Offshore drilling units
Technical report on jack up
By: Majid hamedinia
First version April2009
Natural oil leaks have been present since before the days of dinosaurs about 200 million years ago. Lighter oils evaporate in air leaving behind the heavier oils in “tar pits”. People have used this naturally occurring oil since the beginning of recorded human history. Oil can also be made from animal fat, and it is not always clear whether mention of oil in ancient records refers to oil from the ground or from animals. Ancient Greek texts describe how they would pour oil onto the sea to set fire to their enemies' fleets. The Bible refers to a thick form of oil called "Pitch" which was used to waterproof Noah's ark and the baby Moses' basket. The American Indians also used pitch to waterproof canoes and medicines. These examples are probably uses of oil from the ground. The word “Petroleum” comes from the Greek word for rock and the Latin for oil or fat. It literally means “oil that comes from rock”. Petra / petros (Greek) = rockoleum, (Latin) = oil / fat Crude oil was pumped from the ground in Sichuan, China, 2500 years ago, but the history of oil wells as we know them today is much younger. A brief history starting in 347 A.D: 347 Oil wells are drilled in China up to 800 feet deep using bits attached to bamboo poles. 1264 Mining of natural oil seeps in medieval Persia is witnessed by Marco Polo on his travels through Baku. 1500’s Seep oil collected in the Carpathian Mountains of Poland is used to light street lamps. 1594 Oil wells are hand dug at Baku, Persia up to 35 meters (115 feet) deep. 1735 Oil sands are mined and the oil extracted at Pechelbronn field in Alsace, France. 1815 Oil is produced in United States as an undesirable by-product from brine wells in Pennsylvania. 1848 First modern oil well is drilled in Asia, on the Aspheron Peninsula north-east of Baku, by Russian engineer F.N. Semyenov. 1854 First oil wells in Europe are drilled 30- to 50meters deep at Bóbrka, Poland by Ignacy Lukasiewicz. Oil historians in the USA give credit for the first modern commercial oil well to Colonel Edwin L. Drake. His well reached a depth of 22m (72ft). It was drilled in “Oil Creek” near the town of Titusville, slightly east of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA and started producing oil on August 28, 1859. There were no automobiles in those days; the main market for petroleum was for medicine. It was called Rock Oil and sold for about $40 a barrel, which is about the same as a barrel of oil costs today, so it would have been worth a lot of money in 1859. There are several other claims for “the first oil well”, including a well drilled in 1858 in Wietze, Germany. Iranian called it "Well Number One". A sign proudly proclaims the spot where the first middleeastern oil was discovered 100 years ago. The oil derrick is still there - it produced oil for 70 years. The town itself - Masjid e Suleiman - in south west Iran, is still an oil town. The countryside is
criss-crossed with the pipelines that bring oil from each wellhead to the refinery or the export terminal. But much else has changed. For nearly 50 years the Iranian oil industry was controlled by the British Anglo-Persian Oil company. You can still see the names of British companies on some of the older plant. But the British only paid $75,000 (£40,000) for the original 60-year concession and a small share of the profits. To this day, that is the source of enormous bitterness in Iran. British presence "No fair British person can be proud of that part of the history of the UK in Iran". Iran still provides nearly 5% of the world's oil needs. It is strange then, that an industry of such global importance should be so isolated. The first offshore oil well was in the bayous (swamps) of Louisiana, USA during the 1950s. The first drilling in open sea was done in 1955 for Shell Oil in the Gulf of Mexico just south of New Orleans. This used a barge with a drill rig attached named “Mr. Charlie", which continued to drill in the Gulf of Mexico for 32 years. Whit
How to exploit
Drilling for oil requires extensive planning and a good amount of capital to invest. The project will require you to work with contractors, financiers, land owners, geologists and engineers. All activities for exploitation of oil can be mentioned in some steps. The oil is found in the reservoir rock under the ground several hundred meters down. The most conventional conformation in which oil is found is called the folding movement where the earth has moved inward to form an upward fold. To find oil, geologists are hired who are experts in analyzing surface texture, features, soil types and core samples. The geologists also employ different high technology instruments for example, magnetometer, gravity meters, seismic instruments using shock wave technology, and satellite pictures to find flowing oil under the rocks of the Earth. When geologists determine a good site it is surveyed for boundaries and environmental studies. Lease is signed and the legal right to the land is obtained from the local authorities. A reserve pit is made for the debris coming out from the drilling. The land is prepared for the rig and cleared off of trees and vegetations. Several holes are made for the rig to fit in. A conductor pipe is made which is the top portion of the main hole and is larger in diameter than the rest of the hole. Once the oil rig is installed, it is connected with several other components. These components guarantee the normal functioning of the equipment and safety in case of unexpected pressure release from the bottom of the soil. The hole is dug and casing is installed around it to prevent it from collapsing.
