:cord;lllcc with the :-tl11clUml provisions of thi s ernie and :-hall he designed to.:illinimi7_c diffcrellli ;'ll ... cttlcmcnt whcn nc('cssary ;Intl thl" effects of expansive soils whl"1l prc.<:;cnt . Siah-on-gradc and mat type f( XHings I'll!' huildings Ilx-med cxransivc soils may he dcsigncd in act.:orclilllCC with 1he gl"tHcch nil'ltl reco llllllcndation as pCl'Illitled hy tile "wildin g official.

nit! support of buildings by /lOsts embedded ill eartli shall be designed as specified ill Section 305.7. Wood posts or poles embedded ill earth shall be pressure treated with an approved preservative, Steel posts or poles shall be protected as specified ill Seclioll

305 .4 Slepped !'oundalions
Foundations for all buildings where the surface of the ground slope.... morc than I lInil VCl1ica l in I (J units horizolllal ( 10% .'dope) shall hc level or shall he s(eppcd so (hal both top and bouom of such foundation arc level.

/\SSOCi;ltl(lll c)f S tnI C!U( "1 1 Enqu1f:c: rs of (h(~ Pililippilw:;

CHAPTER 3 -- General & Excavation and Fills

3-1 3

Top of Slope

Face O(SII1lClurC
Hn but need not exceed
4.5m m..'tx.
, 7'


Of.5 ,'_ IO_.P"



H/3 but neoo nOi cxccC!d 12 III malt.

- - - --"---

Figure 305-1 Setback Dim('llsions for Ouilding Clearance from Slopes

305.5 Foolings on or Adjacent 10 Slopes 305.5.1 Scope The place ment of buildings and strucltJres on or adjacent to slopes steeper than I unit vertical in 3 units horizontal (33.3% slope) shall be ill accordance with this section. 305.5.2 Building Clearance from Ascending Slopes

305.5.4 Pools The set back between pools regul ated by thi s code and slopes shall be equal <0 one half ,he building footing setback di stance required by this section. Thm portion o f the pool wall within a horizontal di stan ce of 2 III from the top of (he slope shall bc c,lpablc of snpportin g the waler in the pool without soil SUppOI1.

In general, buildings below slopes shall be set a suffi cient distance from the slope to provide protection f~om slope drainage . Scour erosion and shallow failures . Except as provided for in Seclian 305 .5.6 and Figure 305-1. 'he following crit eria will be assumed to provide thi s protection. Where the ex isting slope is steeper than I uni t venical in I unit horizont al (100% slope), the loe of the slope shall be assumed 10 be at the intersection of a JlOrizontal plane drawn from the top of the fou ndmion and a plane drawn {angen! to the slope at an angle of 45 degrees (0 the horizontal. Whe~e n retainin g wall is constructed at the toe of [he slope, the height of the slope shaH be measured from the top of the wall to thc top of 'he slope.
305.5.3 Fooling Selback from Descendi ng Slol)e Surface

305.5.5 Fou ndation Elevation On graded sites, the top of any exterior foundation stwll extend above the elevation of the street guuer at point of discharge or the inlet of an approved drainage de vice a mininlUlli of 300 mill plus 2 percent . The bui lding official may permit alternate elevati ons. provided it ca n be demonstrated that requ ired drainitge Itl the point of discharge and away from th e ~ tm c tllrc is provided at all loc:uions on the site.
305 .5_ 6 Alternate Setback and Clearance

Footings on or adjacen t to slope su rfaces shall be founded in finn m<ltcrial with an embed men t and setback from the slope wrface sufficient to provide vertical and lateral SUppOf1 for ll.~ footin g without delrimental scHJc mcllt. Except as provided for in Section 305.5.6 and f:'igure 305I, the following se tback is deemed adequate to meet the criteria. Where. th e slope is SICCP(~1' than I unit vertical in I unit horizolltal (100% slope). the required setback shOl l! be mc'ls urcd from illl imaginary plnnc 45 degrees to the horizontal, projected upward from the toe of the slope.

The building o ffici al Ilwy approve uhcrlliHe selbacks ilnd clearances. The building offici al lllay require an in ves tigation and reco mlllendmiol1 of a qualified engineer to demonslrate that the intent of this section has been inves tigati on shall incl ud e satisfied. Such an con1;ideralion of material , heigh! of slope, slope grildicnl, load intensi ty and erosion chafllc lerislics of slope material .
305.6 Foundation Plates or Sills Wood plates or sills shall be boIled 10 the foundation or foundation wall. Sleel bolls with a minim ulll lI ominal diameter of 12 I11Ill shall be lI sed in Scismic Zonc 2. Steel ho lts with a minimum nomina l diameter of 16 mill shall be lIscd in Seismi c Zone 4. Bolts shall he cmbeddcd at least 180 mm in to the COllcr C(L ' or lllilSOIlrY ilnd sh.JlI Ill' spaced not morc than 2 III apart. There. shall be a minimum of two bolls per piece wi th (inc bolt inc<uccl nol

N,ll tOn<;lJ ~;!ruclu r<-Ij Code of the Pllil ippHw s G ' Edilioll Volume 1


CHAPTEli3 -- General & Excavation cllld Fills

more than :WO mm or Jess than seven bolt diameters from of the piece. A properl y sized nut :111(\ washer shall be liglll cncd 0 11 each boIL to Ihe plate_ Foundati on "hlles an d sills shall be the kind or wood specified in Chapter 6.
c~c h e nd

305.7.2.3 Vertical load

The resistance to vertical loads is dCl crmi ",cil I,.: allowable soiJbcaring pressure sct forth ill T:!! : _ . ," :
~: i C

305.7 Designs Employing LatcraJ Hearing

305.7.1 General
Constructio n employing posts or poles as columlls eillbedded ill e:lrth or embedded in concrete fOOlings in the earth m;IY be used and designed (() res ist both axia l and 1~ll c ntl loads. Th e depth to resis t latera l loads shall be determined by means of the design edteri,l eswb lished he rein or other IllclllOds ;lpp roved by the build ing official .

305.7.3 Backfill The backfill in the annular space around column not em bedded in poured footings shall be by one of the following methods:

Backfill shall be of concrete with an UJtiIlHi l.;. s! !"r nglh of ! 5 MPa at 28 days. The hole shall not lw ks': IiLH l 100 mill large r (h an the diameter of the Cf\ IUlIln :~ t ils
bottom or 100 mm
larger than
~h t:

,: .. .. O Ili:!

dimensi on of a Squ fU"C or rectan gu lar

coi u !lII'.


305.7.2 DeSign C"il eria

Backfill shall be of clean sand . The sand shall be thoroughly co mpac ted by tampin g in la yers not morc than 200 I11I1l in thickness.

305.7.2.1 NOll-cons train ed

The follo wi ng formula ma y be u !'l~ d in delermi ning the depth or embedment required 10 resist latc ral loads where no constrailll is provided at Ihe gro und surface, sllch as rigid floor or ri gid grouJld surface pn\ l' m Cnl.

305.7.4 Limitations The design procedure OlH li llCd in thi s section shall be subject to the fo ll owing limitations:
305.7.4.1 The fri ctional resistance for retaining w(\;L'; and slabs Oil silts lind clays shall be limited to one half ur {he normal force impo~ed on the soil by the weight of the footing or slab.

II d= 2

( f ----)
1+ 4.3/i 1+ - - 11

(3051 )


2.3 P


305.7.4.1 Posts embedded in eanh shall no. be used provide latera l suppOrt for siructural or nOllslruclural maleri als such as pl aster, masonry or concrete un less bracing is provided. 305.8 Gril lage Footings When grillage footings of Sll1lclura l steel shapes <I re used o n soi ls. they sha ll be co mpletel y e mbedded in concrete. Concrele covel' shall be m least 150 mOl all the bOIl O Ill and al least 100 mill at all olher points,



P S,


= uia me ter of rollnd post or foo ting or diilgonill d i lll~n sio n nf squa re post or foo tin g. III = depth of emhedment in (~art h in 111 btl l 1101 ove r 3.5 III for p"q')ose of com pIlling lateral pressure. III = d ist:1I1CC from ground surface 10 poilU of applic;ltion of P, m = applied lateral force. kN = allow:!blc late ral soil-bearing pressure as set forth in T,lblc 304- 1 based on a depth of one third the depth of embedment, kPa = allowabl e latc ral soil-bcclring press ure as set forth ill Tahle ~04- 1 hased O il it depth equal to the depth o r cmhedmCIll. kPa

305.9 Bleacher Footings Footings for open -air seating facilities sh;l!1 comply with 3.
ExceptiOlIS: Temporary open -t,;r porlllble bleacher.'i may be JUPI)(l! : :d IIpon wood ,'iil/s or .\'I(~el plates placed directly UpOIi the
.r: mull ...J surface. prm-idetf soil pl"l'.\sure doC's /l of ('x: I'(~d

J05.7.2.2 COllsll'a in cd
The following fnrllwlil llIi1y hI..' u:ie(1 [0 del cnninc the depth of emhedment requ ired to rc."is l 1;l1(,l'ill loads where constrain t i ~ provi ded :tI Ihe ground surface, such as iI rigid floor or pave mcnt.



CHAPTEFi 3 - General & Excavation and Fills

31 b

306.4 Static Load Test Static axial compressive pile load tcst shan be in accordance with ASTM Standard 0-1143. Performance of the load test require that lhe test be conducted under the supervision of a registered civil ellgineer experienced and knowledgeable in the practice of static pile !oad testing.

be designed and installed on the of a foundation investigation as defined in Section where required by the building official.
The investigation and rCpO!1 provisions of Section 303 shall be expanded to include, but not be limited to, the

When the a!lowable axial compressive load of a single pile is determined by a static load test, one of the following methods shall be used: Method 1. It shaH not exceed 50 percent of the yield point under test load. The yield point shall be defined as that point at which an increase in load produces a disproportionate increase in settlement.

. following:

Recommended pile types and installed capacities. Driving criteria. Installation procedures. Field inspection and reponing procedures (to include procedures for verification of the installed bearing capacity where required). Pile load test requirements. The use of piles not specifically mentioned in this chapter shall be permitted, subject to the approval of the building official upon submission of acceptable test data, calculations or other information relating to the proper1ies and load-carrying capacities of such piles. 306.2 Interconnection Individual pile caps and caissons of every structure subjected to seismic forces shall be interconnected by tic Beams. Such tic beams shall be capable of resisting, in tension or compression, a minimum horizontal force equal to 10 percent of the largest column vertical load.

Method 2. It shall not exceed one half of the load, which causes a net settlement, after deducting rebound, of 0.03mm/kN of test load, which has been applied for a period of at least 24 hours.
Method 3. It shall not exceed one half of that load under which, during a 40-hour period of continuous load application, no additional settlement takes place.
306.5 Dynamic Load Test

High-strain dynamic load test may be used to determine the bearing capacity of piles, in accordance with ASTM Standard 1)-4945. It is required that the test be conducted by a registered civil engineer experienced and knowledgeable in the practice of pile dynamic load testing. 306.6 Column Action All piles standing unbraced in air, water or material not capable of lateral support shall conform to the applicable column formula as specified in this code. Such piles driven into finn ground Illay be considered fixed and laterally supported at 1.5 III b,elow the ground surface and in son material at 3 III from the ground surface unless otherwise prescribed by the building official after a foundation investigation by an approved agency.
306.7 Group Action

Exception: Other approved methods mav be used 'where it can be demonstrated that equivalent ~es(raint can be provided.
306.3 Determination of Allowable Loads

The allowable axial and lateral loads on piles shall be determined by an approved formula, by a foundation investigation or by load tests. Static axial compressive pile load test shall be in accordance with ASTM Standard D-1143, and lateral load testing or piles shall conform to ASTM Standard D-3966. Dynamic pile tcsls shall be in accordance with ASTM Standard D-4945. Static axial tensile load testing to determine [he uplift capacity of pile-soil systems shall be in accordance with ASTM Standard 1)36X9.

Consideration shaH be given to the reduction of allowable pile load when piles are placed in groups. Where soil conditions make such load reductions advisable or necessary, the a!lowable axial and lateral loads determined for a single pile shall bc reduced by any rational method or formula submitted to the building official.

hlalloll,'li Structure.'!i Codo of the PhiiippinE)s 6: Edition Volunl(~ 1

1 ',

3 -16



,.. Genera! & Excavation and Pills

306.8 Piles in Subsiding Areas Where piles are dri ve n through subs iding fill s or other
s ubsiding Siratil .1Ild dClive suppon from underlying

306.12 Use of Higher Allowable Pile Stresses Allowable compressive stresses greater than those
specified in Section 307 s hall be pelmilted
wh" '-' ~

firmer materials, consideralion shall be given (0 the downward frictional forces, which may be imposed on Ihe piles by Ihe subsiding upper st raw which :-;Ilall be deductive fromlhc nel pile 10<ld c.lpacily,

substantiating data justifying such higher stresses are submitted to and approved by the building official. Such substant iating data shall be included in the foundation in vcslig;:nion repon in accordance wilh Section 306, 1.


Where (he influence of su bsiding fill s is conside red as imposing loads on the pilc, Ihe allowable si resses specified in this chapter may be increased if sati sfactory substantiating data arc su bmiucd ,

306.9 Jelling In stallmion of pilcs hy wal eI' jelling shall nol be uscd excepl wherc .lI1d as spccifically permi{lcd by {he building official. When uscd, jetting shall be carried oul in slich a manner Ihm tile carrying capacity of existing piles and sl l1icturcs shall not be impaired, After withdrawal of the jet , piles shall be dri ve n down untillhc required res istance
is obtained ,

306.10 Protection of rile Mntcriais Where th e boring records of sile conditions indicate possible delet eriolls action on pilc Ilullerials becau se of soil cOllstilllc nls. changing wCllcr lc\fC ls or olher fact ors, such materi als shall be i.ulequatel y protected by methods or processes approved by Ihe gcotech nical engincer.
The effectivcness or sllch methods or proccsses for Ihe particular purpose shall have been thoroughly established

by sm i,SfaclOry service reco rds or other evide nce, which dClllonst r;lh;-s the effectiveness of sud I protective measures,

In su lfate hearing soi ls. the stee l piles shall be prolectcd agains! corrosioll or reinforced <..'O l1c['Clc piles shall usc Typc rr ccment.
306.11 Allowable Loads The allowable loads based on soil conditions shall be establ ished in accordance wilh Sect ion 306.
Ally ulIca,\'ed casl- iJ/ ~place pile may be assIlIIu1 d 10 d l!\'C'ilJ!' a Fiefiollol l'C'sisf(/l1 ce i'qual 10 (Jill! ,n"xlh (?{ Ihe bea r;IIK I'(t/II(' of tile' :wif maferial (11111;11 111111111 de/JIb nf ,\'('1 forth in Table' 305 -1 l)fa lIot to exceed 25 kPa III rlt'.I",\" a ~U '('(I/('r I'a/ue i ,\' allowed by till' Imildill/o: official (!{ter (I foundation illl'esliga lio/i as sp ecm ed ill .,'eclioll 303 is slIhlllilled" Frictional r('siS(W1C e (/1/(/ hearillg rcsi,l'lal/ce shall lIot he a,\'slIlIwd (0 tlct sil1lulllllU'OIiX/Y {(I/{('ss rl!('ol1lllu'lI(/ed (iffer a jrmlldatirm illVl'sliMaliOI1 as

s{J('{4ied ill



CHAPTER 3 - General & Excavalion and Fills

3- 17

307.3 Me(al-Cased Concrete Piles 307.3.1 Ma(erial Concrete used in metal-cased concrete piles shall have a specified compressive st rength of nOI less than l7 MP.

307.1 Round Wood Piles 307.1.1 Ma(erial



Except where ulltre:ncd piles arc permitted, wood piles shall be pressure treated. Untreated piles may be used only when it has been establ ished that the cutoff will be below lowes t groundwater level assumed to exist during
[he life ortlle sll1lc lurc.

307.3.2 Installation Every metal casing for a concrete pile shall have a scaled tip with a diameter of not less than 200 mm . Concrete piles cast in place in metal shells shall have shells driven for their full length in contact with the surrounding soil and left permanenlly in place. The shells shaH be sufficiently strong to resis t collapse and sufficiently watertight to exclude waler and foreign material during the placing of concrete.
Piles shall be driven in such order and with such spacing as to ensure against distortion of or injury to piles already in place. No pile shall be driven within four and one~haJf average pile diameters of a pile filled with concrete k:-;s than 24 hours old unless approved by the geotechnic;,~J engineer.

307.1.2 Allowable Stresses

The allowable unit stresses for round woodpiles shall nOt exceed those set forth in Chapter 6 .

The allowable va lues listed in. for compression parallel 10 the grain III extreme fiber in bending are based on load sharing as OCClII'S in a pile cluster. for piles which

support their own specific load, a safety factor of 1.25 shall be applied to compression pluallel to the grain values (md 1.30 to extreme fiber in bending values.
307.2 UncHsed

Concrete Piles
307.3.3 Allowable Stresses Allowable stresses shall not exceed the values specified :i; Section 307.2.2, except that the allowable concrek s[r ( ~ may be increased to a maximum value of 0.401'" fo r that portion of the pile meeting the following co nditions : I. The thickness of the meta! casing is not less thall 1.7 mill (No. 14 carbon sheet steel gage); The casing is seamless or is provided with seams c eq ual strenglh and is of a confi gurati on lh ,H \\!~ :: provide confinementlo the cast M in-place concre : ~ ;

307.2.1 Ma(erial

Concrete piles cast in place against earth in drilled or bored holes shall be made in such a manner as to ensure
the exclusion of any foreign matter and to secure a sized shafi .

The drilled or cxcav<ltco hole sha ll be prevented from collapse or cOlllaminatioll by colhtpsing soils. Thorough c1eani ng of the hole shall be asslIreo <'I nd displHccmenl of the soil cuuings by nOlation shall be ass ured. The le ngth of such pile shall be limited 10 not more than 30 times the average diameter. Concrete shall have a specified compressive strenglhj'(' of 1l00Iess than 17 MPa. Exception:



Tile specified co mpressive strength f' .. sha:i r:~' exceed 35 MPa and the ratio of steel mi l .J;' specified yield strength F,. to concrete spt.-..:ifii, comp ressive strength!'" shall not be less than 6 ; ;Ul .
The pile diameter is not greater than 400 mm .

The length of pile may exceed 30 rim es the diameter provided th e design and installation of the pile foundation is III accordance with all approved foundation
iflvestigatioll report.


307.4 Precast Concrete Piles

307.4.1 Ma(erials Precast concrete piles shall have a specific i comprc<;si ~a reJlglhf'. of not less than 20 MPa. and sh,JI! dey .. ,." compress ive strength of not less than 20 MPa I.. ere dri ving. 307.4.2 Reinforcement Tics The !ongitudimd reinforccmcnt in driven precast (' fl JlO pil es shall be laterally tied with steel lies or wire . Tics and spirals shaI! nOt be spaced morc than

307.2.2 Allow,,!)le Stresses The all owable compressive stress in the concrete shn ll not exceed 0.3V,.. The allowable compressive st ress or reinrorcement shall not exceed 34 percent or the yie ld Mrenglh or the steel or 175 MPa.

National Structu ral Code of IIle P!1ilippin8s Gill Edition Volume 1


CHAPTER 3 -- General & Excava/ion _ and Fills

ap,lrt, centcr to cellter, for a di stance of 600 mill frol11 the

ends and not more Ihan 200 mm elsewhere. The gage o f

lics and spiraJs shall be as follows: I.


For piles ha ving a diameter of 400 mill or less, wire shall nol be smaller than 5 min ;
For piles, having a diameter of morc: than 400 mil1

loads. The effective prestress in the pile sh;i;l ;;',l( h' ; ("'~::; than 2.5 MPa for pi les up (0 10 III in !enrol: :/!\~ L,; piles up to 15 m in length , and 5 MPa Iv: I ) ' ' ' : ' t~ ..: . . ~~ r than 15m in length.
T he compressive stress in the concrete du e !o c".!'::-na ll y app lied load shall not exceed:
. -,!'.' .)

and Jess than 500 mm, wire shall /l ot be smaller than

f) mm; a.nd


For pi les having a diameter of 500 wire shall not be smaller than 7 mm.


and larger.



~ effective

prestress stress on the gros!':.

:,t'{'!; '! :i.

307.4.3 Allo wa ble Stresses Precast concrete piling shall be designed 10 res ist stresses induced by handling and dri ving ns well as by loads. The allowable stresses shall not exceed the values specified in Section 307.2.2. 307.5 Precast (Prctensioncd) 307.5.1 Malerials Prestressed Co ncrete Piles

Effective prestress s hall be based on an :i :-':": iir: , ~- ,: i:.,;:: J: 200 MPa in the prestressing steel. The allow i1l, k~ .', irt:... ~ ii , the prestressi ng stee! shall not exceed the v<ll u~':. :q' ( . ., j in Sec ti on 418 .5.
307.S.4 S plici ng Where required , splicing for concrete piles sh:JI! hr i,v use of embedded and properly anchored thick :'h't:1 I);,I'CS at the ends being joined which shall then be rll lii- ". ::i/;. j , (';' by use of adequate sized dowe l rods and .'it! l.i :( " .' it . sleeves. The dowels and the faces shall then b (~ J ();, )". ; .' StJ'ucturil! epoxy. Metal splice cans are not :d; ~!\ ..,( :. 307.6 Str uctura l Steel)'iles 307.6.1 Material Structura l steel piles. steel pi pe piles and full y W(' !dt i; steel piles f:.lbrica ted from platcs shall co nforlll to olle vi" the rnflteri al spec ifications listed in Sectio n 50 1J. 307 .6.2 Allowable Str esses The nllowable m:.i.!I stresses sha ll not exceed 0 t 'i or Ih, . minimum speci fied yield strength F.,. or KCj \ 11':. whichever is less. Exception:
When justified in accordance with Sectioll .{f).Ii. J? 'ii allowable axial stress may be increased aboV(! rl5 iliii'" alld 0.35F}~ hut Jhall llot exceed O.5Fr
l '

Precast pres tressed concrete piles shaH have a specified co mpressive strength[.. of not less than 35 MPa and shall develop a com pressive stren gth of not less than 27 MPa before driving.
307.5.2 Rei nfo rce ment

307.5.2. 1 Longitudinal Rei nforce ment The longitudinal reinforcem ent shall be high-tensil e se ven -wire strand conform ing to ASTM Stand ards. Longitudinal reinforcement Sh311 be I,Herally lied w ith sleel ties or wi re spirals. 307.5.2.2 Tra nsverse Reinfo rce ment
Tics or spiral reillforcemclll shall nol bc sp:lccd more th an

75 111m apart, ccnter to center, ror II distance o r 600 mm

from the ends and nol more than 200 I11Ill elsewhere. A( each end of the pile, the first five ties or spirals shall be
spaced 25 mOl center to center.

For piles having a diameter of 600 mill or less, wire shall not be smaller than 5 111111 .
For piles having a diameter greater than 600 I11Ill bu t less tha n 9(X) mill, wire shall not be smaller (lw l1 6 mrn. For piles having a dinrllelcr grcfltcr (han gOO mill, wire shall not be smaller Ihan 7 mill.

Seclions of dri ven rollowing:

307.6.3 Minimulll Dimensions Ii -piles shall co mply with lhr 1. The flan ge projection shall not exceed 14 li~l W" :lle minim um thickness of meta! ill either tl w n"" the web, and the flnnge widths shall not :J~' k " .' 1')0 percenl of the dcplh or the secti on.

307.5.J All owa ble St resses


The nominal dcp(h ill the direction of the '. \( L ... .. ;" " not he less than 200 mill.

Precast prestressed piling shall he designed 10 resist stresses induced by handling nnd driving as \vc ll as by

Assoclo tiotl of Slrllclural

En9Ine('~r s

of the Philippines

CHAPTER 3 - General & Excavalion and Fills

3 19

Flanges anti webs shall have thickness of 10 mm ,


minimum nominal

: ~ecljonS of dri ven pipe piles sha ll have nn outside

:: diam eter of not less than 250 mill and a minim um . thickness of not less than 6 mm. , 307.7 ConcreteI"illed Steel!'ipe Piles 307.7.1 Material
The sleel pipe of concrele- filled stee l pipe pi les shall

308.1 Gelleral
In Seismic Zones 4, the further requirements of thi s sec tion shall apply to the des ign and cons truction of foundati ons, foundation compone nts 'and Ihe connecti on of superst(1Jcture elements thereto. See Sec ti on 421.10 for additional requirements for S(l1lctural concrete foundati ons resisting seismic forc es.



onc of the material speci ficati ons listed in

Section 50 1.3. The con crete in concrete-fill e d steel pipe piles shall have a spec ified co mpressive strcnglh [,c of not less than J7 MPa.

! I

308.2 Foundation and Geotechnical Investigations 307.7.2Allowable Stresses

The all owable axial stresses shall not exceed 0.35 of the minimum specified yield strength F.,' of the steel plus 0.33 of the specified compress ive slrcllglh /'(' o f concrete, provided J'~' shall lIo t be assumed greater than 250 MPa for computational purposes. Where a structure is de termined to be in Seismic Zone 4 in accordance with Section 208.4, an investigation shall be conducted and shall include an evaluation of the following potential hazard s resu ltin g from eart hqu ake motio ns: slope in stabilit y. liquefac lion and surface rupture due to faul!ing or la te ral spreading.



In addition , the foll owi ng in vestigations sha ll a lso be met: I.


When justified ill accordance with Section 306.12, /he pllowable stresses may be in creased to 0.50 F)"

A dctcnnination of lateral pressures on basement and re taining walls due to earthquake motions.
An assessment of potenti al consequences of any

307.7.3 Minimum Dimensions

Driven piles of uil iform scction shall have a nomina l outside diamete r of not less than 200 Illlll .







. ,.

estimati on of diffe ren ti al seule mcm, lateral move ment or reduction in foundation soil~be aring capac ity, and shall address mitigation meas ures. Suc h meas ures shall be give n consideration in the design of the s truc ture and can include but are not limitcd to ground stabili zation. selec (i on of appropriate foundation type and depths, selection of appropriate structural systems 10 accomm odate antic ipated displacements Or any combination of these measures. The potential for liqu efaction and soil strength loss shall be evaluated for site peak ground accelerati on magnitudes and source characteristics consistent with the design earthquake ground motions. Peak ground acceleration s hall be determined from a si l e~ s pecifjc stud y takin g into account soil amplifi cation effects, as speci fi ed in Section 208.4.

308,3 Footings and Foundations

Where il struclUrc is assigned (0 Se ismic Zone 4 in accordance with Section 208.4 , individual sprcad footings fo unded on soil de fined ill Sec ti o n 208.4 .3 as Soil profile Type SE or SF shall be interconn ected by ti c beams . Tic beams shall be capabl e of carr yi ng, in tension or co mpress ion, unless it is demon strated th at equival ent restraint is provided by re inforced conc ret e beams within s labs 011 gmde or reinforced concrete slabs 011 grade.

Ncll iOl'w l Struc tural Cod e of the Philippines 6


Edition Volume 1


CHAI'TEI1 3 _. General & Excavation and Fills

308.4 Pier and Pile Found.tio Where a stmclUre is assigned to Seismic Zo ne 4 in accordan ce Wi lh Seclion 208.4 he following sha ll appl y. Individual pilc caps, piers or piles shall be interconnected by ties. Tics shall be capable of carrying, in tension and com pression . 10 % of Ihe maximum axial load unless it can be demonstrated Ihal cquiv;'l lcnt restraim is pro vided by reinforced concrete beams within slabs on grade, reinforced concrete slabs on grade, confinemen! by competent rock, hard cohesive soi ls or very dense granular soi ls. Conc rete shall have a specified compressive strength of not less than 21 MPa at 28 days.

wi thin seven pile dia mclers of the pile cap and lhe interfaces of soft (0 mediu m stiff clay or liquefiable strata. Grade bea ms shall be des igned as beams in accord ance Secti on 4. When grade beams have Ihe capacity to rcsis t the forces from the load combinations in Section 203.
308.4.3 FlexII,.al Slrength


Pie rs supporting foundation walls, isolated interior posts detailed so the pier is not subject 10 lateral loads. lightly loaded exterior decks and palios alld occupancy category IV and V specified in Section 103 not exceeding two stories of light-frame construction, are flot subject to interconnection if it call be shown the soils are of adequate stiffness, subject to the approval of the building official.
308.4.1 Connection to Pile Cap

Where the vcrtical la t c ral ~ro rce ~re s i s tin g elements are (';ol umns, the grade bea m or pile eel p nex ural strengths shall exceed the column flexural strength. The connection between batter piles and grade beams or pile caps shall be designed to resi st the nominal st rength of lhe pile actin g (IS a short column. Bauer piles and the ir connection shall be capable of resisting forces and moments frol11thc load co mbinat ions of Sectio n 203 . 308.5 Driven Pile Foundations 308.5.1 Precast Connete Piles Where a struclllre is assigned to Seismic Zone 4 the iongilUdinal reinforce ment wi th a min imum steel ratio o f 0.0 1 shall be provided throughout the Icngt h of precast concrete piles, Within three pil e diarnct ers of the bottom of the pile cap, th e longitudiJl<l1 reinforcement shall be confined with closed lies or spirals of a miniinum 10 mm diame ter. Ties or spirals shall be provided at a mn ximulH spacing eight times (he diameter of the smalles t longitudinal bar, not to exceed 150 111111 throughout the re mainde r of the pi le. the closed ti es or spirals shall ha ve a maximum spacing of J 6 limes the smalles t longitudinal bar diamc ter not 10 exceed 200 min.

For piles required to resist up lift forces or Lo pro vide rotati onal res traint, design of anchorage of piles into {he pile cap shall be provided considering {hc combined effect


of axial forces due '0 uplift and bending momen .. due fixity (0 the pile cap. Anchorage shall deve lop a min imu m



25 perccnt of the strength of th e pile in (e nsio n. An chorage into the pile ca p shall be capable of developing the following: In the case of uplift , lhe lesser of lhc nominal le nsile strcngth of the longi llldi nal reinforcemcnt ill a conc ret e pile, or the nominal te nsile strength of a s[eeJ pile. or (he pile uplift soil nomina l st rength factored by 1.3 or the axi al tensi on rorce res ulting from the load combinations of Secti on 203. 1n the case of rotational restrai nt, the lesser of the ax ial and shear forces and moments resulti ng from the load combina tions of Section 203 or development of the full axia l, bendin g and shear nominal stren gth of .he pile.

308.S.2 Precast Prestressed Piles Where a stl1Jclurc is assigned \0 Seismic Zone 4, the following shall "ppl)'. The mi nimu m vo lulIletric ratio of spira! reinforcement shall not be less than O.()()7 or the amount required by the follow ing formul a for th e upper 6 11') of the pi Ie.


(308.5.1 )

where :


I,, "
308.4.2 Desigll I)ct;:lils for Pie rs, I)ilcs and Gracie Beams


Spccilied compressive strl~ nglh of ro ncrcte, MPa = Yi eld stren gth of spiral rc inforc ell1 ~~n t. 586 MPa ;:: Spiral reinforce ment index (vol ume of spiral/v()lu me of core)

Pie rs or piles shall he designed and constructed 10 withsta nd Ill <lX imU Ill imposed cu r v<l t ure.~ from eel l1hquake ground moti ons and structure respoJlse. Curvatures sha ll include free-field soil strains modified for soi l-pile structure inlcrnction couplcd wil h pier or pi le deformati ons induced oy l<llenll pier or pile res istance to st ru cture seismic forces. Concrcte piers or piles Oil soil type Sf: or S" sites, <IS determ ined in Secti on 20RA.l. shall he des igned and delailed ill ~Icco rdance with Sections 410

At least o n c~h a lr the vo lullletri c ratio requ ired hy Eq. 4~1 sh;lI ! he provided below t!w upper 6 III or the pi le. The pile cap co nnection hy mea ns of dowels. Pile cap connect ion by meall.'i or developi ng pile. reinforcin g strand is pe rmilled provided lhat th e pik reinforcing strand rC"wlts in a duclile conllcclioll.

Association of Structural Enqlneers of the PhilipPInes

CHAPTER 3 - General & Excavalioll and Fills

3 21

Ihe total pile length in Ihe soil is 10.5 III or less, the

but nOl less than:


transverse rei nfo rcement in the ductile region shaH Ouough tile length of the pile. Where the pile length 10.5 m. rhe ductile pile region shall be taken as greater of 10.5 In or the distance from th e underside of pile cap to the point of zero cu rvature plus three :' times the least pile dimension.
; In the ductile region, the center- io-ccillcr spacing of th e

=O. 1 2Sh,(.L)[~+ lA P] f,. 2 f,A,




= S 483 MPa

spirals or hoop reinforcement shall not exceed olle-fifth . of tJle least pile dimcllsiOIl, six times the diallleter of the

longitudinal strand, or 2(Xl mill, whichever is smaller.


" Circular spiral rcinforcClllcnl shall be spliced by lapping one full tum and bending the end of the spiral to a 90degree hook or by usc of a mechanical or welded splice. Where lhe transverse reinforcement consists of circular spirals, the volumetl;c ratio of spiral transverse reinforcemel1l in the ductile region shall comply willl the following:

dimension of pile core measured center LO ce nter of hoop reinforcement, mm '= Spacing of transverse reinforcement measu red . along length of pile. mm = Axial load, N :: Cross~sec tional area of tran sverse reinforcement,

:= Cross~seclional




:: Gross area of pi le. 111m2 Specifi ed compressive strength of concrete, MPa

=O. 1 2.L.(~ - I )[~ - 1.41']



A,, ,


The hoops and cross ties shaH be equi valent to defonned bars not less than IOmm ill size. Rectangular hoop ends shall terminate at a comer with seismic hooks. Outside of the length of the pile requiring transverse confinement reinforcing, th c spiral or hoop reinforcing with a volumctric rati o not less than one half of that required for transversc confinement reinforcing shall be provided .
306.6 Cast-In-Place Concrete Foundations

but not less than :


and need nO[ exceed:

p, = 0.021

(308.5 .4)

where: A" "" Pile crosssct"tional area, mm Ad = Core area defined by spiral outside diameter, m lll ~

f c = Specifi ed compressive stre ngt h of concrelc, MPa


hh = Yield strength of spira! rc.inforce ment :s; 586 MP.I I' = Axial load on pile, kN

Volumetric ratio (volumc of spiral! volume of core)

This required amou nt of spiral reinforcemellt is pcrmitled to be obtained by pro viding an inner and outer spi ral. When transverse reinforce melll consists of recta ngular hoops and cross tics, th e total c['()ss ~ sccti ()Jlal are a of lateral transverse rcinforccmcill in the ducti le region with spacings, Jnd perpcndicular 10 dimension, he. shill! confonn 10:

Where a stJUcture is assigned to Scismic Zone 4, a minimum longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 0.005 shall be provided for uncased cast~ in~place drilled or augered concrete piles, piers or caissons in the top o ne~half of the pile lengt h a minimum length of 3 In below ground or lhroughout the flexural length of the pile, whichever length is greatest. The Oexurallength shall be taken as the length of the pile to a point where the concrete section cracking moment strength multiplied by 0.4 exceeds the requ ired mo me nt strcngth at lhal po int. There shall be a minimulll of four longitudinal bars with transverse confinement reinforcem ent provided in the pile within three tillles th e least pile dimension of the bottom of the pile cap. A transverse spi ral reinforcement of not less than onehalf of that required in Section 410 for ot her than Soi l Profi le Type S" SF or as determined in Section 208.4.3 or liquefiable sites is permitted. Tie spaci ng throu ghou t Ihe remainder of the concrete section shall neither exceed 1 2~ longiludinal~bar diameters, o ne~half the least dimension of the sec ti on, nor 300 mm. Ties shall be a min imum of 10 fIllll bars for piles with it least dimcnsion lip to 500 n1m , and! 2 111m bars for larger piles.

N;:llional Structural CorJe of tile Philippines

(, !II

Edition Vol ume 1


CHA PTE li 3 - General & Excaval ion and Fills

309.1 Special Foundation Systems

Special foundation sys tems or materials other than specified in (he fore goi ng Sections may be introduced provided thai such syslems can be supported by caic ul:ltions and theory to be providi ng safe foundati on sohtlions and when approved by the engineer-o f-reco rd. The special foundati ons solutions for incorporati on into the foundation should have proven track record of successful usage in similar applications.

309.2 Acceptance and Approval

Structure support on improved ground using such spec ial systems or proprietary system s may be approved s ubject to su bmittal of calculations and other proof of acceptance

and usage.

309.3 Specific Applications

Specialty foundation systems may be applied or used specifically to address any or combinations of the improveme nt, soil following: beari ng ca paci ty liquefact ion mitigati on, slope stabilit y enhancement. control and/or acceleration of consolidation settlements or immediate settlements, increa<;c in soi l shear strength and capacity. sliding resistance. increased pull o ut or overt urning capacity. special anchors in soil and rock and other beneficial effects. COnlrolled low strength materi als (CLSM) 10 reduce fill loads may be allowed for use where ap plicable_

Associ8tion of Structura l Engineers of tile Philippines

NSCP C10110



Associa ti on of Structural E nginee r s of th e Philippines

Suite 7 13, F uture Poin t Plaza Co nd omiuiulll I 11 2 Pana), Ave nu e, Q uezo n C ity, Phil ipp ines 11 00 Tel. No : (+632) 4 10-04H.I Fax No.: (+632) 411-8606 ElIl a il: ;tscponlinc(ci,lglllilil .com Weusitc : ht tp ://www.asCI}Onli

Nationa l S tructur;:i! Code of the Philippines

6! h

Edition Volume 1

CHAPTI'J14 . Concrete

4 '

Table of Contents
401 GENERAL .................................................................................................................................................. 7
....... ..... ..... ........ ............................................................................................................................ 7

.2 Scope .... ....................... ................. .. ............... ............. .............. .. ........................................... .. ................... 7 402 DEFINITIONS ...................................................... ..... ................................................. ................................ 8 :.- .... -.~" 403 ~ SPECIFICATIONS FOR TESTS AND MATERIAI.S ................. ,............... ..................... ............... 13 .. ................... . .. 13 .... ............. Tests of Ma terials ........ .... .. ... ......... .. ........... .. ........................ ........ 13 Ccnlcnt... .. .. ...... ... ....... .... .. ..... .. . 13 Aggregates .. .. ....................... ........................ ...... ............... .. .. 13 ........ ...... .. ... 13 Water .. ....... .......... .... .... S teel Reinforcement.. ..... . .... .... .... . ... ..... ... .. .. ............... 14 Admixtures ", ... ," ..... ..... .... ... .. ... 15 Storage of Materials.. ............ ......... ......... .............. ............... .. ....... ....... 16 S tandards Cited in this Chapter ........................... ... ...... .. .......... ... ... .... . .... ........ ..... .. .......... ........... 16 SECTION 404 . DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS ...... .......................................................... ....................................... 18 ............... . ......... . ... .... ..................... 18 404.2 Definitions ... .. ... ................. .. ............ .. .... .. ... .. ....... ... 18 ... 19 404.3 Genera l . ...................... ......................... ........................... ........ 404.4 Exposu re Categories and Classes. .. ...... .... .. .. .. 19 404 .5 Special Exposure Co ndi tions. ....... .............. ........ ........ .............. . .. .. .................... 19 404.6 RcquiremcllI s for Concrete Mixtures .. :. ............................ ..... ... . .... ............. .. 19 . ... 19 404.7 Alternati ve CemelHitious Materials for Sulphate Exposure. .. 404.8 Water-Cem en titi ous Materials Ratio .... ..... .. ...... ". . . ..... 19 404.9 Corrosion Protection o f Re inforce ment .. ................ ........... . ............................... 19 SECTION 405 ~ CONCRETE QUALITY, MIXING AND PLA CIN G ....................................................................... 21 405.1 Notations.. .... .... ... .... .. .. .... .. ... ...... . . .... .. ... ... .... 2 1 405.2 Geo eral ........ .. .. .. ....... 21 405.3 Selection of Concrete Proportions .. ... .. ............ ..... ............... ... 21 405.4 Propollio ning on the Basis of Field Experience and Tri .d Mixtures. or Both. .. ..... ... .... . ...... 22 405.5 Proportioning without Field Experience or Tri al Mixtures .. .... 23 405.6 Average Strength Reducti on .. .......... .... .. .............. .... .... ..... 23 405.7 Evaluat ion and Acceptance of Concrete ... . ......... 23 405.8 Prepa ration of Equipmcill and Place of Deposit ................. . .. 25 405.9 Mixin g. .. ...... .... ... . .... .... .... .. .... 25 ........................ .. ...... 25 405. 10 Conveying ................... ................ ...26 405. 11 Deposi ting ............... ............ .. ..... .... ........ .... .. ... 26 405.12 Curing.. 4.05.13 Hot Weather Requirements. ............ .. .... ................ ... .... .... ....... . . .. .. 26 SECTION 406 . FORMWORK, EMBEDDED PIPES AND CONSTRUCTION JOINTS ..................................... 26 .... .......... .. .. .. ..... 27 406. 1 Design of Forrmvo rk .... ............................ 406.2 Removal of Forms, Shores and Re sllOring .... .. 27 406.3 Conduils and Pi pes E.mbcddcd in Concrete. ................ ......... .. 27 ...... .. ...... .............. ... ..... ......... .. ..... . ... 28 406.4 Construction Joi nts ...... ... ... ......... SECTION 407 . DETAILS Oil REINFOR CEMENT .................. ... ........... ......... .................... ............................... .... .... 28 407.1 Notations.. . ...... 29 407.2 Stil ildard 'Iooks.. .. .............. ..... . .. . ...... .. 29 407.3 Minimum Bend Di,llllctcrs..... ................ . .... 29 407.4 Bendin g of Reinforcement. . . .. 29 407.5 Su rfa ce Conditio ns of Reinforcement. . . ... ... . 29 407.6 Placing Rcinfo rcemcnt.. ...... .. .... .... ...... .................... . 29 407.7 S pacing Limils for Re inforcc mcIlL.. . .... 30 407.8 Co ncrete Protection for Reinforce mellt .. 3 1 407.9 Special H. cinforccment Details for Col um ns ...... ... 32 407. 10 Connections .... ... ...... .. .... . .. J:\


CHAI'lTI14 . Concrete

407.11 Lateral Reinforcement for Compression Members ...... . 407.12 Lateral Reinforcement for Flexural Members .. . 407.1 J Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement ..................... . 407.14 Requirements for Structural Integrity ......................................... .. SECTION 408 - ANALYSIS AND DESIGN-GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ....................................... , ......... j8 408, I Notations .. 408.2 Design Methods" 38 408.3 Loading.. .................................. . 3R 408.4 Methods of Analysis. .................................................................... ............. . 408.5 Redistribution of Negative Moments in Continuous Nonprcstressed Flexural ivicmbers 408.6 Modulus of Elasticity" " .. ,... ,.. ,... "."." .. ,." () ,.. "", .... "".",, .. ,. "" .. ,.. "."",.,,. ,." .. "., .. " 408,7 Lightweight Concrete 408.8 Stiffness . 408.9 Effective Stiffness [0 Determine Lateral Deflections .... 408.10 Span Length ... ,.,." .. ,.. ". 408, II Columns ,. ,."" ... " ......... " .. ,.,. ,.,., .. ,.".,." .. , ."" .. ,.. " .. ,."."" ..... . 408.12 AITangement of Live Load 408.13 T-beam Construction ................................................. . 408.14 Joist Constl1lction .. 408.15 Separate Floor Finish.. ......................................... . .., .. ".11 ..,,42 SECTION 409 - STRENGTH AND SERVICEABILITY REQUIREMENTS ................................... ,., -12 409.1 Notations .. /. . 409.2 General.. 409.3 Required Strength. , 409.4 Design Strength" 409.5 Design Strength for Reinforcement ................................ . 409.6 Control of Deflections .. SECTION 410 FLEXURE AND AXIAL LOADS ............................................................................... . ................ . .. 10 410.! Notations ....................................................................... . 410.2 Scope .. . ............. ..Ii <) 410.3 Design Assumptions. . . .'.1 (i 410.4 General Principles and Requircmcnts .. . ,... 49 410.5 Distance between Lateral Suppons of Flexural Members. ............ ... ,50 410.6 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members. ........ ,........... 50 410.7 Distrihution of Flexural Reinforcement in Beams and One-way Slabs. .. ............ so 41 O.S Deep Beams, . . S) 410.9 Design Dimensions for Compression Members .. 410.10 Limits for Reinforcement of Compression Members .. . ............ . .............. :)i 410.11 Slenderness Effects in Compression Members.. ....................... .. . ,.. , .. " " .. , ." .. ,.. " .. ""." .. ,., .... " .. ," 410.12 Magnified Moments .. " .. " .. " ... " 410. I 3 Moment Magnification Procedure - Nonsway .............................. . 4 J 0.14 Moment Magnification Procedure - Sway .......................................... .. 410.! 5 Axially Loaded Members Suppo[1ing Slab System. . ................ . 410.16 Transmission of Column Loads through Floor System ................................. .. .. 4! O. J 7 Composite Compression Members.. . ............ . 4 It}. ! 8 Beari ng Strength ..................... . SECTION 411 - SHEAR AND TORSION ................................................................................................. . 41 1.1 Notations .. SI 41 1.2 Shear Strength., 41 J.3 Lightweight Concrete .. 41 1.4 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete for Nonprestressed Members 4! 1.5 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete for Prestressed Members ..... 411.6 Shear Strength Provided by Shear Reinforcement .. 4 J 1.7 Design for Torsion. ..\, 41 !.8 Shear ~ Friction. 4! !.9 Deep Beams. ..................... 65

Association of Structural Engineers of tile Philippines

CHAPT ER 4 . Concrete



41 LID Pro visions for Brac kelS and Corbels... ........ ............................................ ....... ......... .................. ........ 65 41 Lll Provisions for Walls ............................................... ........... ........ .............. .......................... . .. ......................... 66 41 Ll2 Transfer of Moments to Columns.. ......... .... .. .. ....... ..... .. ....... .. ... ...... ..................... .. ......... ........................... 67 41 Ll3 Provisions for Slabs and Footings ........ ................ .................................................................................................. 67 SECTION 412 - DEVELOPMENT AND SPLlCES OF REINFORCEMENT ........................................................ 70 412.1 Notations.............................. .. ............................ .... ..... ........ ... .... ............ .. .. . ... ...... ... 70 412.2 Development of Reinforcemcl1l - General......... ... 71 412.3 DevelopmclII of Defonned Bars and Deformed Wi. ~~ in Tension................ . ............. ,... ... ....... ......... ........ 7 1 41 2.4 Development of Defonned Bars in Compression. ............................... "............. .... ... ... ..... ,... 72 412.5 Development of Bundled Bars.:.......................... .. ......... ........................... .................. ........................... ............ 72 ........................................................ .72 412.6 Development of Standard Hooks in Tension ........ 412.7 Development of Headed and Mechanically Anc ho red [ 'cfofmcd Bars in Tension ..... ....... 73 412.8 Development of 'Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcer. l ~nt in Tension .... .... .. ... ..... ".... ... ........ ....... .... . .. .. 73 412.9 Development of Welded Plain Wire Reinforcemenl il Tension..... ...... ... ....... .. ............ ...... ............ ......... .... 73 412.10 Development of PreSlressi ng Strand ................. ............. ...................................................... .............................. .......... 74 412.1 I Development of flexu ral Reinforcement - GeneraL.... .. ..... ,.................... ........... ...... " .. ....... ............. .............. ....... ...... 74 .......................................... ......... ....................... ........ ............ 74 412.1 2 De velopment of Positi ve Moment Reinforcemenl... .. 412.13 Development of Negative Moment Rei nforcement ..... .................. ..... .. .. ................ . ... ...... 75 412.14 Development of Web Rein force ment ........... ....... ... ...... ............ ...... .... ........ ................... .. 75 4 12. 15 Splices of Reinforcement - General...................... ..... ................ .... .. ..... ...... ........... ... 76 ...... .. 76 412.16 Spl ices of Deformed Bars and Defomled Wire in Tensi \11...... ........... .......... ...................... 412.17 Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression .... .... ................ ................. . ........................................................................ 77 412.1 8 Special Spli ces Requirements fo r Columns .... ..... ............................................. ... ........................................ .. ......... .... 77 412.19 Splices of Welded Deformed Wire Reinforcement in Tens '0"-. ........... .. ............ .. ................................................ ........ 77 412.20 Splices of Welded Plain Wire Reinforcement in Tension .... ....... ........ ......... ............... ..................... 78 SECTION 413 - TWO-WAY SLAB SYSTEMS .................................................................................................................. 78 ......... .............. .. .. ............... ..... ... ....... .......... .... .. 78 413.1 Notat ions ....... ............. ..... .......................................................... 79 413.2 Scope .......................................... ............................. .......... .... . 413.3 Definitions ... ........... .... ........ ............................. ................... .. .. ................. .... ........................ 79 413.4 Slab Reinforcement .... ... .. ...................... ......................... ... ... ............ .............. ....... ........ . .............. . ........ 79 .............. ....... ....... .. .. .............................................................................. 8 1 413 .5 Openings in Slab Systems ........ .............. .................... ..... ................... .. ..... ....... 82 413.6 Design Proced ures ..... 413.7 Direcl Design Method.... .................... ........ ..... .. .. .. ........ 82 413.8 Equivalcl1I Frame Method . .................... ............................ ...... . .... 85 SECTION 414 - WALLS ............. .................. .......................................... ........................... .................................................... 86 414.1 Notations ........... .... .... .............................. ... ........... .... .... ........... 87 414.2 Scope ....... .............. ....... .... ................................ ..... ............. .......................... .... 87 414.3 General .... .. ... ........ . ............. ...... . ...... ........ ...... ............... ....... .............. ........ 87 . 414.4 Minimum Rcinforcemcnt...... .. ...... ....... .... .................. .. .... ....... .. . 87 414.5 Walls Design as Compression Members. .. .. .... .... ... ................ .. ... 88 .................... ........ .............................. 88 414.6 Empirical Design Method ............. ... ......................................... ... 414.7 Non-Bearing Walls. ............. .. ........ .............................. ... ................. ............. ........................... ... ......... 88 414.8 Walls as Grade Beams ........... ....... .............. ........ ........ ........ ..... .. .......... ... .. ........ ............ .... ... .......... ...... .. .................... 89 414.9 Altemale Design of Slender Walls .......................... ... ............................ ... ................... ....................................... ........ 89 SECTION 415 - FOOTINGS .......................................................................... .. . .................................................................... 89 415.1 Notalions. .... .......... ...... ... ...... ........... .... ..... ..... ..... .... .............. . .. .................. .. ...90 415.2 Scope ... ....... .. ... ................ .......... .... ...... ..... ........... ................ ... .... ........... .. ........... 90 4 t5.3l/},;<is and Reactions....... .. ....... .......... ....................................... ......... ........................ .... ()O 4l5.4 Footings Su pporting Circu lar o r Regular Polygon-S haped Columns or PCl.k.. als ..... . .............. .. ............. -:"0 415 .5 MOJllent in Footi ngs ................................ ,.......................... ..... ............. ....... ........................... .......... ....... ,.. 90 .................. .......... .... ....................... 90 415.6 Shear in Footings......................... ............... 415.7 Development of Reinforcement in Footings ...... ... ............. .. .. .. .... ,,' 9 1 415.8 Minimum Footi ng Depth ...... ..... ...... ......... . .. ....... 91 415.9 Transfer of Force al Base of Column, Wall or Reinforcement Pedestal .. ............ . .......... ..... ................ ......... 91 415. 10 Sloped or Stepped Footings ..... ...................... ........................... ....... 92 ................................. ... .................... .... ....... 92 415 . 11 Combi ned Footi ngs and Mats

Nationa! Structural Code of the Philippi ne s 6 Edition Vo lu; !" ~ 1



CHAPTEH 4 - Concrete

................... _ .................... _............ ... .. .... 92 415.12 Plain Concrete Pedestals and Footings ...................... . SECTION 416 -PRECAST CONCRETE .................................... _ .. .................................................................................... 92 416. i Notal ioTls ........ . .. _ ..... _ .... __ ............. .. ....................................... -- .... -.......... 92 .. .. _ .......... _.............. ...92 416.2 Scope_ .... _ ............................ _ ........................................... _ .. .. ........ _ .............. 92 416.3 General .................... .
4 ) 6.4 Distribution of Forces among Members ........................... .

.. ...... ..... ....... _ .. _ ...... 92

............ .. ... 93 .. ......... ........... 93 _.. _93 ...... _................ . ............. 94 416.8 Items Embcdue '[ \ncr Concrete Placement ............... . 416.9 Ma rking aud Ide ntification................ ............... ...................................................................... ....... ... ........ 94 4 16.10 I-Iandling ... __ ... _ .. _ ... _ ......... ...... _ .. _ .. ___ ......... _.......... .... ........ ..... _ .. __ ...... .... _ .. _._ ... _ ......................... .... _ .... _ ...... _ .... _ ..... 94 416.1 J Strength Evaluation of Precast Construction ..... _ ................ ..... ,............. ................. .......... ................ ... ........................ 94 SECTION 41 7 - COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL Mi;, ..\!8ERS ........................ ................................................... 95 417_1 Nota tions. .. .... _.... .. . .. ........... _ ........................................................................ _................ 95 417.2 Scope.. ..... ........ .......... .. ... ........... _ .................................... _ ........... _ .............. 95 4 17. 3 General .... _ .. _.... ...... ............ ...... .......... .. .. _.......... .. .. ...... 95 ................... .. ........ _ ..... _ .......... __ ...... _ ....... _ ............ _ ............... _ ........ _ .. _ ........... 95 417.4 Shoring.. .............. 417_5 Yenieal Shear Strength ................... ...................... .. ... _ .. _ ...... _ ........ .................... _ ......... _ .................................... 95 4 ) 7_6 Hori zontal Shear Strength ..... ................ ........... ....... .. ......... .. ............................................................. ................... 95 417_7 Ties for Horizontal Shear .......... .. _ .................. _ .. _ ........... _ .. _ .. ___ ............ _ ........................ _ ................. _ .. _96 SECTION 418 - PR ESTRESSED CON C RETE .................. .......... ........................................................................................ 97 418_1 Notations ............................ _....... . ....................................................... .. ................ _ ............ 97 4 18_2 Scope ...... .. _ .... _ .. _ ..................... _.. .... ...... ....... .. .... _.... ..... .. ....... 97 418 .3 Gene ral ............ _........... .. .. ........ ... _.......... ........ .... .... ........... .. .. .......... .. .. .... .... 97 ..................... _.... 98 418.4 Design Assumpti ons .. ................... . _ ...................... 98 418.5 Permissible Stresses ill COllcrc lc - Flexural Members ............ _ .. _ ..... __ ._ .. _ ..... ____ .. ___ .. _ .......... .. __ ............ __ ...... ___ .... _ .. _ .. ___ 99 418.6 Permissible Stress in Prestressi ng Tendons ............... . _ .. ...... .. .. .. __ .................... 99 418_7 Loss of Prestress ...... _ ...... _ ........ _ ................. .. .. ......................... ............ 99 4 18 .7.2 friction Loss in Post-Tensioning Tendons ... 100 418.8 Flexural Strength ...... _ .................. _ ...... 100 418.9 Limits for Reinforcc mcnt of Flex ural Members .... .100 4 18.1 0 Minim um Bonded Reinforcemcnt 4 I 8. II Stat ically Jnc.kl cl"minatc S tructures ..... .... .............. .... ....... ..... ........ ............. 101 418.12 Compression Members - Com bined Fl ex ural iH' .. i Axial Loads . .... 101 4 18_13 Slab Systems: ...... .. _ ..................... _ ...... ............ ____ ................. _ .... _ .............................. 102 4 18. 14 Post -Tensioned Tendon An chorage Zones. ................... .. .................. 103 4 I 8.15 Design of Anchorngc Zones for Monoslra nd ( Jr Single 16 I11Ill Diamcter Bar Tendons ........... ...... ........... .......... ........ 104 4 18.16 Design of Anchorage Zones for Mullislr:HH!,' J T L' ndons ................................................................................ 104 418.1 7 Corrosion Protection for Unboudcd Prc ~ll ~' .sing Tendons. . . .......................................... .. ............. ......... . 105 4 18.18 Post-Tensio ning Ducts.. .. .. _ .. __ ..... .. .. __ .. __ ........ . 105 418.! 9 Grou t for Bonded Prcstressing Tendon .......... .... .............. .. ... .......... ... 105 4 18.20 Protcction for Prestrcssing Steel ..... ... ......... .. ...................... 105 4 18.21 Applicat ion and Measurement of Prc" t .:ssing Forec........ . ............................................................................. 105 4 18.22 Post-Tensioning Anchorages ,mel COl!. tiers ......... ................. . ......... .......... .................... .... .............. ................ 106 4 ! 8.23 External Pust Tensioning .. .............. ............................. ... . .............. ...... .......... 109 SECTION 419 - SHELLS AND FOLDED PLATE MEMHERS .......... .............. .. ...... __ .............. " .. __ .... .. .......................... 109 419. 1 Notatio ns .... ......... ... .................... 109 4 19.2 Scope And Definit ions .................. . ................... 109 419.1 Analysis and Design. ......... ....... . ... J 10 4 19.4 Design strength ()f Materials.. .110 419.5 Shell Rci nforcemcIlL .... . .... ....... .... .............. .... .......... ...................... ......... 110 4 19.6 Construction ...... . ..... ......... ................... .................................... 11 1 SECTIO N 420 - STI!ENGTH EY ..II .UATION OF EX ISTING STlWCTURES .............. ........................................ __ ..... 112 420_1 Notations.... __ .. _ ........ ___ __ __ .. ___ .. __ _ __ ____ ......... __ .. __ .. __ .... _ .... ___ ..... 112 420.2 Strength Ev,liulitiollGencral ........... __ ........ ... ..... ..... ................. ..... ................. 11 2 416_5 Member Design ..................... ..

416.6 Structural Int egrit y .. 4 J 6.7 Con llection and Bearing Design

CHAPTEli 4" Concreto


420.3 Determination of Required Dimensions and Material PropcI1ics ...... .................. .............. .. .... 112 420A Load Test Procedure. .............. ......................... ................... .112 420.5 Loading Criteria .................... ........................ ... 113 420.6 Acceptance Criteria ............ .......... ............... ...... . .......... ............... ...................... 113 420.7 Provisions for Lower Load Rating.. ....... . .............. . ...... 113 420.8 Safety ............................ .............. ................. ....... ..... . ......................... 113
SECTION 421 - EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT STRUCTURES .................................................................................... II3 421.1 Notations.. ...... ...... .............. ........ . . ............ .............. ..... .. ... 114 421.2 Definitions. ...................................... ......... ..... ..................... .. ... 115 421.3 Genera! Requirements. . .... 116 421.3.0 Mechanical Splices in Special Moment Frames and Special Structural Walls ................... .. ............... ".. II? 42 J.4 Intermediate Precast StI1lc(ural WaJls ..................................... . ............ .. ..................... I J 8 421.5 Flexural Members of Special Moment Frames.. ...... J J 8 421.6 Special Moment Frame Subjected to Bending and Axial Load ............... . ..................... . . I !9 421.7 Joints of Special Moment Frames ..................... ..121 ... ............................. .. .. 122 421.8 Special Reinforced Concrete Structural Walts and Coupling Beams 421.9 Stmcturai Diaphragms and Trusses ................. ..... .......... ...... . 125 421.10 Foundations ................. ....................... .. ......... 127 421.11 Members not Designated as P;:U1 of the Seismic~Force~Resisting System.. . ............... .. ........... 128 421.12 Requirements for Intermediate Moment Frames, Seismic Zone 2. ..................... ........ 129 421.13 Special Moment Frames Using Precast Concrete.. . 130 421.14 Ordinary Momcll! Frames.. ............................. ................................ ...................... .. ... J 31 421.15 Special Structural Walls Constlllcted Using Precast Concrete. ........................... .. .... 131 SECTION 422 - STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE ..................................................................................................... 132 422.1 Notations.. ....................... .. .... 132 422.2 Scope.. ................ .............................. ... .............. ................... .. ...... 132 422.3 Limitations ........................................................ .. . ............... 132 422.4 Joints.. .. . 132 422.5 Design Method. ....................................................... .. ........... 133 422.6 Strength Design .... ........ . .................... . .. .......... .. . .. ... 133 422.7 Walls ....................................... .. ....... 134 .... 134 422.8 Footing ........................................ . 422.9 Pedestals ..................................................................................... .. . . ........... 135 422. JO Precast Members ...................................................................... . . ............ 135 422.1 J Plain Concrete in Earthquake-Resisting Structures. ................. 135 SECTION 423 - ANCHORAGE TO CONCRETE .......................................................................................................... 136 423. J Definitions.. ..................... .. ......... J 36 423.2 Scope. .. ............. 137 423.3 General Requirements. .. .. ....... . ........... ..... .. ........ ! 37 423.4 General Requirements for Strength of Anchors.. . ... 138 423.5 Design Requirements for Tensile Loading.. . ........ 139 426.6 Desing Requirements for Shear Loading.. .......... 141 423.7 Interaction ofTensiie and Shear Forces.... .............. 143 423.8 Required Edge Distances, Spacings, and Thickness to Preclude Splitting Failure.. .143 423.9 Installation of Anchors ................. .. ... ............... .. .. .......... 144 SECTION 424 - ALTERNATE DESIGN [I.1ETIIOI) ....................................................................................... .................. 144 424.1 Notalions.. .... 144 424.2 Scope. .. .. ......... 145 424.3 General. ............. ........................................... . ............ .... ................. .. ... ........... .. .. 145 . ... 145 424.4 Permissible Service Load Stresses .. 424.5 Development and Spliccs of Reinforcc1llcrll... ... 145 424.7 Compression Members With or Without Flexure.. ..146 424.R Shear and Torsion.. .. 146 SECTION 425 - ALTERNATIVE PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSEI) CONCRETE FLEXlJ RA LAND COM PRESSION [\oj EM BEllS .............................................................................................................. 148 425. I Scope. . .. 149

N;l!IOmll ~;!rllctlJr,cl) Code of the P!11lipPlnes


Edition Volume 1


CHAI'TEfi 4 Concrete

425.2 Redistribution of Negative Moments in Continuous Non-Prestressed Flexural Members ................... ". .. ............. , 1,'19 SECTION 426 - ALTERNATIVE LOAD AND STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS .............................................. 150 SECTION 427 STRUT AND TIE MODELS ....................................................................................................................... 152 427.1 Definitions .............. . ................. ................ 152 427.2 Strut-andTie Model Design Procedure.. ........................ ...................................... ............................... .. ....... 157 427.3 Strength of Struts.. . . ... ..... ............. . ............................ 157 427.4 Strength of Tie$.. ......... 158 ............. ........ ............................... .. ....... 159 427.5 Strength of Nodal Zones..

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPT ER 4 . Concrete


401.2.7 Concrete on Sleel form Deck

401.2.7.1 Design and constructi on of structural concrete

401.1 Nolalion
fe :;:: speci fled co rnprcssi ve strength of co ncrete, M Pa

slabs cast on stay-in-place. noncomposi te steel foml deck are governed by this chapter.
401.2.7.2 This chapter docs not govern th e co mposite design of structural concrete slabs cast on stay-ill-place, composite steel form dec k. Co ncre te used in the co nstruc tion of such slabs shall be governed by Sec tions 40 I 406 of .his chap'cr, where appli ca ble. Porti ons of

40).2 Scope
401.2.1 Thi s dwptcr prov ides minimum req uirement s for the design Clnd cons truc tion of structural concrete clements
of any building .or othe r structure under requirements of the


suc h slabs designed as re inforced co ncrete are govern ed by

.his Chapter.

Na.ional Building Code of .he Philippines of which .his Secti on of the National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume I. forms a part of. This section also covers the
strength eva lu ati on o f existing concrete stru ctures. For structural concrete,

401.2.8 Special Provisions for Earthquake Resistance 401.2.8.) In regions of modera.e (seismic Zone 2) o r high seismic risk (seismi c Zone 4). provisions of Section 421 shall be s isfied . Sec Sec.ion 421.3.1.
401.2.9 This chaptcr does not constructi on of tank s and reservo irs. govern
cle sign

No maxi mum value of Ie shall apply unl ess restricted by a

r. shall not be less than 17 MPa.

speci fi c code pro vision.


401.2.2 Thi s chapt er shall govern in all matters pertaining to the design, co nst ru cti on, and materi al properties of slmclUm] conc rete clements wherever this chapter is in
con m e t with req uirements contained in oth er stnndard s

referen ced in this chapter.

401.2.3 Design and construction of one- and two-family dwellings a nd multi ple s ingle-family dwellings (townhouses) and the ir accessory struclU res will be cove red by provisions of the National StruclUral Code of the Philippines, Volume III . Housing.

Guidance on design and construction of concrete tanks and reservoir shall be obtained frolll the American Concrete IIlS!i.u.e ACI 3500 I or ACI 35006 "Code Requirements fo r Ell virollmenw{ Engin eering Concre te Slru cru res" unless suffi cient supponin g ev id ence can be obta ined from
recogni zed literat ure.

401.2.4 For unu sua l structu res, sllch as arches. tanks ,

reservoirs, bills and silos, blast-resistan t st ructures . and
chimneys, provisio ns of thi s chapter sh~1I govern where

applicable. See also 422.2 .3.

401.2.5 Thi s chapter does not govern design alld installat ion of portions of COncrete piles and drilled pi e rs embedded in ground except for stm cllJrcs in regions of hi gh seismic risk
OJ' assigned to hi gh seismic performance or design ca tego rie s. Sec Sec ti on 421.10.4 fo r require me nts for co ncrete piles, drill ed piers. and caissons in stru ctures in regions o f hi g h scismic ri sk or ~Issig nc d to high sc is'mic performan cc or des ign Gl tcgorics ..

401.2.6 Thi s ch apt e r docs not govern design and construction o f soi l slIpPor1cd slabs , unless lhe slab transm it!>. vcnical l o~ds from other portions of the structllre to thl! soil.

Nation ;:ll Slruc.:tlJl"li Code o f th e Pt1itippines GIl> Edition Votunw 1


CHAPTU14 ' Concrete


The foHowing terms are defined for general usc in this
chapter. sections. Specialized definitions appear in individual

wires, or single bars larger than 16 mil) diameter, that satisfies Section 418.22.1 and the bearing stress and minimum plate stiffness requirements of AASHTO Standard Spec(fic(lfiof!s Jor Highway Bridges, 17'" l:-eJitioJl, 2002, Division I, Seclions through,4,
BONDED TENDON is a prestressing tendon that is bonded concrete either directly or through grouting.


ADMIXTURE is material other than water, aggregate, or

hydraulic cement used as an ingredient of concrete and

added to concrete before or during its mixing to modify its propcl1ics.

AGGREGATE is granular material, slIch as snnd, gravel, crushed stone and iron blast-furnace slag, and when used
with a cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar.
AGGREGATE, LIGHTWEIGHT is aggregate with a dry, loose weight of ! 120 kg/nY' or less.

BOUNDARY ELEMENT is that portion along stltldural wall and structural diaphragm edge strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Boundary clements do not necessarily require increase in the thickness of wall or diaphragm. Edges of opening within walls and diaphragms shall be provided with boundary elements as required by Section 421,8.6.2 or 421.9.7,5, Sec Section 421.
CEMENTlTlOUS MATERIALS arc materials as specified in Scction 403 which have cemcnting value when used in concrete either by themselves, such as pOitland celllent, blended hydraulic cements and expansive cemem, or such materials in combination with fly ash, raw or other calcined natural pozzolans, silica fume, or ground granulated blast-furnacc slag. COLLECTOR ELEMENT is an elemenl that acts in axial tension or compression to transmit earthquake-induced forces between a structural diaphragm and a vertical clement of the seismic-force-resisting system. See Section

AIR-DRY WEIGHT is the unit weight of a lightweight concrete specimen cured for seven days with neither loss nor gain of moisture at 15 C to 2r C and dried for 2 I days in 50 7 percent relative humidity at 23<1 C 1.1 () C.
ANCHORAGE DEVICE IN POSTTENSIONING is a device used to anchor tendons to concrete member; in prctensioning, a device used to anchor tendons during hardening of concrete. ANCHORAGE ZONE IN POSTTENSIONED MEMBERS is the portion of the member through which the concentratcd prestressing force is transferred to the concrete and distributed more uniformly across the section. Its extent is equal to the largest dimcnsion of the cross section. For intcrmediate anchorage devices, the anchorage zone includes the disturbed regions ahead of and behind the anchorage devices. BASE OF STRUCTURE is Ihal Icvel at which Ihe horizontal earthquake ground motions arc .assurlled to be imparted to a building. This Jevel docs not necessarily coincide with the ground level. Sec Section 421. BASIC MONOSTRAND ANCHORAGE DEVICE is an anchorage device used \vith ;lIlY single strand or a sin,glC' 16 I11Ill or smaller diameter bar that satisfies Scction 41 B.22.1 and the anchorage device requirements of the PostTensioning Institu(e's "Speciflcatio/l fo/' UlI/)OIl(/e(/ Single
.)', /'(111(/ Tel/(/olls ".

COLUMN is a mcmber with a ratio of height-to-Ieastlateral dimcnsion of 3 or greatcr used primarily to support axial compressive load. For a tapered mcmber, the least lateral dimension is thc average the top and bottom dimensions of the smaller side.


COMPOSITE CONCRETE FLEXURAL MEMBERS arc concrete flexural members of precast and cast-in-place concrete clements, or both, constructed in separate placements but so interconnected that all clements respond to loads as a unit. COMPRESSIONCONTROLLED SECTION is a cross section in which the net tensile strain in the cxtreme tcnsiOll steel at nominal strength is less than or equal to the c()lllprcssion"colltrollcd strain limit. COMPRESSIONCONTROLLED STRAIN LIMIT is the net tensile strain at balanced strain conditions. Sec Section 4 J 0.4.3.

BASIC MULTlSTRAND ANCHORAGE DEVICE IS an anchorage device used with multiple strands. hal'S or

CONCHETE is a ll1ixture of portland cement or any other hydraulic CClllellt, line aggregate, coarse aggregate (tIle! watcr, with or without admixtures.

!\ssocinIIOI\ of

:~)tnlClllI ' ;ll r:nCJllw~r;Is


th('~ Philippin(?~,

CHAPTER 4 . Concrele


. CONCRETE, NOIlMALWEIGHT is concrete containing only nggregate Ihat co nforms to ASTM C33. . CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT is lightweiglll concrclc cOiliaining only norm al weight aggregate IhaL confonns to ASTM C33 and only lighlweighl aggregate that confonns to ASTM C330. SPECII'IED COM PRESS IV E CONCRETE, STRENGTH OF (j',) is the compressive strength of concrete used in design and evaluated in accordance with provisions of Section 405 in MPa. Whenever the quantity f, is under a radica l sign, square root of numerical val ue only is intended, and resuh has units of MPa. CONCIlETE, STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT is concrete containing lightweight aggregate that conforms to " Section 403.4 and has an air-dry unit weight as determined by "Test Method for Ullit Weight of Smlclurai Lightweight COllcrete" (ASTM C 567) not exceeding 1840 kg/nI'. In this code, a li ghtwe ight concrete containi ng on ly li ght we ight coarse and fine aggregates that co nform to ASTM C330 is termed "concrete, all-lightweight ", and lightweight co ncrete containin g li ghtweight aggregate and an equilibrium density, as determined by ASTM C567, betwee n 1440 kg/m) and 1840 kg/m3, is termed "concrete, Ji gh twcight." CONNECTION is a region that joins two o r more Secti on 421, a con nection also refers to a regio n that joins members of which one or more is precast, for whi ch the following more specific defini ti ons apply:

hooks with at least six-diameter extension at the other end . The hooks shall engage peripheral longiludinal bars. TI,e 90-degrce hooks of two successi ve crosslies engaging the same longitudinal bars shall be alternated end for end. See Sections 407,421. CU Il V ATURE FRICTION is friction resulting from bends or curves in the spccifi ed prestrcssing tendon profile. DEFORlVlED REIN FO R CEMENTS are deformed reinforcing bars, bar and rod mats, de(c'nned wire. welded smooth wire fabric and welded deformed wire fabric conforming 10 Section 403.6.3. DESIGN DISPLACEMENT is the total lateral displacement expected for the design-basis earthquake, as required by the governing code for earthq uake-resistant des ign. See Section 42 1. DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS are the combinati on of factored loads and forces in Secti on 409.3. DESIGN STORY DRIFT RATIO is the relative difference of design displacement in between the top and bottom of a Slory, divided by the Slory height. See Section 421 . DEVELOPMENT LENGTH is th e lenglh of embedded rei nforcement required to develop the design strengl h of reinforcemem at a criti caJ sectio n. See Secti on 409.4.3. DIlOP PANEL is a projection below the slab used to

members. In

DUCTILE CONNECTION is a connection Ihal experie nces yielding as a result of the. earthq uake design displacements. STIlONG CONNECTION a connection Ihat remains elas ti c while adjoining members experience yielding as a res ult of the cal1hquake design displacements. CONT RA CT DOCUMENTS arc documents, including the project drawings and project specifications. covering the requ ired Work . CONT RA CTION JOINT is a formed, sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete structure to create a weakened plane and regulate Ihe location of cracking resu lting frol1l the dimcnsionnl chnngc of different parts mlhe slnlClU rc . COVE ll, SPECIFIED CONCRETE is Ihe diSl.nce

reduce the amount of negative reinforcement over a column

or the minimum required slab thickness. and to increase the slnb shear strength. Sec Seclions 413.3.5 and 413.4. 7. DUCT is a conduit (plain or corrugated) to accommodate prestressing steel for post-tensioned install ation. Requirements for post-tensioning ducts are given in Section 418.18. EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF SECTION (d) is the di slance measu red from ex.treme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement. EFFECTIVE PIlESTRESS is Ihe Slress remai ning in prestressing tendons after all losses have occu rred. excluding effects of dead load ilnd superimposed load. EMBEDM ENT LENGTH is Ihe lengl h of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section. EQUILlUIlIUM DENSITY is th e density of li ghtweiglH concrete after exposure 10 a relmi ve humidit y of 50 5 percent and a tempera ture of 2].00 2.(X)O C for a period of lime sufficient to reac h cons tant de nsity (see ASTM C567).

between the outermost surface of embedded reinforcement and thc closes t (lu ter surrace of the concrete indica ted o n

design drawings o r in project specificat ions.

c nOSSTIE is a (';OlllinliO liS reinforci ng bar ha vi ng a seismic hook a\ one end and a hook not less than IJO-degrcc

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CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

EXTREME TENSION STEEL is the reinforcement (prestressed or nonpre.'itrcssed) that is the fm1hesl from the extreme compression fiber. HEADEJ) DEFORMED BARS are deformed reinforcing

MODULUS 01' ELASTICITY is Ihe ratio of normal .<Iress 10 correspondi ng strain for tensile or compressi ve ~; !;c :-,!-,.'.S below proporlional limit of tnillClial. See Section ~1 'Y-i.i_.. MOMENT FRAME is a fr.amc in which


bars with heads att,lehed at one or both ends. I-leads arc attached to fhe bar end by means such as welding or forging
onto the bar, int ernal threads on the hend mating


joints res ist forces through Jlcxure, shear, and axial force. Moment framcs designated as pan of the scismicfor cc~ resis ting system sha ll be categorized as follows:
ORDINARY MOMENT FRAME is a c'lSl-in -pl,,; ... " precast concrete frame complying with Ihe requirCl1l1..'.ilt:: i iI' Sections 401 to 418, and, ill the case of ordinary mOI!:" : ~ l rrames assigned 10 areas with low seis mi c ri sk. :d:-"'_.I c:o mplying with Section 421 . 14. INTERMEDIATE MOMENT PRAME is a cast- in-place frame complying with the requi remeIHs of Section 421.12 II! addilion to the requirements for ordinary moment frrlmes. SPECIAL MOM ENT PRAME a cast- ill-plaee fra me complying wit h the requi rements of Seclian 42 1.3 .4 thrOllp i: 42 1.3.7, 42 !.5 through 421. 7, or a precast fraille complyi lfg with the requirements of Sectio n 421.5 through 421. ;; . 42 J J 3.1 through 421 . 13.4. Jn addition, the requireme nts L ordinary momen! frames shall be satisfied. NET TENSILE STRAIN is the lensile sirain at Ilomin;': strength exclusive of st rains due to effective prestres :~> creep. shrinkage and Icmperilwfc. PEDESTAL is an Upri glH co mpression member with a rmin of unsupponed heigh! to average least lateral dimcnsion nol cxceeding 3. For a tapered member, the lensl lateral dimension is Ihe average of the top und ho ttom dimensions of the smalier side. PLAIN CONCRETE is !-;trllctura l concrete with Ih"1 reinforcement or with less reinforcement {han Ihe minimlHil amouill specilied for reinforccd concrctc. PLAIN REINFORCEMENT is reinforceme lll Lhal doc; not co nform to definition of deformed reinforceme n!. Sec Section 401.6.4. PLASTIC HING E REGION is Ihe Iellgl h of fra ll;;dement over whi ch Il cx ural yielding is intended to OCCli l d u t.~ to canh quakc design displac.:mcnts, cxte nding not less than a distance. II from the c:rilic:al !-;cclioll where ncxlInll yiel ding i nitiatc!-;. Sec Section 421 . POST-TENS IONING is il method of prestressing ill which Icndolls <Ire te nsioned nfter conc retc hilS harde ned.

on the bar end, or a separate threaded nut to secure the head of the bar. The Ilet bealing area of headed dcfonnt'd bar equals the gross area of the head minus th e larger of Iht, arC:l of the bar and the area of any obstructioll. HEADED SHEAR STUD REINPORCEMENT is a reinforcement consisting of individual headed studs. or groups of studs. wi th anchorage provided by a head at each end or a common base rail consisting of a stee l plate. or shape_

HOOP is a closed ti e or cOOli nuously wou nd tie . A closed tie can be made up o f severa l reinforcement clements each having hooks at both ends. A continuous ly wound tic shall have a seismic hook at bolll ends. See Sectio n 42 1.
ISOLATION JOINT is a separati on bel ween adjoining

parts of a concrete structure, usually a vertical plane. at a designed location such as to interfere least with performance of the structure, yet such as to all ow relative movement in three directions and avoid fonnation of cracks elsewhere in
the concrete and through which all or pan of the bonded reinforcement is intenupted .

JACKING FORCE is Ihe lemporary force exerted by device that introduces tension into prestressing tendons in prestressed concrete. JOINT is tI pan ion of struct ure common to intersec ting members. The effect ive cross-seclionnl area of a joint of a special momcnt frame, AI. for shear strength comp utalions is defined in Seclion 421_7.4.1. LOAD, DEAD is the dead weight sllpponed by a member. as defined by Section 204 (without load factors).

LOAD, FACTOn g J) i:-) the load, multiplied by ilppropr i<l1c load factors, u:-)cd to proportion memhers hy the strength de:-iign method of thi s chClptcr. Sec Sections 408.2.1 and
LOAD, LIVE is the live load specilicd by Section 205 (without load factors). LOAJ), SEIlVICE is the load specified by Sections 204 10 207 (wit houl load lilclolS).

pnECAST CONCRETE is a strucltlral COIKl"el C elemelll <.:;Isl in othe r than ils final position in Ihe slruclurc.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete

4 11

pRJECmilPIU;SS;ED TENSILE ZONE is that pOI1ion of

member where flexural tension, calculated

grosS section properties, would occur under dC<ld and l ive loads if the prestress force was not

concrete, to provide corrosion protection, and corrosion inhibiting coating.


contain the

SHORES arc vertical or incli ned suppon members des igned to ca rry the weight of the forrnwork, concrete and constl1lclion loads above.
SPAN LENGTH . See Secti on 408. 10. SPECIAL' ANCHOHAGE DEVICE is an anchorage device thai satisfi es Section 4 18. 16. 1 and the standardi zed acceptance tests of AAS HTO "Standa rd Specifications for Highway Bridg{!s ", 17" Editioll, 2002, Division II, Section SPECIAL BOUNDARY ELEMENT is a boundary clement required by Sec tions 421 ,8,6.2 or 42 SPIRAL REINFORCEMENT is contin uously wound reinforcement in Ihe foml of a cylindri cal heli x. SPLITTING TENSILE STRENGTH
(f;,) is the tensi le

CONCRETE is stl1JclUral concrete ill

: which internal stresses have bee n int roduced to redu ce

' po!entli'''! tensil e stresses ill concrete res ulting from loads.



hi gh-strength Sh::cJ cl em e nt

stich as wire. bar, or :-trand, Of a hundlc o f such cle men ts,

used to impart prcstrc,,, forces to t:oncrclc.


a method of prestressin g in wh ich

tendons arc tensioned be fore co ncrete is pl a(;ed.

REINFORCED CONCRETE is st rllctural concrete reinforced with 110 less tlum the mini mum amounts of prestressin g tendons or non prcslrcsscd rein force men t specified ill this chap ter.

REINFORCEMENT is mate ri al th"lt conform s to Section

403,6, exclud ing prestressin g ten dons unl ess specificall y included. RESHORES arc sho res pl aced sllu g l y under a CO IKTC iC slab or othe r stfuclUfal member after the original fo rms and
shores have been re moved rrom a large r area, thus req u iring

slrength of concrete delerm ined in accordance with ASTM C496M as described ill "Specificatiolls for Ught weight Aggregar{! for Structural Con crete " (ASTM C330). See

containing dispersed rando ml y oriented steel fi bers .

STIRUUP is reinforcement used to resist shear and torsion stresses in a Slillctural me mber; typicall y bars, wires, or welded wire fabri c (plain or defonned) bent into L, U or

the new slab or s[nIctural mcmber to deflect and support its own weight and existing construction loads applied pri or to fh e installat ion of the res hores.
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGOHY is a cl ass ification assigned to a stru cture based on it s occ upancy t:tl lcgo ry and the severit y or the design earthquake ground motion at th e site. as defin ed hy the lega ll y adoptcd ge ncral building code. SEISMICFORCERESISTING SYSTEM is a portion of the struclUrc designed to res ist earthq uake design forces

rectan gular shapes and located perpendi cul ar


or at an

<Ingle to lo ngitudi na l re inforceme nt. The term "stirrups" is usually (Ipplied to lateral reinforceme nt in llex ural me mbers
and the term "ties" to (hose in compression membe rs. Sce

also "Tie."

required by th e legall y adopted general buildin g code using the applicable provisions and load combinations.

STRENGTH, DESIGN is the no minal strength multiplied by a st rength -reducti on factor, . See Secti on 409.4 . STnENGTH, NOMINAL is the stren gth o f a memb er o r cross secti on calcula ted in accordance with provisions and assumptions of thc strc ngth design mcthod of thi s chaptcr

SEISMIC HOOK is a hoo k on a stirrup. or crosstie ha ving a bend not less th an 135 degrees, exce pt thaI circula r hoops Shall have a bend nor less than 90 degrees. I-Itx)ks shall have a 6dv, but not less than 75 mm extellsion tha t engages the
longitUd inal reinforceme nt and pruje<.:ts into the interior of the stirru p or hoop. Sec Section 407.2.4 and Section 42 1.2.
SHEAR CAP is a projec t below the slab used In increase

before appl ication

Section 409.4. 1.


any strengl h~reduct ion factors . See

STRENGTH, REQUIRED is the strength of " member or

the sl:! h she;lr strength . See Secti on 4 1J.3.6. SHEATHING is a malcri:!1 cncas ing a prestressing tl~!l(l on to prevent bonding the tendon with the surroullding

cross secti on required to resi st factored loads or reltltcd internal moments and forces ill stich combinations :IS arc stipul <lled in Ihis chapter. Scc Sectio n 409.2. 1.

STRESS is the intensi ty of force per unit arCl!.

Nationa l Structural Coclo of the Plli!ippirw s 6 Edition Volume 1


4 -12

CHAPTE11 4 - Concrete

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE is all concrete used for s tructural purposes , including plain and reinforced conc rete. STRUCTURAL DIAPHRAGM is a structural member, such as a fl oor or roof slab, th at transmits forces acting ill the plane of the member to Ihe vertica l elements of the seismic-force-resis ti ng syste m. See Secti oll 42J for requirements in the earthquake-resisting structures. STRUCTURAL TRUSS is an assemb lage of reinforced concrete members subjected primarily to ax ial forces. STRUCTURAL WALL is a wa ll propoJ1ioned to resi st combinations of shears, moments, and axial forces. A shear wall is a structural wall. A structural wall designated as part of Ihe seismic-force-resisting system shall be categorized as fo ll ows: ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE WALL is a wall complying with the requirements of Section 422. ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL is a wall co mplying with the req uirement s of Secti ons 401 through 4 J 8. INTERMEDIATE PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL is a waJl complying with all app licable requirements of Sections 40 1 through 41 8 in addition to 42 1. SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL is a cast-in-place or precast wa ll shall comply with the requirements of Sections 421.3.3 through 421.3.7, 421.8 and 421.15 as app licable, in addition to the requirements ror ordinary reinforced concrete stnlclUral w'llls.

TRANSFER LENGTH is [he length of embedded pretensionedstrand rcquired to transfer the effective prestress to (he concrete. UN BONDED TENDON is tendon in whi ch the prestressing steel is prevented from bonding to (he l:oiic retc and is free 10 move relative to the concrete. The prestressing force is pcnnanently transferred to the concrete al the tendon ends by anc horage only.

WALL is a member, usually vertical, IIsed to enclose or separate spaces.

WELDED WIRE REINFOR CEMENTS are rei nf(.rcing elements consisting of ca rbon-steel plain or defo rmed W ires, confo rming to ASTM A82 or A496, respectively, fabrica ted int o sheets 0 1' rolls in accordance with ASTM A 185 or A497M, respectively; or reinforci ng elements consisti ng of stainless-steel plain or deformed wires fab ricated into sheets or roll s conformi ng to ASTM A I 022. 'W OBBLE FRICTION in prestressed co ncrete is I'!iction caused by unintended deviation of prestressi ng sheath or duct from its specified profile.


\\fORK is the entire co nstlllclion or separately identifiable pans Ihereof that are requi red to be fUl1lished under the contract documents.
YIELD STRENGTH is the specified minimum yie ld strength or yield point of reinforcemenl in MP a. Yield strength or yield point shall be determ ined ill tension accord ing to appli cable ASTM standards as modified by Section 403.6 of this code.
:,,: .

TENDON. In pretcllsioned app lications. the tendon is the pres tressin g steel. In pos t-tensi oned appli cations, the tendon is a complete assembly consisti ng of. anc horages, prestressi ng steel. and shea ting with coating ror unbounded applications or duc ts with grout fo r bonded applications.
TENSION-CONTROLLED SECTION is a cross section in which th e Ilet tensile strain ill the extreme tension steel at nom inal strengt h is greate r than or equal [ 0 O.(XJ5.
<I loop of reinfori.:i'ng btlr or wire enclosing IOllgiwdin;tl reinforcement. A co ntinuously wound bar or wire in the for m of a circle. rectangle or other polygoll shape without re-entra lll corners is acceptable. 'Sec "Stirrup."

TIE is

T1lANSFEIt is the ac t of transferri ng stress in prestressing tcndons from jads or prctcnsioning bed to (;Oilcrett! me mber.