When the oil sand is reached from the reservoir rock, it is analyzed for core sampling, pressure and quality of reservoir rock. A device called a perforating gun is inserted to extract the oil from the well, once the desired depth is reached. When the oil starts flowing in the well, the rig is removed and the oil production equipment is installed to extract the oil. But what we wrote was about drilling in land, Drilling for oil in the ocean is one of the greatest technological breakthroughs in recent decades, and many new techniques have been developed to profit from the abundance of oil underneath the ocean floor. While drilling for oil has been around for hundreds of years in one form or another, the effective extraction of petroleum from beneath the sea floor did not surface until the last forty years. Whit regard to oil place, land or sea, there are different type of drilling rig. On the continuation of this article we will write about offshore drilling individually.
Types of Drilling Rigs
A drilling rig is a structure housing equipment used to drill for water, oil, natural gas from underground reservoirs or to obtain mineral core samples. The term can refer to a land-based rig, a marine-based structure commonly called an 'offshore rig' or a structure that drills oil wells called an 'oil rig'. The term correctly refers to the equipment that drills oil wells or extracts mineral samples, including the rig derrick (which looks like a metal frame tower). Sometimes a drilling rig is also used to complete (prepare for production) an oil well. However, the rig itself is not involved with the extraction of the oil; its primary function is to make a hole in the ground so that the oil can be produced. Laypeople may refer to the structure which sits on top offshore wells as a 'rig', but this is not correct. The correct name for the structure in a marine environment is platform. A structure upon which wells produce is a production platform. A floating vessel upon which a drilling rig sits is a floating rig or semi-submersible rig because the whole purpose of the structure is for drilling. Drilling rigs can be small and portable such as those used in mineral exploration drilling, or huge, capable of drilling through thousands of meters of the Earth's crust; large "mud pumps" are used to circulate drilling mud (slurry) through the drill bit and the casing, for cooling and removing the "cuttings" whilst a well is drilled; hoists in the rig can lift thousands of tons of pipe; other equipment can force acid or sand into reservoirs to facilitate extraction of the oil or mineral sample; and permanent living accommodation and catering for crews which may be greater than a hundred people in number. Marine rigs may operate many hundreds of miles or kilometers offshore with infrequent crew rotation. With regard to the below picture we can
understand there are different type of rigs. But in this article we want to focus on offshore rig and jack up individually.
All type of rigs (land and offshore rigs).1
Until the advent of internal combustion engines in the late 19th century, the primary method for drilling rock involved muscle power be it human or animal. Rods were turned by hand, using clamps attached to the rod. The rope and drop method invented in China utilized a steel rod or piston raised and dropped vertically via a rope. Mechanized versions of this persisted until about 1970, utilizing a cam to rapidly raise and drop what, by then, was a steel cable. In the 1970s, outside of the oil and gas industry, roller bits utilizing mud circulation were replaced by the first efficient pneumatic reciprocating piston RC drills, and became essentially obsolete for the majority of shallow drilling, and are now only used in certain situations where rocks preclude other methods. RC drilling proved much faster and efficient, and continues to improve with better metallurgy deriving harder, more durable bits, and compressors delivering higher air pressures at
higher volumes, enabling deeper and faster penetration. Diamond drilling has remained essentially unchanged since its inception.
Drilling rig classification
There are many types and designs of drilling rigs, depending on their purpose and improvements; many drilling rigs are capable of switching or combining different drilling technologies. 1) By power used Electric - rig is connected to a power grid usually produced by its own generators, Mechanic - rig produces power with its own (diesel) engines, hydraulic - most movements are done with hydraulic power, pneumatic - pressured air is used to generate small scale movements 2) By pipe used Cable - a cable is used to slam the bit on the rock (used for small geotechnical wells) Conventional - uses drill pipes Coil tubing - uses a giant coil of tube and a down hole drilling motor 3) By height Single - can drill only single drill pipes, has no vertical pipe racks (most small drilling rigs) Double - can store double pipe stands in the pipe rack Triple - can store stands composed of three pipes in the pipe rack (most large drilling rigs) Quad - can store stands composed of four pipes in the pipe rack 4) By method of rotation No rotation (most service rigs) Rotary table - rotation is achieved by turning a square pipe (the Kelly) at drill floor level.