Association of Structural Enqineeni of tlln

Ph l hrpUlf:~

CHAPTER 4 - Concrete


403.4 Aggregates

403.4.1 Concrete aggregates shall conform to one of the rollowing specifications:

"SpecijicmiollsJor Concrete Aggregares" (ASTM C 33):
yield ""ength of non prestressed reinforcement, MPa ::: nomin al diameter of bar, wire, or prestressing strand,

= specified

"SpecijicariollS Jar Lighrweighr Aggregates for Srl"Ucrurai

COllcme" (ASTM C 330).

Tests of Materials
TIle engineer may require the testing of any 'materialS used in concrete constnJctioll to determine if malerla" are of quality speci fied.
Tests of materials and of concrete s hall be made in ' ac,cordal1ce with the standards listed in Section 403 .9.

Aggregates failing (0 ' meel the above specifications but which have been shown by special tcsL or aC{lJal service (0 produce concrete of adequate s trength and durability ma y be used where authoriz.ed by the engineer-of-rccord. 403.4.2 The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not be larger than: I. 2.

One fifth (1/5) the narrowest dimension between sides of rOfln s; or One third (113) the depth of slabs: or
Three fourth s (3/4) Ihe minimum clear spaci ng between . individual reinforci ng bars or wires, bundl es of bars, or prestressing tendons or dUClS.

403.2.3 Complete record of tests of Illmclials and of ; concrete shall be available for inspect iOIl durin g prog ress of , work and for two (2) years after COJllph~ lion of [he project, br as required by the implementing agency and shall be preserved by the engineer for that purpose.

These limitations may be waived if, in the judgmcm of the engineer, workability and methods of consolidation are sllch thal concrete can be placed without honeycomb or voids.
403.5 Wat er 403.5.1 Wilter used in mixing conc rete shall be clean and free from injuriolls amounts of oils, acids, alkalis, sa lts, organic materials or other substances deleteri ous to concrete or reinforcement.

403.3 Cement
; 403.3.1 Cement shall con form

one of the following

"Specifications/or Pon/wu/ Cement" (ASTM CI50). "Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Celllellls" (ASTM C 595M), excluding Types S and SA which arc not intended as principal ceme nting constituents of structural conc rete. "Specifications for Expollsil'e Hydraulic Cel11e"," (ASTM

C 845).
Fly ash and natural pozzolan: ASTM C618. Groulld-granulmed blast-I"uflwcc s lag: ASTM C989.
Silica fume: ASTM C!.'40.

403.5.2 Mixing water fo r prestresscd concrete or for concrete that will corllain aluminum embedments, including that portion of mi xing water contributed in the form of free moisture 011 aggregates, shall not con tain deleterious amounts of ch loride ions. See Section 404.6. I . 403.5.3 NOIl-p0lable waler shall not be lIsed in concrete unless the rollowing :lfe satisfied :
403.5.3.1 Seleclion of concrele prnp0l1 ioils shall be
on co ncrete mixes using w<ucr from the same source.


403.3.2 Cement used in th e work shall correspond to (hat on which selection of COllnc (c proporti ons was based . See Section 405.3 .

403.5.3.2 Mortar tc st cubes made with nonpowblc mi xing water shall have 7-day and 28-day strengths equal to a( k:ast 90 percent of strcngths of similar specimens made with pmablc water. Strength test co mparison shall be Il1tlde on 11l0l1ars, identical except for lhe mixing waler, prepared il nd

Nationa l Structural Code of th e Pll i1ippines G(I\ Edition Volume 1


CHAPTER 4 Concrete

tested in accordance with "Tesl Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (using 50-nun Cube Specimens)" (ASTM C 109).
403.6 Steel Reinforcement 403.6.1 Reinforcement shall be deformed reinforcement, except that plain reinforcement sh:lll be permitted for spirals or prestressing steels; and reil;iorcement consisting of headed shear studs, structural steel, steel pipe or steel tubing shall be permitted only for resisting shear under conditions specified in Section 411.6.6.1(6). 403.6.2 Welding of reinforcing bars shall conform to "Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel", ANSIIAWS DIA of the American Welding Society. Type and location of welded splices and other required welding of reinforcing bars shall be indicated on the design drawings or in the project specifications. ASTM reinforcing bar specifications, except for ASTM A 706M, shall be supplemented to require a report of material properties necessary to conform to requirements in ANSI! AWS D1.4. 403.6.3 Deformed Reinforcements 403.6.3.1 Deformed reinforcing bars shall conform to one of

Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 496M). exccpt that wire shall not be smaller than size MD25 or larg'' ii i i \i .' i ~ MD200 unless as permitted in Section 403.6 .. h " '" with a specified yield streilgth /y exceeding . ,'~ i:j lvi r'a, /;. shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0 ..,) ptrC(llt. 403.6.3.6 Welded

plain wire fabric for concrete reinforcement shall conform to "Specijicalio!/.I /H )'teel

Welded Wire, Fabric, Plain for Concrete Reinfo/"u , iOll" (ASTM A 185M), except that for wire with a ' Id strength fy exceeding 415 MPa, 1,. shall be taken :i\ iIC

stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percen!. \Vc-J.:1ed intersections shall not be spaced farther apart j i'; ':1 ~(jn ' . :'1 ) in direction of calculated stress, except for ",ii; 'K ,i as stirrups in accordance with Section 412.14.2.
403.6.3.7 Welded deformed wire fabric I'OJ COllecte reinforcement shall confonn to "Specifications for .; ('({

Welded Wire Fabric, Deformed, fo ,("on , .rf'-{(~ Reinforcement" (ASTM A 497M), except lhal for wire with a specified yield strength fy exceeding i~)5 MPa, .r;. shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of" (LIS pt.TccnL Welded intersections shall not be spaced faIlli, ' ~q!, ! n ; ,an

the following specifications, except as pennitted by Section

403.6.3.3: 1. "Specifications for Deformed and Pia ill Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 615M)

400 mm in direction of calculated stress, eX I ' T (01 e fabric used as stirrups in accordance with SeCl I');) " .". " Deformed wire larger than MD200 is 'penllitt';';j w li::;] in welded wire reinforcement conforming :0 /\,' . A497M, but shall be treated as plain wire for de vtlnplJlC lJ1. and splice design.
403.6.3.8 Galvanized reinforcing bars shaU comply wi(\t "Specifications for Zinc"Coated (Galvanized) Steel!Jol.\.{ il Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 767M) . Epoxycoal ed reinforcing bars shall comply with "Specification ior Epoxy~Coated Reinforcing Steel Bars" (ASTfd A 77.'>1/:' () J with "Specifications for Epoxy-Coated Prefabli(,j!i'o' ci Reinforcing Bars" (ASTM A 934M). Galvanii:ed (II c,

for seismic resisting members.

2. "Specifications for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement" (ASTM A 706M) for

members resisting earthquake induced forces .

403.6.3.2 Deformed reinforcing bars shall conform to one of the ASTM specifications listed in Section 403.6.3.1 , except that for bars with/y exceeding 415 MPa,/y shall be taken as the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percent. See Section 409.5. 403.6.3.3 Deformed reinforcing bars conforming to ASTM AI035 shaH be permitted to be used as transverse

coated reinforcement shall conform to specifications listed in Section 403.6.3. I .


403.6.3.9 Epoxy-coated wires and welded wire fal ;) Ii comply with "Srandard Specification for LI)()xy ("//i : C( " Steel Wire and Welded Wire Fabric for Rei'!f(!/"{"( .'!; (ASTM A 884M). Epoxy-coated wires shall ",,, I,' Section 403.6.3.5 and epoxy-coated welded wile i (illl; conform to Section 403.6.3.5 or 403.6.3.6.

reinforcement in Section 421.6.4 or spiral reinforcement ill

Section 410.10.3. 403.6.3.4 Bar mats for concrete reinforcement shall conform to "5jJecijicatiollS for Fabricated D(formed Steel Bar Mats for COllcrete Reillforcemellt" (ASTM A 184M). Reinforcing bars used in bar mats shall conform to one of

403.6.3.10 Deformed stainless-steel wire. and deformed ;;:id plain stainless-steel welded wire for concrete I"cinf01n l: lit shall conform to ASTM l022M, except deformed wire .',i; 'll!

the specifications listed in Section 403.6.3.1.

403.6.3.5 Deformed wire for concrete reinforcement shall conform to "Specificatiolls for Steel Wire , Dtjomzed, for

not be smaller than size MD25 or larger t1' . .. ~ and the yield strength for wire with Iv eXC l"\'; ill' shall be taken as the stress correspond(ng to a s{rall! 01 U .j) percent. Deformed wire larger than MD200 is PCI i' :: : (d where used in welded wire reinforcement confo!"lllilig to

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete


ASTM AI022M. but sha ll be o'eated as plain wire for ' development and splice design. Spacing of welded

Section 410./7.7 or 410.17.8. shall confolln to one of the following specifications:

I. "Specifications for Carbon Sree/" (ASTM A 36M).

: inte.",;.;ctions shall not exceed 300 mm for plain welded wire

:: and 400 mm for deformed welded wire in direction of
~ caJculntcd stress, except for welded wire reinforcement used '; as stirrups in accQrdance with Section 412.14.2.


"Specifications for Hi gh-Strenglh Low-All oy Stilletural Steel" (ASTM A 242M).

"Specificafiolls Jor High -Strength Low-Alloy Columbium- Vanadium Sleds of Structural Quality" (ASTM A 512M) . "Specificatiolls for ihiJ,-Slrength Low-Allo), Slruclural Sleel " with 345 MPa (ASTM A 588M). "Specifications A992M).

403.6.4 Plain Reinforcement

. . 403.6.4.1 Plain bars for s piral reinforcement shall conform to one of the following specification: ASTM A615M or A706M . 403.6.4.2 Plain wire for spi ral reinforcement shall confonn to "Specifications f or Steel Wire. Plain, for Concrete Reinjorcemem" (ASTM A 82M), except Ihal for wire wilh a specified yield strength!, exceeding 415 MPa./, shall be the stress corresponding to a strain of 0.35 percent.

4. 5.





403.6.7.2 Steel pi pe or tubin g fo r composite compress ion members composed of a steel -encased concrete core meeting requirements of Section 410.17.6 shall conform to one of the following specifications:

403.6.5 Headed Shear Stud Reinforcement 403.6.5.1 Headed studs and headed stud assembl ies shall confonn to ASTM AI044M . 403.6.6 Prestressing Tendons
403.6.6.1Tendons for prestressed reinforcement confoml to one of the foll ow in g speci fi cati ons :

Grade B of "Specifications for Pipe, Steel. Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coaled Welded alld Seamless" (ASTM A 53M).


"Specifica tions for Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tllbing ill Rounds and Shapes" (ASTM A SOOM) . "Specijications Jo r flor-Formed Welded alld Seamless Carboll Sleel Tllbillg" (ASTM A 50 1M).



Wire conforming to "Specifications for Uncomed Stress-Relieved Steel Wire for Prestressed Con crete " (ASTM A 42 1M).
Low-re la xati on wire cOllformin g 10 "SjJecijicoliolls for Uncoated Stress- Relieved SU 'e/ Wire for Prestressed Concr ete " including Su pplemcill "Lt) w-Reiaxarioll Wire " (ASTM A 421 M) Strand conforming (0 "SpecificmiollS for Steel Stn/fld, Un COaTed Seven- Wire for Prestressed COl/ crete " (ASTM A416M). Bar conforming to "Specijicllliolls fo r Uncoated HighStrength Steel Bar Jor Prestressing Conc rete " (ASTM A 122M)


403.6.8 Steei discon tinuou s fiber reinforcement fo r concrete shall be deformed alld conform to ASTM A820M. Steel fibers have a lell gl lHo~diameter ratio not smaller than 50 and not grealcr than 1 00. 403.6.9 Headed defo rmed bars shall co nform to ASTM A970M and obsll1lclions or interruption s o f th e bar defonnati ons. if any. shall not extend Illorc lhan 2th rrom the bearing face or the head.



403.7 Admixtures
403.7.1 Admixtures fo r water reduction and setting time modification shall co nform ASTM C494M . Admixtures for usc in producing nowing concrete shall conform ASTM C IOI7M. 403.1.2 Air-entrain ing admixlUrcs shall conform to "Specificmio flslor Air-EllIrai"inlj Admixtures fur CO/l crete" (ASTM C 260). 403.7.3 Admixtures to be used in conc rete lhat do 110t conforl1l lO Sections 403.7.I .ilnd 403.7.2 s ha ll be subject to prior approval by the engineer.

403.6.6.2 Wire, strands , and bars not specifically listed in ASTM A 4 16M . A 421M alld A 122M arc allowed. provided they con form to minimum requirements or Ihesc spccifications and do not have prOI)Cl1ics that make thcm less satisractory (han those listed in these s pecificati ons. 403.6.7 Structural Steel, Steel Pipe or Tubing 403.6.7.J Stmctur<ll steel used with reinforci ng bars in co mpositc co mpress io n mcmbers meeting req uirements of

Nationa l Structural Code of the Pl1ilippine s Sill Edition Volume 1


CHAPTER 4 . Concrete

403.7.4 Calcium chloride or admixtures containing chloride from other than impurities from admixture ingredients shall not be used in prestressed concrete, in concrete containing embedded aluminum, or in concrete cast against stay-inplace galvanized steel forms. See Sections 404.6.1 and 406.3.2. 403.7.5 Fly ash or other pozzolans used as admixtures shall conform to "Specificalions/or Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzo/an for Use as a Mineral Admixture in POri/and Cement Concrete" (ASTM C 618),

A185/A18507 Standard Specifications for Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement
A242/A242M04a Standard Specifications Strength Low~Alloy StructuraL Steel for High.

A307/A307~07a Standard Specijication for Steel Bolts and Studs, 415 MPa Tensile Strength.


A416/A416M()(; Standard Specificatiolls for SIal Slrand, Uncoated Seven~Wirefor Prestressed Concrete
A42J/A421~05 Stress~Relieved

403.7.6 Ground granulated blast-furnace slag used as an admixture shall conform to "Specifications for Ground
Granufoted Blast-fumace Slag for Use in Concrete and Mortars" (ASTM C 989).

Standard Specifications for Uncoated Steel Wire for Prestressed Concrete

A496/A49607 Srandard Specificatians for Steel Wire, Deformed, jar Concrete Reinforcement A497/A49707 Standard Specifications for Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Deformed, for Concrete Reinforcement ASOO/ASOO07 Standard Specifications for ColdFormed Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel Structural Tubing in Rounds and Shapes

403.7.7 Admixtures used in concrete containing ASTM C845 expimsive cements shall be compatible with the cement and produce no deleterious effects.

403.7.8 Silica fume used as an admixture shall conform to

"Specificatioll for Silica Fume for Use in Hydraulic-Cement Concrete and Mortar" (ASTM C 1240).

403.8 Storage of Materials

403.8.1 Ccmentitious materials and aggregate shall be
stored in such manner as to prevent deterioration or intrusion of foreign Imitter.

A50 II A50 1-07 Standard Specifications jor fiat-Formed Welded and Seamless Carboll Steel Structural Tubing
A5721 AS7207 Standard Specifications Low-Alloy Columbium- Vanadium Steels

for High Structural

403.8.2 Any material that has deteriorated or has been contaminated shal! not be used for concrete.

AS88/A588M~OS Standard Specifications for High.s'trength Low-ALloy Structural .)'teel up to 345 MPa minimum yield point with Atmospheric Corrosion

403.9 Standards Cited in this Chapter

403.9.1 In the absence of the Philippine National Standard (PNS), Standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) referred to in this chapter listed below with their serial designations, including year of adoption or revision, arc declared (0 be part of this code as if fully set forth herein:
A361 A36M05 ,)'tJ'Uct/lral Steel Standard SpecUlcatiol1S for Carboll

A61SIA615M-07 SWlldard Specijications for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars jor Concrete Reinforcement A 706/A 706M-06a Standard Specifications for Low-Alloy Steel Deformed Barsfor Concrete Reinforcemelll A 7221 A 722-07 Standa,.d Sp(~cifica(ions for UnCOOfu/ High-Strength Steel Bar/or P}'(~stressillg Concrete
A 76 7I A 767M ~OS Statu/ard S/J'cificatiolls for Zi,u -Coaled (Galvanized) Steel Barsfor COil crete Reinjoram('J/t

Standard SpeClficatiolls for Pipe, Sted, Black and lim-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded (Ind Seamkss A821 AB2-07 Standard Spec!fications for Steel Wire, Plain, for Concrcte Reit(forcemelll Standard 5'pec(ficatiolls for Fabricated Dljonlled S'rcel Bar Mats/or COJJcrete ReiJ!forcement
A 1841 AI 84-06

A . 531 A53 .. 07

A775/A77SM-07 Standard




Reilljorcint: Slee/ Bars

A8201 A820M06 Swndard SpecificalioJ1s for ,S'teei Fiber' for Fiber Reinforced CO!lcrde

ASSOCIation of Structural Engineers of tile Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concroie


A884/A884M-06 Standard . Coated Steel Wire and

Specifications for EpoxyWelded Wire Fabric for

CISO-OS Cement


S'pecifications for


A934/A934M-07 Standard Specifications Coated Prefabricated Steel Reinforcing Bars for Epoxy-

CI72-04 Mixed Concrete

Standard Method of Sampling Freshly

. A955/A9SSM-07a Standard Specifications for Deformed

CI92/CI92M-06 Standard Method of Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete C231-04 Standard Method for Air COfltenl of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Me/hod C260-06 Standard SpeCificaTions Entraining Admixtures for Concrere "






Bars for


A970/A970M-06 Stondard Specifications for Headed Steel

Bars/or Concrete Reinforcement

A9921A992M-06a Standard Specifications for Structural Steel Shapes
A996/A996M-06a Standard Specifications for Rail-Steel

C330-0S Stondard Specifications for Lightweight Aggregatesfor Structural Concrete C494/C494M-OSa Standard Specifications for Admixtures for Concrete Cltemical

and Axle Sleel Reinforcement





A!0221AI022M-07 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless Sleel Wire and Welded Wire for
Concrete Reinforcement AI03SIAI03SM-07 Standard Specification for Reinforcement AI044/AI044M-OS Standard Specification for Steel Stud Deformed

C496/C496M-04 Standard Test Metltod for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concn:te SpeCimens

C567-05a Standard Test Method for UniT Weight of Structural LighTweight Concrete
Standard CS9SM-07 Hydraulic Cements Specifications for Blended

and Plain, Low-Carbon, Chromium, Sleel Ban'for Concrete

Assemblies/or Shear Reinforcement of ConerNe

C291C29M-03 Stondard Method for Bulk Demity (Unit Weigh!) and Voids in Aggregare C31/C31 M-06 S'randard Practice f6r Making Curing COl/crete Test Specimens in the Field and

C618-05 Standard Specifications for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natura! Pozzohm for Use as a Mineral Admixture on Portland Cemenf Concrete
C685/C685M-O I Sralldard Spccificaliolls for ConcrelC Made by VO!llIllNric Barching and Confinuous Mixing Standard Spec((ications for expansive C84S-04 Hydraulic Cement
C989~06 Standard Specifications for Ground Granulated BIaSI-Furnace Slag for Use in Concrete and Morlars

C33-03 Aggregate





C39/C39M-05 Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of L)lilldrical Concrete Specimens
C42/C42M-04 Standard M(~lhod of Obtaining Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete C'J.1IC94M-06 Concrete and

C!OI2-04 Tes! Method for Length Chang(~ l1)Ylraulic-Cement Mortars Exposf.>d {() a Su~(a!e ,)'olurioll


S'tal1(/ard ,S'pec({icarions for Ready-Mixed

C lO I7/C J 0 J 7M-OJ Slandard Specifications for t:hemica! Admixluresfor Use in Producing F/owinx Concrele
C I J J 6-06/C 1116M~06 Standard SpeCifications for Fiher-

Cl 09/C! 09M-05 Standard Tcst Merhod for Compressive Strength (~( Hydraulic Cemenr Mortars (Using 50-mill Cub(~ Specimens)
C144-04 ,\'wlldard ";pecUicatiol1s for Ar:grer:of(' for Masonry Morrar

Reinforced Concrete
Slwu/ard C1157-03 (or lIwlrall./ic Cemenr


National Structural Code of the Philippllws 6 Edition Volume "\



CHAP TEI14 Concrete

C 12 18/CI2 18M -99 Srandard Test Method for Soluble Chloride if! Mortar (1m/ Concrete


C 124005 Standard Specifications for Silicll f ume for Use in l1ydmulic:Cemel1l Concrete alld Mortar

404.1 Notat ion

C 1602/C 1602M-()6 Srandard Spcdjications fo r Mixing War er used ill th e Production oj Hydraulic C!lnent


= specifi ed compressive strength o f co ncrete, MPa. w/e m = maximum watcr-ee mel11iti ous materi al ratio ,
404.2 Definitions

ConcreT e
CIr,09lC I609M-06 SUmdard Test Method fo r Flexural Performallce of Fiber- Reinforced Concrete (Using Beom With Third-Poilll Loading) Th e Secti on ad dresses th ree ex posure categories that affect th e req uirements far co nc rete to ensure adeq uate durabi lit y : Exposure Category S applies to concrete in contac t wi th so il or water contai ning deleterious amounts of wate rsolub le sulfate ions as defined in Section 404.4. J. Exposure Category P appli es to conc rete ill contact wilh water requiri ng low permeabilit y. Exposure Category C applies to reinfo rced and prestressed conc rete ex posed to conditi o ns that require addition :!! protection against corros ion of reinforcement. Severity \ ,~. exposure within each category is defined by classes W l rl i increasing nume ri cal values representin g increasingly se w n ' ex posure conditi ons. A classific ation of "0" is assign'l when the exposu re severity has negligib le effect or docs Il {;~ apply 1 0 (he s t ~c tura l membe r. Exposure Category F is subd ivided into four e xposure classes. However only Exposu re Class FO appl ies II : Phili ppine condition; Exposu re C lass F J. Exposure Clas!. F2. Exposure Class F3 do no t apply as it involve concrete exposed 10 cycles of freez ing and thaw in g, in conti nuous comaC I with lllo islU re, and whe re e xpos ure 10 deic illt. c he micals is <l nli cipatcd:

403.9.2. "STructural Welding Code - Reillforcing Steel"

(ANS I/A W S DI.4/D I.4M :2oo5) of Ihe American Welding Society is declared part of this code as if fully scI fo rth here in.

403:9.3 Sec ti on 203.3 Comb inin g Loads Us in g Strength DeSIgn. or Load and ResisT ance Fac lor Design of thi s code as if fully sc I forth herein, for the purposes cited in Sectio ns 409.3.3 a nd 426.
403.9.4 "Spec ification Jor Unhol/ded S ingle Strand 1'e fldoll Marer;,,/'- (AC I 423.707)" is decl ared to be pan of this Code as if fully se t fo nh herein.

403.9.5 Seclions 9.21.7. 2 and 9.2 1.7.3 of Divisio n I a nd Secli on 10.0. 2.3 of Di vis io n II of AA SHTO "SllIlIdard Specification for Highway Bridges" (AASHTO I t" Ed iti on, 2002) arc declared to be pan of Ih is code as if fully SCI fonh herein for the purpose ci ted in Section 418.16. 1.

403.9.6 "Qualfficatiol/ of Post-h'.wafh!(1 M edulll ical IlI/ cllOrs in CO/lcrete ( Ael 355.2-(7) " is decl ared to be pa rt of Ih is Code as if full y sel fort h herein . fo r the purpose c ited in Sec tion 423, A nc horing (Q Concre te .
403.9.7 S,r/l clllral Welding Code Steel (A WS D 1.1/0 1.1 M:2006)" of the Ameri can Welding Soc ielY " decl ared ta be P;1I1 o f I h i ~ Code <IS if full y se l forth he rein . 403.9.8 "Acceptance Criteria Jor MOIII!'II' Fmmc.\ B(I.\"('(/ Oil
Srruc:lurof TexrillK (Ael 374. 1-05)" is declared to be p iHl of this Code as if fu ll y set forth he rei n.

Exposure Class FO is assigned to co ncrete that wi ll not b~ exposed to cycles o f freeli ng a nd th a win g.
Exposure Category S is subdivided into four classes:
CXPOS l!I"(.:

Exposure Class SO is assigned for condi ti ons where n, water-so lu ble sul fate concen tration in CO il tact wi th COllen.:lt: is low and injuri ous sulfate attack is not a conce rn .
EXJlosure C lasses Si t S2, and 53 arc assigned for structural concrelc members ill direct contact with solub le su lfales in soil or W.1IC r. The severity o f exposure increases frolll Expos ure Cl ass S I to S3 based on th e marc crili ciil val ue of Illc<ls urcd water-sol uhle sul fate COllcclltral ion ill soi l or Ihe concentra tion of dissolved su lfate in Willer. Sea \v:llcr expos ure is clClss i(jed CIS Ex pos ure Class S I.

403 .9.9 "Accrl'wl1cr Criferia Jor Spel."ia/ UlliJOIu/ed Tt'usinl1rd Precast Strllclllr(J/ Wafl.\ Bused 011 Valida/iot! Fe.flif/g (AC T ITG-5 . 1-07) ,. is dCcJiln:d to be part of th is Code as if fu ll y SC I fo rth herei n.


of Slfl J r:luraj Er)g inecr$ of tile Phil ippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concre le

~ - 19

Exposure Category P is subdivided into two expos ure classes:

Exposure C lass PO SlIllcturaJ members should be assigned when there nre no speci fic penncnbility requirements.

404.5 Special Exposure C onditions


Concrete that will be subject to the exposure given in Table 404-2 shall confonn to the corresponding maximum watercementiti ous materi als ratios and minimum specified concrete compressive strenglh requirements o f that t:lblc.
404.6 Uequirements for Concrete Mixtures 404.6.1 Based on th e expos ure classes assigned from Table 404- 1, concrete mixtures shall comply with ti~e JIlost res trictive requirements accord ing to Table 404 2. '. 404.6.2 Calcium chl oride as an admi xture shall not be used in concrete to be exposed to severe or very seve re su lfate co ntaini ng solutions, as defin ed in T able 3.1 of AC I 222R.

Exposure Class PI is assigned all the bas is of the need for co ncrete 10 ha ve a low permeability to water when the permeation of water into concrete might reduce durability or affect the inten ded functio n of the stru ctural member. Exposure Class P I should typically be ass igned when other exposure classes do not app ly. An example is an interior wa ter tank.

Exposure Category C is subdivided into three ex posure classes:

Exposure Class CO is assigned when exposure conditions do not require addi tional protection against the initiation of corros ion of reinforcement

404.7 Alternative Cemenlitio us Materials for Sulphate Exposure

404.7.1 Alternati ve combinat ions of cementitious materials to those listed in Table 404-2 shall be permitted when tested for sulfate resistance and meeting the criteri a in Table 404-

reinforced and prest ressed concrete members depend ing on the degree of exposure 10 ex ternal so urces of moisture and chlorides in se rvice.

Exposure Classes C l and C2 are assigned

404.8 Water-Cemcntitious Materials Ualio

Exa mples of external so urces of chlorides include concrete in direct contact with deicing chemicals, saIl, salt water, brackish water, seawater, or spra y from these sou rces.
404.3 Ge nera l 404.3 .1 The v.lue of /",. sh.1I be the greatest of the values required by Section 404.3. 1, for du rabi lit y in Section 404, and for structural strength requirement s and shall apply for


waler~cementiti o u s

materi als ratios specified in Tables

404- 1 and 404-2 shall be ca lcul ated using the weight of cement meeting ASTM C 150. C 59SM. C 845 or C 11 57 plus the weight of ny as h and other pozzolans meeting ASTM C 6 18, slag meeting ASTM C 989, and s ilica fu me meeti ng ASTM C 1240, if any.

404.9 Co rrosion Protection of Reinforceme nt of rc inforce ment in watc r soluble chl oride ion concentrations in hard ened co ncrete at ages from 28 to 42 days contributed from the ingredients, including water, aggregates, cementitious materi als and admixtures fihall not exceed the limits of Table 404-2. When testin g is performcd to determine water soluble chloride ion co ntent, test proced ures shall conform to AS TM C 121 8.
protecti on 404.9.2 If concrete with reinforce ment will be ex posed

mi xt ure proponioni ng in Section 405.4 and for evaluation and (lCceplance of concrete in Secti on 405.7. Concrete mixtllres shall be proportioned 10 comply with the maxi mum watcr-ccrnen ti tious material rat io ( w/em) and other requirem ents based on the exposure class ass igned to tile concrete structural member. All cememili ous matelials fi pecified ill Secti on 403.3. 1 and the combina ti ons of these materials shall be included in calculating the w/cm of the co ncrete mixture.
404.3.2 The maximulll wlew limi{,s in Section 404 do not appl y to light weigh t concrete.

404.9.1 For corrosion concrete, maximum

404.4 Ex pos ure C ate go ries and Classes 404.4.1 ' nlC engineerof-record :->h<111 assig.n exposure clas:->cs based on th e scverit y of the anti cipated ex posu re of structural concrete. members for each ex posure category acco rdin g to Table 4()4- I.

chlorides from sal\. salt water, hrackish \...lter. se<l Will er Of spray fro m Ihese sources, requirements of Table 404 -2 for water water-cementitious materials ratio and concrete stren gt h and the minim um co ncrete covcr requiremen ts of Secliol1 407.8 shall be sil ti sfied . In addition, sec Section 418. 15 for unhondcd pres tressed tendons.

Natlollal Structura l Code of the Pililippin es 6 Eclition Volum e 1


CHAPTEH 4 " Concrele

Table 404" I Exposure Calegories And Classes

TabJc 404-2 Requirements for Concrete by Exposure Class

c 0

c' c





._ CiUIS.



Min. f..,

Additional Mil,limum Requirements

Air Content


Limits on




---------- -- -- -- ---- -




sulfate (SO.) in soil. percent by


(SO~) in


Titious t--~at:?!~

water, ppm

17 3t 31 31


V> 0. V>

'" "'




50'1 <0.10
0.10 ::;50.1 < 0.20 0.20::; 504

50.1 < 150 150:;;50.<1500

1500:5 SO. S







Ccmentitiou$ Materials + Types




> 2.00

504 > 10,000

-- 1 - - '
[n contact with water where

ASTM Ct50 17
NoT)"p rewiClion

No Type
rnHiclion W(MS) .
IS (<70)

No Type:





.q -


permeability is not required . SI


'" n.

3' .3 rl

JJ ,







In contnc\ with wtller where permeability is not required.

~-~--~.-.-. "

IP (11$)









IS 70)




Concrete dry or protected from rnoistme S3 0.45 3I Concrele exposed to moisture but not to external sources of chloride.
.-- " .~-

II' (IlS) +

Poaolan or Slag II

pouolan or slag! or IS
70) (I1S) +



U ~,


" . e.S:
" o

" E
u u "

[>07.lolan or

HS+ Pozz.o!an or Slag









None None
<"bloride concrele. [>Crcelll by weight . __ ._~~_m."nl /I Reinforced Concrele



Concrete exposed to moisture and an cxtemal source of chloride from salt, brackish water, seawater, 0' spray from these sources.


WJter",lublc jon (0-) wntem;n



Related Provisions

-CO .. __.





1 - ----C2 OAO



0.30 0.15


None Section 407.8.5, Section 418.17"


Fnr /ighnw:ig/rl CQIl(rClc. sa .<:;telion 404.1.2. tA/ICI7I(lliI'( (Olllbifl(lliOIiS of (t'IIlC/l{illnIlS lIlaleria/.r of IhoJc Ii.llcd ill Table 4042

.t/wll hc fiulllilled II"hcli Inled for .HI/fall": resislalla and 1Il(.'('Iing Ihe cdlui(l ill Sr("lioli 404.7.1. I For .{C(/\WU('t" t.I"POS"I"c. 0111<'1" IY{lI'J of porl/muf (("IIICI1/.1 willi Iric(lleium (I/ulllim/{c
(C3A) (OIllI'IIH /(I! 10 10/1(,(((111 Ol"C p<,t"IIli(tcd i.llllI' II"/cm dol'S 1101 c.\"("ad 0.40.

f OlliN 1II'(li/ab/e IY{JtS of (('m,'/II .\11(11 0.1 "r:l'lIe III or 1".1'IIC / arc I!rmill<'lf In DI{losurc Cia.l.lcs S I or S2 if Illc eM ("(ml('llis ar(' less IIIan <'I or .5 /It'f("C(II. rCS{J{'clil'l:ly. II nl(' Onlmllil (If Ih,' spccific .lOI"("C of 111<, P(!UO/(lil or s/ag /() /", uud shall Iwl be: I{'ss I/rOIi Ih" III/ifIll/II rlilli has h"fli (/('/{'Imill('d by .\eni(c r<'(ord 10 illlflW\'(' Jill/au U'SiJIWlI."e "hell lI.t,.d ill (1lllOde (1IIlraillillg 7)p<' V all/<'liI. A/Icrn(llild)". Ill<' OlnoulII of 1/1<' spccific ./IllI/"(C of Ih" po::zoiall or .>Iog 10 b(' USN! .Iha/lllOl hI' Ic$.\ Ihwi 111(' (1!1!,,11111 1".II"d ill (1("("01"<10/1("(' willi ASTM CI012 alld //l('('lillg Ihe criluia ill ,'),'(Iion

K WOIN.w/ulll,' chloridc illli (OIlI(,lIllhal iJ nmll"ilml('dfrom Ill(' illf.:r('diclli.t illcluding WOIN. agKI"('j:a/is. ("('III('IlIIliIJIlS IIIllIFfia/x. Wid ailmi.tiur('J J/w/l bc dcl('(millcd 011 Ihl' (IIII(/"('IC mixllirc by ASTM el218M (J( (/~(' "('I"'fCIl 28 (Jnd 42 d(ly.f . Rr</lIil"(lIII'IIIJ (:fS('({ioll 407.R.5 .,Iwl! he .wlisfir(/. Sr(' S('clillil 41R.17 for lIlI/lIIlIded

/\SSOci8tion of Structur<1i El1qincefs of t!~e Philippinos

CHAPTER 4 -Concrete


Table 404-3 Req ui rcments fo r Estobl ishi ng Suitabilit y of

Ccrncntitious Materials Combinations Exposed to Water

Soluble Su lfate



AI6 months

A I 18 monlhs

405.1 Notations

fr = specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa

used as Ihe basis proportions, MPa for se lecti o n of


0.10 percent

Irr ; ;: required average compressive strength of concrete

conc rete


0.05 percenl

f.., = average splitting tensile strength of lightweight

aggregate concrele, MPa


= sample standard dev iat ion, MPa

;;;: standard deviation, MPa

405.2 General 405.2.1 Concrete shall be propol1io ned to provide an average compressive strength , fe r as prescribed in Section 405.4.2, as well as sat isfy the durability criteria of Section 404. Concrete s hall be produced to minimize frequency of strengths below Fe as prescribed in Seclion' 405.7.3.3. r:()r
concrete deSigned and constru cted in accord ance with the Cod(;,

J,' shall not be less than 17 MPa.

405.2.2 Requirement s for fl' shall be based on tests o!' cyl inders made and tested as prescribed in Section 405.7.3. 405.2.3 Unless otherw ise specified,f, sha ll be based on 28day tests. If oth er than 28 days , test agc for shall be ,,' indicated in design drawings or specifications.


405.2.4 Where design criteria in Sections 408.7 .1. 412.3.4(4) . and 422.6.6. provide for use of a splilli l"

tensile strength val lie of concrete. laborato ry leS IS shall h: made in accordance with Specification for Lig/Jtweig.' Aggregates for Structural Concrete (ASTM C 330)
establi sh val ue offe, correspondin g to speci fied values ofI. . 405.2.5 Splitting tensile strength tests shall not be used . , basis for field acceptance of concre tc. 405.2.6 Steel
fib c r ~ reinfoJ'ced

conc re te shall conform

ASTM C1 116. The minimu mfc' for steel fib e r-reinfo!'l

concrete shall conform to 405.2.1. 405.3 Sel ection of Concrete Proportions 405.3.1 Proportions of mate rials establi shed to provide: I, for concrete shall be

WorkiJb ility and consistency to pe rmit co ncrete to L worked readil y into (orms and around reinforcel),:

N<1tional Stru clur,l l Cod(-! of thf~ PI1ilippines 6


Edition Volume 1



- Concrete

under conditions of placement to be employed without

segregation or excessive bleeding. 2. Resistance to special exposures as required by Section 404.

Table 405-1 Modification Factor for Standard Lk'\"i;J.;ioll When Less Than 30 Tests arc Available
----------- - -.-.~---.-.----,~---~

I_~~~~~~~~~~_I Standard Dcviatio..~~_]_

Less than 15 Usc Table 405-2

Number of Tests I




Conformance with strength tcst requirements of Section


...... 1

15 20

--~------~ - --

405.3.2 Where different materials arc to be used for

different portions of proposed work, each combination shall be evaluated.

1.08 - - - -- 103 1.00


30 or more
405.3.3 Concrete proportions, including w<\tcr-cementitious

materials ratio, shall be established on the basis of field experience and/or trial mixtures with materials to be
employed (see Section 405.4), except as permitted in Section 405.5 or required by Section 404.

/ IllIerpo/all! Jor IIIlermedwle /lumber of lesl:.. 1 Modified slandard devialioll {() be IIsed to determine rNjllired .\/reIJgth f" ji"O/lI Section 405.4.2.1

Ii),/ .."

405.4.2 Required Average Strength

405.4.2.1 Required average compressive strengthfcr used

405.4 Proportioning on the Basis of Field Experience and Trial Mixtures, or Both 405.4.1 Sample Standard Deviation
405.4.1.1 Where a concrete production facility has test records not morc than 12 months old, a sample standard deviation, SJ> shall be established. Test records from which a

the basis for selection of concrete proportions shall be the larger of Equation (405-1) or (405-2) using the sample standard deviation, S.I' calculated in accordance with Section
405.4.1.1 or 40S.4.1.2.






1.34 s,

(405 !)

./", + 2.33 s, - 3.S

Usc the larger value computed from Eq. 405-\ and 405 :'>, or:

standard deviation I.


is calculated:

Must represent materials, quality control procedures and conditions similar to those expected, and changes in materials and proportions within the test records shall not have been morc restricted than those for proposed work.
Must represent concrete produced to meet a specified strength or strengths i'c within 7 MPa of that specified for proposed work.
Must consist of at least 30 consecutive tests or two

t" = t, +


(405-1) (40S-3)


= 0.90 F, + 2.33

Use the larger value computed from Eq. 405-1 and 405-3.
405.4.2.2 When a concrete production facility docs not have. ficld strength test records for calculation of standard deviation meeting requirements of Section 405.4.1.1 ()'" 405.4.1.2, required average strength fu shall be dctermined from Table 405-2 and documentation of average strength shall be in accordance with requirements of Section 405.4.3.



groups of consecutive tests totaling at least 30 tests as defined in Section 405.7.2.4, except as provided in
Section 405.4.1.2. 405.4.1.2 Where a concrete production facility docs not have test records meeting requirements of Section 405.4.1.1(3), but docs have test records [Jot more than 12 months old based on 15 to 29 consccutive tests. a standard sample deviation S" shall be established as -[Ile product of the calculatcd sample standard deviation and the

Table 405-2 Required Average Compressive Strength When Data are not Available to Establish a Standard Deviation

Less than 21 M Pa
21 '5,[, ::; 15




modification factor of Tahle 405-1. To be acceptable, test records shall Illeet the requircments or Section 40S.4.I.I, Items I and 2, and represent only a single record of consecutive tests that span a period of not less than 4S calendar days.

./', "'" g.J

I. Jill', .,. S.II

/\SSOCl,:ltlon of Stn!ctuf(ll Enqll"lcers of



CHAPTER 4 . Co ncrele


405.4.3 Documentation of A vCl'age Strength.


DocumelHalion that proposed concrete proportions will produce an average compressive strength equal (0 or greater than required average comprcssive strength (see Section 405.4.2) SIHtJl consist of a lield strength test record , several strength test records, or trial mixllIrcs.
405.4.3.1 When test records in accordance with Sections 405.4.1.1 and 405.4.1.2, arc used to demonSlratc Ihat proposed co ncrete propo/lions wi ll produce the required average slrcngthf'l"l'" (see Section 405.4.2), such records shall represclllmutcrinls and conditions similar to those expected. Changes in materials, conditions and proportions within the tes t records shall not have been more restricted than th ose for proposed work. For the purpose of documenting average strength potenti<lI. test records consisting of less than 30 but Tlolless than J 0 consecutive tests may be used, provided test records encompass a period of time not less than 45 days. Required concrete propol1ions may be established by interpolation between the stren gths nnd proponions of two or more test records each of which meets other rcquiremeOis of this section.

Maximum water-ccmentitious materials ratio or 0 minimum cementitious matcrials conlent for concrete 1 be used in proposed work shall be that shown by the curve to produce the average strength required by Section 405.4.2, unless a lower water-ccmenlitious matcrials ratio or higher strength is required by.Section 404.

405.5 without Field Experience or Trial Mixtures 405.5,1 If data required by Section 405.4 are not available, concrete proportions shall be based upon olher ex.periencc or information, if approved by the engineer. The required average compressive strength fer of concrete produced with materials similar to those proposed for use shall be at least 8.5 MPa greate r than the specified compressive strength,fl"' This alternative shall not be used for specified compressive strength greater than 35 MPa. 405.5.2 Concrete proponioned by Sect ion 405.5 shall confonn to the durability requirements of Section 404 and to com pressive st rength lest criteria of Seclion 405 .7. 405.6 Average Strength Reduction As data become available during construction, it shall be pcmliltcd to reduce the amOUrH by whi ch f l"l must exceed the specified value off ... provided:
I. Thirty or more lest results are available and average of test results exceeds th at required by Section 405.4.2 . 1.

405.4.3.2 When ;.Hl acceptable record of field test results is not available, concrete proportions estab!ished from trial mixtures meeting the following restrictions shall be pcnniltcd:

Combination of materials shall be those for proposed work. Tria! mixtures hav ing proportions and consistencies required for proposed work shall be made using at IC<lsl three different wa ter,ceJ11entiti ous materials ratios or ccmelltitious materials cOlllel1ls that will produce <l range or s trengths cllcomp'lssing the req uired averOlgc st ren gt h .I'm and meet the dllra bilit y requirements of Sectiol1 404.


using a sa mple standard deviation calculated in accordance with Section 405.4. 1. 1, or

2. Fiftee n 10 29 test results arc .wailable and average of test results exceeds that required by Section 405.4.2 .1. using n sample standard deviation calculated in accordance with Seclion 405 .4. 1.2, and

3. Trial mixtures shall be designed to produce a slump withi n 20 mill of maximum permitted. and ror airentrained concrete, within O.5 percent of maximum allowable air content , or within the toleranc e !ipecified for the proposed Work . 4. For each walcr-ccmemit iOlls mmcrials ratio or cememitiolls malcri.ds content. at Icast three tcst cylinders for each lest age shall be made a nd clIreli in accordance wilh "Method (~r Making alld Cllrilll{
COl1crele [e.I{
SPl'Cillll'IIS ill


Spcci<ll exposure requirements of Section 404 are met.

405.7 Evaluation and Acceptance of Concrete 405.7.1 Concrete shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of Scction 405.7.2 through 405.7.5. Qualined field testing tech ni cians shall perform tests on fresh concrelc at the job si te, prepare specimens requircd for curi ng under fi eld conditions. prepare specimens required for testing in the laboratory. and reco rd the tempcrnturc of the fresh concrete when preparing specimens ror st rength tests. Qualified laboratory technicians shall pcrform all requircd laboratory lest') .

dw Labo/'{llory" (A STM C

192). Cylinders shall he tested at 2& d:1YS or at test age designntcd for determination ()f.r,~ 5. From results of cyl inder tcsl.~. :l curve sl1<l1l he plotted show ing relationship betw ee n wHler-cC111cnlitiollS materials ralin or c{~mc!l[itious materials content and com pressive strength OIt desi gnillcd tesl age.