Top-drive - rotation and circulation is done at the top of the drill string, on a motor that moves along the derrick. 5) By position of derrick Conventional - derrick is vertical Slant - derrick is at an angle (this is used to achieve deviation without an expensive down hole motor) Offshore Drilling rigs Drilling rigs are designed to meet specific operation requirement, therefore, different rigs have different capabilities. All offshore rigs perform the basic function of drilling a hole or well in submerged lands that means of rotary drilling. This procedure provides the method of exploring for or producing oil and gas from earth formation. Offshore drilling rigs can be classified into two major groups: floating and stationary. Floating rigs: floating rigs are those rigs which rely upon an anchoring or positioning system to keep them over the drilling location. These rigs are usually self propelled and normally used for exploratory drilling. We can assume drill ships and semi submersibles in this type of rigs. Drill ship:
These look like ordinary ships but have a derrick on top which drills through a hole in the hull. Drill ships are either anchored or positioned with computer-controlled propellers along the hull which continually correct the ships drift. On the other word, Drill ship is a maritime vessel that has been fitted with drilling apparatus. It is most often used for exploratory drilling of new oil or gas wells in deep water but can also be used for scientific drilling. It is often built on a modified tanker hull and outfitted with a dynamic positioning system to maintain its position over the well. The two basic type of drill ships are the barge type and the self-propelled type, or non-self-propelled drill ships must be towed into position above drilling site. Self-propelled type drill ships are capable of movement under their own power and do not require towing. Drill ships employ two basic method of station keeping to maintain their position above drilling sites. Drill ships that
use a conventional anchoring system utilized a series of anchor that fan out from the bow and stern of the ship and are set into the sea floor. Drill ships that are dynamically positioned keep their position above the drill sites by using bow and stern thrusters that are computer controlled.
The latest drill ship of Samsung co.
Drilling unit with barge type.3
Semi submersibles: Semis, as they are called, are also used to drill single exploratory wells. The majority of semis are towed to their drilling location, although some of the more recent models are self –propelled. The
basic deck configurations range from triangular to pentagonal and utilized anywhere from three to over ten legs for support. The legs are attached to hulls or pontoons that can be flooded. The primary advantage of semis over drill ship is their height degree of stability in rough weather. Semis utilized a spread anchoring system of radial space anchors to hold their position. The spread of anchors is dependent upon anticipated wind and sea condition. Then, these types have hulls, columns and pontoons, for sufficient buoyancy to cause the structure to float, but of weight sufficient to keep the structure upright. Semi-submersible can be moved from place to place; can be ballasted up or down by altering the amount of flooding in buoyancy tanks; they are generally anchored by combinations of chain, wire rope and/or polyester rope during drilling and/or production operations, though they can also be kept in place by the use of dynamic positioning. Semi-submersibles can be used in water depths from 200 to 10,000 feet (60 to 3,050 m).
Diagram of Semi submersibles.4
As mentioned above all type of floating rigs use anchor for positioning and keeping their locations. On the continuation of this part we will present anchor and the most important topics related to that.
Device cast overboard to secure a ship, boat, or other floating object by means of weight, friction, or hooks called anchor. In ancient times an anchor was often merely a large stone, a bag or basket of stones, a bag of sand, or, as with the Egyptians, a lead-weighted log. The Greeks are credited with the first use of iron anchors, while the Romans had metal devices with arms similar to modern anchors. The ordinary modern anchor consists of: The shank is the stem of the anchor in which direction is pulled to set (bury) the anchor. The crown connects the various parts of the modern anchor. The stock turns the anchor into an attitude that enables the flukes to dig into the sea bed. The tripping ring is used for the optional tripping line: by pulling the tripping line, the anchor will break out. The flukes will be buried into the seabed. The very tip of a fluke is sometimes called the bill.
In the below picture, anchors parts are showed.
There is some most important kind of anchor: Mushroom type: The mushroom anchor is suitable where the seabed is composed of fine sand or soft mud. It is shaped like a mushroom. It is a bit better than a simple weight, but not as good as a temporary anchor design of the same weight. This type of anchor can be as light as 10 pounds or as heavy as several tons. They must be allowed to set by sinking over a long time.
Hall type: The stockless anchor which was patented in England in 1821 came into wide use principally because of its ease of handling and stowing. The crown, arms, and flukes of a stockless anchor are cast in one piece and can pivot slightly from side to side on the shank. The flukes are long and heavy, and have projecting shoulders at their base that catch on the seabed. As more drag is exerted, the shoulders force the flukes downward into the bottom.
Stockless anchors have replaced the older stock anchor on most of the large ships of the world.
Hall type anchor.8
Several other types of anchors are in common use. Lightweight, Danforth, and plow anchors have long, sharp flukes that pivot around a stock at the bottom of the shank and bury themselves deeply into the bottom; these anchors are generally used for yachts and other small craft. How to choose an anchor:
To select an anchor, choice on three points will be done: 1- PRICE: Your anchor is your best insurance and, like your insurance, it seems expensive only before the accident occurs. When the weather deteriorates and your boat drags towards the rocks, it is too late to regret the tens of pounds saved on the purchase price. If your boat is tossed on the shore, then the cost may well be thousands of pounds. Security and quiet nights at anchor don't have a price. 2- WEIGHT: The weight of your anchor has almost no relation to the holding. Holding is related to : The stability of your anchor Its surface area
The shape of the holding surface All recent tests have proved that aluminum anchors have the same holding as steel anchors of the same size (Practical Sailor, Bateaux, Voiles magazine.) However, weight is very important for the penetration of the anchor. If you choose a light (i.e. aluminum) anchor, then favor stable models, those with a penetrating angle like a chisel and those with a heavily weighted tip. 3- EFFICIENCY: Efficiency of an anchor is a function of both penetration and holding. To ensure good holding, an anchor must first penetrate regardless of the sea bottom type, as quickly and deeply as possible. Once set, the anchor must not break free regardless of weather conditions. This is a function of anchor stability and the shape and size of the holding surface.
Stationary rigs: Stationary drilling rigs, as defined by their name, are affixed to the ocean floor by some type of legs. Some stationary rigs are moveable; however, during drilling operation, they don’t encounter the oceans movement because their drilling platforms are positioned above the water line. Stationary rigs are used both for exploration and production of oil and gas fields. There are three important type of stationary rigs; fixed platform, platform tender and jack up. In this article ewe will engage in jack up more than the two others.
Fixed platform: A fixed Platform is a type of offshore platform used for the production of oil or gas. These platforms are built on concrete and/or steel legs anchored directly onto the seabed, supporting a deck with space for drilling rigs, production facilities and crew quarters. Such platforms are, by virtue of their immobility, designed for very long term use. Various types of structure are used, steel jacket, concrete caisson, floating steel and even floating concrete. Steel jackets are vertical sections made of tubular steel members, and are usually piled into the seabed. Concrete caisson structures, pioneered by the Condeep concept, often have in-built oil storage in tanks below the sea surface and these tanks were often used as a flotation capability, allowing them to be built close to shore (Norwegian fjords and Scottish firths are popular because they are sheltered and deep enough) and then floated to their final position where they are sunk to the seabed. Fixed platforms are economically feasible for installation in water depths up to about 1,700 feet (520 m).
Courtesy Statoil platform.10
Platform tenders: Platform tenders, as the name implies, serve to support a fixed platform drilling operation. Unlike a full scale platform operation, the support equipment such as the mud pumps, bulk material storage container and crew quarter are located aboard the tender rather than mounted onboard the platform. Physically connection between the platform and the tender is maintained by means of bow ramp, or a thing similar to that. Tubular goods such as drill pipes and casing are stored aboard the tender and
transferred as needed to the plat form. Pedestal cranes are provided aboard the tender for this purpose as well as for personal transfer.