N('llional Structural Code o! the Pllilippin(!S GIll Edition Votl.Jlne 1


CHAPTEli 4 .- Concrete

405.7.2 Frequency of Testing 405.7.2.1 Samples for strength tests of each class of concrete placed each day shall be taken not less than once a day ,or not less than once for each 120 m3 of concrete, or not less than once for each 500 m2 of surface area for slabs

405.7.4 Field-Cured Specimens

405.7.4.1 If required by the engjneer~of~record, rcsults of strength tests of cylinders cured under field conditions shall be provided. 405.7.4.2 Ficld .. curcd cylinders shall be cured under field conditions, in accordance with "Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test ,)"'pecimens ill Ih(~ Fidd" (ASTM C 31M).
405.7.4_3 Field-cured test cylinders shall be molded at the same timc and from the same samples as laboratory-cured test cylinders.

or walls.
405.7.2.2 On a given project, if the total volume of concrete is such that the frequency of testing requireo. by Section 405.7.2.1 would provide less than five strength tests for a given class of concrete, tests shall be made from at least nvc randomly selected batches or from each batch if 'fewer than five batches are used.
405.7.2.3 When total quantity of a given class of concrete is less than 40 m3, strength tests arc not required when evidence of satisfactory strength is submitted to and approved by the engineer. 405.7.2.4 A strength test shall be the average of the strengths of two cylinders made from the same sample of concrete and tested at 28 days or at test age designated for determination offe. 405.7.3 Laboratory-Cured Specimens 405.7.3.1 Samples for strength tests shall be taken in accordance with "Method of Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete" (ASTM C 172). 405.7.3.2 Cylinders for strength tests shall be molded and laboratory cured in accordance with "Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field" (ASTM C 3 J M) and tested in accordance with "Test Method for Compressil'e Strength (~r Cylindrico! Concrete 5jJecimefls" (ASTM C 39M).

405.7.4.4 Procedures for protecting and curing concrete shall be improved when strength of field-cured cylinders at test age designated for determination of fe is less than 85 percent of that of companion laboratory-cured cylinders. The 85 percent limitation shall not apply if field-cured strength exceedsf,. by more than 3.5 MPa. 405.7.5 Investigation of

Test Results

405.7.5.1 If any strength test (see Section 405.7-2.4) of laboratory-cured cylinders falls below specified values of Ie by more than 3_5 MPa (see Section 405.733. Item 2) or if tests of field-cured cylinders indicate deficiencies in protection and curing (see Section 405.7.4.4), steps shall be taken to ensure that !oad-carrying capacity of the structure is not jeopardized.

405.7.3.3 Strength level of an individual class of concrete shall be considered satisfactory if both the following requirements are met:

405.7.5.2 If the likelihood of low-strength concrete is confirmed and calculations indicate that load-carrying capacity is significantly reduced, tests of cores drilled from the area in question in accordance with "M(!(hod of Obtaining alld Testing Drilied Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete" (ASTM C 42M) shall be permitled. In such cases, three cores shall be taken for each strength test more than 3.S MPa below specified value off,. 405.7.5.3 If concrete in the structure will be dry under service conditions, cores shall be air dried (temperatures ISoC to 25C, relative humidity less than 60 percent) for seven days before test and shall be tested dry. If concrete in the structure will be Illore than superficially wet under service conditions, cores sh;dl be immersed in water for al least 40 hours and be tested wet. 405.7.5.4 Concrete in an area represented by core tests shall be considered structurally adequate if the avcnlge of three. cores is equal to at !east 85 percent 01'/,. and if no single corc is Jess than 75 percent ofF.. Additional testing of coreS extracted from locations represented by erratic core strength results shall be permitted .

Every arithmetic average of any three consecutive strength tests (see Section 405.7.2.4) equals or exceeds

I, .
2. No individual strength test (average of two cylinders)

falls below.r by more than 3.S MPa, when f'r is 35 MPa or less; or by Illore than 0.1 Of'e when Fe is more than 35 MPa. 405.7.3.4 If either or the requirements of Section 405.7.303 arc not mel, steps shall be taken to increase the average or subsequent strength test results. Requirements of Section 405 .7.5 shall be observed if the requirement of' Item 2 of Section 405.7.3.3 is nol mel.

Association of Structural Enqll inors of tile PhdlPPIIWS

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete


405.7.5.5 If criteria of Section 405 .7.5 .4 arc not met, and if suuctural adequacy remains in doubt, the engineer of record shall be permilled to order a strength evaluation in accordance with Section 420 for the Cjllestionable portion of the structu re, or lake other app ropriate action.
405.7.6 Sleel Fiber-Reinforced Concrele


All iait<lIlce an d other unsound materia! shall be removed before additi onal concrete is placed agains t hardened concrete.

405.9 Mixing

405.7.6.1 Acceptance of !'acei libcr-rcinforccd concrete used in beallls in accordance with 41l.6.6.1(6) shall be determined by testing in accordttnce with ASTM C J609. In addition, strength tes tin g shall be ill accordance wi th

405.9.1 All concrete shall be mi xed unt il there is a uniform distributi on of materials and shall be discharged completely before mi xer is recharged. 405.9.2 Read y-mi xed concrete shall be mixed and delivered in accordance with requirements of "Specifications for Ready Mixed COllerete" (ASTM C 94M) or "Specifica tiolls Jor COII Cf'ere Made by Volumerric Batching and COlllinllolls Mixillg " (ASTM C 685M). 405.9.3 Job-mixed concre te shall be mixed in accordance wi th th e following: I. 2.
3. 4.

405.7.6.2 Steel tiber-reinforced concrete shall be co nsidered acceptable for shear resistance if co nditions ( I), (2), and (3) are satisfied:

The weight of deformed sleel fibers per cubic rneter of concrete is greater (han or equal to 60 kg. The residual strength obtained from Ocxural testing in accord;lI1ce with ASTM CI609 al <I mid-span deflection of 1/300 of the span length is greater ilwn or equ al [090 percent of the measured first-peak stre ngth obtained from a Ocxural tcs t or 90 percent of the slrenglh corresponding to J, [rom Eq . (409 10). whichever is larger; and The residual strength obtained from fl exural tcs tin g in accorda nce with ASTM C 1609 at .1 mid-span deflecti on of 1/ 150 of the span length is greater than or eq ual to 75 percc m of the measured fi rst- peak stre ngth obtained from a flexufnl test or 75 perce nt of the stren gth corresponding to f, frolll Eq . (409- 10). whi t hcvc r is large r.


Mixing shall be done in a batch mixer of an appro ved Iype; Mixer shall be rotated at a speed recommended by the lllanuf,lcturcr; Mixing sh all be continued for at least
1 ~ l/2



After all malerials are in lhe dru m, unless a shorter lime is shown to be satisfactory by the mi xing un iformit y tests of "Specifications for Ready-Mixed COflcre{(:"
(ASTM C 94M) ;


Materials handling, batching and mixing shall conform to applicable provisions of "Specifications f or ReadyMixed COllcrete" (ASTM C 94 M) ;
A de wilcd record shall be kept to identi fy:


a. 405.8 Preparation of Equipment and Place of J)eposit

405.8.1 Preparation before concrete pl<lcement shall include the following:

Number of batr hes produced; Proporti ons of materials used; Approximatc structure; location of final deposi t in

! i


1. 2.

All equipment for mi xing and transponing co ncrete shall be clea n; All debris shall bc rcmoved rro m Sp<ICCS to be occ up ied by concret e; Forms shall be properl y coa ted; Masonry filler II nits th ill will be in cont3C1 wil h co ncrete shall be weI! drench ed; Reinforcement sha ll he thoroug hl y dean of dc le(Criotls coatings : Water shall be removed from place of deposit before co ncret e. is placed unless a trernie is (0 he used or unl ess ot herwise permitted by lhe engi neer:

Time and date of mixing and placing.

405.10 Conveying


405.10.1 Concrete shall be co nveyed from mix er to place of fi nal depo!\it by me thods th ilt wi ll preven t separation or loss of materi al",. 405.10.2 Conveyin g equipmen t shall be capable of provid ing a su ppl y of concrete at si te of place ment wi thout .separati on of ingredients and without interrupti ons sufficicnt to permit Joss or plas ti ci ty b ~lwcen successive increments.


N3 honl.~! S tructural Code or the Philippines 6 Edillon Volume 1



CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

405.11 Depositing 405. 11.1 Concrete shall be deposi ted as nearly .s practicable in its final position to avoid segregati o n due to

405.12.3.2 Accelerated curing s hal l provide a compressive s trength of concreL e at the load stage considered at least equal to required design strength at th ai load stage. 405.12.3.3 Curing process sholl he such as 10 produce concrete with a durabil ity at least eq~li va lent to the curing method of Sccti on 405 .12. 1 Or 405.12.2. 405.12.4 When required by the engineer, suppl ementary strength tests in accordance with Secti on 405 .7.4 sh all be perfomled to assure Lhat curing is satisfactory. 405. 13 Hot Weather Requirem ents During hot weather, proper attent ion sha ll be given to ingredients, production methods, handl in g, placi ng. protection and cu rin g [Q prevent excessive concrete temperamres or water evaporat ion th at may im pair required s tren,gllt or ser:'ic~abilit y of the member or s (ruclUrc.

fe-hand li ng or Oowing.
405.11.2 Concreti ng shall be ea rned on at such a rat e th at

concrete is at all times plastic and fl ows readil y in to spaces

between rcinforccnwn!. .

405.11 .3 Concrele th.t has partially hardened or been con taminated by foreign materials shall not be deposi ted in
the structul"C;.

405.11.4 Re-tcmpcred concrete or concrete that has been remixed after initial set shall.nol be used unless approved by

the engi neer:-of-record.

405.11.5 AfLer conc~eting is started. it shall be carded on as a continu ous operati on until pl.a cing of a panel or secti on, as defined by ils boundaries or prcdcrcnnjncd joints, is co mplet ed, except as permitted ' or prohi bi ted by Secti on 406.4. 405.11.6 Top surfaces of veI1icall y fo rmed lifts shall be generall y leve l. 405.11.7 When const rucl ion joints are required. joints shall be made in accordance wit h Seclion 406.4, 405.11.8 All conCrele shall be thoroughly consolid.ted by su itable means during placement and shall be thoroughly worked around reinforcement and embedded fixtu res and into corne rs of forms . 405. 12 C u ring 405.12. 1 COllcre le (other tha n high -ea rlystren gth) shall be mai ntained a'bove wOe and in a moi st condition for at Icast lhe fi rst sev~n days after placement, except when cu red in acco rd ance with Seclion 405.12,3. 405. 12.2 High-cnrly-s lrength concrele shall be ma intained above lOo e and in a moist condi ti o n for at least (he first three days, cxcc~t w hen cu red in accordance wilh Section 405. 12.3 . 405.12.3 Accelera ted C uring 405. 12.3.1 C uring by hig h-press ure stenll1, steam at atmospheri c pressure, heat and mo isture o r other accepted processes, Ill Hy be employed to accelerate strength g nin and redu ce time of cu ring,

. ,,"t; ~)i: '/

.. '

'\:~il~~f;.":' .:,


,: ,~:l}.,~.<~ ~~

Association of Stru ctu ra l Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrele



The Slructural analysis and concrete strength data used in planning and implementing form removal and shoring shall be furnished by the co ntractor to tbe building official when so requested . No co nstru ction loads shall be supp0l1ed on, or any
shoring removed from, any part of {he slmcturc under

406.1 Design of Formwork

406.1.1 Forms shall result in a final structure thaI conforms to shapes, lines and dimensions of the members as required by the design drawings and spccificmions.

constructioll exce pt when that pan ion of the structure in com bination wi th remaining forming and shoring sys tem has sufficient stre ngt h to ~ upport safely its weight and IOilds placed thereon.

406.1.2 Forms shall be substantial and sufficiently tight to prevent leakage of mortar. 406.1.3 Fonns shall be properly braced or tied together to maintain posi lion and shape. 406.1.4 Forms and their supports shall be designed so as not 10 damage previously placed structure. 406.1.5 Design of fo nnwork shall include co nsideration o r the following factors:


Sufficient slIenglh shall be demonstrated by structura l anal ysis considering proposed loads, strength of forming and shoring system and concrete strength data. Concrete streng th data may be based on tests of fi eld cured cylinde rs or, when approved by the en g ineer~o f record, on ot her procedures to evaluate concrete slrength.

406.2.2.2 No construction loads exceeding the combination of superimposed dead load plus specified live load shall be supported on any unshorcd pOr1i on of the stmctu rc under constnlction, unless anal YS is indicates adequate strength to support such additional loads. 406.2.2.3 Form suppo rts for prestressed concrete members shall not be removed uillil suffi cient prestressing has been app lied 10 enable pre.o:;tresscd members to carry their dead load and an ticipated construction loads.
406.3 Conduits and Pipes Embedded in Concrete


Rate and method of placing concrete;

Construction loads, including verti cal, horizon tal and impact loads;


Special form requi rements for constluction of shells. folded plates , do mes, architect ural concrete or similar types of elemen ts.

406.1.6 Forms for prestressed conc rete members shall be designed alld constnlctcd to permi t 1ll0VC IllCIlI of Ihe member wi lhollt damage duri ng application of prestressin g force. 406.2 R emoval of Forms, Shores a nd Reshorin g 406.2.1 Removal of Forms

406.3.1 Conduits. pipes an d sleeves of any material not h,mnful 1 0 concrele and within limi tations of Ihis subsection Illay be embedded in eOllcretc with approval of the engineer. provided they arc /lot considered 10 rcpl ace struclUratty the disp laced concrete. 406.3.2 Conduits and pipes of alumin um shall not be embedded in siructura l co ncrete unless effectively coared or covered to prevent alu min uffificoncrete reaction or electrol yt ic action bet ween aluminum and steel. 4Q6.3.3 Conduits, pipcs and sleeves passing through a slab. wall or beam shall not impair significantly the strength of the cons tnJ crioll . 406.3.4 Co nduit s within a co lumn th e area of <.:fOSS whi ch is required and pipes, with their fittings, embedded sha ll not displace more than 4 pcrcclH of sectio n on wh ich stren gth is calcu lated or fo r lire protection.

Forms shall be rem oved in such a manner as nol to impair safety and servicc(lbility of the stm cture. Concrete to be exposed by form re mova l shalt ha ve suffi cient st rength not to be damaged by removal opcnl tioll.
406.2.2 Rcmov:;1 of Shores and n cshol'ing The pro visio ns of Secti on 406.2.2.1 through 406. 2.2.1 shall apply to slabs and heams except whe re cast Oil the grou nd.

406.2.2.1 I3efore starting cons tru clioll , th e co ntra<.:tor shal] develop a proced ure and schedu le for removal of shores and imaallatioll of reshorcs nnd for calculating Ihe IOilds trans ferred to the sll1lcturc during the process.

406.3.5 Except when plans for conduits and pipes arc approved by th e structural enginee r, co ndu its nnd pipes embedded within a slab. wall or beam (ot her than those merely pass ing through) shall satisfy the following:

National Structural Code of the Philippin es 6 Edition Vo lume 1


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

406.3.5.1 TI,ey shall not be larger ill outside dimension than one third the overall thickness of slab, wall or beam in
which they are embedded.

406.4.2 fmmediately before new concrete is placed, all construction joints shall be wetted and standing water removed. 406.4.3 Construction joints shall be so made and located so as not to impair thc strength of the. structurc. Provision shall be made for transfer shear and oth er forces through cOJlstruction joints. Sec Sect ioJl 411.8.9.

406.3.5.2 They shall be spaced not closer than t hrcc diameters or widths 011 cenler. 406.3.5.3 They shall not imp<lir significantly the strength of the construction.
406.3.6 Conduits. pipes and sleeves may be considered as replaci ng slfllclumlly in compression tile di splaced concrete.


406.4.4 Construction joints in floors shall be located within the middle third of spans of slabs, beams and girders. 406.4.5 Joints in girders shall be offset a minimum distance of two times the width of intersecting beams. 406.4.6 Bcams, girders or slabs supported by columns Or wHlls shall not be cast or erected until concrete in lhe vert ical SUppOl1 mcmbers is no longer plastiC.
406.4.7 Bcams, girders, haunches, drop panels and capitals shall be placed monolithically as part of a slab systcm , unless otherwise shown in design draw ings or specifications.

406.3.6.1 They arc not exposed to IlJst ing or other

406.3.6.2 They <Ire of uncoated or galv<lnizcd iron or stcel

not thinner than standard Schedule 40 sleel pipe.

406.3.6.3 They hnve a nominal inside diameter nO{ over 50

mm and arc spaced


less than three diameters 011 centers.

406.3.7 Pipes and fi ttings shall be designed !O resist effects of the material, press ure and temperature to which they will be subjected . 406.3.8 No liquid, gas or vapor. except water not exceeding 30:C or 0.35 MPa pressure, shall be placed in (he pipes umillhe concre te has mlained its design strength . 406.3.9 In solid slabs. piping. unless it is used for radiant healing or snow melting. shall be placed between lOp and bOltom reinforCCIllI!I)( . 406.3.10 Conc rete cove r for pipes. condu it and linings shall not be less than 40 mill for concrete exposed to earlh Of wc,lthc r, or less Ihan 20 mm for concrete not exposed 10 weather or in con tact with ground. 406.3.11 Reinforcement wilh an arca not less [han 0.002 times the area of co ncrcte section shall be provided normal
to the piping.

406.3.12 Piping and mouit slwW be so fabricated and insta lled thai cutt ing. bendin g or displacement of rei nforccment from its proper lociHion willnOl he requiretl . 406.4 Construction Joints 406.4.1 Surface of concrele constructiun joints shall be cleaned and laitancc rcmoved.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 4 - Concrete


Table 407-1 - Minimum Diamelers or Bend

Bar Size Minimulll Diameter

407.1 Notalions

~IO mm Ihrough <1>25 mOl q,28 mm , ~32 mm and



::::: distance from extreme compression fiber to cen troid of tension reinforcement, mm ;: nominaJ diameter of bar. wire or prestrcs~ing s lrand,

~36 nun


q,42 mm and




407.4 Bending of Reinforcement 407.4.1 All reinrorcemenl shall be ben I co ld, unless otherwi se pemlillcd by the engineer-oF-record. 407.4.2 Reinforcement panially embedded in concrete shaH not be field bent , except as shown on the design drawings or permitted by the engineer-or-record. 407.5 Surface Conditions of Reinfol'eement 407.5.1 At the time concrete is placed, reinforccment shall be free from mud, oil or other nonmctallic coatings that decrease bond. Epoxy coatings of steel reinforcement in accordance with Sections 403.6.3.8 and 403.6.3.9 shall be

lei = comprcssve

strength of concrete at li me of initia l preSlress. MP. = specified yield strenglh or non prestressed
rej nforcemen t, MPa
mOl. See Section 4 12.

Ld :; developmeru length,
407.2 Standard Hooks

"Standard hook " as used in this code is one of the following:

407.2.1 180-degree bend plus 4d" eXlension, bUI nOI less than 60 111m at free end of bar. 407.2.2 90-degree bend plus 12d" extension al rree end or bar. 407.2.3 For stirrup and tie hooks:

407.5.2 Reinforcement, except prestressing tendons. with ru st, mill scale or a combination of both, shall be considered satisfactory, provided the minimum dimensions (including height of defonnations) and weight of a hand -wire-brushed tcst specimen comply with applicable ASTM specifications re ferenced in Section 403.6. 407.5.3 Prestressing tendons shall be clean and free of oi!, dirt. scale, pitting and excessivc lU St. A light coating of rust shall be permiltcd. 407.6 Placing Reinforcement


q,16 mm bar and smaller, 90-degree bend plus 6(1" extension at free end of bHr; or q,20 mm and q,25 mm bar. 90-degree bend , plus 12(/" extension al frec end of bar; or




bar and smaller, 135-degrce bend plus 6(h

extension at free end of bar.

407.2.4 Seismic hooks as defined in Section 402.

407.3 Minimum Bend Diameters 407.3.1 Diameter of bend measured on the inside or the bar. other Ihan ror stirrups and lies in sizes q,1 0 mm Ihro ugh ~ 16 mm, shallnol be less Ihan Ihe values in Table 407- \. 407.3.2 Inside diameter of bends for sti rrups and tics .shall not be less than 4db for ~16 mm bar and smaller. For bars larger (han 4>16 mm, diameter of bend shall be in accordance wilh Table 407-1. 407.3.3 Inside diameter of bends in welded wire fabric 407.6.1 Reinforcement. prestressing tend ons and ducts shall be accurately placed and adequately slipponcd before concrete is placed. and shall be secured against displacement wilhin to lerances of lhis section. 407.6.2 Un less OIherwise specified hy the engineer-of\!cord , reinrorcemenL , prestressing lendons and preslressing

ducts shall be placed wilhin Ihe followin g tolerances:

(plain or deformed) for stirrups and lies shall not be less than 4(h for deformed wire larger thall MD40 and 2lh for all oth er wires. Bends with inside diameter of less than '8d" shall not be less than 4(", from nearest welded intersection.
National Structural Code of th e Philippines 6

Edition Volume 1


CHAI'TER 4 . Concrete

407.6.2.1 Tolerance for depth d, and Ilummum concrete cover in flexural members, walls and compression members s hall be as follows: r- Tolerance on Effective Dcplh. Tolerance on d

407.7.3 In spirally reinforced or lied reinforced compression members, clear distance between longitudin al bars shall not be less than LSd. or less than 40 mm. See also Section 403.4.2. 407.7.4 Clear distance limitation between bars shall apply also to the clear distance between a contact lap sp lice and adjacent splices or bars .. 407.7.5 In walls and slabs olher than concrete jOiSl construction, primary Oexural reinforcement shall not be spaced farther apan than three times the wall or slab thickness, nor farther than 450 111m . 407.7.6 Dundled Dars 407.7.6.1 Groups of parallel rein forcing bars bundled in contact to ac~ as a unit shall be limited to four bars in One bundle. 407.7.6.2 Bundled bars shall be enclosed within stilTUPS or ties. 407.7.6.3 Bars larger Ihan ~36 mm shall not be bundled in beams. 407.7.6.4 Individual bars within a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members shall term inale at different points with at least 40db stagger. 407.7.6.5 Where spac ing limitations and minimum concrete cover are based on bar diameter (//>, a unit of bundled bars shall be trealed as a single bar of a diameter del;ved from the equivalent total area. 407.7.7 Prestressing Te ndons and Ducts 407.7.7. 1 Center !0-center spacing of pre-tensioning tendons at each end of a member shall not be less than 5db for wire. nor 4db for strands. except that if concrete strength at transfer of prestress. c; is 28 MPa or more, min imum center to center spacing of strands shall be 45 mm for strands of 12 mm norrtinal diameter or smaller and 50 mm for strnnds of 16 mm nominal diameter. See also Section 403.4.2. Closer vertical spacing .tnd bundling of tendon s sha ll be permiHcd in the middle portion of a span.

Minimum Concrete



d ,; 200

lOmm 12mm



<I> 2UO /TIm

- 12 ,nUll

except that to lerance for the clear distance (0 fonned soffi ts s hall be minus 6 mill and lOlerance for cover shall not exceed minus one-third the minimum concrete cover required by the approved plans or specifications. 407.6.2.2 Tolerance for longitudinal localion of bends and

ends of reinforcement shall be 50 mm except at discontinuous ends of members where tolerance shall be
12 mill at the discontinuous ends of brackets and corbe ls.

and 25 mm at the discontinuous ends of other members.

The tolerance for concrete cover of Section 407.6 . 2. 1 shall also app ly at the discontinuous ends of members. 407.6.3 Welded wire fabric (with wire size not greater than MW30 or M030) used in slabs not exceeding 3 III in span shall be permitted to be curved from a point near th e top of s lab over the support to a point near the bottom of slab at midspan, provided such reinforcement is either continuous ove r, or securely anchored al, support. 407.6.4 Welding of crossing bars shall not be permitted for asse mbly of reinforcement.

Exceptions: 1. 2. Rein/arcing steel bars are not required by design. When specifically approved by the engineer4o,f.record, welding of crossing bars for assembly purposes ill Seismic Zone 2 may be permit/ed, provided that data are submitted to the engineer to show that rht?Te is 110 detrimental effect on the actioTl of the structural member as a result afwelding of the crossing b.ars.

407.7 Spacing Limits for Reinforcement 407.7.1 The mini mulll clear spacing between parallc:J bars in a layer sha ll he (It. but not less than 25 1l1111 . See also Section

407.7.2 Where paralic! reinforcement is placed in two or morc layers, bars in thc upper layers Sh'lll be placed directly ahove bars in the bottom layer with clear distance between la yers not less than 25 mm.

407.7.7 .2 Bundling of post-lensioning duels shall be permitted if it is shown that concrete can be sati sfactorily placed and if provision is made to prevent the tendons , wlF ~!! tensioned, from breaking through (he duct.

Association of Structuf(ll Engineers of the Philippine s

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete


407.8 Concrete Protection for Reinforcement 407.8.1 Cast-in-Place Concrete (Nonprestressed) Unl ess a greater cover is required by Section 407.8.6 or 407.8.8, speci fied cover for reinforcement shaJ] nOlless than Ihe following: 407.8.2 Precast Concrete (Manufactured Under Plant Control Conditions) Unless a greater cover is required by Section 407.8.6 or
407.8.8, specifi ed cover for prestressed and nonpres lrcssed

I. 2. CQllcrelc cast against and pcnnancnli y

reinforcement , dUCIS. and end fittings shall following:

I. Concrete exposed to earth or weather: a. Wall panels:


less than the

Minimum Cover

Minimum Cover

exposed to earth ........................ ................. 75 mm

Concrete exposed to earth or weather:

mm bar through ~36 nun bar .... . ~I 6 mm bar, MW200 or MD200 wire, and sJllaller ....................................... .
3. Concrete not exposed to weather or in


SO mm


40mm ~42 mm and ~58 mm bars 4>36 bar and smaller, prestressing tendons larger than 40 mm and smaller, MW200 or MD200 wire and smaller. __ ... 20 mm
b. Olher members:
~42 and .p58 bars, prestressing lendons larger than 40 mm ................. ,.".. .. .... ...... <1>20 through <1>36 bars, prestressing

contact with ground:

a. Slabs, walls, joists:

50 111m

.p42 mm and .p58 nUll bars



mm b,lfS and smaller

20 nun

tendons larger than 16 mill through 40mm ...... ......... ........ ..............
<P 16 bar and smaller, prestressing

40 mill


Beams, columlls:
PrimalY reinforcement, tics, stirrups, spirals .............................. _.... 40 mm

tendons 16 mm diameter and smaller, MW200 or MD200 wire, and smaller.....

2. Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground :




Shells, folded plale members: .p20 mm bar and larger 20 mm q,16 mm bar, MW200 or MD200 wire, and smaller ._...................... ......... 12 mill

a. Slabs, walls, joists:

<1>42 mm and 4>58 mm bars, prestressing

tendons larger than 40 mm ................ 30 mm

Prestressing tendons 40 fnm .... 20 111m and smaller ... 4>36 mrn bar and smaller, MW200 or 15 mm MD200 wire and smaller. b. Beams, columns:
Primary reinforcement db but flol less than 4J 15 mm and need not exceed ........ 40 mm Ties, slirrups, spirals ........... ............... 10 mill


Shells, folded plate members: Prestressing tendons. mm bur and larger </>16nll11 bar, MW2000r MD200 wire, and smaller .... ..... .

20 nun J5mlll

Nationa l Structural Code of the Pllllippines 6


Edition Volume 1


CHAPTER 4 - Concre le

407.8.3 Cas tln Place Concrete (Prestressed) 407.8.3.1 Un less a greater cover is required by Sections 407 _8_6 and 407.8_8, specified cover for prestressed and

407.8.6 Corrosive Environmcnts

nOllprcstrcssed reinforcement, duc ls and end filtings, shall

not less Ih(lll the following:
Minimum Cover

In corrosive envi ronments or other severe ex pOsure conditi ons, amount of concrete protection shall be. s:!iWhly increased, and the pel1inent requirements for concrete o n applicable exposure categories in Section 40't shall be met, denseness and nonporosity of protecting concrcle shall 'be considered, or other protection shall be provided.
407.8.6.1 For prestressed concrete members exposed to corrosive environments or other severe exposure rilleg!"' such as Ihose defined in Section 404, and whid; .lfC classi fied as Class T or C in Section 418.4.3. spc:cdl e rl concrete cover shall not be less (han 1.5 limes tlH : !.', . C tor prestressed reinforcement required by Sections filJi X.i. < . Iid 407.8.3. This requirement shall be permitted to be \Vaiv~d if the precompressed tensile zone is not in tensi on under sus tained loads. 407.8.7 Future Extensions Exposed reinforcement, insens and plates inlcndcd for bonding with future extcnsions shall be prot<~ {;l(;d from


Concrete cast against and permanently exposed 10 earth

Concrete exposed
LO Cll11h

.. .



or weather:

Wall panels. slabs, joislS

Other members ........... .... .

2S mm


Concrete not exposed to weather or in

co ntact with ground:


Slabs, walls, joists

20 mm


Bc:uns. columns:
Plimary reinforcement
Tics, stirrups. spirals

25 mm

407.8.8 Fire Proteclion


Shell s, folded plate members: <j>16mm bars, MW200 or MD200 wire,

and smaller ......... ". ... ... .. ........ ...... 10 nun Olher reinforcement ............ lit. > 20 ml11
407.8.3.2 For pres tressed concrete members exposed to earth , weather o r corrosive environmcnl s. and in which permissible ten sile s tress of Sec ti on 41 8.5. 1. Item 3. is exceeded. minimum cove r shall be increased 50 percent.
407.8.3,3 For pres tressed concrcte members manufacturcd under plant comrol con ditions, min imum concrete cover for nonpreslressed reinforcement shall be as required in Section 407.8_2. 407,8.4 Bundled Bars

If the National Building Code, of which the N;Jli () nal Structural Code of the Philippines (onns a p:lri, jl:qi1frt :: a thickness of cover for fire protection greater than (he minimum concrete cover specified in Seciion:. tl( ri .,; . 1 through 407.8.7, such greater thickness shall he ~ p(;(; iI H .. j ,
407.9 Special Reinforcement Details for Columns 407.9.1 Offset B:trs Offset bent longitudinal bars shall confoml to (he followir'f::

407.9.1.1 Slope of inclined portion of an offset bar with (lxis

of co lumn shall not exceed I in 6.

407.9.1.2 Portions of bar above and below all
parallel to axis of column. 407.9.1.3 Horizontal support at offset bl'n ds ~ ! d1 ; ll~ prov ided by lateral li es, spirals or purts of {Ii;: fL,,! constru ctio n. Hori zontal suppo rt pro vided shaH lie t1. ;.i;, -J to res ist o lle and onehalf limes the horizontal ,~}jllp: l(le I H .;f th e computed force in the inclined portion or :w urr,:'1 11. '. Late ral lies or spirals. if used, shall be placed /lO! m Oil: rb,q) 150 mOl from po ints o f bend. 407.9.1.4 Offset bars shall be belli before ,,1,''C'nc'" i"

For bundled bars, minimum concrete cover shall not be less than the equivalent diameter of the bundle, but need not be greater than 50 mill; except for concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth, minimum cover shall not be less than 75 mill.
407.8.5 HC:ld ed Shear Stud J{cinfor(.'clI1cnt


shall be

For headed shear stud reinforcement, speci fied co ncrete cover for the heads or base raits shall not be Ic..o;s than thill requi red for the re inforcement in the type of member in which th e headed shear stud reinforcement is pl'lced.

forms. See Section 407.4.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete


407.9.1.5 Where a column face is offset 75 mm or greater. longitudinal bars shall not be offset bent. Separate dowels, lap spliced with the longitudinal bars adjacent to the offset column faces, shall be provided. Lap splices shall conform to Section 412.18. 407.9.2 Steel Cores Load transfer in structural steel cores of composite compression members shall be provided by the following:

407.11.3 It shall be permitted to waive the lateral reinforcement requirements of Sections 407.11, 410.17 and 418.12 where tests and structural analyses show adequate strength and feasibility of construction. 407.11.4 Spirals Spiral reinforcement for compression members conform to Section 410.10.3 and to the following: shall

407.9.2.1 Ends of structural steel cores shall be accurately finished to bear at end-bearing splices, with positive provision for alignment of one core above the other in concentric contact. 407.9.2.2 At end-bearing splices, bearing shall be considered effective to transfer not more than 50 percent of the total compressi ve stress in the steel core. 407.9.2.3 Transfer of stress between column base and footing shall be designed in accordance with Section 415.9. 407.9.2.4 Base of structural steel section shall be designed to transfer the total load from the entire composite member to the footing; or, the base may be designed to transfer the load from the steel core only, provided ample concrete section is available for transfer of the portion of the total load carried by the reinforced concrete section to the footing by compression in the concrete and by reinforcement. 407.10 Connections 407.10.1 At connections of principal framing elements (such as beams and columns), enclosure shall be provided for splices of continuing reinforcement and for anchorage of reinforcement terminating in such connections. 407.10.2 Enclosure at connections may consist of external concrete or internal closed ties, spirals or stirrups. 407.11 Lateral Reinforcement for Compression

407.11.4.1 Spirals shall consist of evenly spaced continuous bar or wire of such size and so assembled as to permit handling and placing without distortion from designed dimensions. 407.11.4.2 For cast-in-place construction, size of spirals shall not be less 10 mm diameter. 407.11.4.3 Clear spacing between spirals shall not exceed 75 mOl or be less than 25 mm. See also Section 403.4.2. 407.11.4.4 Anchorage of spiral reinforcement shall be provided by one and one-half extra turns of spiral bar or wire at each end of a spiral unit. 407.11.4.5 Spiral reinforcement shall be spliced. if needed. by anyone of the following methods: I. Lap splices not less than the larger of 300 mm and the length indicated in one of (a) through (e) below: a. b. c. d. deformed uncoated bar or wire plain uncoated bar or wire epoxy-coated deformed bar or wire. 48 db
72 db 72 db

plain uncoated bar or wire with a standard stirrup or tic hook in accordance with Section 407.2.3 at ends of lapped spiral reinforcement. The hooks shall be embedded within the core confined by the spiral reinforcement .................................... ........ 48



407.11.1 Lateral reinforcement for compression members shall conform to the provisions of Sections 407.11.4 and 407.11.5 and, where shear or torsion reinforcement IS required, shall also conform to provisions of Section 411. 407.11.2 Lateral reinforcement requirements for composite compression members shall conform (0 Section 410.17. Lateral reinforcement requirements for prestressing tendons shall conform to Section 418.12. 2.

epoxy-coated defonned bar or wire with a standard stirmp or tie hook in accordance with Section 407.2.3 at ends of lapped spiral reinforcement. The hooks shall be embedded within the core confined by the spiral ..... 48 db reinforcement

Full mechanical or welded splices in accordance with Section 412.15.3.

407.11.4.6 Spirals shall extend from top of footing or slab in any story to level of lowest horizontal reinforcement in members supported above.

National Structural Code of the Philippines

ell Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEH 4 Concrete

407.11.4.7 Where beams or brackets do not frame into all sides of a column, lics shall extend above tcnninmion of s piral to uonom of slab, drop panel, or shea r cap.

407.12 La teral Reinforcement for Flexural Members

407.12.1 Compress io n reinforcemen t in beams shall be enclosed by lies or stirrups satisfying the size ami spacing limitations in Section 407 .11.5 or by weld ed wire fabric of cq uiva icill area. Suc h tics or stirrups shall be provided throughout the di stan ce where compression re inforcement is req uired. 407.12.2 Lateral rei nfo rcemcnt fG! nexural framing members subject to stress reversal s or to to rsion at slIppons shall consist of closed tics, closed stirrups, or spirals ex tending around Ihe flexural reinforcement. 407.12.3 Cl osed lies or Slil11Jps may be formed in one picce by overlapping standard stil11Jp or tie end hooks around a longi tudinal bar, or formed in one or two pieces lap spliced with a Class B splice (lap of 1.3Id ), or anchored ill accordance wi lh Section 4 12. 14 . 407. 13 Shrinkage a nd Te mpera ture Reinforcement 407.13.1 Reinforcement for sh rinka ge and tc mperalllre st resses normal to fl ex tlrnJ re inforccl'l1ent shal l be provided in structural slabs whe re the flexural rei nforceme nt extends in one direction o nl y. 407. 13.1.1 Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with ei the r Section 407.J3.2 or 407.13.3. 407.13.1.2 Where shrinkage and tempcrature movements arc significamiy restrained. the requirement s of Sections 408.3 .4 and 4093.3 sha ll be considered . 407.13.2 Deformed reinforcemcnt co nformin g 10 Sect ion 403 .6 .3 lIsed for shrinkage and temperature reinforcemcnt shall be provided in accordance with the following: 407.13.2.1 Area of shrinkage and te mp erature reinforcement


407. 11.4.8 III columns with capitals, spirals shall extend to level fit which the diameter or width of capital is twO times

Ihm of th e co lumn .

407.11.4.9 Spirals shall be held firmly in place and tru c to line.

407. 11 .5 Tic reinforcement for compression member!) shall
conform to the following:

407.11.5.1 All non prestressed bars shall be enclosed by latcral (ies. a( least mID mOl in size for longitudinal bars U!32 111m or smalier. and at least rnl2 mm in ~ize for liI36 mm, rn42 mm. 1.!J58 111m bars. and bundled longitudinal bars.
Deformed wire or we lded wire fabric of equivalent area s hall be permilled. 407.11.5.2 Vel1ical spac in g of lies shall not exceed 16 longitudinal bar tlinmetcrs , 48 ti e bar or wire diarneters, or leas t dimensioJl of the compression mem ber. 407.11.5.3 Ti cs sha ll be arranged slich tl1m every corner and alternate longitudinal bar shall have lateral SUppOI1 provided by the corne r of 11 tic with an included angie of not more than 135 degrees and a bar shall be nOt fanher than 150 mill clea r all each side along the lic from such a laterally supported bar. Where longi tudinal bars arc IOC.HCd around the perimcte r of a c ircle, a complete circuhu lie shall be pcnnincd. 4 07. 11.5.4 Tics shill! be locateo vertically not more than on e half a tic spncing above the lOp of footing or s lab in an y slOry and shall be spaced as provided herein to nol more than o ne half a tic spacing below the lowest horizontal reinforcemellt in slab, drop panel, or shear CHP above. 407.11.5.5 Whe re beams or brackets frallle from fOll r d irec ti ons into <I co lumn, terminati on of li es not more than 75 mill below reinforcement in sha ll owes t of slI ch beams or brackcts shall be pennittcd. 407.11.5.6 Where ,Hlehor bolls are pklccd in (he top columns or pe destal s , the bolls shall be enclosed by lateral reinforcement 111<It al so surrounds at Icit st fOllr vcnkal bars of the colu mn or pedeslal. The laleral reinrorcement shall be distributcd within 125 nllll of thc lOp or column or pedcstal. and shall consist of at least [wo m l2 ml11 or three rnlo nun bars.

shall provide at leflst the fo ll ow ing ra tios of re inforcement

area to gross con crete area, but not less than 0.00 14:



Slabs where Grode 280 and Grade 530 deformed bars arc used ....... ... .. ......... .......... 0 .0020 Slabs where Grade 4 15 deformed bars or welded wi re fabric (smooth or deformed) "re used .............................. ...... 0.0018
Slabs where rei nforcement with yield . stress exceeding 415 MPa measured at 0.00 18 x415 a yield strain of 0 .35 percent is used



Association of StrtJ clural Englllcers of tile Phil ippines

CHAPTER 4 . COllcrele


407.13.2.2 Shri l1kage and tClllpcralu r~ rein forccmcllI shall be spaced nol f.wher ap,IJ1 than ri vc timcs the sla b lhickness or 450 mm.
407.13.2.3 AI <t il secti ons whcre requi red. rei nforcc men t for shrinkage and tcmpe.rillure ~(rcsscs shall develo p the ccord;lncc wit h specified yicld strcngth J~ in (elision in .k Scclion 41 2. 407.13.3 Prestressin g Icndons conforming to Scct ion 403.6.6 used for shrinkage ,lIld temperature reinforcement shall be provided ill accorda nce wilh the followi ng:


At Icast onc-qual1cr reinforccment requi red two bars.


of thc posit ivc momcnt midspa n, bUI not less Ih'lll

A l non-con tin uous suppOl1S, the reinforce ment shall be anc hored to develop 1,. at the face of the support lIs in g II standard hook satisfying Sec ti on 41 2.6 or headed defonncd bar sa ti sfying Section 412 .7.

407.13.3.1 Tendons shall be proportioned to provide a mini mu lll average co mpressive Sl rC!\s of 0.70 MPa on gross COll cretc area using effecti ve prestress, after losses, in accordance wi th Sccti on 418.7.
407.13.3,2 Spacing of prl.!s lrcssed te ndons shall not exceed
i .8 meter.....

407.14.2.3 The co ntinuous moment reinforcement required ill Section 407. 14.2.2 shall bc enclosed by transverxe reinforcement or the L ype specified in Section 4 The transve rse rcinforcemenl Shilll be an chored as specified ill Section 4 The transverse rein forcement need not be extended thro ugh the coluilln . 407.14.2.4 Where splices are required to salisfy Section 407, 14.2.2, (he lOp reinforcement shall be spliccd at or near midspan and boltom reinforcement shall be spliced near the support . Splices shall be Class B tension splices, or mechanical or welded splices satisfyi ng Section 4 12. i 5.3 . 407.14,2.5 In other than perimeter beams . where transverse reinforce ment as dcfined in Secti on 407 .14.2.3 is provided, there arc 110 addi tion al requirements for longitudinal reinforcement . Wh ere such transverse integrity reinforcc melll is nOt provided, nt least one-qual1cr of the positive 1l10lnCllI rein forcement at midspan, but not less than I WO ba rs, shall pnss through the regi on bounded by the longiludinal reinforccll1clHof thc COI Ulllll :lIld shall be co ntinuou s or shall be spliced over OJ' ncar the support wilh a Class B tens ion spli ce, or mec hanical or weld ed split:cs sa ti sf yi ng Section 412. 15.3. A I 11011 co ntinuous suppOI1S, the reinforccment sl1:111 he 'lIlchored 10 (ievel opJ~ at the face ()f Ihe SU PP()f1 using a standard hook sali s fying Section 4 12.6 or headed de forilled bar sa tisfying Sct: ti o ll 4! 1 .7. 407 ,14.2,(' For IlOll presLresscd two-way sl" b COllst rllCli ()]). set: Sel' tion 41 J .4.R.5. 407. 14.2.7 For prt:stressed two-way slab cOllslnlcli on. see Secti on 4 18. 13 .6 and 41 8 13.7 407. 14 ,) For precast concrc te
CO]l Slrut'l io n .

407.13.3.3 WIlen the spacing of pres tressed tcndOlls exceeds 1.4 Ill, <Iddi lional bonded shrinkage and temperature reinfo rceme nt conforming with Secti on 407 .13.2 xlmll be pro vided between (he (c!l tk>ns at slab ed ges extending from the Slil b edge for a distance equal 10 the tendon spacing,

407.14 UCCJuircmcnts fo r Stru ctll ra lln tcgrity 407.14,1 III the dc/ailing of re info rce ment and connec ti ons. members of' . 1 structure shall be effectivel y tied toge ther (0 impro ve illlcgri ty of the ove ral l struc ture.
407.J4.2 For cast-I n-plan. ' olllslnl<.'tion. llIinilllUlll r e quil'l~ lIlcnls :
I h~'

following sh;1I 1

c() ll s tillftl~

407,14.2. 1 In joist conslnll' ti oll. its delincd in Sections 408.14.1 through 01 08. 14.3. at lea~1 nile hO(t Olll har shall he continuous or shal l he spliced over the support wi th a Class B tens ion spl icc 0 ]' a Illct' h;m ic al ~)I' welded s plice satisfy ing Section 412. 1S .] <lod at nOIl-cont inllolls support s sh all be '1IH.:hored 10 develop f, a! the face of the slJppon lI sin g a sta ncbnl honk satisfying Sect ion ~ 11.6 or hcmicd (kfo rmcd bar SiU i~ryi llg Set'! inn 412.7. 407.J4,2.2
I k:1Il1S

tcnsio]) lies

11 ;1\\ , ~: ()llt i l1\1\1\1s

throu gh tht: rcinfnrcl'Illl'1lI o r I Ill! L"lliu llIl1 l'oll si:-tlllg

1 \1

al tl w pcrilllt'!l:r of Ih e St I1l C!\lI\' sh,dl I'ci nrmccillcill O\:l! Ihe :-.pan kll gth p assin g region bounded hy l ile longitudilla l

shall be provided in the transverse. longitudinal. and vcrtit'al dircction s and arou nd t h ~' perimcter o f the slrllc tll rc In ~rrl~\,:tivdy til' ek lll c lJt s toget her. The provisions of Sec ti on
4 I (,.!, shall "ppl)' .