Diagram showing basic area of a platform tender.11
Gas platform and tender in Mobile Bay.12
Jack up: If you glance at statistical report, you can find about 30% of oil and gas wells hone been dug by jack up, and this clearers importance of jack up drilling rigs and their influence. Most of the world’s offshore drilling in water depths up to 120m is performed from selfelevating mobile units, commonly known as jack-ups. Typical units consist of a buoyant triangular platform resting on three independent truss-work legs, with the weight of the deck and equipment more or less equally distributed. A rack and pinion system is used to jack the legs up and down through the deck. Jack-ups are towed to site floating on the hull with the legs elevated out of the water. On location, the legs are lowered to the sea-bed, where they continue to be jacked until adequate bearing capacity exists for the hull to climb out of the water. The foundations are then pre-loaded by pumping sea-water into ballast tanks in the hull. This ‘proof tests’ the foundations by exposing them to a larger vertical load than would be expected during service. The ballast tanks are emptied before operations on the jack-up begin. It is usual for the total combined pre-load (i.e. jack-up mass and sea-water) to be about double the mass of the jack-up. A Jack Up is an offshore structure composed of a hull, legs and a lifting system that allows it to be towed to a site, lower its legs into the seabed and elevate its hull to provide a stable work deck capable of withstanding the environmental loads. A typical modern drilling Jack Up is capable of working in harsh environments (Wave Heights up to 80 ft, Wind Speeds in excess of 100 knots) in water depths up to 500 feet. Because Jack Ups are supported by the seabed, they are preloaded when they first arrive at a site to simulate the maximum expected leg loads and ensure that, after they are Jacked to full air gap and experience operating and environmental loads, the supporting soil will provide a reliable foundation.
A jack up rig under way.13
PURPOSE AND DISCLAIMER Jack up unit is complex structures used offshore in many modes of operation. When using a particular unit at a given site, it is important to be aware and understand the basics behind the different designs under different conditions. The focus of this article is a simplified discussion of the various sensitivities of Jack Ups while in the different modes of operation. It is hoped that by increasing the understanding of how Jack Ups work and behave as well as the sources of the loads acting on them, those making decisions with limited information will be better equipped to respond to incidents and reduce their occurrence and/or consequences. Though there are many variations in design and purposes for Jack Ups, this article focuses many of these discussions on three-legged Units used for drilling the article starts by presenting some background and discussions of the basics of Jack Up components analyses. This is followed by sections on Jack up Components and Configurations, modes of operation, differences between Class approval and site specific assessment, basic analysis, and a discussion of competing aspects of Jack up design.
History of jack up The earliest reference to a jack-up platform is in the description of a United States patent application filed by Samuel Lewis in 1869 (Veldman and Lagers, 1997). It wasn’t until 85 years later in 1954 that Delong McDermott No. 1 became the first unit to utilize the jack-up principle for offshore drilling. Delong McDermott No. 1 was a conversion of one of the successful ‘Delong Docks’: a pontoon with a number of tubular legs which could be moved up and down through cutouts in the pontoon. The Delong Docks, which were mostly used as mobile wharves for industrial purposes during the 1940s, could be towed into location with their legs drawn up. Once in position their legs could be lowered and the pontoon elevated off the water using the same principle as the modern jack-up. Interestingly, Delong Docks were used in World War II as mobile docks by the United States Army after the invasion of Normandy and before the major harbours of Western Europe were liberated (Veldman and Lagers, 1997). Like many of the early jack-ups to follow, Delong McDermott No. 1 resembled a standard drilling barge with attached legs and jacks, which were often many in numbers. In 1956 R.G. LeTourneau, a former entrepreneur in earthmoving equipment (Ackland, 1949), revolutionised the design of jack-ups by reducing the number of legs to three (Stiff et al., 1997). Another innovative design change was the electrically driven rack and pinion jacking system which allowed for continuous motion in any jacking operation. This replaced ‘gripper’ jacks where slippage often occurred on the smooth leg surface (Veldman and Lagers, 1997). Both revolutionary features are common on today’s rigs. Zepata’s “Scorpian”, used in water depths up to 25 m in the Gulf of Mexico, was the first of many operated by the company Marathon LeTourneau. They dominated early jack-up design during the 1960s and 1970s with rigs of increasing size. Since their first employment, jack-ups have continued to be used in deeper waters (Carlsen et al., 1986). Other companies, including Bethlehem, Friede and Goldman, MarineStructures Consultants and Mitsui have contributed to the rise in water depth capacity (Veldman and Lagers, 1997). This development is continuing with some of the largest units being used in about 120m of water in the relatively harsh North Sea environment (Hambly and Nicholson, 1991; Veldman and Lagers, 1997). Furthermore, jack-ups are now operating for extended periods at one location, often in the role of a production unit (Bennett and Sharples, 1987). An example of the long-term use of jack-ups is in the Siri marginal field development in the Danish sector of the North Sea. A purpose built jack-up is being used in 60 m water depths as a production platform with an expected life of ten years (Baerheim et al., 1997). A further example is the Shearwater development, where jack-up drilling is planned to continue for two and a half years at a 90 m water depth in the Northern North Sea (Offshore Technology, 1999).
Jack up Unit has been a part of the Offshore Oil Industry exploration fleet since the 1950’s. They have been used for exploration drilling, tender assisted drilling, production, accommodation, and work/maintenance platforms. As with every innovative technology, Jack Up Units have been used to their operational and design limitations. These limitations include deck load carrying limits when afloat, load carrying capabilities when elevated, environmental limits, drilling limits, and soil (foundation) limits. The reasons for pushing these limits include the desire to explore deeper waters, deeper reservoirs in harsher environments, and in areas where soils and foundations may be challenging or even unstable. Into this area of expanding Jack up Units’ capabilities, Industry Groups, Classification Societies, and Flag States have involved themselves in an attempt to Regulate, Codify, and Unify the criteria used to gauge a Jack up Unit’s capabilities. Without a thorough knowledge of the background of these Regulatory efforts and the science that these efforts rely upon, the average Offshore Industry professional is given practically no useful tools when it comes time to assess, understand, and select a Jack Up Unit to fulfill a particular task or Mission Statement. An often time, a thorough understanding of Jack up unit capabilities and “sensitivities” prevents or minimizes the consequences of unexpected “incidents.” This section of article is an attempt to assist such individual in understanding the Regulations, science and engineering principles behind a Jack up Unit’s design and to assist that individual in answering the following questions: What are the components of a Jack up Unit and what are their functions? What are the relative pros and cons of different types of Jack ups and their features? How does the arrangement of a Jack Up affect its function and capability? What are the loads on a Jack Up, what impact do they have, and how are they evaluated? Who are the parties involved in the Jack up from design through operation, and what are their roles? How do I select a suitable Jack up unit for my particular application?
Some useful definition Some simple definitions will be useful and necessary, before of jack up rigs topic.
Gin Pole - An “A” frame structure located at the top of standard derricks used to list and lower the crown block into position. Crown Block - A series of sheaves affixed in the top of the derrick used to change the direction of pull from the draw works to the traveling block. Derrick - Vertical structure that allows vertical clearance and strength to raise and lower the drill string. This structure with-stands two types of loading: compressive loading and wind loading. Stand - A stand generally consists of two to four joints of made-up drill pipe. The stand is generally used when running or pulling the drill string in and out of the hole. Monkey board - (Stabbing board) the platform on which the derrick man works when tripping pipe. Racking Fingers - Fingers or members where the stands are racked and secured while tripping pipe. “A” Frame - The “A” frame structure on a jackknife used to raise and lower the mast. It also supports the derrick in the raised position. Bull line and Sheaves - The large line and sheaves located on the “A” frame of a jackknife used to raise and lower the derrick. Traveling Block - The block and tackle which is rigged with the crown block by multiples of drilling line strung between the crown block and the traveling block. Swivel - That part of the drill sting which connects the rotary hose to the drill string and allows circulation and rotation at the same time. Kelly - The square or hexagonal member at the upper most part of the drill string (immediately below the swivel) that passes through a properly fitting bushing known as the Kelly bushing or drive bushing. The drive bushing transmits rotary motion to the kelly which results in the turning of the drill string. Kelly Bushing/Drive Bushing - That bushing which fits inside the rotary bushing and transmits rotary torque to the Kelly. Rotary Bushing - The bushing that fits inside of the rotary table opening. This is where the drill pipe and collar slips seat when the drill string is suspended from the rotary table for connections or tripping pipe. Rotary - Transmits the rotary motion or torque from the power source to the drive bushing. Kelly Cock - Safety valves located above and/or below the Kelly. These valves are of a ball type and must be manually operated. Their primary purpose is to prevent flow up the drill string in case of emergencies. A third Kelly cock is generally kept on the drill floor to