( I ) and (2):

It'a.\( (llll' -s ixth nf the tens ion rc ill i'orn'm t'1I1 I'l'q uil'l'd for ll ~ga ti\'l: 11101111..'1\1 al the :-. uppOl'1. hU I no t k::-.s 111:111 t\V() 1);lrs:

.:107. 14.4 For lif, "I,,11 and ..t 18 . 1:IX

l'oll~trlll'tioll, St'C. St:t't ioIlS .~

1l.tX 6


CHAPTEI, 4 . Concrete

Table 407-2 Steel Reinforcement Information Information on Sizes, Areas and Weights of Various Steel Reinforcements
. . . ..... .. _ . _ - - - - - _..

- - - - - - . - _.



Nominal Diameter, mm

Nominal Area, mm 2

Nominal mass, kg/m

0.560 -------.- .--.. 0.994 1.552 2.235 3.042 3.973

Bar Size Designation


Nominal Area, mm 2
79 113 201 314
. ..._._- - - _.

Nominal mass, kg/m


12.7 15.9

71 _ - _._-_ 129 199


-- ~-




12 16




0.890 1.580 2.465

19.1 22.2 25.4 28.7

284 387 510 645 819 1006


. - 1-.


25 28 32 36 42 58


491 616 804 1019 1385 2642


32.3 35.8 43.0 57.3

._... _ ...... _.

5.060 6.404 7.907 11.380 20.240

4.831 6.310
. .

7.986 10.870 20.729

1452 2581

.."" ... _ . _ - - - - ' - . _ - - -

/\SSOC i8t ioil of Siructur81 Enqineers of tile Pll i lipPllll~' ;

CHAPTER 4 . Concrole

~ -37

Table 407 -3 WRI Standard Wire Rein force men t MW and MD SIZE






- - --_..
MW 290 MW200 MW130 MWI 20 MWI OO MW90 MW80 MW70 MW65 MW60 MW55 MW50 MW45 MW40 MW35 MW30 1----MW 25 MW20 MWIS MWIO MW5


MD290 MD200 '. MD130 MD I20 MDI OO MD90 MD80 MD70 MD65 MD60 MD55 MD50 MD45 MD40 MD35 1922 15.95 12.90 12.40 11 .30 10.70 10. 10 9.40 9. 10 8.70 8.44 8.00 7.60 7.10 6.70 6.20 5.60 5.00 4.40 3.60

50 5800 4000 2600 2400 2000 1800 1600 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700

75 3900 2700 1700 1600 1300 1200 1100 930 870 800 730 670 600 530 470 400 330 270 200

100 2900 2000 1300 1200 1000 900 800 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50

150 1900 1300 870 800 670 600 530 470 430 400 370 330 300 270 230 200 170 130 100 70 33

200 1450 1000 650

250 1160 800 520 480 400 360 320 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

300 970 670 430 400 330 300 270 230 220 200 180 170 150 130 120 100 83 67 50 33

2.270 1.570 1.020 '0.942 0.785 0.706 0.628 0.549 0.510 0.471 0.432 0.393 0.353 0.314 0.275 0.236 0.196 0.157 0.118 0.079 0.039

500 450 400 350 325 300

250 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25

--- - ---MD 25

MD 30


600 500 400 300 200 100




CHAPTEfl4 - Concrete


408.1 Notations

408.3 Loading
408.3. 1 Des ign prov isions of thi s code nrc based on the ass umption that 51 ructurcs sha ll be designcd to resist all applicable loads. 408.3 ,2 Servi ce load s shall he in iH:corda nce with C hapter 2 or this code Wilh appropriatl.!. live IO<ld reduct ions as pe l'ln iHcd therein. 408.3.3 In ~csig n for wind :111<1 c4l11hquakc loads, intcgraL structural pans shall be dcsigilCd to resist th e (otal lateral

A. ;;: area o fnonprcstrc.o;:scd tension rci n(ol'CCI1lCnL I11m ~ A '. ;;: area of compression rei nforce ment, 1111112 b ;;: width of compression face of member, mm d ::: di stance from extreme compressi oll fiher 1 0 ce nt roi d of (ension rcinforccmcllI. 111m

408.3.4 Considerat ion sha ll be given to e ffcc ts or rorces due to prcstrcssing. crane loads , vihratio n, impac l, shrinkage , temperature changes. creep. expansion of shrinkageco mpcnsating C{) llcrC le tul d uneqllal settl cmcllt of supports.

r, :;:

V, Iii, IV"

:;: modulus of elas ti cit y o f concrete . MP,1. Sec SC'lion 208.6. 1 :;: modulus of elasticity of rcin f'o rcc m clH. MPa. Sec Sections 408 .6.2 and 408 .6.3 speci fied compressive strengt h of cOllc re te. Mila ;; speci fied yie ld strength of Ilo nprestn::ssed re inforce ment. MPa :;;: length of clear Sp:lH measured facc~ l o- fC!(:c of

408.4 Methods of Analysis

408.4.1 All members or ffum es or <.:o minll ous construction shall be designed (or tile ma ximulll effects or fa c tored loads as determined by th e th eory o f clastic 'IIln lysis, exc ept as modified by Section 408.5 , It sha l l be permincd to si mplify the design by usin g tilt:: nss ll ll1p ti olls spccilkd in Scction s 408 .8 th rough 408 .12. 408.4.2 Except fo r prest resse d concrct!.! , approximate me thod s or frallle anal ysis ma y bc lI sed for buildings of usual Iypes of construct ion , ~p a!ls .1Ilt! story he ig ht s.


Slipp0 11 S. mill ;;: no m inal shear stre ngth provided by concrete :;: ullit weight of concrete, kghn , l ;;: facLOrccl load per unit len gth of beam Or' per Llnit area o f slab = raCIOr defined in Seclion 410,3 ,7.]


in ex treme tens io n steel at nom inal strcng th ;:: w ti o or no nprcstressed ICllsion rcinrorcclllcnl
;:: net tens ile stra in

= liJbd ;:: rati o or lIonprcsl rcssc cJ compression l'l.!inforL'cmclH

ratio produci ng
IO .,~ .2

= II ',1M Ph :::: rcinrorccmcnt


~ tn li !l

408.4.3 As all a ltenlm!.! In fraillc illHlIY'iis, till' rollowi ng mOlllclltS and 'ihcar~ ~ h ;tll I ~ l>cnn ittcd (0 he used in t.Ic sign o r l' ()JlI i lltl(H1~ heam:.. and OIl!.! ""';I)' '\1 <1hs (~ I ahs reinforced to rc ~ is t Ikxllral :.. trcs,cs ill on ly olle
directit)ll). provided:

condi li ol1s, Sec Sccl io ll..j

.:::: streng th -red uct ion rac tor.

St' C

SCCl io1l409.4

408.2 Design Methods 408.2. 1 In dc~ign or stnH.:tural t'tHH:n.'te. mcmhe rs ~hall he proportioncd fo r <\(lcqlla!c ~Ircllg th in ;!(conl'lIll'e wi th pro visioll~ o f this C h a pl~f. using load f;K h )r~ and "tn'llgt hn.'(iLU,'li on r;lcl o r~ ~~srccificd ill Scn io ll -Hl9 ,
40X.2.2 f)c~ign of reinrorced ClHllTl'!t' of Set'lillll 425 ~hall he pcnnillcd,


T here are two I)r mo rc

SPilIlS ;

2. Spans 'arc :l)proxilll:ltcly equal. wil h lhe

lar~cr of two adj'll"l'nl SpilllS tl OI grcater than the shoneI' by more than :W pcn.:clll:
I .();!d ~

.1 ,
-I .

arc Uillftll'lll i y d i ~ lril)llt ed :


pm\'i,itl ll ~

U nfaclOrcd li ve IO<ld, I .. dck,':-' 1101 e\lcl,.'d IllIce timcs unfa('(ored (ka(~ j1.1I 1. /) : ;lII d


arc prismalic

40 H.2.J An<.: h llr~ wit hin the St'Olk ' II!' Set'ltlln ,n.\ 111'.. 1:111('(1 in (o nne h.' 10 I r: lII ~ kr l" ;,,ds !~I\vl'l'n rnll n l'~ t l' d Llt' l lIl'n "
s ha ll he Ik:-. ig ned US III~ Sect ion 123 .

CHAPTI: R 4 . Concrete


For caJculming negative 1ll0IllCIHS, orthc <ldjaccnt clca r span lengths.



is IiIkcn as the avcrage

Stati c equi librium shall be maintained after redi stributi on of moments for each loadi ng arrangement 408.6 Modulus of Elasticity 408.6.1 Modulus of elasticit y E,. for concrete shall be permitt ed to be take n as w/sO.043 (in MPa) for

End spans
Discontinuous end unrestrained Disco ntinu ous end integral with


.... wlIl,i'~1J4 w J}1l6


Intelior spans

For values of Wr between 1.500 and 2,500 kg/ml. normal. weight co ncrete, Ec shall be permitlcd to be taken

as 4700
ex tcrior face of first intcrio r sllppon


408.6.2 Modulus
w,.J,,'~/ IO

Two spans ................. .

More than two spans .. at other faces of interior support s at face of all su pports for: slabs with sp:lnS not cxceeding 3 meters; and beams where ratio of su m of column sl iffnesses (0 beam stiffness exceeds cigh l at each end of lhe span al interior face of exterior support for members built integrally with suppons: where support is a spandrel beam where su pport is a column


of elasticit y Es for nonprestressed reinforcement shall be permitted (0 be taken as 200,000 MPa.

1V.,/,/! 11 1

408.6.3 Modulus of elasticity Es for prest ressing tendons shall be dClcnnined by lc:-itS or supplied by the manufacturer. 408.7 Lightweight Concrete

408.7.1 To account for the usc of liglHweight concrete, unless !:>pccifically noted otherwise, a modification factor ),
w)}'124 w)}1!6

appears as a multiplier of


in all applicable equations


at face of first interi or suppon .. .. . ... ..... face of all ot her slIppOJ1S . ...... ............

1. 15 11',,1,/2 11',,/,,/2

408.4.4 Stru HlIld -tie models shall be penn illcd to be used in the design of slruclunll concrele. Sec Section 427. 408.5 Redi stribution of Negative l\1omcnts in Continuous Nonprestressed Flexural Members 408.5.1 Excep t where approximate va lue.. .c; for moments arc used. il is pe rm itted to decrease factored momcnts calculated by clas ti c thcory at sections of max.i mu m nega tive or positi ve momcnt in any span of contin uous fl exu ral mcmbers ror any ass umed loading arrangement by nOI morc than IOODE, percen t, wi th II maxim um of 20 percen!. 408.5.2 Hcdi stribu ti oll of negat ive moments shill I he madc only wh c n t.j is equal to or greater than 0.0075 H( the sec ti on at whi ch mome nt is reduced. 408.5.3 The reduced IllOJllent shall be used for calcula ting redistribut ed moments at all other sections within the spans.

and sections of this code, where } , = 0.85 for sandlightweight COllcrete and 0.75 for all-li ghtweight concrete. Linear interpolation between 0.75 and 0.85 shall be permitted, on the basis of volume tri c fracti ons, when a pOl1ion of the ligili weight fine agg regate is replaced with normal-weight fine aggregate. Linear interpolatio n between 0.85 and 1.0 shall be permitted, on the basis of volu mclric frac ti ons. for concrele con taini ng normal-weight fine aggregate and a blend of li giliweigh t and normal -weight coarse aggregates. For normal weigh t conc rete, }. = 1.0. If average splitting tensile strength of li ght we ight concrete,Fe/> is specified, A ~ t" 1(0.56 408.8 Stiffness 408.8. 1 Use of any set of reasonable assumptions shall be pCl'mitlcd fo r co mputing relati ve ncxu ral and torsional sliffnc!;scs of colu mns. walls. Ooors and roof sys tems. The <lsslIlllptions adopted shall be consistcnt throughout
< lIlal ys is.

F, .) $


408.8.2 Effect of haunches shall be considered both in determining moments and in design of members.

National Structural Corle of tl'l('; Pililippines 6


Edition Volumr? 1


CHAPTEI, 4 . Concrete

408.11 Columns 408.9 Effective Stiffness to Determine Lateral

Deflections 408.11.1 Columns shall be designed to resist the axial forces from factored loads on all floors or roof and the maximum moment from factored loads on a single adjacent span of the floor or roof under cOllsideration. Loading condition giving the maximum ratio of moment to axial load shall also be considered. 408.11.2 In frames or continuous constl1lction, consideration shall be given to the effect of unbalanced floor or roof loads on both exterior and interior columns and of eccentric loading due to other causes. 408.11.3 In computing gravily load moments in columns, it shall be permitted to assume far ends of columns built integrally with the stl1lcture to be fixed. 408.11.4 Resistance to moments at any floor or roof level shall be provided by distributing the moment between columns immediately above and below the given floor in proportion to the relati ve column stiffnesses and conditions of restraint.

408.9.1 Lateral deflections of reinforced concrete building systems resulting from service lateral loads shall be computed by either a linear analysis with member stiffness determined using 1.4 times the flexural stiffness defined in 408.9.2 and 408.9.3 <>1' by a more detailed analysis. Member properties shall not be taken greater than the gross section properties. 408.9.2 Lateral deflections of reinforced concrete building systems resulting from factored lateral loads shall be computed either by linear analysis with member stiffness defined by (I) or (2), or by a more detailed analysis considering the reduced stiffness of all members under the loading conditions:
I. 2. By section properties defined in 410.12.3 (I) through
(3); or

50 percent of stiffness values based on gross section properties.

408.9.3 Where two-way slabs without beams are designated as part of the seismic-foree-resisting system, lateral deflections resulting from factored lateral loads shall be permitted to be computed by using linear analysis. The stiffness of slab members shall be defined by a model that is in substantial agreement with results of comprehensi ve tests and analysis and the stiffness of other frame members shall be as defined in Section 408.9.2.

408.12 Arrangement of Live Load

408.12.1 It is permissible to assume that: l. 2. The live load is applied only to the floor or roof under consideration; and The far ends of columns built integrally with the structure are considered to be fixed.

408.10 Span Length 408.10.1 Span length of members not built integrally with supports shall be considered the clear span plus depth of member, but need not exceed distance between centers of supports.
408.10.2 In analysis of frames or continuous construction for determination of moments, span length shall be taken as the distance center to center of supports. 408.10.3 For beams built integrally with supports, design on the basis of m'()ments at faces of support shall be permitted.

408.12.2 It is permitted to assume that the arrangement of live load is limited to combinations of: I. 2. Factored dead load on all spans with futl-factored live. load on two adjacent spans, and Factored dead load on all spans with full-factored live load on altemate spans.

408.13 Tbeam Construction

408.13.1 In T-beam construction, the flange and web shall be built int.egrally or otherwise effectively bonded together. 408.13.2 Width of slab effective as a T-beam flange shall not exceed olle-fourth the span length of the beam, and the effective overhanging slab width on each side of the web shall not exceed:

408.10.4 It shall be permitted to analyze solid or ribbed slabs built integrally with supports, with clear spans not more than 3 111, as continuous slabs on knife edge supports with spans equal to the clear spans of the slab and width of beams otherwise neglected.


Eight times the slab thickness; or One-half the clear distance to the next web.

Association of Structural Enginems of the Philippines

f ,
408.13.3 for beams with a slab on one side on ly. the effective overhanging flange width shall not exceed:

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete



Onctwclfth the !span"length of the beam;

Six limes the slab thickness; or

408.14.5.2 Slab thickness over permanent fillers shall nol be less than one twelfth the clear distance between ribs nor less than 40 mm. 408.14.5.3 In one-way joisls, rei nforcement normal to Ihe ribs shall be provided in the Slil b as required by Secti on 407.13. 408.14.6 When removable forms or fil lers not complying with Seclion408. 14.5 are used: 408.14.6.1 Slab thickness shali not be less than one twelfth the clear distance between ribs, or less than 50 mm . 408.14.6.2 Reinforcement normal to the ribs shali be provided in the slab as required for flexure. considering load concentrations, if any, but not less than req uired by Section 407.13. 408.14.7 Where conduits or pipes as pcrmjlled by Section 406.3 are embedded within the slab. slab Ihickness s hall be al least 25 mm greater th an the total overall depth of the conduits or pipes at any poin!.. Conduits or pipes shall not impair sig nificantly the stre ngth of the cons truction. 408.14.8 For joist cons truction, contri bution of concrete to shear strengt h Vc- is permitted lO bc 1 0 percent morc than that specified in Section 411. It shall be peml ilted lO increase shear strength using s hear reinforcement or by widening Ihe ends of the ribs. 408.1 5 Separate Floor Finish 408.15.1 A floor finish shall not be included as pan of a strucwral member unless placed monolithically with the floor slab or designed in accordan ce with requiremen ts of Section 4 J 7. 408.15.2 It shall be permitted to consider all concrete floor finishes as part of required cover or tOlal thickness for nonslructural considerations.


Onchalflhc clear di stance to the next web.

408.13.4 Isolated beams. in which Ihe Tshape is used 10 provide a flange for additional compression area, shall have a flan ge thickness not less than one half the width of web and an effective fl ange width not more th an four limes the width of web.
408.13.5 Where primary ' flexural reinforce ment in a slab that is considered as a Tbeam flange (excluding joist cons tru ction) is paraliel to Ihe beam, reinforcement perpendicular 10 the beam shall be provided in tl,e lOP of tl,e slab in accordance with the following:


408.13.5.1 Transverse reinforcement sha ll be designed to carry the factored load on lhe overhang ing s lab widl.h assumed 10 act as a cantilever. For iso latcd beams. the full width of overhanging flange shall be considered. For other T-beams, only the effective overhanging slab width need be considered.

408.13.5.2 Transverse reinforcement shall be spaced not farther apart than five times the slab Ihickncss or 450 mill.
408.14 J oist Construction 408.14.1 Joist constmction consists of a mOllolilh ic combination of regularly spaced ribs and a top sJab arranged to span in one direction 01" two oI1hogonal directions. 408.14.2 Ribs shall not be less than 100 Jllln in width and shall have a depth of not more than three and one-half times the minimum width of rib. 408.14.3 Clear spacing between ribs shali nOl exceed 750

408.14.4 Joi sl. constmclion not meeting the Iimitalions of Seclions 408.14. 1 Ihrough 408.14.3 shali be designed as slabs and bea ms. 408.14.5 When permanent burned c11l)' or conc rcte tilc fillers of J1lillcrial having a unit comp ressive slrenglh at least equal to that of the speci fied strength of co ncrete in the joists are used: 408.14.5.1 For shear and nega(ivc~momem strength computati ons. it shall be penniued to include the vertical shells of fillers in cont act with ribs. Other pOI1ions of ml eT s shall not be included in strength compu tations.

Nationa l Structural Code of tl1e Philippines


Edition Volume 1


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete


409.1 Notations At :;:: gross area of secti on. mm :;:: area of compression reinforcement, mm 2 :;:: width of compression face of me mber, mOl = distan ce from extreme compression fiber to neutral


D cI tI'


axis. mm
;::;: dead loads, or related internal moments and forces :;:: distance from ext reme compression fiber to centroid of tension rei nforcement, mrn :;:: distan ce from extreme compression fiber to

centroid of compression reinforcement, mm ds






ff == square rom of specified

= average

distance from extreme te ns ion fib er to centroid of tension reinforcement, mm distance from ex tre me compress ion tiber to extreme tension steel, mm load effeclS of earthquake, o r related internal moments and forces modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa. See Section 408.6.1 loads due to weight and pressures of fluids with well defined densities and controllable maximum heights. or related internal moments and forces specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa compressive strength of





I, L I



co ncrete. MPa splitting tensile stre ngth of lightweight aggregate concrete, MPa = modulus of rupture of concrete, MPa :: specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement , MPa :: loads due to weight and pressure of soi l, water in soi l, or ot her materials, or related in tern al mome nts and forces = overall thickness of membe r, mm moment of inerti a of cracked section trans formed to concrete. mrn~ effective mOlllent of inertia for co mputati on of delleclion, 1l11ll4 = moment of inertia of gross concrete seclion about 4 cClHroidal ax is. neglecting rein forcement, mm == Jive loads. or re lated in ternal moments and forces == span length o f beam o r one ~w a y s lab, as defined in Section 408 . 10; dear proj ec tion of cantilcver, mrn = length of clear span in long uirection of two-way construc tion, measured face to face of supports in slabs without beams and face to face of beams or o ther SUpp0l1S in olher cases =- maxim um moment in membe r at stage d eflection is comput ed = crack ing mOlllcnt. Sec Equation 409-9



nominal axial load strength at balanced ~>train co nditions. See SCClion 410.4.2 :: nominal ax ial load strength at given eccentricity =-rai n load, or related internal moments a!ld fo rces. Sec tion 409.3.1 :: cumulative effects of temperature, creep, shrinkage. d iffe renti al settlement and sh rinkage compensatin g concrete = requ ired strength to resist fa clOfcd loads or relate d internal moments and forces = w ind load, or re lated internal moments and forces 3 = weight of concrete. kg/m = distance from centroidal axis of gross section , neglecting rei nforcemelH, to ex.treme fiber in tension = ratio of flexural sti ffness of beam section to flexural stiffness of a width of slab bounded laterall y by center line of adjacent panel , if any. on each side o f beam . Sec Secti on 4 J 3 :: average value of Of for all beams on edges of a panel :: ratio of clear spans in 10ng~lo-sh ol1 direction of two-way s labs = time-dependent factor for sustained load. Sec Section 409.6. 2.5 = net tensile strain in ext reme tcnsion ste d at nominal strength modification factor rellec ling the rednccd mechani ca l properties of lightweight concrete. See Section 408.7. 1 = multipli er for additional l ong~t ime dei1cction as defined in Section 409.6.2.5 = ratio of nonp restressed tcns ion reinforcement,

= rei nforcement rati o for no nprestressed compressio n

reinforcement, A 'jbd


:: re inforcement ratio producing balanced strain

conditions. See Section 410.4 .2
= st rength -reducti on fa cto r. See Section 409.4

409.2 General 409.2.1 Structures and structural members shall Iw (k~iJ ';! cd (0 have design strength s at all secti ons at !cil :-.i n;i:, ' required st rengths calculated for the faclOr.:,! hi: forces in such combinations as arc sti pulated in l his <.'< l(lc.


409.2.2 Members also sha ll meet all other requi remc nts of thi s code to e nsure adequate perfo rm ance al :lcrvi{ ( to ad levels. 409.2.3 Des ign of Slructures and stru c tural mClllbc'I",'\ Will i'. the load faclor combinali ons and st renglh r(' (b ':i '.~' ";! (.;., . o f Section 426 shall be permiued . Usc ( l l" ;,;.,,,j ilt.:h.

Association of Structura l Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Co ncrete


combinations [ rom this chapter in conjunction with st rengt h reduction factors of Section 426 shall not be permitted.
409.3 Required Strength 409.3.1 Rcquired SlrclIgth U shall be at least equal to the effects of factored load s ill Eq. 409- 1 through Eq . 409-7 . The effect of one or more loads not acting simultaneously shall be investigated.

the appropriatc load combinations of ASCE I SEI 7 shall be used. 409.3.5 For post-tensioned anChorage zone des ign, a load factor of 1.2 shall be applied to the ma ximum tendon jackj ng force. 409.4 Design Strength 409.4.1 Design strengtll prov ided by a member, its con necti o ns to other members and its cross sections, in terms of fl ex ure, a xial load, shear and torsio n, shall be take n as the nomi nal strengt h ca lcul ated in accorda nce with requiremen ts and assumptio ns of this Section, mult iplied by a s trength- reduction factor in Sections 409.4.2, 409.4.4 and 409.4.5. 409.4.2 Strength-Reduction Factor Strength-reduction factor shall be g iven in Sections 409.4.2. 1 through 409.4 .2.7 :

1.4(D + F)

(409- 1) (409-2)
(409 -3)

U = L2 (D+ F + T) + 1.6 (L+H) + O.5(L. or R)

U = 1.2 D + 1.6 (L, or R) + (1.0L or 0.80 W)

U = 1.2 D + 1.6 W + 1.0 L +O.S (L, or R)

(409-4) (409-S )

U = 1.2 D + 1.0 E+ 1.0 L

U = 0.9 D + 1.6 W + 1.6 Ii
U = 0.90 [) + 1.0 E + 1.6 Ii

(409-7 )

except as follows:

409.4.2.1 Tension contro lled sections as defin ed in Secti on 410.4 .4 (scc also Scction 409.4.2.7) ............ .... .. .. . 0.90 409.4.2.2 Compres sion co ntroll ed sections, as defi ned in Section 410.4.3:

I . The load factor on tile livc load L in Eq . 409-3 to 409-S

shall bc permitted to be reduced to 0.5 except for garages, areas occupied as places of public assembl y, 2 and all areas where L is greater th an 4.8 kN /m

Members with spiral reinfo rcement conforming to Secti on 4 10. 10.3 .. .... .......... Other reinforced 1l1cmbers

0.7S 0.65

\Vhere wind load W has not been reduced by a directionality factor. it shaH be permitted to use I.3 W in place of 1.6W in Eq. 409-4 and 409-6. W here E, the lo ad effects of earthquake. is bascd 011 ser vice-level seismic fo rces, 1.4 shall be used in place of 1.0 E in Eq. 409-S and 409-7. The lo ad factor on H, loads due to weigh t and press ure of soil, wa ter in soil, or other materi al s, shall be set cqual to zero in Eq . 409-6 and 409-7 if the stmctural action due to H co unteracts that due to W or E. Where lateral earth press ure provides resi stan ce to structural ac tions from o ther forces, it shall not be included in Ii but sh all be includ ed in the design res istance.




foo r sections in whi ch th e net tensile strength, Cr. is between th e limi ts for co mpressio n-controlled im d ten sio n-colHroll ed sectio ns, shall be pc nniucd 10 be linearl y increased from th at fo r co mpressio n-con tro ll ed sectiolls to 0 .90 as c, inc reases fro m the compression-cont ro ll ed strai n limit to 0.005 . Altern at ively, when Sec ti o n 425 is used, for mem bers in whi ch h' does not exceed 415 MPa, with s ymmetric reinforcement, and with (II . d')/h not less than 0.70, shall be permitt ed to be in creased linearly 10 0 .90 as P(l decreases from 0.10 fr A,( to zero. For other reinforced mem bers, shall he permi tt ed to be increased linearly to 0.90 as P., dec reases from 0. 10 AK or Ph, whic hever is smaller, 10 7.ero.

409.3.2 If resistance to impact e ffects is laken into accouni in des ign, stich effects shall be included with live load L. . 409.3.3 Estimat io ns o f different ial settlement, creep. shrinkage , expansio n o f shrinkage-co mpe nsatin g conc rete or temperature change shall be based o n a reali stic assess ment of suc h effects occ urring in service. 409.3.4 If a structu re is in <I n ood zone. or is subjected 10 forces from at mos phe ric preci pitatio ns, the Oood loads and


409.4.2 .3 Shea r and torsio n (Sec also Section 409.4.4 for shear wn lls <lnd rram cs in Seismic Zo ne 4) 0.75 409.4.2.4 Bearin g on concrete (excepl for posttensio ning anchomge zones) ................ ...................... 0.65 409.4.2.5 Post-ten sioned ancho rage


National Structu ra l Code of th e P!)il ippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHA I' TEI1 4 . Concrele

409.4.2.6 Slmland-lie models (Secli on 427).

and struts, lics, llodaJ zones, and bearing areas in such models


409.5 Design Strength for Reinforcement The values of hand 11' used in design calculations shall not exceed 550 MPa, except for prestressing tendons and for transverse reinforcement in Section 410. 10.3 and 421 .3.5 .4. 409.6 Control of Deflections

409.4.2.7 Flexural sections in pre-tensioned members where

strand embedmen t is less than the development length as

provided in Seclion 412.10.1.1:

I, 2.

longlh ...

Prom the end of the member to the end of the transfer .0.75

From the end of the transfer length to the end of

the devclopmcm length shall be permitted to be

409.6.1 Reinforced concrete members subject to lkxur('. shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to lim it deflections or any deformatio ns that adversely affect strength or serviceability of a st ructure.
409.6.2 One-Way Construction (Nonprestressed) 409.6.2. 1 Minimum thickness stipu laled in Table 409 : shall apply for one-way construction not supporting or attached to partitions or other construction likely to be. damaged by large deflections, unless computation of deflection indicates a lesser thickness Illay be used without adverse effects. 409.6.2.2 Where deflections are to be computed, deflections: that occur immediately on application of load sId! lv' computed by usual methods or formulas for e1as: ic deflections, considering effects of cracking i~nd reinforcement on member s tiffness. 409.6.2.3 Unless stiffness values arc obt:lined by a more co mprehensive analysis, immediate deflection shall :lC computed wilh the modulus of elasticity c- fo r conc rete as specified in Section 108.6. 1 (normnl wcight or ligh tweight concrete) and with the effective moment of incnia as follows , but not grefttcr than It:.

linearly increased from .......................... 0.75 100.9

Where bonding of a strand docs not extend (0 the le:nd of the

member, strand embedment shall be assumed (0 begin at the end of Ihe debonded leng.h. Sec also Seclion 412.10.3. 409.4.3 Developmenl lenglhs specified in Sec. ion 4 12 do no! require a factor.

409.4.4 For structures that rely on intermediate precast structural walls in Seismic Zone 4, special moment frames, or special structural walls to resist earthquake e.ffccls. E, shall be modified as given in Seclion 409.4.4.1 Ihrough
409.4.4.3: 409.4.4.1 For any structural member that is designed to resist E, for shear shall be 0.60 if the nominal shear strength of the member is less than the shear corresponding to Ihe deve lop ment of the nominal Ocxural st rength of the member. The nominal flexural strength shall be determined ' considering the most critical factored axial loads and including E; 409.4.4.2 For diaphragms. for shear shall no. exceed the minimum for shear used for the vertical componen ts of the primary seismic-foree-resisting system; 409.4.4.3 For joints and diagonally reinforced coupling beams. forshear s hall be 0.85. 409.4.5 Strength reduction factor for nexure, co mpression. shear find bearing of structural plain co ncrete in 'Secli o n 422 shall be 0.60. .


J, I , - - -)"

and for lIonn al-wcighl concrete

J, = 062}. ff,

Association of Structura l Eng ineers of the Philippin es


CHAPTER 4 . Concrete

4 45

Table 409 1 . Minimum Thickness of Nonprestrcssed Beams or One Way Slabs Unless Deflections are Computed
Minimum Thi ckness. It

409.6.3 Two-Way Construction (Nonprestrcssed ) 409.6.3.1 1ltis sectio n shall govern the minimum thickness of slabs or other two-way constru ction designed in accordance with the provisions of Seclion 413 and confanning with the requirements of Section 4 13.7. 1.2. The thickness of slabs without interior bcall'lS spanning betwecn the suppon s on all sides shall satisfy the requirements of Section 409.6.3.2 or 409.6.3.4. Thickness of slabs WiU, bea ms spannin g between the suppo rts on all sides _ shall sa tisfy the requirement s of Section 409.6.3 .3 or 409.6.3.4. 409.6.3.2 For slabs without interior beams spanni ng between the supports and having a ratio of long (0 short span not greater than 2, the minimum thickness shall be in accordance with the provisions of Table 4093 and shall not be less than the following value.o;:


Simply Supponcd

One end


Both ends conrinuous

Can tilever

Members not supporting or auachcd to partitions or other construction likely to be damaged by large deneclion!i

Solid o"e way slabs

Beams or



_ t 28 _ t 21


ri bbed one way slabs

_ t 16

_ t 18.5


Voluu gi1't~n shalJ 1M used directly for numbers wilh 11001101 weight COl/erne (w.. 2,400 I:glm 1 ) and Grade 415 reinforcement. Fo r other condirimlS, the mhus sholl be modified as/ollows: 0) For structural Ughnveighl concrete having !mit wtight ir! the rangt 1.5002.000 kg.m ' , tilt values slutlf be multiplied by (1.65 . O.OOOJwrJ b/lf 110 1 Ius Ihan 1'(J9. whut! wf is the unit weight iI' kg/mI. /J) For h olher Ilion 4/5 MPa. Ihe ~'{Jlues shall be mulJipJied by (0.4 +

I . Slabs without drop panels as defi ned in Sections413.3.5 .............. ....... ..................

125 mm

409.6.2.4 For co ntinuous members, effective moment of inertia shall be pcnnitted to be taken as the average of values obtained from Eq. 409-8 for the critical positive and negative moment sec tions. For prismatic members, effective moment of inertia shall be permitted to be taken as the value obtained from Eq. 409-8 at midspan for si mple and continuous s pans, and at support for cantilevers. 409.6.2.5 Unless values are obtained by a more comprehensive analysis, additional longtime denect ion resu lting from creep and shrinkage of flexural members (nonnal -weight or lightweight concrete) shall be determined by multiplying the immediate denec li on caused by Ihe sllstained load considered. by the facmr Ail

Slabs with drop panels as defi ned in Sections 413.3.5 .......... .............................. 100 mOl

409.6.3.3 For slabs wilh beams spanning between the sllppons on all sides, the mjnimum thickness shall be as follows: 1. 2. For ll/rn equal to or less than 0.2, the provisions of Section 409.6.3 .2 shall apply. For /lfm greater than 0.2 but )10t greater th an 2.0. the thickness shall not be less Ih an:

I. (OR+ "'&'-) 36+5P(a- ",, - O.2)14()()

(409 12)

and not Jess than 125 111m .; 3. For llfrn greater Ihan 2.0, the thickness shall not be Jess than :
I (0.8 1400 " = -'--:-3-:-6-+-':9-':p;-:-L and not less than 90 mill .


- 1+50p'

- -q-

(409- 11 )

where p' shall be the value at midspan for simple and continuous spans, and at su pport for cantil evers. :It is permi ttcd to assume the time-dependent factor ~ for sustained lands to be equal to:



5 years or Illore
12 months 6 months

................. 2.0 ............... ............ 1.2 ............... .......... .. . I .0


................................. 1.4

J mon,hs

At discontinuous edges, ~U1 edge beam shall be provided wi th a stiffness ratio Of", not Jess than 0 .80; or the minimum thickness required by E. .!. 409- 12 or 409- J3 shall be in creased by at !C,lst J{) percent in the panel wi th a discontillllow; edge.

409.6.2.6 Defl ection co mputcd in accordance with Scclions 409.6.2.2 th rough 409.6.2.5 shall not exceed Ii mits stipulated in Table 4092.

National Structoral Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 4 . Concre te

Table 409-2 - Maximum Pennissible Computed Defl ections

Type of Member Deflection 10 be cons idered

Table 409-3 - Minimum Thickness of Slabs

wit hout Tnterior Beams

Wi thout drop panels'
Yield stre ngll!

Deflection Limitalion

With drop panels2

._--_._._-----Flat roofs not supportin g or att ached

to nOIl-stnl c[ural elements likely to be damaged by large deflections Floors not support ing
or all ached (0 nOll-


Exteri or panels

Inte rior


E)(tcrior panels
without edge


edge be:lIn

Immediate defl ection due (0 live lomJ, L

_ ,_ '


With edge



280 415











40 36

Slniclural elemen ts likely (0 be damaged by

l afl~e

immediate deflection
due to Jive load. L

~ 360









Roof or floor construction supporting or allached 10 lI on~ struclum l elcments likel y 10 be damaged by larJ!c dcflecl ions Floor or fl oor constmcti oll sll PPor1 in g or attached to nO Il structural cl ements not likcly 10 be damaged by larne defle cti ons

That part of the totnl defl ection occurring afler aHachmcnl of nonslfUclUral clemenIS (sum of the long-term
defl ection du e to all sustained loads and lhe immediate deflecti on

~ 480

For W11ll~.s of ubJjor'amerli yield strength b~ nyt:~n the I'(llues given ill table, minimum tMckn ~ss .shall b, det~n"i"ed by /incar imerpoiation. 1 Drop pOllels i.s deft/Jed ill 4 / 3.3.5. ) Slab.s with bcarlu benytcfI co/umlls along exterior edg~s. The mlue of a fOr' Ille edge beam shaff /lOt be less 1 "011 0 .8.

duc to any additi onal live load) }

-240 '-'

Tenn I" in (2) and (3 ) is length of cl ear span in long direction measured face -to~face of beams . Term fJ in (2) and (3) is ratio of clear spans in long to short direction of slab. 409.6.3.4 Slab thickn ess less than th e minim um thickness requ ired by Sections 409.6.3.1 . 409.6.3.2 and 409.6.3.3 sha ll be pe rmitted LO be used if shown by computation that the deOccf io n will fl ot exceed the limits stipu lated in Table 409 -2. De flections shall be co mputed taking into acco unt size and shape of the panel. conditions of support. and na ture of restraints at the panel edges. The mod ulus of elastic it y of co ncrete E( sha ll be as specified in Section 408.6. 1. The effec ti ve moment of inertia shall be that given by Eq. 409-8; other values s hall be permilled to be used if they resull in computed de fl ections in reasonab le agreement with the resu lts of compre he nsive tests. Add itional lo ng te rm defl ecti on s hall be computed in accord ance with Section 409.6.2.5 . 409.6.4 Prestressed Concrete Construction
409.6.4.1 For fl exu ral me mbers designed in accorda nce with provisions o f Secti on 41 8. immedi a te de fl ection shall he co mputed by lI sual met hods or form ulas for elastic deflecti olls, a nd the momen t o f ine rt ia of the gross co ncrete section, I, . shall be perm itted to be used fo r C lass U flexura l members. , as defin ed in Sections 4 18.4.3.

Limif flO / illl~ rlfl(!(1 /() sajegmm l againsl pOllding. POllding .should be checked by sui/able C(l /c II /alioris of dC'fll'c /iotl, incllldillg addc(/ til'jleclioru due to ponded W Oler, and cOllsiderillg 100lgtentl effects of all su.staifll'd loads. camber, camtnlc{iol/ w{crar/ces. alld reliabiliry of pTlll'i.siOI/S for dminnge. 1 Lollg temr dcj7~rtimr slrafillt' dell'nniMd irl (l (('o rdmrC(' with 409.6.2.J or 409.6.4 3. bill 1110)' hl' reduced by (11110/1111 of defll'ction ca/culatl'd W OCC/lr lu,/ore all(lci!mcnf 0f11OIIs/ructural c/~mC'/lIS. T1r~ omOUIII.rlwl/ b(' dete17l1illc(1 (III bilsi.f oj (lccepfC'd cII,I;il1urillg t/m(l re/millK to time dcjkclimr dwnWlcri.\IIC.f of IIIemlu!rs xill/iltlr f() Ihast' brillK cmr.{il/erc'(i. limit may 1)/.0 ('XC('c'cJce/ if adequ(l/C rlll.'lI.U/rcs {ITt' ,aJ:e" In P"' I'('1I1 damage ((J slippon('(1 or (lllacireel delllC'lIfs. 8 11t 1101 greate, tium tolerallce "ravil/cd Jor lIflt/sl rUClUra l cJC'IIICfIf.{. l.imil may be cxl'('cdcd if camber i ... t'ml'/'dr~d .m 111m tolal t1('-fI/~c:fi(1n millie; ca mhrrt/o(!S 1I 0 1 1'xcn~d limil.

409.6.4.2 For C lass C and Class T flexural members, a.' defi ned ill Section 41 8.4.3, dcflecti on calcul ations shall he based o n .a crac ked trans fonned secti on 3lWl ysis. 1t shall he perrniUcd to base comput ati ons on a bilinear Illomenl dcn eclion relationshi p, or an effecti ve mo ment of inel1ia, le , as defined by Eq. 409 8.
Assoc iat ion of Structu ra l Enginee rs of the Pllil ippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete


409.6.4.3 Addit ional long-time deflection o f prcstressed concrete members shall be computed taking into accoun t stresses in concrete and steel under sustained load and includi ng effects of creep and shrin kage of concrete and relaxation of steel.

410.1 Notations


409.6.4.4 Deflection computed in accorda nce with Secti ons 409.6.4. 1, 409.6.4.2, and 409.6.4.3 sha1l no. exceed limi ts stipulated in Tablo 409-2. 409.6.5 Composite Construction 409.6.5.1 Shored Construc tion


Ag As
II .J.min

If composite nexural members are supported during

construction so that, after removal of temporary supports, dead load is resisted by the full composite section, it shall be pennitted (0 consider the composite member equivalent to a monolithically cast member for computation of deflection . For non prestressed members, Ule portion of the member in compression shall determine whet he r value.~ in Tab le 409-1 for normal-weight or lightweight concrete s hall apply. If deflection is computed, account shall be taken of curvatures resulting from differential shrinkage of precast and cas t-in place components, and of axial creep effec ts in a prestressed co ncrete member. 409.6.5.2 Unshor ed Const ruction If the thiclOlCSS of a nonprestresscd precast nexuraJ member meets the requirements o f Table 409-1, de nection need not be computed. I f (he th ickness of a no npreslressed composite member meets the requirements of Table 409 -1, it is not required to compute deflection occurri ng aflcr the member beco mes co mposite, bu t the long-time dCnecliol1 of the precast me mber simI! be investigated for magnitude and duration of load prior 10 beginning of effecti ve composite action. 409.6.5.3 Deflecli oll computed in accordance with Sections 409.6.5. 1, or 409 .6.5.2 shal l not exceed limits stipula.ed in Table 409-2.



:::: depth of equivalent rectangu lar stress block as defined in 5oc.ioI1410.3.7.1, mm = cross-sectional area of a slmctural member measured to ou tside edges of transverse reinforcement, mm2 ::::= gross area of section, 111m2 ::: area of non prestressed longitudinal tension rei nforcement, mm 2 =m.nimum amount of nex ural reinforcemen t, mm 2. See Sec.ion 410.6 :;::;area of structural steel shape, pipe, or tu bing in composi te section, mm 2 . See Section 410.17.5 ~total area of nonpres tressed longitudinal 2 reinforcement (bars or steel shapes), mm ::::= area of structural stee l shape, pipe or tubing in a composite section, 111m2 ~ loaded area, 111m 2 = the area of the lower base of the largest frustum of a pyramid, cone, or tapered wedge contained wholly wi.hin .hc support and having for its uppcr base the loaded area, and having side slopes of I unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50% slope),
mm w idth of compression face of member, mill web width , mill distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis, mm clear cover from the nearest surface in ten sion to the surface o f the nexural ten sion reinforcement ,


"" ;::




1 :.."1



mrn ::; a factor relating actual moment diagram to an equivalent uniform momelll diagram ::; distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement, mill = thickness of concrete cover measu red frolll extreme tension fib er to center of bar or wire located closest thereto, mm ::; distance from extreme compression fiber to extreme tension steel, mm :;:: modulus of clasti city of concrete, MPa == modulus of elasticity of reinforcemen t. MPa ::; n ex ural s ti ffncss of compression member. N_mm 2 Sce Eq. 41015 illld 410-16 = specified compressive slrenglh o f concret.e, MPa ::; ca lculated stress in reinforcement at service load s, MPa = spccified yield strength f,. of tran:..vcrsed reinforcement , MPa = overall dimcnsion o f me mber in dirccti on ac tio n co ns idered , mm


National Structural Code of th e Philippines 6 Edition Volum e 1



CHAPTER 4 . Concrete

:: moment of inenia of gross concrete secti on about


ccntroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement, mm ::= moment of inertia of reinforcement about ccnlroidaJ axis of member cross section. mm 4 = moment of incI1ia of stl1Jctural sleel shape, pipe or tubin g about ccnlroidaJ axis of composite member cross secl.i on, mm~ ;;: effective length factor for co mpression members :: length of a compression member in a fram e, measured from center to ccnter of the joints in th e
frame ;; unsupported length of compress ion member, mill. ;: factored mo ment to be used for design of


= factor defined in Section 410.3.7.3




compression member

= moment due to loads causing app reciabJe sway

;; factored momenl at section
= smaller factored end moment on a compression member, positive if member is bent in single curvature, negative if bent in double curvature = faclOrcd end moment on a compression member at the end at wh ich M J acts, due to loads that cause no apprcciable sidesway. calcul atcd using a first-order clastic frame analysis = fn ctored end moment on co mpression members at the end at which M/ acts, duc to loads thm cause appreciable sides way, calculated using a first-order elastic frame analysis = larger factored end moment on compression member. always positive = minimum value of M l = factored end mome nt on compression member at the end at which M2 acts. due to loads that cause no appreciable sidesway, calculated using a first -order elastic frame analysis = factored end moment on co mpression member ill Ihe end at which M2 aCIS, due 10 loads thtlt cnuse ;:Ippreciable sides way, calculated usi ng a first-order elasti c frame ana lysis = nominal axial load strength at balanced strai n co nditions. Sec Section 410.4 .2 = critical load. Sec Eq. 410-14 = nomina! nxialload strength at given ecccntricity = nominal axial load strength at ze ro eccentri cit y = factored axial load at given eccentricit y


M /lu



= ratio used to accoun t fo r reduction of stiffness of columns due to sustained axial loads = ratio used to account for reducti on of stiffness of columns due to sustained lateral loads = relative lateral denection between the top and bottom of a story due to V,,, computed using a firstorder clasti c frame ana lysis and stiffn ess values satisfying Section 410. I 2.4 .2 = momcnt magnification [..1. . . 101' for frames braced against sidesway (0 reflect effccts of member curvature between ends of co mpression members = moment magnification factor for frames not braced against sidesway to reflect laternl drift resU lting from lateral and gravity loads = net tensile strain in extreme tension steel at nominal strength = ralia of nonprestressed tension reinforcemcnt = A/bd = reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conditions. Sce Secti on 410.4.2 = ratio of vo lume of spiral reinforcement to total volume of core (out-la-out of spirals) of a spirally reinforced co mpression member = strength-reduction factor. Sec Section 409.4 == stiffness reducti on factor


M Vrlill
M 2/tJ

410.2 Scope

Provisions of Section 4 10 shall appl y for design of members subject to flexure or axial loads or to combi ned flexure and axial loads.
410.3 Design Ass umptions 410.3.1 Strength design of members for flexure and axial


loads shall be based on assu mptions


;n Sections


410.3.2 through 410.3.7 and on satisfacti on of applicable

co nditions of equilibrium and compatibility of strains.

410.3.2 Strain in reinforcement and COl1crete shall be

P, PI! PrJ

.s (J P




= stability index for a slory. See Section 4 I O . I 2.4 .2 = radius of gyrati on of cros:-; secti on of a compression member = maximum ccnter-to-centcr spacing of fl cxur;t1 tensioTl reinforcement nearest to the extreme tension face. mm (where thcre is onl y one hal' or wire neares! 10 the extreme tension face. s i!oi the maxi mum width of the extrcme tension face .) = factored horizontal shear in a story. N = quantity limiting di stribution of fl exural re inforcement. See Section 4 10.7

assumed directly proportional to the disI;uwe from the neutral axis, except that , for deep fl exural IJi' ;U H ,'.'; 'o k, ;-; ~~d in Section 4 10.8. 1. an analys is th at con,,!,! distribution of strai n shall be used. A hern :;;,' l i .''''permitted 10 use a strut-and-t i::: model. See :)Cl.IHlIt . hU~. 4 11.9. and Section 427 .
410.3.3 Maximum usable strain at cxtJ't'!lU' co mpression fiber shall be assumed equal "('; ~ .. :.
'l h . .


Association of Structural Engineers of the Pililippin es

CHAPTER 4 - Concrete


410.3.4 Stress in reinforcement be low speci fied yield strength Ir for gmde of reinforcement used shall be taken as t"s times steel strain. For strains greater than that conesponding to h" stress ill reinforcement shall be cons idered indcpendem of strain and equal to1;.. 410.3.5 Tensile strengt h o f concrete sha ll be neglecp.ed in axial and flexural calculation s of reinforced concre te , except where meeting requirements of Section 418.5.

conditions, For Grade 415 reinforce ment, and for all prestressed reinforcement, it shall be permitted to set the compression-controlled st rain limit equal to 0.002.


410.3.6 The relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and <.:onc rCle strain shall be assumed to be rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic or any other shape that resull s in prediction of strength jn substantial agreement with resu lts of comprehensive lests.

410.4.4 Sections arc tension-controlled if the net tensile strain in the extreme tension sleel, et, is equal to or greater than 0.005 when the conc rete in compression reaches its assumed strai n limit of 0 .003. Sections with t( between the compression -controll ed strain limit and 0.005 constitute a transition region between compress ion-contro lled and tension-colltrolled secii,)ns.
4]0.4.5 For nonpreslressed flexural members and nonprestressed members with factored axial compressive load less Ihan 0.1 Of,' A" e, at nominal sirength shall not be

less Ihan 0.004. 410.3.7 Requirements or Seclion 410.3.6 may be 410.4.5.1 Use or compression reinrorcemenl shaJJ be permitted in conjunction with additional ten sion re inforcemenllO increase the strength of flexural members.
considered satisfied by an equivalent recta ngular concrete stress distribution defined by the following:

410.3.7.1 Concrete Slress of 0.85[, shall be ass umed

unjfofJ1l1 y distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at a dis tance a:: (3, c from the fiber of maximum compressive strain. 410.3.7.2 Distance from fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis. c, shall be measured in a dire:ction perpendicular LO the axis.

410.4 .6 Design axial load strength Pn of compression

members shall not be taken greater than the following :


For nonprestressed members with sp iral reinforcement confonning to Section 407.11.4 or composite members conforming to Section 410.17 :

(410- 1)
410.4.6.2 For nonprestressed members reinforcement conformin g to Section 407. 11.5:
/~ (mwl =

410.3.7.3 Faelor P, shall be laken as 0.85 ror eoncrele strengths!, for 17 MPa up 10 28 MPa. For siren glhs "bove 28 MPa. P, sliall be reduced linearly al a rate of 0.05 ror each 7 MPa of strength in excess of 28 MPa, but (31 s hall not
be takcn less than 0.65.



0.80[0.85[, (A,- A,,) +

/,A"j (4 10-2)

410.4 General Principles and Requirements 410.4.1 Design of cross scction subjeci to flexure or axial loads or to combined flexure and axial loads shaH be based
on stress and strain compat ibi lity using assumpt ions in

410.4,6.3 For prestressed members. design ax ial load stren gth. riP" shall not be taken grea ter than 0.85 (for members with spiral reinfo rcement) or 0.80 (for members with lie reinforcement) of the design axial load strength at zero eccentricity. ' Po.

Seclion 410.3.
410.4.2 Balanced st rain conditions exi~t at a cross section when tension reinforcement reaches the strain corresponding to its specified yield strengt h f. just as con crete in compression reaches it s assumed ultinlat c strai n of 0.003 .

410.4.7 Members subjecllo compressive axial load shall be designed for the maximum moment that can accompany th e axial load. The factored axial load PII at given eccentricity shall not exceed that given in Section 410.4.6. The maximum factored moment Mu shall be magnified for slende rn ess effecls in accordance with Section 410 .11 .

410.5 Distance between Lateral Supports of Flexural


410.4.3 Sect io ns IIrc compressionco lltrolietl if the ne t

tensile strai n in the extremc tensioll slee l, t:/. is equa l 10 or les s thall the compression-controlled strain limit when th e concrete in comprcssion re;\ches its assullled strain limit of 0.003. The co mpress io n-controlled s t r~ jn limit is the: net tensile strain ill the reinforcement at balanced stra in

410.5.1 Spacing of laleral slIppons ror a beam shall nol

exceed 50 times b, the least width of compression fl ange or fa ce.

National Str. uctural Cod e of the Philippines 6 Edilion Volume 1



CHAPTEI1 4 .. Concrete

410.5.2 Effects of lateral eccentricity of load shall be taken into account in determining spacing of lateral supports.

410.7.3 Flexural tension reinforcement shall be well distributed within maximum flexural tension zones of a member cross section as required by Section 410.7.4. 410.7.4 The spacing s of reinforcement closest to a surface in tcnsion, s, shall not cxceed that given by:

410.6 Minimum Reinforcement of Flexural Members

410.6.1 At every section of a flexural member where (ensile reinforcement is required by analysis, except as provided in Sections 410.6.2. 410.6.3 and 410.6.4. A. provided shall not be less than that given by: A


.J /" 4 /y

b d


and not less than 1.4 bwdl/y 410.6.2 For a statically determinate T-section with flange in tension, the area As,min shall be equal to or greater than the smaller value given either by:

but not greater than 300(2801/.). where co is the least distance from surface of reinforcement or prestressing steelto the tension face. If there is only one bar or wire nearest to the extreme tension face, s used in Eq. 410-5 is the width of the extreme tension face. Calculated stress in reinforcement Is in MPa closest to the tension face shall be computed based on the unfactored moment. It shall be pennitted to take Is 'as 2/3 of specified yield strength J,.. 410.7.5 Provisions of Section 410.7.4 are not sufficient for structures subject to very aggressive exposure or designed to be watertight. For such structures, special investigations and precautions are required. 410.7.6 Where flanges of T-beam construction are in tension, part of the flexural tension reinforcement shall be distributed over an effective flange width as defined in Section 408.12, or a width equal to ~:)Ile-tenth the span, whichever is smaller. If the effective flange width exceeds Olle tenth the span, some longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided in the outer portions of the flange. 410.7.7 Where II of a beam or joist exceeds 900 mm, longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be unirorm~y distributed along both side faces of the member. Skm reinforcement shall extend for a distance hl2 from the tension face. The spacing s shall be as provided in Section 410.7.4, where Cn is the least distance from the surface of the skin reinforcement or prestressing tendons to tbe side face. It shall be permitted to include such reinforcement in strength computations if a strain compatibility analysi:: is made to determine stresses in the individual bars or wires.


= 2/


b.d "


or Eq. 410-3, except that b", is replaced by either 2 b", or the width of the flange, whichever is smaller.
410.6.3 TIle requirements of Sections 410.6.1 and 410.6.2 need not be applied if at every section, As provided is at least onc-third greater than that required by analysis. 410.6.4 For structural slabs and footings of uniform thickness, the minimum area of tensile reinforcement in the direction of span shall be the same as that required by Section 407.13.2.1. Maximum spacing of this reinforcement shall not exceed the lesser of three limes the thickness, nor 450 Illlll. 410.6.5 In structures located at areas of low levei seismic risk, beams in ordinary moment frames forming part of the seismic~force~resisting system shall have at least two main flexural reinforcing bars continuously top and bottom throughout the beam and continuous through or developed within exteriur columns or boundary elements. 410.7 Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement in Bemus and One-way Slabs 410.7.1 flexural and in stresses This section prescribes rules for distribution of reinforcement to control flexural cracking in beams one-way slabs (slabs reinforced to resist flexural in only one direction).

410.8 Deep Beams

410.8.1 Deep beams are members loaded on olle face and supported on the opposite face so that compression slruls can develop between the loads and the supports, and Ii::':{ either:

410.7.2 Distribution of flexural reinforcement in two-way slabs shall be as required by Section 413.4.

Association of Structural Engineers of tl"18 Philippines

CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

4-5 t


Clear spans, J", equal to or less than four times the overall member depth; or Regions wi th concen trated loads withi n (wice the member depth from (he face of the support.


area. This provision shall not apply to special moment frames or special stlllctural walls in Seismic Zone 4 that are designed in accordance with Section 42 1. 410.10 Limits for Reinfor cement of Compression M emb ers 410.10.1 Area of 10ngituainaJ reinforcement, All! for noncomposit e compression members shall not be less than 0.01 or morc than 0.08 times gross area Ag of secti on. 41 0.10.2 Mini mum nu mber of longi tudinal bars in compression members shall be 4 fo r bars wi thin rectangul ar or ci rcu lar ties. 3 for bars witltin triangu lar ties. and 6 for bars enclosed by spirals conforming to Section 4 10. 10.3. 410.10.3 Volumetric spiral reinforcemen t ratio, be less than the value gi ven by:

Deep beams shall be designed either taking in to account nonlinear dist ri buti on of strain, or by Sectio n 427. (See al so Section 411 .9. land 4 12. 11.6). Lat eral buc klin g shall be co nsidered.

4W.8.2 VII of deep hi.:!ams shall be in accordance with Section 4 11.9.

410.8.3 Mi nimum nexural (ension reinforcemcnt, AI. shall confonn to Section 410.6.

410.8.4 Minimum horizontal and vert ical reinforcement in the side faces of deep flexural members shall be the greater of the requirements of Sections 411.9.4. 4 11.9.5 and 427.3.3. 410.9 Des ign Dimensions for Compression Mcmbers 410.9.1 Isolated Compression Member with Multiple Spirals

Ps. shall not

(41 0-6)

where the value of /,., used in Eq. 410-6 shall not exceed 700 MPa. For /" greater th an 415 MPa, lap splices acco rdin g to Section 407. 11.4.5 (1 ) shall not be used. 410.11 Slenderness E lTccl< in Compression M embers 410.11.1 Slenderness effeclS shal l be pemli ucd to be ncglected in lhe following cases:

Ou ter limits of the effective cross section of a compression

mem ber with Iwo or morc interlocki ng spirals shall be taken at a distance outside (he ext reme limi ts of the spi rals equal

to the mini mum concrete cover required by Section 407.8.

410.9.2 Com p ressio n M ember Built Monoli thi cally With W a ll Outer limits o f the effective cross section of a spirally rei nfo rced or tied reinforced compression member built mo no lithicall y w ith a concrete wall or pier shall be taken not greater than 40 nun outs ide the spiral or tie rei nfo rcement. 410.9.3 Equivalent C ircular Compression M ember

For compression members not braced against sidesway when:

k1u < 22



For compression members braced agains t sides way when: 34 - 12( ; : ) :540 (410-8)

As an alternative to usi ng the full gross area for des ign of a com press ive member with a square. octagonal or other shaped cross section. it sh'llI be permitted to usc a ci rcu lar secti o n with a diameter cqual to the least latera l d imension of the actual s h~i;C . Gross area considered, requi red percen tage of reinfu rcemen t, and design strength shall be based on that circular section.
410.9.4 Limits ofSec tioll For a compression member with <l cross section larger than requ ired by considerations of loading, it shall be permitted to base Ihe minirnu m reinforce ment and des ign strength on a reduced effective area Ag not less than one ha lf the tota l

where MIIM2 is positive if the colu mn is bent in single curvatu re. and negative if the member is bent in double . curvature.

It shall be pcmlitled to co nsider compression members braced against sideway when bracing elements have a total sti ffn ess, resisting lateral movement of that story. of at least 12 times the gross stiffness resisting lateral movement of that story. of at leas t 12 times the gross stiffness of the colu mns wit hin (he story.

Nati ona l Structura l Code of th e Pll i1 ippines G Edition Volume 1



CHAPTER 4 . Concrete

410.11.1.1 The unsu pported length of a compression l11~cm be r . lu. shall be taken as the cJc<lr distance between floor slabs, beams, or other members capable of provid ing lateral support in the direction being considere:d. Where column capitals or hau nches are present, I., shall be meas ured to the lower ext remit y of the capital or hau nch in the plane cons idered. 410.11.1.2 It shall be pen niued to take the radius of gyration, r, eq ual to 0.30 li mes the overall dimension in Ihe d irection stability is be ing conside red for ft:!clangul ar
co mpression members and 0.25 times (he diameter for circular compression members. For o lher shapes, it shall be perm itted (0 compute r for the gross concrete sectio n.

410.12.3 It shall be permined to usc the fo ll owin g properti es for the members in the structure: I. Modu lus of el ast icity ................ Er from Section 408.6.1 2. Moments o f inertia, J Compression members: Coiulnns ........... ..... ....... .. ....... ................... . Walls Uncracked. .. ...... ........ .... ........... .. Walls Cracked . Flexu ral members: BeaITIs ...... .. ....... ..... . Flat plates and fla t s labs ... ......... ..... .

0.701, 0.701, 0.3 51,

0.35/, 0.25 1.

3. Area ......................... ......... ...... ......... .


410.11.2 When s lenderness effects arc not negl ec ted as permitted by Sec tion 41 0. 11.1. the design of com pression mem bers. restrai ning beams, and other slipPol1ing members shall be based on the factored forces and moment s from a second -order analysis satisfying Sections 4 10. 1 J .3, 41 0. 11.4, or 410.11.5 . These members shall also sati sfy Sections 410.11.2.1 and 410.11.2.2. The dimensions o f each member cross section used in the analysis shall be within 10 percent of the dimensions of the members shown on th e design drawings or the analysis shall be repealed. 410.11.2.1 Total moment including secondord er effects in co mpression members , restraining beams, or oth er structu ral members shall not ex ceed 1.4 times the moment d ue to firs t ~ order effects. 410.11.2.2 Secondorder effec ts shall be conside red along the length o f compression members. It shall be pe rmitl ed to accouOl for th ese e ffects using the momc nt magnifica tion procedure out li ned in Secti on 4 10.13 . . 410.12 Magnified Moments 410.12.1 Nonlinear Second-Order Analysis Seco nd-o rder ana lys is shall cons id ermaterial on linearity, member curva ture an d lateral drift, du ration of loads, shri nkage and crecp. and interac ti on wilh Ihe sopporti ng found ation. The analys is proccdure shall have been shown [0 result in prediction of streng th in substant iil l a.grcemcilt with resu lts o f co mprehe ns ive tes ts of co lu mns in sta ticall y indelcn nin ate reillforceu concrete structures. 410.12.2 Elastic SecondOrder Analys is Elasti c sct:o n d ~ o rd er analysis s hall cons ider section propert ies det ermin ed taking into account th e infl uence of ax ial loads. the presence of cracked regi ons along th e le ngth o f th e member, and the effects of load durati oll .

Altem alively, the moment s of ineni:l of compression and fl exural members. I , sha ll be permitted to be com puted as follows: Compress ion members:
1 = ( 0.80+ 25A,, )( 1 -

M.. . 0.501:" j

/. S 0.875 I,


Where Pu. and Mu. shall be det ermined from fhe pallicular load combination under co nsiderati on, or the comhillation of Pit and Mu. resulting in the smallest value of I. J need !lot be taken less than 0.35/,. Flexural members:

1 = (0.10 + 25p)( 1.2 - 0.2 b.) 1,:0 0.5/,

(~ 1 0 1O )

f or cont inuous flexura l members. I shall be permillcd to be taken as the average of values obtained from Eq. I~ 10 10 for lhe critical posi tive and nega tive moment scctions. J lIeeo not be taken less than 0.25 /, . The cross~sect iolla l dimensions and reinforcement r~fio used in the above form ul as shall be within 10 pr nT!:1 d :hc d imensio ns and re inforcement ra tio shown on ! h t: de i t;l i drawings or the stiffness evaluati on shall be rcpc'llt:<i. 410.12.3.1 When sustained lateral loads an' Pfl:\ " ; co mpression me mbers slw ll be divided by ( I + !~:,i . ., : term /Jd.l shi.iIJ be ta ken as the ratio of maxi lllulli factoli...o susta ined shi::ar wilhin <I story 10 the ll1 axilll U! :, I:lI ; .: . shear in that story associmed wi th the s;Jln~ i<mo combinat ion, but s hall no! be taken greiltcr l h ;~ n 1.0. 410.12.4 I \:lomcnt Magnification I'roccdu l"!' Co lumns and stori es in structures shall be no ns way or sway columns or stori es. The dl',,, i: I: "j in nonsway frames or stori es s hall be based ,iIi
( ;,~ ;
::; .. ,1"\;0,;

Association of Structural Enninecrs of the Philippin e:;

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete


410.13. The design of columns in sway frames or stories

shall be based on Section 410.14.

410.13.1.3 The effective length factor. k, shall be permitted to be taken as 1.0.

410.12.4.1 It shall be permitted to assume a column in a structure is nons way if the increase in column end moments due to second-order effects docs not exceed 5 percent of the first-order end moments. 410.12.4.2 It also shall be permitted within H structure is nons way if:

410.13.1.4 For members without transverse loads between supports, c'1I shall be taken as:

0.6 + 0.4 (M/M,)


assume a story

where M,IM 2 is positive if the column is bent in single curvature, and negative if the mem.ber is bent in double curvature. For members with transverse loads between supports, e", shall be taken as l.0.
410.13.1.5 The factored moment M, in Equation (41012)

(4101 I)

shall not be taken less than is less than or equal to 0.05, where ,[P" and Vus arc the total vertical load and the story shear, respectively, in the story in question and Lto is the first-order relative deflection between the top and boltom of that story due to V,,~.
410.13 Moment Magnification PnlceduJ'c - Nonsway 410.13.1 Compression members shaH be designed for the factored axial load, Pu , and the moment amplified for the effects of member curvature, Mn as follows:

M 2.min = PI. (15 + O.03h)


about each axis separately, where 15 and h are in millimeters. For members for which M 2.min exceeds M 2 , the value of Cm in Equation (41017) shall either be taken equal to 1.0, or shall be based on the ratio of the computed end moments, M, 1M2.
410.141\:\0ment Magnification Procedure Sway 410.14.1 The moments MJ and M, at the ends of an


individual compression member shall be taken as:



M ln.1 +

(41019) (41020)

Mz"s +


0: MI.! and Os M zs shall be computed according to



Sections 410.14. J.3 or 410.14. 1.4.

(kl" )'

410.13.1.1 El shall be taken as:

410.14.1.1 Flexural members shall be designed for the total magnified end moments of the compression members at the joint.
(41015) 410.14.1.2 The effective length factor k shall be determined

E I =fE:2EJ, +EJ,,)
1+ PdllJ

using the values of Be and I givcn in Section 410.12.2 and shall not be less than 1.0.
410.14.1.3 The moment magnificr (5s shall be calculated as


(O.4E,1 , )
1+ Pdll.1

(41016) (41021)

Alternatively, EI shall be permitted to be computed using

the value of 1 from Eq. 4109 divided by (I + (I"",).

If 8.\ calculated by Eq. 410-21 exceeds 1.5, S.! shall be calculated using second-order elastic analysis or Section

410.13.1.2 The term f!,/".< shall be taken as the ratio of maximum factored axial sustained load to maximum factored axial load associated with the same load combination, but shall not be taken greater than 1.0.

National Structural Code of the PhilipPines Gill hlition Volume 1


CHAPTE" 4 . Concrete

410.14.1.4 Alternatively. it shall be permitted to calculate os as;

< ~----->I




410.17.2 Strength of a composite member shall be computed for the same limiting conditions applicable to ordinary reinforced concrete members. 410.17.3 Any axial load strength assigned to concrete of a composite member shall be transferred to the concrete by members or brackets in direct bearing on the composite member concrete. 410.17.4 All axial load strength not assigned to concrete a composite member shall be developed by direct connection to the structural steel shape, pipe or tube.

where 'fPII is the summation for all the factored vertical loads in a story and "LPc is the summation for all swayresisting columns in ':1 story. Pc is calculated using Eq. 41014 with k determined from Section 410.14.1.2 and EI from Section 410.13.1.1, where lid, shall be substituted fol' lidm.


410.15 Axially Loaded Members Supporting Slab System Axially loadcd members supporting slab system included within the scope of Section 413.2 shall be designed as provided in Section 410 and in accordance with the additional requirements of Section 413. 410.16 Transmission of Column Loads through 'Floor System When the specified compressive strength of concrete in a column is greater than 1.4 times that specified for a floor system, transmission of load through the floor system shall be provided by Sections 410.16.1, 410.16.2, or 410.16.3: 410.16.1 Concrete of strength specified for the column shall be placed in the floor at the column location. Top surface of the column concrete shall extend 600 mm into the slab from face of column. Column concrete shall be well integrated with floor concrete, and shall be placed in accordance with Sections 406.4.6 and 406.4.7. 410,16.2 Strength of a column through a flnor system shall be based on the lower value of concrete strength with vertical dowels and spirals as required. 410.16.3 For columns laterally supported on foUl' sides by beams of approximately equal depth or by slabs, it shall be permiued to base strength of the column on an assumed concrete strength in the column joint equal to 75 percent of column concrete strength plus 35 percent of floor concrete strength. In the application of this Section, the ratio of column concrete strength to slab concrete strength shall not be taken greater than 2.5 for design. 410.17 Composite Compression Members 410.17.1 Composite compression members shall include all such members reinforced longitudinally with structural steel shapes, pipe or tubing with or without longitudinal bars.

410.17.5 For evaluation of slenderness effects, radius of gyration, r, of a composite section shall not be greater than the value given by:

O.2EJg +E~~ 0.2E,A, + E,A"


and, as an alternative to a more accurate calculation, EI in Eq. 41014 shall be taken either as Eq. 41015; 01'

EI ~(~)E I E I
1+ fJdlU
~ K



410.17.6 Structural Steel Encased Concrete Core 410.17.6.1 For a composite member with concrete corc encased by stI1lctural steel, thickness of the steel encasement shall not be less than:
for each face of width b nor

h -8E .'


for circular sections of diameter h

410.17.6.2 Longitudinal bars located within the encased concrete core shall be permitted to be used in computing An and /.u" 410.17.7 Spiral Reinforcement Around Strudllrai Steel

A composite member with spirally reinforced conereii' around a stmctural steel core shall conform to Sections 410.17.7.1 through 410.17.7.4.

410.17.7.1 Design yield strength of structural steel corc shall be the specified minimum yield strength for gr;Hic structural steel used but not to exceed 350 MPa.

Association-of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete


410.17.7.2 Spiral reinforcemen l shall conform to Section

410.17,7,3 Longi tudi nal bars located within the spiral shall f1 0 t be less than 0.01 or morc than 0.08 times net area of concrete sectio n. 410.17.7.4 Longitudinal bars located within the spiral shall be permitted to be used in computing As'\" and I,x. 410.17.8 Tie Reinforcement Around Structural Steel

410.18.2 Section 4 10, 18 does not apply to post-tensioning anchorages,

A composite member with laterall y lied concrete around a slructural steel core shall conform to Secti o ns 41 0.17,S. 1 through 4 10,17,8,7: 410.17.8.1 Des ign yield strengtll of structural steel core shall be the specified minimu m yield strength for grade of structural steel used bu t not to exceed 350 MPa. 410.17.8.2 La teral ties shal l eX lend co mpletel y around the stru ctural steel core. 410.17.8,3 [-'1teral ti es shall have a di ameter not less than 0.02 times the greatest side dimen sion o f composite member, except that ti es shall not be small er than 10 mm diameter and are not required to be larger th an 16 mill diameter. Welded wire fabric of equi va lent area shall be permitted. 410.17.8.4 Vert ica l spac ing of lateral lies shall not exceed 16 longitud in al bar diamcters, 48 tie bar diamcters , or one half times the leas t side dimension of the composite member. 410.17.8.5 Longit udi nal bars located within the tics sha ll nOI be less than 0.0 1 or more th an 0.08 limes net area o f concrete seclion. 410.17.8.6 A longitudinal bar shall be located at every comer of a rectangular cross section, with other longitudinal bars spaced not farther apart than one half the least side dimension of the c O l11 po~ ite member. 410.17.8 .7 Longitud inal bars located with in the ties shall be .0 :, permitted to be used in compu ting A.u ,l nd 1 410.18 B earing S trength 410.18.1 Design bearing stre ngth on concrete shall not exceed (0,8S[, A,), except when the supporting su rrace is wi der o n all si des th an the loaded area , the n the des ign bearing streng th on (he loaded area shall be penn ili ed 10 be mu ltiplied by A21 A" bu t by nOI more (h'ln 2.

National Structura l Code of the PhilippifwS 6


Edition Volum e 1


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

411.1 Notalions
A ~.

arc<t of co ncre te section resisting shear transfer,


A fP

= area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete

cross section, mm 2. Sec Section 411.7.1 ::= area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel resisting factored moment [Vua + Nuc(IJ d)). mm 2 = gross area of section, 111m2. For a hollow section, A, is the urea of the concrete on ly and does not inctude the arca of the void(s) = area of shear reinforce ment parallel to primary tension reinforcement in erbel or bracket, 111m2 = lotal area of longitudinal reinforce ment to resist
torsion, mm 2




.JT: ;: :;

direction of the spa n for which l11omel1lS .Irc being determin ed, mm ;:::; dimension of rectangular Of equivalent rectangular column, capital or bracket measured tran sverse to the direction of the span for which moments arc being detennined. 111m ;:::; distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of longitudinal tension reinforcemellt, mm ;:::; distan ce from ext reme co mpression fiber to centroid of prestressing steel, mm ;:::; specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa square root of specified compressive strength of




A ,.mill

A"h AJ


A ,!

A ,.11
A". mill

minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion. mm 2, Sec Section 411 .7.5.3 :::: area of reinforcement in bracket or corbel res isting tensile force NII(, nun 2 See Section 411 .10 ::: gross area enclosed by shear flow path. mm 2 :;: area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, 111m2 ;:; area of non prestressed longitudinal tension reinforcement . mOl 2 ;:; area of primary tension reinforcement in a corbel or bracket, ffim2. Sec Section 411.10.3.5 := area of one leg of a closed stirrup reSisting IOrsion within a distance s. mm 2 ;:; area of shear reinforcement within a distance s, mm 2 ::; area of shearfriction reinforcement, mm 2 ;: ;lrea of shear reinforcement parallel to nexural tension reinrorccmenl within a spacing Sz, mlll 2 = minimum arca of shear reinforcement within it Spacing s, 111m 2. Sec Sections 411.6.6.3 ,md



II h,. h",


a b b" ht

:::: shea r span, distance between concentrated load and




face of supports. mm :;: width of compression face of member, mm :::: perimeter of cri tical section for shear in slabs and footings, nUll . See Section 411.13. J.2 ::: width of thilt part of cross section containing the closed stirnJps resisting torsion, mm ::: web width, or diameter of circular section, I1Ull :;; dirnc.nsion of the critical section /)0 defined in Section 411 ,13. 1.2 measured in the direction or the span for which moments are determined, mill == dimension of Ihe critical :-;ecti oll /}o defined in Section 411 . 11.1.2 Illc<1surcd in the direction perpendicular to b,. mOl ::: dimension of re-clangular or equivalent rectangular column , capital or bracket measured in the

/" I,. /".'

concrete. MPa = average spli tting tensile strength of lighlweigi,t aggregate concrete, MPa = stress due to unfactored dead load, at extreme fibc! of section where tensile st ress is caused by externally applied loads, MP. = compressive stress in concrete (after allowance for all prestress losses) at cen troid of cross sectio n resisting externally applied loads or at junction of web and nangc when (he cel1lroid lies within the flan ge, MPa. (In a composite member, he is resultant compressive stress at centroid ur composite section, or at junction of web and flang(.;. when the cCl1Iroid lies within the flange. due ( 0 both prestress and moments resisted by prccw;{ member acting alone). = compressive stress in concrete due to effective prestress forces on ly (after allowance for all prestress losses) at ex treme fiber of sec ti on where tensile stress is caused by externally applied loads, MPa ::: st ress in prestressi ng steel at nOminjll nexural strength, MPa ::: specified (ensile strength of prestrl;.ssing steel, MPa = speci fied yield strenglh of reinforce ment, MPa ::; specified yield st rength J... of transverse reinforcement, MPa = overall thickness or height of member, nUll ::: lotal depth of shearhead cross section, mm = height of entire wall from base to top or height of lile segment of wa ll considered, mill = moment of inertia of seclion of heam about til e celllroidal axis, mm 4 ;:::; length of clear span measured face to face of supports, mill = lenglh of shearhcad ;!I'1ll from cCJlIroid of concentrated load or reaction, m11l :;; length of entire wall or lenglh of segment of wall considered in direction of shear force, mill = momenl causing flexural cracking at sectioll duc (0 externally applied loads, N-IllIl1. See Sc\tiou


= factored

4" .5.3 .1 moment modified 1 0 accolin{ for cI'J'v ' ot . axial compression, Nmnl. See Section '111.4 .1..2

Association o f Structural Engineefs of tile P!ljJjppines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete



= maximum factored moment at section due to

externally applied loads, N~mm Mil :::: nominal flexural strength at section, N-mm Mp = required plastic moment strength of shearhead cross section, N-mm Mu = factored moment at section, N-mm M\. = moment resistance contributed by shearhead reinforcement, N-mm 11 number of items, such as strength tests, bars, wires, monostrand anchorage devices, anchors or shearhead arms Nil = factored axial load normal to cross section occurring simultaneously with VII or TIl; to be taken as positive for compression, negative for tension, N NIl(' factored horizontal tensile force applied at top of ~)racket or corbel acting simultaneously with V" to be taken as positive for tension, N Pcp outside perimeter of the concrete cross section, nun /h perimeter of centerline of oulennost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, nun s =- center-to-center spacing of items, such as longitudinal reinforcement, transverse reinforcement, prestressing tendons, wires, or anchors, mm S2 = center-to-center spacing of longitudinal shear or torsion reinforcement, mm 7~ = nominal torsional moment strength, N-mm 1~ = factored torsional moment at section, N-mm I ~ thickness of a wall of a hollow section, mm V, nominal shear strength provided by concrete, N Vci ;;;: nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diagonal cracking results from combined shear and moment, N V(!I' := nominal shear strength provided by concrete when diagonal cracking results from high principal tensile stress in web, N Vd = shear force at section due to unfactorcd dead load, N VI =: factored shear force at section due to externally applied loads occurring simultaneously with M"'(H.



::::: ratio of long to short dimension; sides of column, concentrated load 01' reaction area, or sides of footing, see Section 411 ::::: factor used to compute Vc in prestressed slabs. = factor used to determine the unbalanced moment transferred by flexure at slab-column connection. Sec Section 41 I = factor used to determine the unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear at slab-column connections. See Section 411.13.7.1

= =

= I - Yr ;: ;: number of identical arms of shearhead = coefficient of friction. See Section 411.8.4.3 = modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight concrete, all relative to normal weight concrete of the same compressive strength. See Section 411.8.4.3. =- ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement.
= Ajbd
of area of reinforcement to gross to that reinforcement = ratio of area of reinforcement to gross to that reinforcement

= ratio

distributed longitudinal concrete area perpendicular distributed transverse concrete area perpendicular


PI\' B


= angle of compression diagonals in truss analogy for

= strength reduction factor.

See Section 409.4

411,2 Shear Strength

411.2.1 Except for members designed in accordance with Section 427, design of cross sections subject to shear shall be based on (41 I-I) where VII is factored shear force at section considered and V,\ is nominal shear strength computed by (411-2) where Vc is nominal shear strength provided by concrete in accordance with Seclion 411.4 or Section 4 J 1.5, and VI is nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement in accordance with Section 411.6.6.

N Vn
= nominal shear strength, N




component of effective prestress force at section, N ;;;: nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement, N = factored shear force at section, N ::;:: nominal shear stress, MPa. Sec Section 411.13.6.2 ::::: distance from centroida! axis of gross section, neglecting reinforcement, to tension face, mm =: angle defining the orientation of reinforcement =: constant used to compute Vc in slabs and footings = ratio of flexural stiffness of shearhead arm to surrounding composite slab scction. Sec Section 411.13.4.5

= vertical

411.2.1.1 In determining shear strength V,,, the effect of any openings in members shall be considered.
411.2.1.2 In determining shear strength V,., whenever applicable, effects of axial tension due to creep and shrinkage in restrained members shaH be considered and effects of inclined flexural compression ill variable-depth members shall be permitted to be included.

National Structural Code of the Philippines 6 Edition Volume 1


CHA PTER 4 Concrete

411.2.2 The values Of..Jf': used in SCClion41i1 shall not exceed 8.0 Mra. except as allowed in Section 411.2 .2. 1. 411.2.2. 1 Values o f ..Jf': greater th an 8.0 MP" are all owed in compu ting Vo V ... and Vel<' fo r rcinl orced or prestressed concrete beams and concrete joist cons tru ction having mi ni mum web reinforce ment in acco rdance with Sect :OIts 411.6.6.3 .411 .6.6 .4 and 411 .7.5.2.

J. ~ f" 1(0.56

JF:.) ,; 1.0.

N.B. Sect. 411 .3 nol in AC I. ad apted from NSCr 5~ Ed. 411.4 Sh ea r Slrength Provided by Concre le for

Nonp rcstressed Members

411.4.1 S implified Calculation for Yc Shear strength Vc s hall be co mputed by pro ViS. \lf.S {1[ Sections 411.4.1 . J thro ugh 411.4 . 1.3 unless a more detai I(..j calcul ation is made in accord ance with Secti on 41J .4.2. Throu ghout thi s Section, except in Secti on 411.8, A, shall b~ as defined in Section 408.7. 1. 411.4.1.1 For members subjecllO shear and nexure only: (411 -3)

411 .2.3 Co mputations of maximum [aclOrcd shea.r force Vu al su ppons in accordance wilh Section 411 .2.3. 1 or 4 shall be permitted if all o f Ihe fo ll o wing three condit io ns are sali s ficd :

J. Support reaction, in di rection of

introdu ces compress ion member; 2. into


the end

shear. regions of '

Loads Urc applied at or near the top o f the membe r; and


No concentrated load occurs between face of support <l!Id location of critical section defined in Sections
411. 2. 3.1 and 4

411.4.1.2 For members subj ect to ax ial co mpression,



4J For Ilonprestressed members, sections locawd less th an a distance d from facc of SUPI)Qlt shall be pennilteci to be de signed for thc same shear V" as Ihat computed at a di stance d.

(I'" ~')2ff b . d (411-4) 14A

,." t

Quan tity Nu/Ag shall be expressed in MPa. 411.4.1.3 For members subject (0 si gnificant axial tension, Vc shall be taken as zero, unless a more detailed analysis is made using Section 411.4 .2.3.
411.4.2 Delailed Ca lcu la li on for V,
Shear strength V.. shall be pcnnillcd 10 be computed by the more dClailed io n of Sectio ns 4 11.4 .2.1 throu gh

411.2,3,2 For prestressed members, secti ons locat ed less than .1 distance hl2 from face of support shall be permitted to be designed for Ihe same shenr V" as thaI co mputed at a distance " 12. 411.2.4 Fo r deep bC Il IllS, brackets an d corbels. wa ll s and slabs and foolin gs, the specia l prov isions of Secti ons 4 11 .9 Ih rough 4 11. 13 sholl opply. 411.3 Lightweight Concrete 4J 1.3.1 Prov isio ns for shcar stre ngth Vc apply to norma lweigh t co ncretc. When lightweight aggregate conc rete is used, one o f the fo ll ow ing modifi cat ions shall appl y: 411.3.1.1 When J,., is not spec ifi ed . all values o f ~

4 11.4 .2.3. 411.4.2.1 For members subject to shear and n cx.ure onl y,


(4 115)

but not great er {hall 0.29..Jf': b... d. Whe n computinr. where Mil occurs simultaneollsly with considered.


hy Eq . 411-5. Vu d / M u shall not be taken grea tcr th;m ::.

V.. ;\1

SCl'I :!,,;

affecting \I, . ., ~ amI. M n s hall be lllultiplied by a mod ilicat io ll fac tor A. where}. is 0.75 for all -li g htweigh t conc rete and 0.85 for sand-li ght weight concrete. Linear illlcrpol:ltion between 0.85 and 1.0 shall be permit ted, Oil thc basis of vo lumetric fractions, for concrete containing normal weight fine agg regate and a blend of li ghtweight and normal wei ght coarse aggregates. For normal wei ght co nc rete , ), = 1.0. If av erage splitting tensile strength of li ghtweight con crete.Pn. is specified,

411.4.2.2 For me mbers subj ect to axial compression, il shall be pe rmitted to compute Vt. using Eq, 4 11-5 wilh M,.; substituted for Mu and VI ,d/MI, not then limitcd to ! .0. where:
M", - M "Nil

(4" 8-11 )

Association of Stru ctural Engineers of the Pililippines

CHAPTER 4 . COllcrete


However, Vc shall not be taken greater than:


411.5.3.1 Shear strength V,; shall be computed by


.j-j-:- b = A. --'


+ V + _,_ .



M rn"~



where dp need not be taken less than 0.80h and

NjAg shall be expressed in MPa. When Milt as computed by Equation (411-6) is negative, Vc shall be computed by Equation (411-7).
411.4.2.3 For members subject to significant axial tension,

M cr<'-~' _10 SA r;:;-(, + . (p c - .d


(411-11 )

and values of M"wx and Vi shall be compmed from the load combination causing maximum factored moment to occur at the section. Vci need not be taken .less than 0.1 no.
411.5.3.2 Shear strength


ff bl.ji.

but not less than zero, where Nu is negative for tension. N"IAg shall be expressed in MPa.
411.4.3 Circular Members

v..". shall be computed by

For circular members, the area used to compute Vc shall be taken as the product of the diameter and effective depth of the concrete section. It shall be permitted to take the effective depth as 0.8 times the diameter of the concrete section.
411.5 Shear Strength Provided by Concrete For

where dp need not be taken less than 0.80h. Alternatively, Vc ". may be computed as the shear force corresponding to dead load plus live load that results in a principal tensile stress of 0.33}

ff at the centroidai axis

Prestressed Members
411.5.1 For the provisions of Section 411.5, d shall be taken as the distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of prestressed and nonprcstressed longitudinal tension reinforcement, if any, but need not be taken less than 0.80h. 411.5.2 For members with effective prestress force not less than 40 percent of the tensile strength of flexural

of member, or at intersection of flange and web when centroidal axis is in the flange. In composite members, principal tensile stress shall be computed using the cross section that resists live load.
411.5.4 In a pretensioned member in which the section at a distance 1112 from face of support is closer to end of member than the transfer length of the prestressing steel, the reduced prestress shall be considered when computing V,." .. This value of \~'l<" shall also be taken as the maximum limit for Eq. 411-9. The prestress force due to tendons for which bonding does not extend to the end of the member shall be assumed to vary linearly frorn zero at point at which bonding commences to a maximum at a distance from this point equal to the transfer length, assumed to be 50 diameters for strand and 100 diameters for single wire.

reinforcement, unless more detailed calculation is made in accordance with Section 411.5.3.



+ 4.8

~ ~ Jb


but Vc need not be taken less than 0.17),

ff by.Li

nor shall

Vc be taken greatcr than 0.42), jf~ bud

nor the value

given in Sections 4 I J .5.4 or 411.5.5. VlldlM" shal! not be takcn greater than ! .0, where M" occurs simultaneously with V" at section considered.
411.5.3 Vc shall be pennittcd to be computed in accordance with Sections 411.5.3.1 and 41 where Vc shall be the lesser of Vci or V '.l>".

In a pretensioned member where bonding of some tendons does not extend to end of member, a reduced prestress shall be considered when computing Vc in accordance with Section 411.5.2 or 411.5.3. The value of Vcwca!culated using the reduced pr{'stress shall also be taken as thc maximum limit for Equatioi( (411-9). Prestress force due to tendons for which bonding docs not cxtend to end of mcmber may be assumcd to vary linearly from zero at the point at which bonding commences to a maximum at a distance from this point equal to the transfer length, assumed to be 50 diamcters for strand and 100 diameters for single wire.

National Structural Code of the Ptlilippines 6 Edition Volume 1


4 60

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete

411.6 Shear Strength Provided b)' Shear Reinforcement 411.6.1 Types of Shear Reinforcement 411.6.1.1 Shear rcinforccn1cnI consisting of the following shall be pCfmi(lcd:


Where Vs exceeds 0.33

ff,. h ... d.

maximum shall b:;

spacing given in Sections 411.6.5.1 and reduced by one half.

1 11. 6. ~. 2

411.6.6 Minimum Shcar Reinforccme nt 411.6.6.1 A minimum area of shear fl'i nforcc ment, A".min, shall be provided in all reinforced COw'n .":. flexural members (prestressed and nonpres(resscJ ) Wht:T:. / // eXCe{~i~", O.5V(". except in members satisfying one or ;..orc of (i ) through (6):
Solid slabs and footings;


Slinl1ps perpendicular to axis of member;

Welded wire fabric with wires loc<tlcd pcrpcndiclJl:lr to axis of member; and
Spirals, circu lar ties, or hoops.

411.6.1.2 For lIonprcslfcssed members. shear reinforcement shall be penrullcd to also consist 0[:

SlinlJps making an angle of 45 degrees or morc with iongilUdinallcnsion reinforcement;

Longitudinal reinforcemclH Wil h belli porti on Jll<lkjng



units with tOlal unlopped depth Ilot

h ollow ~c o rc

greater than 300 mm and


un its where

Vu is not greater than O .S V("".;

nn angl e of 30 degrees or more wi th the longitudi nal tension reinforcement;

3. Combinati on of


Concrete joist construction defined by Section 408.14 ; Bcams with (owl depth, Ii not greate r thnn 250 mm~ Beams integral with slabs with total depth, " not greater than 600 mm, and not greater than 2 .~) limes thickness of flange or 0.50 th e width of web; Beams constructed of steel ti bc r.. r e i nro ~ c ed, 110nn;;I weight concrete with It' not exceedil1 g 4~J MPa, h Ho i greater than 600 mill, and Vu not grealer (han O. J 7





4. 5.

411.6.2 Tile values of 1;. and 1,./ llsed in the design of shear rein fo rce ment shall not exceed 41 5 MPa, except the value shall not exceed 550 MPa for a we lded defo rm ed wire rei nforcemenl.
411.6.3 Where the provisions of Section 411.6 are applied to prestresscd mcmbers. d shall be laken as the di stance from extreme comp ression fiber to centroid of the pres tressed and non prestressed longitudinni tension rei nforcement, if an y. bUlllecd not be taken less than 0.80h.


411.6.6.2 Minimum shear reinforcement rcquir:mcnts of Section 411.6.6.1 shall be waived if sh uwn by test that required nominal nexural, Mn and shear :-.' rcngth , "" can be developed when shear reinforcement is ( ,It(ed . .,l;h I.esl shall simulate effects of differential '!! icm,' ,. creej:, shri nkage and temperature change, be ,!}"': 0 11 : H ;disli: assessmelll of such effects occurring in sen ice. 411.6.6.3 Where shear reinforcemenl' is reqlli re(\ ,,)' :-'ectioJ ' 4 11 .6.6. 1 or for strength and where Secril,;} 4; I.; i . ;J ow ~ torsion to be neglected, the min imulll :~ ..~:! o ~ :.he.l' reinforcement for prestressed (except as . ) j )\lidj'~ ; !i ' " " li' J; 4 I and nonpre5tressed member', :-.1: d ;1:. '.\ . ',11', by:

411.6.4 Stirrups and other bars or wires used as shear reinforcement shall extend to a distance d frolll extre me compression fiber <lnd shall be anchored at both ends according to Section 412.14 to develop the design yield strength of reinforcement. 411.6.5 Spacing Limits for Shear Reinforcement 411.6.5.1 Spac ing of shear reinforcement placed perpendi cular to axis of member 5h311 not exceed dl2 in nonprcstrcsscd memhers and O.75h in prest ressed melnbcrs. nor 600 mill. 411.6.5.2 Inclined slim.lps and belli longitudinal reinforcement shall be so spaced {hat every 45c!egrcc linc, extending tow.mJ the reaction frOI11 mid ~d c pth of member d/2 10 longilUdi nal tension reinforcement. shall be crossed by al le.lsl one line of shear reinforcement.

b .f A . = 0.062 V rr;-j' ~ J r; j
r . 1IlI11.

(4 111 3)


but shall not be less than (0.35b ...'i)IJ;. " in millimeters.

WIL i~: i) .. .',,:.

Association of Stru ctura l Enginee rs of the Philip pines

CHAPTER 4 - Concrete


411.6.6.4 For prestressed members with effective prestress force not Jess than 40 percent of the tensile strength of flexural reinforcement, A"min shall not be less than the ,mailer value from Equatio;\s (411-13) and (411-14).

411.6.7.6 Where shear reinforcement consists of a series of parallel bent-up bars or groups of parallel bent-up bars at different distances from the support, shear strength Vs shall be computed by Eq. 411-16.

Av, min

AI"!'" s
80! d



411.6.7.7 Only the center Ulfee fourths of the inclined

portion of any longitudinal bent bar shall be considered effective for shear reinforcement

411.6.7 Design of Shear Reinforcement

411.6.7.1 Where factored shear force VII exceeds shear strength Vn shear reinforcement shall be provided to satisfy Equations (411-1) and (411-2), where shear strengU\ V~ shall be computed in accordance with Sections 411.6.7.2 through 411.6.7.9.

411.6.7.8 Where more than one type of shear reinforcement is used to reinforce the same portion of a member, shear strength, Vs shall be computed as the sum of the Vf values computed for the various types of shear reinforcement.

411,6,7,9 Shear strength V, shall not be taken greater Ulan 0.66.JT: bwd. 411.7 Design for Torsion

411.6.7.2 Where shear reinforcement perpendicular to axis

of member is used,

V =



Design for torsion shall be in accordance with Sections 411.7.1 through 411.7.6, or 411.7.7. 411.7,1 Threshold Torsion

where A" is the area of shear reinforcement within spacing s. 411.6.7.3 Where circular ties, hoops, or spirals are used as shear reinforcement, V, shall be computed using equation (411-15) where d is defined in Section 411.4.3 for circular

It shall be pennitted to neglect torsion effects if the factored torsional moment Tu is less than:


For nonprestressed members: (411-18)

members, Ay shall be taken as two times the area of the bar

in a circular tie, hoop, or spiral at a spacing s, s is measured in a direction parallcl to longitudinal reinforcement, and 1)'1

is the specified yield strength of circular tie, hoop or spiral

reinforcernent. 411.6.7.4 Where inclined stirrups are Llsed as shear


For prestressed members: (411-19)


A.,.J"d . ) Vo = - - - (sma+cosa s



For nonpreslressed members subjected to an axial tensile or compressi ve force:

where a is angle between inclined stirrups and longitudinal axis of the member, and s is measured in direction parallcl to longitudinal reinforcement.


411.6.7.5 Where shear reinforcement consists of a single bar or a single group of parallel bars, all bent up at the same distance from the suppOI1,


For members cast monolithically with a slab, the overhanging flange width used in computing AfJl and Pcp shall conform to Section 413.3.4. For a hollow section, Ag shall be used in place of Acp in Section 411.7.1, and the outer boundaries of the section shall conform to Section 413.3.4.
411.7.1.1 For isolated members with flanges and for
members cast monolithically with a slab, the overhanging flange width used to compute Aq) and Pcp shall conform to Section 413.3.4, except that the overhanging flanges shall be neglected in cases where the parameter A2cp fpcp calculated

but not greater than 0.25 J7~~- b"d, where




between bcnHlp reinforcement and longitudinal axis of the member.

National Structural Code of t~e Philippines 6

Edition Volume 1


CHAPTER 4 . Conerele

for a beam with flanges is less th an thal computed for the sa me beam ignoring the flanges.
411.7.2 Ca lculation of Factored Torsional Moment 411.7.2.1 Hlhe factored torsional moment,

a concentrated torque OCClI rs within this di stance, the critical section for design shall be at the face of the SUppOIl.
411.7,3 Torsional Moment Strength

r u , in

a member

411.7.3.) The cross-secti onal dimensions shall be such lhat:

I. For sol id secti ons:

is required to maintain equilihrium and exceeds the minimum val ue given in Section 411.7. 1, the member shall be designed to carry Tu in accordance wit h Sections 411.7.3 through 41 1.7.6.
411.7.2.2 In a staticall y indeterminate structure where reductio n of the torsional moment in a member can occur due to redi stri bution of internal forces upon cracking. the max imum factored torsional moment, Tu shall be permilled lO be reduced to the values given in (I). (2). or (3). as applicable:

(4 11 24) 2. For hollow sections:

:.....) +( 1.7 l~p, )<(~+ 2JT:) (...' b . d A... ' b .tI 3



For nonprcslrcsscd members, at the sections desc ri bed in Secti on 41 1.7 .2 .4:
-~--- --- -

For prestressed members. d shall be detcnnincd . in accordance with Section 41 1.6.3.

4 .fj-:: 3

( ._A,~ )

(4 11 2 1)


For prestressed members, at the sections described ill Seelion 411.7.2.5:

411.7.3.2 If the wall thicknes s vades around the perimeter of a hollow section. Eq. 41125 shall be evaluated al the location where the left hand side of Eq. 41125 is a

411.7,3.3 If the wall thi ckness is less Ihan A",/p,.. Ihe seco nd term in Eq. 41125 shall be taken as:

(411 22)


For non prestressed members subjected to an ax ial tensile or compress ive force:

,l vi, 3

ry(A':)R. P:; A.,lfT:


(4 11 23)

+ 0.33

where I is the thickness of the wall of the hollow section at the locat ion where tile stresses arc being chec ked.
411.7.3.4 The values of

In (I). (2). or (3). the correspondi ngly redislributed be nding moments and shears in the adj oining members shaH be used in [h e design of these members. For hollow sections. ACfl shall not be replaced with A, in Secti on 411 .7.2.2. 411.7.2.3 Unless dctennincd by a more exact ana lysis, it shall be penn iHcd 1 0 take the torsional loading from a s lab as un iform ly distributed along the member. 411.7.2.4 In non prestressed members. secli o"ns located Jess th an a d istance d from the face o f a suppo rt shall be des igned for not less than the IOrsioll Til comptiled <:11 :l di stance d. If a concent rated torque occ urs within this di stan ce, tbe critical sect ion for design shall be at the face of th e SUppOit.




used for design of

lOrsional reinforcement shall not exceed 4 15 MPa.

411.7.3.5 Where T. exceeds Ihe Ihreshold torsion. des ign of the cross section shall be based on:




411.7.3,6 Tn shall be compu ted by:

T, = 2A.A,f" cotO


where A" shaH bc determined by analysis except that it dJa!i he permitted to take Af) equal to O.85Alllr: e shall II:':.. taken smaller than 30 degrees nor larger than 60 degrees. ii
shall be permitted to take

411.7.2.5 In prestressed members , sections located less than a distance hl2 from the face of a support shall be designed for not less than the torsion 'f;, computed at a distance h12. If

e equal to:


45 degrees for nonprcstrcssed members or mcm/)el':'; with less prestress than in Itclll 2 below,

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippine s

CHAPTER 4 - Concrete



37.5 degrees for preslre.o;;sed mcmbers wilh an effective prestrcss force not less than 40 percent of the tensile strength of the longitudinal reinforcement. re inforcement


A closed cage of welded wire fabric with transverse wires perpendicular to the axis of the member; or In l10 nprestressed beams, spiral reinforcement. shall be


411. 7.3. 7

Tile additional longitudinal r(;quired for IOrsion shall not be less than :

411.7.4.2 Transverse torsional reinfo rcement anchored by one of the foll o wing:

A, f,., '0 A, = P .,,_._'- cot " s j'




A 135-degree standard hook, or seisrnjc hook as defined in Sec lion 402, around a longilUdinal b,u'; According to Sections 412.14.2.1, 412.14.2.2 Of 412. 14.2.3 in regions where the concrete SUITounding lhe anchorage is restrained against spalling by a flange or slab or similar me mbe r. torsion reinforcement shall

where 0 shi.lll be Ihe sa me value used in Eq. 411-27 and A, 1\' shall be Hlken as the a mount compuled from Eq. 4 f 1-27 nol m odified in accordance with Section 411 .7 .5.2 or 4 ; J,., refers to closed transve rse torsional rei nforcemem, and J,. refers lO lo ngitudinal torsional reinforcement.

411.7.4.3 Longitudinal
de velo ped


bolh ends.

411.7.3.8 Reinforccmcm required for torsion shall be added

to thal required for the shear, moment and axial force thaI ac t in combinati on with the LOrsion . The most restricti ve requircl1lcnl s fo r reinforcement spacing and placement must
be met.

411.7.4.4 For hollo w sections in torsio n, the di stance

measured from the centerlinc of the lransverse torsional reinforcement to the in side face .of the wall of a hollow seclion shall not be less th an O.SAo/,!p"

411 .7.3.9 It shall be permitted to reduce the area of lo ngitudinal torsion reinforcement in the flexural com pression zone by Cl /l amounl equal to MlI/(O.9dh.)' where M" occurs at the sec ti on simultaneous with 7:" except that the reinforcement provided shaH not be less than that req uired by See li olls 411.7.5.3 of4! 411.7.3.10 In Pres tressed Beams:

411.7.5 Minimum Torsion Reinforcement 411.7.5.1 A minimum area of torsional reinforcement shall
be provided in all regions where the facLOred torsional moment TIJ exceeds the values specified in Sectio n 411.7.1 .

411.7.5.2 Where tors io na l re inforcement is required by Secli oll 411 .7.5.1, lhe minimulll area of tran sverse c losed s tirrups shall be computed by:


lOW I longitudinal reinforcemen t inc luding prestrcss ing steel iH each sectio n shall resist the factored bendi ng 1ll0 m CIl1. M" :11 that secl io n plus iJl1 additi onal concentric lo ngit udinal ten sile fo rce equal (0 Ad)'> based o n the facLOred torsion , 7~ allha t secti on; and


(A,. + 2A,) = 0 .062 ff, b.s

(41 1-29)


but sholl not be less than (0.35b. s)It,.,.


The spaci ng of th e long iwdinal reinforcemclll including tendons shall sat isfy the requirements in Section

411.7.6.2. 411.7.3.11 In prestre ssed beams, it shall be permitted to

reduce the llrca o f longitudinal torsi o nal reinfo rcement 011 the side of th e member in compression due to nc xurc below that re qu ired by Sec tion 4 11.7.3. 10 in accordance with Seelioll 411.7.3.9.

411.7.5.3 Where torsional reinforcement is required by Section 411.7.5. I, the minimum total area of longitudinal lo rsiona l reinforcement,! shall be computed by:

A . = I.~u!l

5ff, A", 12/


(~) b...

/ ,. /,



where AJs shill! not be taken less than 0. 175b ..../h,; /,., re fers closed tfi1 nsvcr~e tors io nal reinforcement, and/, re fe rs 10 lo ng itudinal reinforcement.

411.7.4 I)ctnils of Torsional R einforceme nt

Torsion rcinforce ment shall consist of longitudinal hars or tendons a nd Olle o r more of the foll ow ing:

411. 7.4.1

411.7.6 Spacing of Torsion Reinforcement 411.7.6.1 The spacing o f tran sverse torsi on re info rcement :- hall no t exceed the smaller of PhiS or 300 mill .


Closed stirrups or closed tics, perpendi cular to the axis of the member;
National S tructural Code of the Pllilippines 6
1 h

Edition Volume 1


CHAPTEH 4 . Concrele

411.7.6.2 The longitudinal reinforcement required for

torsion s hall be di stributed around the perimeter of the closed !itinups with a maximum spacing of 300 mm, The

411.8.4.2 Where shear-fri ction reinforcement is inclined to shear plane, such thm the shear force produces tension in shear-friction reinforcement. shear strength V" shall be
computed by:

longitudinal bars or tendons shall be inside the stirrups. There shall be at least one longitudinal bar or tendon in each corner of the stin-ups. Longitudinal bill'S shall have a diameter at least 1'124 of the stirrup spacing but not less than
a 10 rnm .

VII = 1I'1f,. (psin a + cosa)

(4 11 32)


a is angle between shear- fri cti on reinforcement and

shear planc. 411 .8.4.3 The coefficient of friction JI in Eq. 411 -31 and Eq. 41132 shall be taken as:

4J Torsion reinforccmclH shi.tlJ be provided for a distance of at least (b, + d) beyond the point required by analysis.

Concrete placed monolithically ... ..... .

411.7.7 Alternative Design For Tors ion


For torsion design of solid sections within the scope of this Chapter wit h an aspect ratio, hlb{, of 3 or greater, it shall be pennitlcd to usc another procedure, the adequacy or whi ch has been shown by analysis and substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests. Sections 4 1 1.7 .4 and 411.7.6
s hall apply. 411.8 Shear Friction

Concrete placed against hardened concrete with surface intentionally roughened as specified in
Sec tion 411. 8.9 1.0,<

Concrete placed agai nst hardened concrete not intentional! y roughened .... O.6il. Concrete anchored to il!i-rolled structural steel by headed studs or by reinforci ng bars (see Section
411.8.10) .......... 0.7-'

411.8.1 Provisions of Section 411 .8 are to be appJied w here it is appropriate to consider shear transfer across a gi ven plane. such as an existing or potential crack, an interface between dissimilar materials. or an interface between two concretes cast a{ dirferent times.
411.8.2 Design of cross sections subject to shear transfer as described in Section 411.8.1 shall be based on Eq. 411 - 1 where V" is calculated in accordance with provisions of Sect ions 4 11.X.3 or 4 11 .8.4. 411.8.3 A crack Sh;'lll be assumed to occur along the shear plane considered . The required arca of shear-friction reinforcement A'l across lhe shear plane Illay be designed usi ng cither Section 411.8.4 or any oliler shear transfer

where A = 1.0 for normal-weight concrete, 0.75 for allli gh tweight concrete. Other\vise, ,{ shall be determined based on volumetric proportions of ligh twe ight and nonnalweight aggregates as specined in Sec ti on 408.7. 1. but sh,d l not exceed 0.85.

411.8.5 For nonna l-weight concrete either placed monolithically or placed against hardened co ncrele with surface intenti onall y roughened as specified in Section 411 .8.9, V" shall not excecci the small cst o f O.2f,'A" (3. 3 + 0.08;:: ) II .. and I IA ... where Ac is area of co ncrete section resislin g shear lransfer. For <111 other cases, V" shall not exceed the smaller of 0.21,.'11,. Or 5.5A,,, Where concretes of different strengths arc cast aga inst each other. the value of J..' used (0 evaluate V" shall be that or the lowcr-strcngm

design methods that result in prediction or strength substantial agreement wit h results of co mprehensive lcsls.

411.8.6 The value of 1;. used ror de sign of shear-friction reinforcement shall not exceed 415 MPa. 411.8.7 Net tension across shear plane shall be resisted by additional reinforcement. Pcnnanenl !lei cOll1pn~ssiol1 j!cross she'lr pl,me sh.1I1 be permitted to he taken as addi tive to A ,i ... the force ill the shear friction reinforcement. when
calcu lating required A,:t

411 .8.3.1 Provisions of Sections 41 1.8.5 throu gh 41 1.8. 10

s hall apply for all calculations of shCilr transfer strength .

411.8.4 Shea r-Fri ction Design Method

411.8.4.1 Where shear-fri cli on reinforce ment IS perpendicular 10 sheilI' plane. shl~:!r strength VII shall be <.:o mpul cd by:
(411 -31)

411.8.8 Shc;:IIfriction reinforcement shall he appropri<lleJy pl;lccd along the shear plane and shall be tllI(:l l(l: ,: 10

develop f . , on bOlh sides by emhcdmen!. hooks or h ) special devices .

WC';:i illg

where I' is cocflici cllt o r frict ion ill accordance wi th Sectio n


4 J I.H.9 For the purpmic of Secti on 41 1.8. wilen concrete is placed agai!lst J1r~vjously hardened\C, thc interface

Association oj Structural Engineers of tile Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete


for shear transfer shall be clean and frcc of iai tancc, If J1 is assumed equal to J .O..?, interface sha ll be roughened to a full .lInplitudc of approximately 6 mm.
411.8.10 Whcn shear is tr~ms ferred between as-rolled steel and co ncrete using headed slUd s or welded rei nforci ng bars, steel shall be clea n and free of paint. 411.9 Deep Beams 411 .9.1 The provisions o f thi s sectio n shall appl y for members with I" Ilot exceedi ng four limes the overall member depth or regions of beams with concent rated loads withi n (wice the member depth from Ihe support Ihal are loaded on one face and supported on the opposi te face so Ihal Ihe co mpression struls can develop between the loads and the supports. Sec also Section 412.11.6. 411.9.2 Deep beams shall be designed using either nonlinear analysis as permitted in Seclion 410.8.1, or Secti on 427.

411.10.2 Depth at ootside edge of bearing area shall not be less than O.5d. . 411.10.3 Secti on at face o f support shall be designed to resist si mu/(aneous ly a shear Vi/o a factored moment [V"al' + N,l(' (II - tf)]. and a factored horizontal tensile force Nil,., 411.10.3.1 In all design calculations in accordance with Section 411.10, strengthreduction factor shall be taken equal to 0.75. 411.10.3.2 Design of shear-frict ion reinforcement A"j to resist shear V" shall be in accorda nce with Secti on 4 11 .8. 411. Fo r nOnllal -weight concrete, shear s trength Vn shall not exceed the smallest of 0.2t,b.,d.(3.3+ 0.08!,' )b.d. and Ilb.d411. For all lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete. shear strengfh V" shall not be taken greater th an the smaller of (0.2 - 0.07a/d)j ,b.d and (5.5 - 1.9a/d) b.,d. 411.10.3.3 Reinforcemen t AI to resist moment [V"a l , + N"c (ii -d)] shall be computed in accordance with Sections 410.3 and 4 lOA. 411.10.3.4 Reinforcement All to resist factored tensile fo rce Nllc shall be determined fr~m A,I,. ~ N u(' Fac(ored tensile force. N".. shall not be laken less than 0.2 V" unless provis ions arc made 10 avoid tensile forces. N"c shall be regarded as a live load even if tension resu lts from restraint of creep. shri nkage or temperature change. 411.10.3,5 Area of primary ten sion reinforcement Au' shall be made less than the larger of (AI + A.) or (2A'I/3 + A.). 411.10.4 Total area, of A,,, of closed sti rrups or lies parallel to primary tension reinforce ment shall not less than O.5(AJ'cA,,). Distribute uniformly within (2i3)d, adjacent to primary tension reinforccm en.

411.9.3 V" for deep beams shall not exceed 0.83

ff Ivl.

411.9.4 The area of shea r reinforcemeOl perpendicular to (il e flexural tension reinforcernen[, A,. shall not be less than 0.0025 b"slt and 52 shall not exceed dl5 and 300 mm . .
411.9.5 The area of shear reinforcemen t parallel to the nexu ral tens ion reinforcement. AI' /I shall not be less th an 0.00 15 b.. 520 and .r) shall nOI exceed dl5 and 300 mill.
411.9.6 It shall be permitted 10 provide reinforcement satisfying Section 427 .3.3 instead of the minimum hoJizontal and vertical reinforcement specified in Secti ons 411.9A and 411.9.5 . 411.I0 Provisions for Brackets and Corbels 411.10. 1 Brackets and corbels with a shear span -ta-depth ratio 0,.1 d less than 2 shall be permitted to be designed using Section 427. Design shall be permitted using Sections 411.10.3 and 411 .1OA for brackets and corbels wit h:


411.10.5 A"i bdshall not be less than 0.04 (j',i/,.).

411.10.6 At front face of brac ket or corbel, primary tension reinforcement As shall be anchored by one of the following:

a" /d not greater Ihan I; and

Subject tv factored horizontal te ns il e force. Nut:. not larger than V,..



Bya structural weld to a transverse bar of at least equa l s ize; weld to be des igncd to deve lop specified yield slrcnglh/y of primary tension reinforcement;

of Sections 41 1. 10.2. 411. 411. 411.10.5. 411.10.6. and 411.10.7 shall apply to design of brackets and corbels. Erfective depth d shall be de term ined at the f'lce of the SUppOIl . The requirements 3.

l3y bendi ng primary tension reinforcement back to fonn

a horizontal loop; or By some other means of positive anchorage.

National Struc turC:J! Code of the Philippines 6


Edition Volurne 1


CHAP TEll 4 - Concre te

411.10.7 Bearing area on bracket or corbel shall not project beyond straight portion of primary tension reinforcement, nor project beyond interior face of transverse anchor bar (if one is provided). 411.11 Provisions for Walls
411.11.1 Design for shear fo rces perpend icu lar to facc of wa ll shall be in accordance wil h provisions for slabs in
Sec ti on 411 . 13. Design for hori zont al shear forces in plane o f wall shall be in accordance wilh Secti on 411 . 11 .2 through 411 . 11.9, Alternatively, it shall be permilled to des ign walls

whe re I,.. is the ove rall length of the wall, and Nu is posi ti ve for c{ )mpression and negative for tensioll. If (MjVII - I", 12) is negative, Eq. 4 J 134 shall not apply. 411.11.1 Secti ons located closer to wa ll base Ihan a di stance. /,,/2 or one half thc wa ll hc ight, wh ichever is less, shall be pcrmillcd to be designed for the sCllne VI" as Ih:\I computed at a diswnce 1 .. 12 or one half the height. 411.11.8 W hell (actol\;u shear force VI. is less than VJ2, re inforcement shall be provided in accordance wi th Secti on 4 I 1. 11 .9 or in accordance with Sec ti on 41 4. When V" exceeds V,. 12, wall reinrorcement for resisting shear shall be provided in acco rdance with Section 411.11 .9. 411.11.9 Design of Shear Reinforcement for Walls

with a height not exceeding two rimes the length of [he wall for horizontal shear forces in accordance with Secti ons 427 and 411.11.9,2 throu gh 411.11.9.5,
411.11.2 Design of hori z.ontal section for shear in plane of wa ll shall be based o n Eqs. 411- 1 and 411 -2, where shear st reng th Vco shall be in acco rda nce wit h Section 4 11 .11.5 or 4 11 . J J.6 and shear strength Vs shall be in accorda nce wi th Secti on 411. 11.9, 411.11.3 Shear strength VII at an y horizollla! sectio n for shear in plane of wall shall not be taken greater than

411.1 I .9.1 Where ractored shear rorce VII exceeds" strength V,., hO I;zonlal shear reinforcement shall be provided to s'lIis ry Eqs. 4 11 - 1 and 4 11-2. where shea r strength V, shall be com puted by

Jf'e lid, where II

V ~ A,J,d , s

(411 -35)

i s thickn ess

or wall, and d is dcl1ned

in Section 41 J . 11 .4.
411 .11.4 For design ror hori zontal shear forces in pl;me of wa ll , d shall be taken eq ual to 0,8'." A larger value of d, equal to the distance fro m ext reme co mpression fiber 10 ce nter o f fo rce of a ll rein forcemelll in tension, shall be permilled to be used w hen determined by a strai n co mpatibility an alysis.

where Al is area of horizontal shear reinfo rce ment withi n spacing s. and distance d is determ ined in i:\ccordance with Section 4 11 . 1 1.4. Vert ical she:lr re inforce ment shall be provided in accordance wi th Section 411.11.9.4. 4J ] .11 .9.2 Rati o horizom:1I shear rei nforccmcnl arca to gro!'s co nc re te are:1 or vertical sccli on, Pr . slmll not be less Ih a" 0,0025 . 4 J 1. t 1.9.3 SP'lc.i ll g of horiwntal sllcar reinforce ment shall ]Jot exceed the small est of /".15, 311 and 450 111m, where I", is th e overa!l length of th e waiL
411.11.9.4 Ra tio of vertical shea r rei nrorcement area 10 gross concrete area or horizontal sccl ion, P,. shall not be Ie $:-> than the larger or:


411.J1.5 Unless a mOre detailed calculation is made in acco rdancc with Secti on 4 J J . 11 ,6, shear strcngth VI" shall
not be taken greater th an ( 1/6 ) f f hd for wa lls subject

to ax ial co mpression, or V,. shall not be take n grea ter than

the va lue given in Sectio n 41 1.4 .2.3 r<'l r wa lls subject to axia l tension. 411.11.6 She,ll st reng th VI sh:.11 1 be permillcd to be ic!'scr or th e va lues computed rrom Eqs. 411 33 and 411 14.
(411 -33)


~ 0 0025 + 05( 2.5 - ~,:'

}p, -


(411 -36)


and O . OC~;) . The vaill (! of 1'1 calculated by Eq. 411 36 need not be greater th an 1', required by Sec tion 411 . 11 .9. 1. In Eq. 4 11-.16. I". is Ihe overall length or the \vall. il nd II ... is the overall height of Ihe wall.
41 J. J 1.9.5 Spadllg or vertical shear reinforccmcnt sh::l ! exceed 1.../3 . 3h or 450 111m, where I ... is the oventll I cnt;.~ . : the wal l.

(411 -3 4 )

I\SSOclCl \lon

of S truC:llJf< l ! F.n~Jlnenr$ of tile

Phil ipp ll1es

CHAPT ER 4 . Concrele


411.12 Transrer of Moments to Colullllls 411.12.1 When gravily lo.d, wind, earlhquake, or ol her lateral forces cause Iransfer of momenl al conncctions of framing clcments 10 columns, the shcar res uhing from moment transfcr shall be considered in lhe design of lateral reinforcement in th e columns. 411.12.2 Except for con nections not part of a primary seismic load-resistin g system that arc res trained 011 four sides by bea ms or slabs of appro ximately equal depth, co nnections shal! have lateral reinforcement not less than Ihal required by Eq. 4 11 - 13 within the column for a depth not less than that of Ihc deepest connection of frallling elemems to the columns. See also Section 407.10. 411.12.3 For stnlctures buill in areas of low seismicity, columns of ordinary moment framcs having a clear heightto-max imum-plal1-dimension ratio of five or less sl1<l1l be designed for shcar in accorda ncc with Section 421 .9.3. 411.13 Provisions for Slabs and Footings

IransfCITed between a slab and a column, Section 411.13.7 shall apply.

411.13.2.1 ror nonpreSiressed and fomings, Vc shall be Ihe s maliesl of ( I), (2), and (3):


1. 6

(II 2 fJ .)


~f' b


where f3 is the ratio of long side 10 short side of the column, co ncentra.tcd load Of reacti on area; 2.

~ ~ (a ,d 12 h r.


'f'"" b v)


(4 11 3&)

where v is 40 ror interior columns, 30 ror edge columns <lnd 20 ror comer columns; and

411.13.2.2 At colum ns of two-way prestresscd slabs and fOOlin gs that lllcet thc req uirements of Section 4 18. 10.3:
(411 40)

411.13.1 The shear strength of slabs and footings in the vicinity of columns, conce ntrated loads or react ions IS gove rned by the more se vere of two condit io ns:

411.13.1.1 13C;:111l aClioll where each critical sec ti on 10 be in vcstigmed extends in a plane across lhc entire width. For bc<tm action the sIal> or rooting shall he des igned in accordance with Secti ons 411 .2. 411.4, 41 1.5. and 4 11 .6. 411.13.1.2 For two-way action where each or th e critical sec ti ons to be investigated shall be located so thm its perimeter. h". is iI minimum. but need no! approach closer
than dl2 1.

wh ere jJ" is Ihe smaller of 3.5 or (a,d/b" + 1.5)11 2, a, is 40 for interior columns, 30 for edge columns and 20 for co rner columns, bo is perimeter of critical scction defined in Section 4 11. 13. 1.2. 1;". is the 'Iverage value of1;),. for the two direct ions, and VI' is the vertical component of all effective prcstrcss forces crossi ng the critical scction. V( shall be permittcd (Q be com puted by Eq . 4 J 1-40 ir the foHowing arc s.ltislied; otherwise , Section 411.13.2.1 sha ll apply:
1. No portion of thc column cross section shall be closcr
to the discontinuous edge than four timcs thc slab thick ncss:

Edges or corners of col ulll lls, concent rnted loads or reaction areas; and
Changes in sinh thickness such as edges of cap itals,


The va lue of F

in Eq. 4 11 -40 shall


be rakcn

grealcr th;:lll 5.8 MPa: and 3.

drop panels, or shcar caps. For two-way action. the slab of rooting shal! be designed in acco rdance with Sections 411 . 13.2 through 41 1.13 .6. 4J Par square or rectangul ar colu mns, concentratcd loads or reacti ons arcas, the critical scct ions with four straight s ides shall bc permittcd.
411.13.2 TIle design or a slab or foot ing for twoway action is based on Eqs. 4 I I I and 4 I 12. Vc s h. 1i be compUlcd in .ccordance wilh Secli on 4 11.1 3.2. 1, 411 . 13.2.2 or 4 11 . 13_3.1. V J: shall be computed in accordan ce with Section 41 1_13 .3. For slabs with shear heads, VII shall bc in accordance with Section 41 1.13.4. Wh cn momcnt is

III each direction, /,'( shall not be less than 0.9 MPa, nor be taken greatcr than 3.5 MPa.

411.13.3 Shear reinrorcemcnt consisling of bars or wires

anu singlclcg or multiple-leg stilTUpS shall he permitt ed in

sl;!hs and rootings with d greater th an or eqnal to 150 1111ll . but not less than 16 times the shear reinforce ment bar diametcr. Shear reinforcc mcnt shaH be in accordan ce wi th Secliolls 4 I I. J3 .3. I Ihrongh 4 I I. 13.3.4.
411.13 .3.1 V. shall be compnled by Eq. 4112, where V,

shall nol be laken grealer Ihan ( 1/6) )..

".d, .nd V, shall

he calculatcd in accordance with Section 41 1.6 In Eq. 411 15 , A,. shall bc takcn as the cross-scctional area of all legs of

National Structurt~ l Code of the Philippilles


Edition Volum e 1


CHAPTER 4 . Concrete

reinforcement on one peripheral line that is geometrically

similar to the perimeter of the column section.

where is for tension-controlled members, 71 is the number of spearhead arms, and II' is the minimum length of each shearhead ann required to comply with requirements o{
Sections 41 and 41 I. 13.4.8.



shall not be taken greater than 0.5

) F,

b" d.

411.13.3.3 The distance between the column face and the

first line of of stirrup legs that surround the columns shall

not exceed d/2. The sparing between adjacent stirrups legs in the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to a1coiumn face. The

411.13.4.7 The critical slab section for shear shall be perpendicular to the plane of the slab and shatl cross each shearhead ann at three fourths the distance [I,. - (c,/2)] from the column face to the end of the shearhead arm. The critical section shall be located so that its perimeter i>{) is a minimum, but need not be closer than the perimeter dellned
in Section 41 L13. 1.2(1). 411.13.4.8 VI! shall not be taken greater than (I/3)

spacing between the successive lines of shear reinforcement that surround the column shall not exceed dl2 measured in a
direction perpendicular to the column face.
411.13.3.4 Slab shear reinforcement shall satisfy the anchorage requirements of Section 412.14 and shall engage the longitudinal flexural reinforcement in the direction being


bod, on the critical section defined in Section 41 J. J 3.4.7. When shearhead reinforcement is provided, VI! shall not be

taken greater than 0.58

ff bod

on the critical section

411.13.4 Shear reinforcement consisting of steel J- or channel- shaped sections (shearheads) shall be permitted in slabs. The provisions of Sections 411.13.4.1 through
41 L13A.9 shall apply where shear due to gravity load is

defined in Section 41 L13. 1.2(1). 411.13.4.9 The moment resistance M,. contributed to each slab column strip computed by a shearhead shal! not be taken greater than:

transferred at interior column supports. Where moment is


columns, Section 41 L13.7.3 shall apply.

=a"v".(l 2 1/ '



411.13.4.1 Each shearhead shall consist of steel shapes

fabricated by welding with a full penetration weld into identical arms at right angles. Shearhead arms shall not be interrupted within the column section.
411.13.4.2 A shearhead shall not be deeper than 70 ti mes

where is for tension-controlled members, 1} is the Humber of arms, and I,. is the length of each shearhead arm actually provided. However, M,. shall not be taken larger than the smallest of:

the web thickness of the steel shape.

411.13.4.3 The ends of each shearhead arm shall be

Thirty percent of the total factored moment required for each slab column strip; The change in column strip moment over the Icnflll fl'; and
The value of M" computed by Eq. 4114 '-


permitted to be cut at angles not less than 30 degrees with the horizontal, provided the plastic moment strength of the remaining tapered section is adequate to resist the shear force attributed to the arm of the shearhead.
411.13.4.4 A!l compression flanges of'steel shapes shall be

located within O.3d of compression surface of slab.

411.13.4.5 The ratio 0;. between the stiffness of each

411.13.4.10 When unbalanced moments are considcn',d, tlH" shearhead must have adequate anchorage to transmit MI' lo column.

shearl1cad ann and that of the surrounding composite cracked slab section of width (C2 + d) shall not be less than 0.15.
411.13.4.6 The plastic moment strength Mil required for each arm of the shearhead shall be computed by:


i;d" , (t,




4J 1.13.5 Headed shear stud reinforcement, P: ,i"i>,d perpendicular to the plane of a slab or footing, sll; ue permitted in slabs and footings ill accordance with SC('iolls 411.13.5.1 through 411.13.5.4. The overall height 01 the shear stud assembly shall not be less than the thicknc.c:.,; of the member less the sum of: (I) the concrete cover Oil the top nexural reinforcement; (2) Ihe concrete cover ('. ~: lhe base rail; and (3) one-half the bar diameter of the ~( :ion flexural reinforcement. Where flexural !c: ion reinforcement is at the bottom of the section, a:-; in a [(I ,:ing, the overall height of the shear stud assembly Shil!i il()! be less than the thickness oCtile member less the SUII; tii: (I)

Association of Structural En9ineefs of tile PhilipPines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete


the co ncrete cove r all the bottom Oe:Ulral reinforcement; (2) the concrete cove r on the head of the stud; and (3) one-half the ba r diameter o f Ihe botlOrn flex ural rein fo rcement 411.13.5. 1 For the critical sect ion defin ed in Section 4 11.1 3.1.2. V" shall be computed using Eq. 411 2. with V, and V" nUl exceed in g

concentrated load or rcactlOn area and tangent to the boundaries of the openings shall be considered ineffecti ve. 41 J.l3 .6.2 For slabs with shearheads. the ineffective portio n of the perimeter sh:t ll be one half of that defined in Seclion 4 11 . 13.6.1 411.13.7 T ransfer of M o m ent in Slab-ColullllI Co nnections
4 11.1 3 .7. 1 Whe re gmv ily load, wind, earthqua ke or otht l

O.25A~ b"d


O.66~ b"d.

respecti vely. V.I shall be calc ulated using Eq. 41 1- 15 with AI' equal to th e cross-sectio nal area of all the shear reinforce ment on One periphe ral line that is approximmcl y parall e l (0 the pc rimc te r of the co lumn section, whe re s is the spac ing o f the peripheral lines of headed shear stud
rein fo rcement. III" /(b.,<) sha ll not be less than 0. 17


411 .13.5.2 The spaci ng belween the column face a nd the first pe riphera l line of shear rein fo rcement sha ll nOI e xceed d12. The spaci ng be tween perip hera l lines of shear reinforcement . measured in a direct io n perpend icul ar 10 any facc o f the co lumn, sha ll be constant. For prestressed slabs or foo tings satisfying Sec ti o n 4 . this spacing shall not e xceed O.75d; fo r aJl ot her slabs ~lI1d footings, the spac ing shall be based o n th e value o f Ihc shear slI'ess due to fac tored sh eilI' forcl! and unbalanced moment at the cri tical sec tio n defin ed in Sec tion 4 I J .13.1 .2, and shall not exceed:

lateral forces cause transfer of unba lanced moment. Mil, between 11 slab and a column, a frac tion yptu of the unba lilnced mo men t s ha ll be transferred by flcxu re in accordance wit h Section 4 13.6.3. T he remai nder of the unbalanced mome nt given by 'XMw shall be considered to be transfcrred by eccent ricity of shear about the cCIH roid of the cri tical section defi ned in Section 4 J where:
y,. = ( I )t)


411. 13.7.2 The shear sU 'css res ulting fro m mo me nt transfer by eccentri c ity of shear sha ll be assu med to vary linearly
abo1l1 the centroid of th e crit ical sections defi ned in Sec tion 4 J J .13. 1.2. The ma xim ulll shear stres s due to the factored shear force. V " and mome nt . Mil shall no t e xceed V'I:


0.75d whe re maxim um shear stresses du e

loads are less th an or eq ua l to O.5



ff,. ;and

For members wi thout shear rein forcement:


0.50d where maximum shear st resses due

loads arc greater than O.5


\', = (~)
b,. d
I' +V ) Iv" ;::: - ' - - ' ( b .. d

(4 1144 )


where V" is as defi ned in Section 411. 13.2. 1 or 4 For members with shear rei nforcement other than she:lrhcads: (411-45)

411.1 3.5.3

spacing betwcen adjacent shear reinforcement cleme nt s . measu red on the perimeter of the first peripheral line of s hear reinforcement , shall not exceed


411.13 .5.4 She<lr stress du e to factored shear fOfce c ll1d mo ment shall not ex(,;eed

O. 1 7 A~ at

the c rit ica l

sec ti on located d/2 outside the ou termost peripheral line of shear re inforceme nt. 411.1 3.6 O penin gs in Slabs Whcn openings in slabs afe locmed at ::1 di stance less than 10 times the slab thickness from a concentrated load or reacl ion area, or when openings in n at Slilbs are located wi thi n co lumn strips as defined in Sec ti on 4 13, the critical slab sec tions for shear defined in Section 41 1. 13. 1.2 and Section 4 I 1. 13.4 .7 sholl be modi fi ed as fo ll ows:

where Vc and Vs arc de ti ned in Secti o n 4 11.13. 3.1. If shear re inforce ment is prov ide d, the des ign sha ll take in to account th e vari ati on of shear s lre~s around th e column . The shear stress due to factored shear fo rcc and moment shall not exceed 0. 17(12


the c ritical sectioll localed


outside Ihe olltermost linc o( the st ilTIiP legs that surround the colullIll.

4 For slabs withou t shcarheads. that pan of the pcrimeter of the c ritical section that is enclosed by stra ight
li ncs projc(,;ting fro m the ccntro id of the col umn.

411.U.7.3 Whe n shear reinforccment consisting of s teel 1nr channel-shaped sectiolls (shcarhcads) is provided. the sum of the shc<lr stresses due to ve ni ca l 1 0~l d ac ting on thc critic'll section defined by Secti on 4 11. 13.4 .7 <lnd the sheHf stresses resuiting from momClll transferred by ecce ntricity of shcaf :JbOllt the centroid o( the cri ti cal section defined in

Nati on al S tru ctura l Code of thr-J P hilippines G: EcJ ilion Vo lumo 1

4 70


. Concrete

Sections 41 Ll3.1.2 (I) and 411.13.1.3 shall not exceed


412.1 Notations

=- area of <In indi vidual bar or wire,


= net

bearing area of the head of stud . anchor bolt, or


head ed dcfonncd bar, mlll

;::: area



of all


reinforce ment, mm ::::; toral cross-sectional


reinfo rcement which is within the spacing .\' and

w hi ch c rosses the potential pJane of splilling through the reinforcement being developed , 111m2 = web width. Or diameter of circula r section, mm = small er of: (1) the distance from center of a bar or
wire lO the nearest concrete su rface, and (2) onchal f the cenlcr-to-ccnter sp<lcing o f bnrs or wires

being developed, mill. Sec Sec ti on 412.3.4


;::: distan ce


extreme compression fiber



centroid of tension reinforce ment, mm :::: nominal diameter of bar, wire or prestressing strand, mm :::: specified compressive stre ngth of concrete, MPa
= squa re root of specified compressive strengt h of


concrete, MPa :::: average spliu in g ten sile strength of lightweight <1ggreg.He conc rete, MPH = stress in prestressed rci nforecmcllI at nominal



flexural strength, MPa strcss in prestrcs:;ed reinfn n:clllc lli (after allowance for all prestress losses), 'MPa = specifi ed yiel d strength of Ilonprcslf"cssed reinfo rcc ment , MPa = specified yie ld s.trc ngth [,. of transverse

= cfTcctivc

reinforcement, MPa

= overa ll thickness or height o f member, 111111

re inforcemen t index. Sec Sectio n 412.3.3 = A,r ~" I IOSII ;::; additional cmbedment length beyond cen terline of support or point of in nectio n, mill ;::; development length in tension of deformed bar, deformed wire, plain and deformed welded wire reinforcement , or prctcnsioncd strand, 111m :::: developm ent length in compression of deformcd bars and deformed wire, mm :::: development length in tCli sion of dcformcd b:tr or deformed wire with :t standard hook, measure/l from c ritical section to outside end of h ll. (straight e mbcdment length bc tween crilic;lI seeli -," and start o f hook (point of tangency) plus inside


:::: transvcrse


l rlt"


Associa tion of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete







r:t<Jius of bend and one har diameter), 111111 . Sec SCClioll 412.6 ;; development length in tension of headed deformed bar, measured from the critical sec tion to the bearing face of the head, mm. See Seclion 412.7 ;; nominal moment strength at secti on, N~mm = AIr(d al2) ;; number of bars in a "lyer being spliced or developed at a critical section ;; number of bars or wires being spli ced or developed .along the plane of spl itting ;; cen ter-Io-center spacing of items, such as longitudinal reinforcement, transverse reinforcement , prestrc.'ising tendons, wires, or (Illchors, min ;; spacing of wire 1O be developed or spliced, Jlllll = factored shear force al section, N ;; ratio of area of reinforcement cut off to total area of tens ion reinforcement at section. == modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight COl1crel:c. all relativc to normal-weight concrcte of the same co mpressi ve strength. See Sections 412.3.4(4) and 4 12.6.2 = factor used to modify devclopmellt length based on rei nforccmcnt coating, see Section 412.3.4 = factor used to modify development leilgth bas(!d Oil reinforcement size, see Section 412.3.4 rnctor used 10 modify development length based on reinforcement location, see Section 412.3.4 ;; faclOr used to modify developme nt length for welded deformed wi re reinforcement in tcnsio n, sec Section 412.8

412.3 Development of Defor med Bars and Deformed Wire in Tension 412.3.1 Developmentlcnglh, Iii. in lenns of diameter, db, for deformed bars and deformed wire in lension shall be dctcrmined from either Section 412 .3.2 or 412.3.3 and Ihe app licable modification factors of Section 412.3.4 and 4 12.3.5, but I,{ shall not be less th an 300 mil). 412.3.2 For deformed bars or deformed wi rc, lei! be as follows:
ffi20 mill bars <Ind sma ller mid deformed wi res
C!car spilcint of bars beillg dcvclol>cd or ~pl i ce d 1101 less Ihan d~. cleilr cover nOI less Ilwn (I". ;md stirrups or lies (hroughout 1.1 not less lhall the code

1i125 nun bars and larger



f'V'~)d /.

( /;/f,V', }
lUff: "

Clear spacing of bars being developed or spliced nOI tess lhun 2dl , and clear cover .... ~.9Llcss than (h Olher

1 [_ I,.VI,VI, _ }

IA:t fj,


[ I,",",

lI:tff "


412.3.3 For deformed bars or deformed wi re. 1,/ shal l be: (4 12 1)

412.20cvclopmen( of Reinforccmenl- General 412.2.1 Calculatcd tension or compression in reiMorcc: lllcnt eac h l-iccti on of structural concrete members shall be developed on each side of that section by embedment length, hook, headed deformed bar or mechanical device, or a co mbination thereof. Hoo ks and heads shall not be lIsed to develop hars in compression.

in which the term 2.5. and


+ K,r)l<h sh(lll


be lakc n grcater than

412.2.2 Thc val ucs of

exceed 8.0 MPa.

ff lIsed in Secti on 412 shaH not


= 40~

(4 122)

412.2.3 In addition to th is requirements in t:.i : secti on that affec t detail ing of reinforcements, structural integrity rcq llircmc.: nls o r Scc tion 407.14 shell l be sa tisfied .

wherc 1/ is thc number of bar: or wi res being spliced or deve loped along the plane of spl illing. It shall be pefmi Hcd to lI :->C KIT = 0 as a design simpli ficatio n even if tr.lIlsvcrsc rei nforce ment is prescili. 412.3.4 The factors used in the expressions for developme nt of dcformed l>I'us ..tnd defor med wires ill tension in Section 412.3 arc as follows:
I. Where

horizontal reinforcement is placed such that more than JOO rnm of fre sh conc rete is cast below

N;ltionai Structu !"(:li Co de of the PliilipPllW5

C;n Edition

Volume I


CHAI'TEI< 4 - Concrete

the development JCIlgth or splice, situations, !f/I = 1.0; 2.

IjII :;:

1.3. For other

For epoxy-coated bars or wires with cover less than

3(h, or clear spacing less than 6db , VIe ::;: 1.5. For all
other epoxy-coated bars or wires, VIe:::: 1.2. For uncoated and zinc-coated (galvanized) reinforcement, l.fIt ::;:: J .0. However, the product VI/Vie need not be greater than 1.7;

412.5.2 For determining the appropriate spacing and COV':'::r values in Section 412.3.2, the confinement term in :>'~[i'.m 412.3.3, and the Vir factor in Section 412.3.'1U), a ;)f bundled bars shall be treated as a single bar 01' a JiiliiiU ; .~J.' derived from the equivalent total area and having a (:,:ntn ,d that coincides with that of the bundled bars. 412.6 Development of Standard Hooks in Tension 412.6.1 Development length 1"'1 in 111m for deformed b;1!'~' . 'I tension terminating in a standard hook (see S(;clioll -'107 .~), shall be determined from Section 412.6.2 and the. modification factor or factors of Section 4JX6.) ~;:!;, : shall not be less than 8(h or less than 150 mill.
412.6.2 For deformed bars.


Fc.>! ta20 mill bars and smaller and dcfonncd wires, ;:;:; 0.80. For 25 mill diameter and larger bars;



l.0; and

Where lightweight concrete is used, A shall not exceed 0.75 unless fc, is specified (see Section 408.7). Where normal-weight concrete i~ used, A.::;: 1.0.

shall be (024\11, i.l) II:;)


412.3.5 Excess Reinforcement

Reduction in development length shall be permitted where rcinforcemcIH in a flexural member is in excess of that

with IfIr taken as 1.2 for epoxy~coated reinfo!\'cmc!!L :Ul(i taken as 0.75 for lightweight concrete. For odlcr C:1:;'-.:5, ~o' and) shall be taken as J .0.

required by analysis except where anchorage or development for 1;. is specifically required or the reinforcement is designed under provisions of Section 421.3.1.5 .. ... .... [(As.lequil"l:d}/(As.provided)]

412.6.3 Length ldh in Section 412.6.2 shall be penniHed be multiplied by the following applicable factors:


412.4 Development of Deformed Bars in Compression 412.4.1 Development length for deformed bars and deformed wire in compression, {dc> shall be determined from Section 4! 2.4.2 and applicable modification factors of Section 4 I 2.4.3, but Ide shall not be less than 200 mIn. 412.4.2 For deformed bars and deformcd wire, I'k shall be taken as the larger of (0.24f,/ Je.jT:) d" and (0.043/,) d"
with). as given in Section 412.3.4 (4).
412.4.3 Length ide in Section 412.4.2 shall be permitted to be multiplied by the applicable factors for:

1. For 36 mm bar diameter and smaller honks \'.'i(h sick. cover normal to plane of hook) not less than h.i Inm, and for 90~degree hook with cover 0)) . :,1' C.\\C; :;iu:: beyond hook not less than :-)0 Ifj)i)

............ n. 'j

For 90-degree hooks of f1l36 mm bars an,' ~:i)r ::", 111::' are either enclosed within ties or stirrups I :'l"f)( "<lieu);',, to the bar being developed, spaced not gr(';' i.j !iJan 3(/;. along [dll; or enclosed within ties or stiln'p~: pa:;;1!el If the bar being developed, spaced not gr('~lin th;m 3rJ" along the length of the tail extension or () !lOoL plu:: bend ... .cHi arc enclosed within ties or stirrups perpcn!l:culal io thr bar being developed, spaced not greate)" 1r!, ; ,1(;)).:

3. For ISO-degree hooks of 036 mm bars and :;malk: !h<:.

Reinforcement in excess of that required by analysis ...................................................... (As required)/(A provided)





Reinforcement enclosed within spiral reinforcement not less than 6 mrn diameter and not more than 100 mOl pitch or within 12 mm diameter ties in conformance with Section 407.11.5 and spaced at not more than 100 111m on center . ..... 0.75

Where anchorage or development r specifically required, reinforcement in required by analysis .. .... (As It":"



412.5 Development of Bundled Bars

In Sections 412.6.3 (2) and 412.6.30). db is IL. ',"',ICltr c: the hooked bar, and the first tie or stirrup ,shall l"-lld(!:;e til bent portion of the hook, within 2db of the m<:,ide of III bend. 412.6.4 For bars being developed by a stil:,,:< itO)K ;' discontinuous ends of members with side COV('T :md lnp (r:: bottom) cover over hook less than 65 mill . .]:(: ,; shall be enclosed within ties or stirrups peli bar being developed, spaced not greater th,nl :)\';, ilL ro[; i,:

412.5.1 Development length of individual bars within a bundle, in tension or compression, shall be that for the individual bar, increascd 20 percent for 3-bar bundle, and 33 percent for 4-bar bundle.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrete


The first tic or stirrup shall enclose the bent portion of the hook, within 2 (h of the outside of the bend, where db is diameter of hooked bar. For this case, the factors of Sections 412.6.3 (2) and (3) shaU not apply. 412.6.5 I-looks shall not be considered developing bars in compression. effective in

412.7 Development of Headed alld Mechanically

Anchored Deformed Bars in Tension

412.7.1 Development length for headed deformed bars in tension, llil' shall be delermined from Section 412.7.2. Use of heads to develop defonned bars in tension shall be limited to conditions satisfying (I) through (6): I. Bar/, shall not exceed 415 MPa;
Bar size shall not exceed f?J36 mm; Concrete shall be normal-weight; Net bearing area of head A brg shall not be less than 4A/!; Clear cover for bar shall not be less than lit/>; and Clear spacing between bars shall not be less than 4(h.

Section 412.3.2 or 412.3.3, times welded deformed wire reinforcement factor, If/k" from Section 412.8.2 or 412.8.3. It shall be permitted to reduce the development length in accordance with Section 412.3.5 when applicable, but id shall not be less than 200 mm except in computation of lap splices by Section 412.19. When using the welded deformed wire reinforcement factor, If/w, from Section 412.8.2, it shall be permitted to use an epoxy-coating factor, If/(, of 1.0 for epoxy-coated welded deformed wire reinforcement in Sections 412.3.2 and 412.3.3.
412.8.2 For welded deformed wire reinforcement with at least one cross wire within the development length, ld and not less than 50 mm from the point of the critical section, the welded deformed wire reinforcement factor shall be the greater of:


but need not be taken greater than 1, where s is the spacing between the wires to be developed. 412.8.3 For welded deformed wire reinforcement with no cross wires within the devclopment length or with a single cross wire less than 50 mm from the point of the critical section, the wire fabric factor shall be taken as 1, and the deve!opment length shall be determined as for deformed wire. 412.8.4 When allY plain wires, or defonned wircs larger than 16 mm diameter, are present in the weldcd deformcd wire reinforcement in the direction of the development length, the reinforcement shall be developed ill accordance with Scction412.9.



403.6.9, development length in tension

412.7.2 For headed deformed bars satisfying Section {dl shall be (0.191.f/~/ )d", where the value of J/ used to calculate shall



not exceed 40 MPa, and faclor !fI~ shall be taken as 1.2 for epoxy~coated reinforcement and 1.0 for other cases. Where reinforcemcnt providcd is in cxcess of that required by analysis, except where development of ;;, is specifically required, a factor of (AJ required)/(AJ" provided) may be applied to the expression for (It. Length {"I shall not be less than the larger of Sd/! and! 50 mm. 412.7.3 Heads shall not be considered developing bars in compression . effective in

412.9 Development of Welded Plain Wire

Reinforcement in Tension
412.9.1 Yield strength of welded plain wire reinforcement shall be considered developed by embedment of two cross wires with the closer cross wire not Icss than 50 mm from the point of the critical section. However, the development length fd , ill millimeters, shall not be less than:

412.7.4 Any mechanical attachment or devicc capable of developing!;. of reinforcement is allowed, provided that test results showing the adequacy of such attachment or device are approved by the building official. Development of reinforcement shall bc pcrmitted to consist of a combination of mechanical anchorage plus additional embedment length of reinforcement between the critical section and the mechanical attachment or device. 412.8 Development of Welded Deformed Wire


Reinforcement in Tension
412.8.1 Devc!opment length of weldcd deformed wire reinforcement in tension, ttl, in millimeters, measured from the point or critical section to thc end of wire shall be computed as the product of the dcvelopmcnt length td , from

Where ttl is measured from thc point of the critical section to the outermost cross wire, s is thc spacing between the wires to be developed, and .,tas given in Section 412.3.4 (4). Where reinforcement provided is in excess of that required, this length may be reduced in accordance with Section 412.3.5. Length td shall not be less than 150 mm except in computation of lap splices by Section 412.20.

National Structural Code of the Philippines


Edition Volume 1

4- 74

CHAPTEr, 4 - Concrete

412.10 Development of Prestressing Strand 412.10.1 Excep t as provided in Section 4 I 2. 10.1.1, seven wire s trand shall be bonded beyond the critical section , a di stance not less than:

412.11.5 Flexural reinforccment shal l not be tennin(l.lcd in a tension zone unless one of the following conditions is satisfied:
412.11.5.1 V. at the eu tofT point docs not exceed (213) 9>V, .


= ( i ") d


i p,


)d "


Expressions in parentheses are used as co nslants wllhou( units, where db is strand di ameter in millimeters. and.!;,.. and fJr <lfC expressed in MPa. 412.10.1.1 Embedment less than Id shall be permitted at a sectioJl of a member provided the design strand stress at Ihal section docs not exceed values ob tained from the bi linear relationship defined by Eq . 412-4 . 412.10.2 Limiting fh e investigation 10 cros s sections nearest each end of {he me mber that arc required to develop full design strength under specified factored loads shall be permitted except where bonding of one or marc strands docs not extcnd to the end of (he member. or whcre conce ntrated loads arc aprlied with in the strand development length. 412.10.3 Where bonding of a strand docs not ex tend to end of member, and design includes tension at service load in pre-compressed [ensile zone as permined by Section 418.5.2 . development length. Id specified in Secti on
4 I 2.1 0.1 shall be do ub led . 412.11 Development of n exu ra l Reinfo rcement - General

412.11.5.2 Stirrup area in excess of that requircd for shear and torsion is provided along each terminated bar or wire over a di stance from the tenn ination poi nt eqllal to three fOUl1hs the effecti ve depth of member. Excess slirrup area A,_ shall not be less than 0.4 I b,..s i" _Spacing s shull not exceed dl(8/3b) where Pb is the ratio of area of reinforcement cut off to total area of tension reinforcement at the sec tion.
412.11.5.3 For 1lI36 mm bar alld smaller, continuing rei nforcement provides dou ble the area required for flexure at the cutoff point and V. docs not exceed (3f4)9>V,. 412.11.6 Adequate anc horage shall be provided for tensiOIl reinforcement in nex ural members where reinforce ment stress is not directl y propo rt ional to moment. such as sloped, stepped or tapered foo tings; brackets; deep flex ural members; or members in which tension rei nforcemen t is not parallel to compression facc. See Sections 412.12.4 and 41 2. 13.4 for deep fl ex ural members . 412.12 Development of Positive Moment Reinforcement

412.1 I.J Devclopment of tension rcinforccn1cIlI by bending across the web to be anch ored or mad e con tinuou s with fcinrorccm~nl on the opposite fnee of me mber shall be perlnitlcd. 412.11.2 Critical sect ions for devclopment o f reinforcement in nexural mcmbers nfe at points of maximum stress and at points wi th in the spa n whe re adjacent reinforcement termina tes or is ben I. Provisions of Section 412.12.3 must be satisfi ed . 412.11.3 Reinforce mcnt sh<lll ex tend beyond the point flt which it is no longer required to resist flexure for a dista nce equal to the cfTccl ivc depth of melllber or 12dl " whichever is greater. exccpt at ~ tlppon s of si mpl e spans and at free end of canti levers. 412.11.4 Conti nuing reinforcement shall have an embedment length Il ot less than the development length //(
beyond the point

412.12.1 A t least one third the positive moment reinforcement in simple members and one fourth the positive moment reinforcement in con tinuous members shall extend along the sa me face of member into the sup port. In beams. sllch reinforce men t shall ex tend illlo the suppOrt at least 150 mill.
412.12.2 When a flexural membe r is part of a primary lateral-load-resisting system, positive moment rein forcement required to be extended into the support by' Section 412. 12. I shall be anchored to develop the specified yield strength/I. in tension at the face of suppo rt.

412.12.3 At simple supports and at points of inncction. positive moment tension reinforcement shall be limited to a diameter such that ld computed for 1;. by Section 412.3 satisfies Eq. 4 12-5, except Eq. 41 2-5 need not be sati sfi ed for reinforcement terminating beyond center line of simpk SUPPOf1S by a standard hook or a mechani cal anchorage at Icast cq ui va lent to a stand ard hook.


where bent




reinforce ment is

longe r required to resist ncxure.

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines


. Concrete



:\ M" is calculated assuming all reinforcement at the section to be stressed to /y; Vu is calculated
fa fa

412.14.2.1 For III I 6 mm bar and MD 200 wire, and smaller, and for 000 mm and 1lI25 mm bars wil h !,., of 280 MPa or less, a standard stimlp hook around longitudinal reinforcement. 412.14.2.2 For !ll20 rnm and 025 mill stirrups with.!;.( greater tiian 280 MPa, a standard stirrup hook around a longitudinal bar plus an embedment between mid-height of the member and the outside end of the hook equal to or grealer.lhan 0.17dJ,.,

the section;

at a support shall be the embedment length beyond center of support; or at a point of inOcction shall be limited to the effective depth of member or l2(h. whichever is greater.

An in crease of 30 percent in the value of M,/Vu shall be

412.14.2,3 For each leg of welded smool h wire fabric forming simple U-stirrups, either:

permitted when the ends of reinforccmclH are confined by a

compressive reaction. 412.12.4 AI simple suppons of deep fl exu ral members, positive moment te nsion reinforcement shall be anchored to develop the specified yield strength h in tension at the face of support except that jf design is canied out using Section 427, the positive moment tension reinforcement shall be anchored in accordance with Section 427.4.3. At interior supports of deep beams, positive moment tension reinforcement shall be continllous or be spliced with that of the adjacent spans. 412.13 Developmenl of Negative Moment Reinforcement


Two longitudinal wires spaced at a 50 mm spacing along Ihe member al Ihe lOp of Ihe U; or
One longitudinal wire located not marc than d/4 from the compression face and a second wire closer to the compression face and spaced not less than 50 mm from the first wire. The second wire shall be permitted to be localed on Ihe slirrup leg beyond a bend, Or on a bend with an inside diameter of bend not less than 8db.

412.13.1 Negative moment reinforcement in a cOlllinuotls,

rcs!rained or cantilever member, or in any member of a rigid frame, shall be anchored in or throu gh the supporti ng member by embedmcm length, hooks or mecha nj caJ anchorage. 412.13.2 Negative moment reinforcement shall have an embedment length into the span as required by Sect ions 4 12.2 an"412.11.3. 412.13.3 At least one third the total tension reinforcement provided for negative moment at a suppon shall have an embedment length beyond the point of inflection not less than effective depth of member, 12(h, or 1116 the clear span, whichever is greater. 412.13.4 AI interior supports of deep flexural members, negative moment tension reinforcement shall be continuous with that of the adjacent spans.

412.14.2.4 For each end of a singleleg slirrup of welded pJain or deformed wire fabric, two longitudinal wires at a minimum spacing of 50 mm and with the inner wire at least Ihe grealer of d/4 or 50 mm from middeplh of member dI2. Outer longitudinal wire at tension face shall not be farther from the face than the pOl1ion of primary flexural reinforcement closest (0 the face. 412.14.2.5 In joist construction as defined in Section 408.12, for 12 mm diameter bar .llld MD 130 wire and :o; mallcr, a standard hook. 412.14.3 Between anchored ends, each bend in the continuous portion of a simple U~s tirnIp or multiple Ustirrups shall enclose a longitudinal bar. 0 acl as shem' 412.14.4 Longiludinal bars ben I 1 reinforcement, if extended into a region of tension, shall be con tinuous with longitudinal reinforcement and, if extended into a region of compression, shall be anchored beyond ll1id~ depth d/2 as specified for development length in Section 412.3 for Ihal parI of!, required 10 satisfy Eq. 41117. 412.14.5 Pairs of U-stirrups or tics so placed as to for m a closed unit shall he consi de red properly spl iced when length s of laps arc 1.31//. In members .It Icast 450 111m deep. such splices with AJ,./ not more than 40 kN per leg may be co n$ide red adequate if stirnlj) legs extend the fu ll avai lable depth of member.

412.14 De\'elopmenf of 'Veb Reinforcement

412.14.1 Web reinrorcement shall be carried as close to comprc~si{)n <l nd tension surfaces of member as cover requirements and proximity of other reinforcement pcnllit:-;. 412.14.2 Ends of single leg, simple U- or multiple Ustirrups :-ohall be anchored as required by the following:

National Structural Code of Ule Philippines 6


Edition Volume 1


CHAPTER 4 - Concrete

412.15 Splic", of Reinforcement - Gencral

412.15.1 Splices of reinforcement shall be made only as required or permitted on design drawings or ill specifications, or as authori zed by Ihe engineer-or-fecon!.
412.15.2 Lap SI)li ces 412.15.2.1 Lap splices shall nOI be used for bars larger than 36 111m diameter. except as provided in Secljolls 412.17.2 and 415.9.2.3. 412.15.2.2 Lap sp lices of bars in a bundle shall be based on (he lap splice length required for individual bars within the bundle, increa<;cd in accordance with Sec ti on 4 12.5. Individual bar splices within a bundle shall nOI overlap. Entire bundles shall not be lap spl iced. 412.15.2.3 Bars spliced by non-conlact lap spl ices in flexural members shall not be spaced transversely farther apart than one the requi red lap splice lengt h. or 150 mill.

412.16 Splices of Deformed !lars and Deformed Wire in Tension

412.]6.1 Minimum lengt h of lap for tension lap spli ces :.haIl be flS required for Class A or B splice, but not less than 300 mill, where:
Class A spl icc C lass IJ splice


where Id is calculated in accordance with Section tjJ2.3 to develop 1;. , bUl without the 300 mm minim ull1 u! .\ :ection 412.3.1 and wi thout the modi fi cation fa<.:tor of Sec tion 4 12.3.5.
412.16.2 Lap splices of deformed bars and deforn1("d wire in tension shall be Class B splices except that Class A splices may be used when:



The area of reinforcement provided is at leasl twice that required by ana lysis over Ihe entire length of the splice; and One half or less of the total reinforcemcnt is spliced within th e required lap length .

412.15.3 Mechanical and Welded Spliccs 412.15.3.1 permiued. Mechani cal and we lded splices shall be


412.15.3.2 A full mechanical splice shall develop in tension or compression . as required. atlcast 1.25J;. of Ihe bilr. 412.15.3.3 Except as providcd in (his cha pler, all weldin g !ihall confonn to "Strife/ural W{~/ding Code Reinforcing Sleel" (ANSIJA WS D 1.4). 412.15.3.4 A full-welded sp lice shall develop al leasl 1.25 !, of the bar. 412.15.3.5 Welded splices and mechanical connections not meering requirement s of Section 412./5.3.2 or 412.15.3.4 ru-e allowed only for rnl6 111m ba rs and smaller and in accordance with Section 412./6.5.

412.16.3 When bars of differen l size arc lap "pl iced in ten sion, splice length shall be the larger of Id of larger bar and tension Jap splice length of smaller bar. 41 2.16.4 Mechanical or welded splices used where area of reinforcement provided is less than twice that req uired by analysis shall meet requirements of Sections 412. 15.3.2 or 412.15.3.4.

412.16.5 Mechani cal or welded splices not the requiremenl" of Secli ons 412.15.3.2 or 412.15 .3 .4 shall be permitted for 16 mm diameter bars and small er if the requirements of Secti ons 412.1(\.5 .1 ulcough 412.16.5.3 arc met:
412.16.5.1 Splices shall be staggered alieaSl600 mm.

412.15.3.6 Welded splices and mechanical conncctions shall maintain the clearance and cove rage requirements of Secti ons 407 .7 and 407.8.

412.16.5.2 In computi ng the tensile forces Ih:l{ can be deve loped at eac h section, the spliced reinforccrnr.!li ':lfrSr. sll<lll be taken a~ I.hc specified splice strength, hU1 1101 than [,.. The str~:,s in the unspliced reinforcement shilll be taken as J; timcs th e ratio of the shOI1CS{ Icngth cmbcddcJ beyond thc section to Id but nol gren ter th an!,.. 412.16.5.3 The total tcnsilc force that can be devclop('.(i ;1' each section must bc at least twice thtll required by an;ll y: < Iud al least 140 MPa times the LOtal arca of rcinforcemCili. provided.

Association of Structural Engineers of tile Philippines

CHAPTER 4 . Concrele


412.16.6 Sp li ces in tension lie members sha ll be m ade with a fuJI mechani cal o r full welded splice in accordance with Secti o ns 412.15.3 .2 or 412.15.3.4 and splices in adjacent bars shall be staggered at least 750 mill. 412.17 Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression 412. 17.1 Com prcssion lap splice length shall be 0.07 1fA . . for 1,. of 420 MP. or less, or (0.13 I, - 24) d. for 1,. g,,;,ner thall 4 15 MPa. but nol less than 300 mill. For fo less than 2 J M P'l, length of lap shall be increased by one third. 412.17.2 When bars of different size are lap spli ced in compress io n, splice length shall be the larger I",., of la rger

if one half or fewer of the bars are spl iced at an y sec tion and alternate Jap splices are staggered by


412.18.2.3 Where the bar stress due to factored loads is grea ter than 0.5 h in te nsio n, lap splices shall be Class B

tension lap splices.

412.18.2.4 In tied rei nfo rced com press ion members, where lies throughou t the lap splice length have an effective area not less than 0.0015hs, lap splice le ngt h shall be permitted to be Illu lti plied by 0.83, but lap length shall not be less th an

300 mill. Tie legs perpend icul ar to dimension" shall be lI sed in determining effecti ve area.
412.18.2.5 In spirally reinforced compression members, lap splice length of bars within a spiral sha ll be permitted to be multipl ied by 0.75, but lap le ngth shall not be less than 300

bar Hl1d co mpression lap splice length of smaller bar. Lap spli ces of 42 and 58 mill diamete r bars to 36 mm di ameter ;md smaller bars shall be pcr milted .
412. 17 .3 Welded sp lices or mechanical connect ions lIsetl in compression shall meet requirements of Sections 4 12. 15.3.3 an d 4 12 . 15.3.4. 412.17.4 E nd-Bearing Splices

mm .
412.18.3 Welded Splices o r Mechanical Connectors in Columns

Tn bars requ ired fo r co mpression (Jn])'. transmissio!l of compressive stress by bearing of square cut ends held in concentric co ntact by a suita ble device shal! bc pcnnittcd.
412.17.4.1 412.1 7 .4.2 Bar cnds shall (ermin,lIc in nat surfaces wi th in 1.5 degrees of a right ang le to the u;.; is of the bars and shall be filled within 3 degrees of fu ll bearing after assembly. 412.17.4.3 End-bearing splices shall be used only in me m hers containing closed tics. closed sti rrups or spirals. 412.18 Spedal Spikes Requiremcnts for Columns

Welded splices or mechanical connectol"!i in columns sha ll meet the req uireme nt s of Secti on 4 o r 4 12. 15 .3 .4 .
412.18.4 End-hearing Splices in Columns

End-beari ng spli ces complying wi th Secti on 41 2.17.4 shall be permitted 10 be used fo r colum n bars stressed in co mp ression provided the splices are staggered or add iti onal bars nrc provided at splice locat ions. The conti nui ng bars in each fa ce o f Ihe column shall have a tensile st rength, based 0 11 the specified yield strength h., not less tha n 0.25/1, limes the area of the vert ical rein fo rce mcnt in that facc.
412.19 Splices of \-\'cldcd Dcfornwd Wire

Reinforcemcnt in Tension
412.19.1 Mi nimulll lengt h o f lap fo r 1 ,1)) splicc..... o f wel ded de formed wi re fabl;c measu red be tween the ends o f each fabric sheet shall not be less th an 1.3/d or 200 mm. and the ovcrhlp measured between ou termos t eros!'; wi res of each fabric sheet shall not be less than 50 mill, I" shall be the deve lop men t le ngth for Ihe .specificd yield stre ngth 1.~. in accorda nce with Secti on 4 12 .R. 412.19.2 Lap spli ces of wel ded deform ed wire rei n foru' lllcnt , with no cross wires within the lap splice Ic.n gth . shall be determined as for (kf"onn cd wire.

412.HU Lilp s pl ices, bult we lded spi kes, mcchnni cal co nnecti ons or end-beari ng splices shall be used wi th the limi tations of Sect ions 4 12. J 8.2 through 412. ! 8.4. A spl ice shnll satisfy req uiremcnts for all load cOJllb in:ltiOlls for the column.

4 J 2.1 H.2 Lap Spikes ill Columns

4q.1H. 2.1 Where th e bar stress du e (l factored l()l1d ~, is r ()!llprl~ss i ve . lap sp lices sha ll co nform 10 S~~c ti o ns 4! 2. 17. 1 and 412.17 .2. and where :lp pl it~ab!e, to Sec tio n 4 J 2.1 X.2 ,ll or "II ~ . I K25 . 41 2. 1X.2.2 Wh(:r~~ Ihe hal' Sl ress due to is tensi le lind dncs nol exceed () .~r.. in tension. l;l P splices sha ll he Class B tcnsioll lap "pikes if more tha ll nne half of the hars arc :-,plin'd <II a n)' secl ion. or Class 1\ tension lap spl ices

(.lctOfcd loads

412.19.3 Where any pl aul wires, or de formed wi res large r than MD 200, arc prcsent in the welded deformed wire reinforcemcnt in the direction or {ilc lap !\plice or where welded ddonncd wire reinforcelllent is l"lp spliced In we lded plain wirc reillfon:cmcnt, the rein forcement sha ll he I.. p spliced in aCC() rdil llCc with Seclion 41 2.20.

Nafiondl SIIUctt ll"i" ll Co cle of the PhilipPIi"l (-!-s G Edition Vol\l1"t1(: 1


CHAPTEI'4 Concrete

412.20 Splices of Welded Plain Wire Reinforcement in

Minimum length of lap for lap splices of welded plain wire reinforcement shall be in accordance with the foHowing:
412.20.1 When area of reinforcement provided is less than twice that required by analysis at splice location, length of overlap measured between outermost cross wires of each reinforcement sheet shall not be less lhan the largest of one spacing of cross wires plus 50 mm, or less than 1.5 id , or ISO mm, Id shall be the development length for the specified yield strength/" in accordance with Section 412.9.
413.1 Notations


::: dimension of the critical section bo measured in the

412.20.2 Where area of reinforcement provided is at least twice that required by analysis at splice location, length of overlap measured between outermost cross wires of each reinforcement sheet shall not be less than 1.5 1,1, or 50 mm, /,/ shall be the development length for the specified yield strength/;. in accordance with Section 412.9.

direction of the span for which moments arc determined, mm ::: dimension of the critical section bo measured in the direction perpendicular to /)1, mm ::: cross-sectional constant to define torsionnl properties of slab and beam. See Section 413.7.4.)

I(1_O.63.::.)x y y 3
(.'1 ("2

E("J h


= 'dimension of rectangular or equivalent rectanguJa:' column, capital, or bracket measured in the direction of the span for which moments arc being determined, mm = dimension of rectangular or equivalent rcctangulai column, capita! or bracket measured transverse to the direction of the span for which moments arc being detennined, tnm ::: modulus of elasticity of beam concrete, MPa = modulus of elasticity of slab concrete, MPa ::: overall thickness of member, mm = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gross section of beam as defined in Section 413.7.1.6 = moment of inertia about centroidal axis of gro:;:) section of slab defined for calculating fXt and /3( ,


::: h.1/12 times width of slab defined in notations aand PI ::: torsional stiffness of torsional member; moment per 'unit rotation ::: length of clear span in direction that moments arc being determined, measured face to face (i~'


= length of span in direction that moments are being

determined, measured center to center of support:: ::: length of span transverse to I" measured center to center of supports. Sec also Sections 413.7.2.3 ill::] 413.7.2.4 ::: total factored static moment ::: factored moment at section = factored load per unit area ::: nominal shear strength provided by concrete. See Sectioll 411.13.2.1 ::: factored shear rorce at section ~ factored dead load per unit area ::: factored live load per unit area ::: shorter overall dimension of rectangular parl cross section, mill




AssocicltlOll of Structur("d EnDineers of the PhilipPines

CHAPTEfi 4 - Concrete


::: longer overall dimension of rectangular part of cross section, mill ~: ratio of Ilexural stillness of beam section to flexural stiffness of a width of slab bounded lateral!y by cenler lines of adjacent panels (if any) on each side of the beam = E
10',.,/ ,

413.3 Definitions
413.3.1 Column strip is a design strip with a width on each side of a column center line equal to 0.251 2 or 0.251" whichever is less. Column strip includes beams, if any. 413.3.2 Middle strip is a design strip bounded by two column strips. 413.3.3 A panel is bounded by column, beam or wall center Jines on all sides. 413.3.4 For monolithic or fully composite construction, a beam includes that portion of slab on each side of the beam extending a distance equal to the projection of the beam above or below the slab, whichever is greater, but not greater than fOLlr times the slab thickness. 413.3.5 When used to reduce the amount of negative moment reinforcement over a column or minimum required slab thickness, a drop panel shall:

al a?

= ain direction of I, :::: in direction of t2 = ratio of torsional sl:ffness of edge beam section to flexural stiffness of a width of slab equal to span length of beam, center to center of supports = _s"C::_


::: fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by



flexure at slab-colullln connections. Sec Section 413.6.3.2 ;:: fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear at slab-column connections = I - y; :::: ratio of nonprcstressed tension reinforcement = reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain conciitions = strength reduction factor

I. 2.

Project below the slab at least one-quarter of the adjacent slab thickness; and Extend in each ciirection from the centerline of SUppOlt a distance not less than one-sixth the span length measured from center-to-center of supports in that direction.

413,2 Scope
413.2.1 The provisions of this Section shall apply for design of slab systems reinforced for flexure in more than one direction, with or without beams between supports. 413.2.2 For a slab system supp0I1ed by columns or walls, the dimensions <.', and C2 and the clcar span til shall be based on an effective support area defined by the intersection or the bottom surrace or the slab, or of the drop panel if there is one, with the largest right circular cone, right pyramid, or tapered wedge whose surfaces are located within the column and capital or bracket and arc oriented no greater than 45 degrees to the axis of the column. 413.2.3 Solid slabs and slabs with recesses or pockets made by permanent or removable fillers between ribs or joists in two directions arc included within the scope of this Section. 413.2.<-! Minimulll thickness of slabs designed in accordance with tll;s Section shall be as required by Section 409.6.3.

413.3.6 When lIsed to increase the critical condition section for shear at a slab-column joint, a shear cap shall project below the slab and extend a minimum horizonlal distance from the face of the column that is equal to the thickness of the projection below the slab soffit.

413.4 Slab Reinforcement

413.4.] Area of reinforcement in each direction for two-way slab systems shall be determined from moments at critical sections, but shall not be less than required by Section 407.13.2.1. 413.4.2 Spacing of reinforcement at critical sections shall not exceed two times the slab thickness, except for portions of slab area of cellular or ribbed construction. In the slab over cellular spaces, reinforcement shall be provitj'~d as required by Section 407.11

National StllJCturai Code of tile PhilipPines 6 Edition Volume '1



CHAPTEI1 4 . Concrole

Figure 413-1 Extensions for Reinforcements in Slabs without Beams (Sec Section 412.! 2. J for reinforcement extension int n supports)






0,301n 50%



least two bars

or wires shall 1111 conform 10 13,3,6.5

Splices shall be permitted in this region




0.211 .


150 mm

Max. 0.151.

Max. 0.151.

Clear span oln Face of support Cenler to center Center to center span


Extenor support (No slab continuity)

Intenor support (Continuity provided)
Ext 101

(No s!ab ml1lll'''lII,

I\ssociatlon of Structural Ellqlllccrs of 1111: PI-lilIPPIJ'lC':',

CHAPTER 4 - Concrele


413.4.3 Positive moment reinforcement perpendicular to .\ discontinuous edge shall ex tend (0 the edge of slnb aud ha ve embedment, straight or hooked, at leasl 150 !l1l11 in spandrel beams, columns or walls. 413.4.4 Negative moment reinforcement perpendicular to

4 13.4.8 Delails of Reinforcement in Slabs without Beams 413.4.8.1 In addition to the other requirements of Section 413.4, reinforcement in slabs without beams shall have min im um cxtensions as prescribed in Figure 41 3- 1. 413.4.8.2 Where adjacent spans are unequal, extension of ncgative moment reinforcement beyond the face of support as prescribed in Figure 4 I 3-1 shall be based on requiremcnts of longer spa n. 413.4.8.3 Ilelll bars shall be pennilled only when dcplhspan ratio pennils use of bends 45 degrees or less. 413.4.8.4 In framcs where two-way slabs act as primary members reSisting lateral loads, lcngths of reinforcement shall be delcnnined by analysis but shall not be less than those prescribed .in Figure 413-1. 413.4.8.5 All bo([om bars or wires within the column strip. in each direction, shall be continuous or spliced with Class B splices or with mechanical or welded splices satisfying Seclion 412.15.3. Splices shall be located as shown in Figure 413-1. At least two of the column strip bOllom bars or wires in each direction shall pass within thc regio n bounded by the longitudinal reinforcement of the column and shall be anchored at ex terior SUpp0l1S .

discontinuolls edge shall be bent, hooked or otherwise llllchored, in spandrel beams, co luillns or walls, to be developed at f;lce of StJPPOJ1 according to provisions of Section 412.

413.4.5 Where a slab is nOI s li pPol1ed by a spandrel beam or W,lJl at <1 discontinuous edge or where a slab cMti levers beyond [he support, anchorage of reinforcement shall be permitted within the slab.

413.4.6 At exte rior corners of slabs su pported by edge walls or where onc or mOre edge beams have a value of greater than 1.0, lOp and bottom slab reinforcement shall be provided at exterior comers in accordance wi th Secti ons
413.4.6. llhrough 413.4 .6.4 :


413.4.6.1 Corner reinforcement in both top and bottom of slab s hall be sufficien t to resist a moment equal 10 the maximulTl positive moment (per meIer of width) in the slab

413.4.6.2 Tile lllomelH shall be assumed to be about an axis perpe ndi cular to the diagonal from the corner in the lap of the slab and about an axis parallel to the diagonal from the corner in the bottom of the slab.
413.4 .6.3 Corner reinforce ment shall be provided for a distance in each direction from the corner equal 10 one-fifth th e longer span.

413.4.8.6 In slabs with shearheads and in liflslab construclion where it is not practical to pass the bottom bars reql~red by Section 413.4.8.5 Lhrough the column, at least (wo bonded bOllom bars or wires in each direction shall pass through the shea rh ead or lifting collar as close to the column as pract icable and be co ntinuous or spliced with a Class A splice. At ex terior columns, the reinforcement shall be .mchored at the shearhead or lifting foHnL
413.5 Openings in Slab Systems

413.4.6.4 ConteI' r~inrorcc mcill shall be pl<1ccd parallel 10 the diagollul in the lOp of the slab and perpendicular [0 the diagonal in the hallom of the slab. Alternatively, the special reinforcement Sh ;'l ll be placed ill two layers pilrallcl 10 the sides of the slab in both the top and h0l10111 of the sl ab .
413.4.7 When n drop panel is used to reduce the a!llount of negative moment reinforcemcnt over the column of a flat :-;Iab, the tiilllCIlSiolls of thc drop panel shall be in accordance wilh Section 41 :t3.5. In computing required slab rcinforcclllcllI. the thickness of the drop panel below the shih shall not be ilSSlIlIlCtl 10 be greatcr than one-quar:er Ik <.I ist,mcc from lhe edge or drop pa nel 10 the r<l cc 01 the column or coillmil capital.

413.5.1 Openings of any siz.e shall be permitted in slab sys tems if shown by analysis lhal the desi gn strength is at least equal 10 the sirength considering Sections 409.3 and 409.4, and that all serviceabil it y condi tions. including the
s pecified Iimil.'\ on deflcclions . Ire mel.

413.5 .2 As (11) altcrnate In spcciill analysis ns required by Section 413 ..1 .1, openings shall be permitlcd ill slab syslems wiLhout bt. . ams only in ,lccnrdancc with Ihe follow i ng: 413.5.2.1 Ope nings or <l ilY size shall be permitted in th e area co I)) ll10nto illtl~rs('clin g mid dle strips, provided lOla! alllOunt or reinfo rce ll'lcnt rt.'q uircd for Ihc pand withollt the opening b ma intaincd.

4 -82

CHAPTEIi 4 - Concreto

413.5.2.2 In the area co mmo n to intersecting column stlips,


flot more than onc-eighth the width of column strip in either

span shall be interrupted by openings. An amou nl of reinforcement equ ivalent to thaI intermptcd by an opening sha ll be added on the sides of Ihe opening. 413.5.2.3 In the area common to one column strip and one middle strip, not more than one-fourth the reinforcement in eilher strip shall be inl efnlpled by openings. An nmount of reinforcement cquivalcl; : to that interrupted by an open ing shall be ndded 0 11 the sides of the opening.

slab or drop panel thickness (1.511) outside opposi te faces of the column or c"pilal, where Mil is the moment to be transferred and (4 13- 1)

413.6.3.3 For unbalanced moments about an axis pa rallel to Ihe edge at exterior Supp011S. Ihe value of Y/ by Eq. 413~ 1 sha ll be in accordance with Ihe following:
I . For edge columns with unb~llanced moments about an

413.5.2.4 Shear requirements of Section 411.13.6 shall be satisfied. 413.6 Design Procedures 413.6.1 A slab system shal! be desig ned by any procedu re snl is fyi ng conditi ons of equilibrium and geomet ric compati bilit y, jf shown that the design strengt h at every section is at l ea~t equal to the required strength set fo nh in Sec ti ons 409.3 and 409.4 and that all serviceab ility co nditi o ns. including limits on defl ec ti ons, arc mel. 413.6.1.1 Desig n of a slab system for gravity loads in clud in g th e slab and beams. if any, between supports and supporting co lumns or walls forming orthogo na l fr amcs. by ei lhe r the Direct Design Method of Section 413.7 or the Equiva le nt Frame Method of Section 413 .8, shall be pc nn iucd .
41 For lateral loads. analysis of frames shall takc into nccount effects of cracking and