be used in the drill string in the event flow up the drill string occurs while making a connection or tripping pipe. (Federal leases, USGS, requires two Kelly cock valves- above and below the Kelly- and a third one on the drill floor in the opened position.) A secondary use of the Kelly cock valve below the Kelly is to prevent the loss of mud from the Kelly while making a connection. This should be discouraged to prevent wear on the Kelly cock valve. Inside POB Valve - This valve is also used to prevent flow up the drill string when the well kicks and a connection or tripping operations are under way. This valve operates like a check valve and is always kept in open position on the rig floor. This valve is required to be on the rig floor in the open position for Federal leases. Kelly Saver Sub - A sub located blow the lower kelly cock valve. The function of this sub is to prevent wear on the kelly’s threads and to centralize the kelly by means of a rubber protector, thus preventing wear on the kelly’s hexagonal or square shape. Elevators - The elevators are used for latching on to the tool joint or lift sub of the drill pipe or drill collars. This enables the lifting and lowering of the drill string while making a trip. The elevators are connected to the hoisting system (traveling block) by means of bails. Bails - The bails connect the traveling block and elevators. They are solid steel bars with eyes at both ends Hook - The hook is located beneath the traveling block. This device is used to pick up and secure the swivel and kelly. Slips - Latch around the drill pipe and seat in the rotary bushing in the rotary table. The slips support and transmit the weight of the drill string to the rotary table while making a connection or tripping pipe. Draw works - The principal parts of the draw works are the drum, the drum brakes, transmission, and cathead. The principal function is to convert the power source into a hoisting operation and provide braking capacity to stop and sustain the weights imposed when lowering or raising the drill string. A. the drum is housed in the draw works and transmits the torque required for hoisting and braking. It is also used as a hoisting device for heavy equipment on the drill floor. B. This is done by wrapping the catline (catline is generally made of rope and is connected to a piece of chain used to tie on to equipment) around the lifting head. The number of turns of rope on the head and the tension provided by the operator controls the force of the pull.
C. The draw works contains all of the controls to divert the rig power to needed operations. V-Door Ramp - The ramp which connects the “V” door to the cat walk. Sand line -The sand line is a small draw works system. The line is generally used for running surveys or fishing for lost surveys. These units are usually integral parts of the draw works. Kelly Spinner - A pneumatic operated spinner located above the kelly. It is used to spin the kelly to make up tool joints when making connections. The kelly spinner can generally spin clockwise to speed up connections. Tongs - Large wrench-like devices that are used to tighten up and break out tool joints or connections. The tongs are connected to the break out and make up catheads. Hydraulic tongs are generally used to make up casing and tubing, deriving power from a hydraulic unit. Auxiliary Brakes - The draw works generally have two braking systems; the band-type brakes on the draw works drum, and the auxiliary brakes. The auxiliary brakes are used only when going in the hole on a trip. These are used to prevent burning the band-type brakes. The auxiliary brakes are of two types: hydro-dynamic or electromagnetic Deadline Reel and Clamp - The drilling line strung through the traveling block and to the draw works is secured by the deadline, which is wrapped around the deadline reel and clamped. This prevents the line from slipping and the traveling block from falling. Mud Pumps - Mud pumps are used for circulating the drilling fluid down the drill pipe and out of the annulus. These are high-pressure and high-volume pumps. They can be doubleacting duplex pumps or single-acting triplex pumps. A: The double-acting duplex pump has four pumping actions per pump cycle. B: The single-acting triplex pump has three pumping actions per pump cycle.
Shale Shaker - The shale shaker is a contaminant removing device. It is used to remove the coarser drill cuttings from the mud. This is generally the first solids-removing device and is located at the end of the flow line. The shale shaker is composed of one or more vibrating screens though which mud returns pass. Desander - Desilter- The desander and desilters are for contaminant or solids removal purposes. These devices separate sand-size particles from the drilling mud. Both devices operate like a hydrocyclone. The mud is pumped in at the top of the cyclone. This causes the mud stream to hit the vortex finder which forces the mud down the
cyclone in a whirling fashion towards the apex of the cyclone. The heavier particles are forced outward faster than the smaller particles. The heavier particles on the outside of the whirling fluid are deposited out of the apex while the much smaller particles follow the path of the liquid and reverse their path in the center and flow out of the cyclone through the vortex finder. If used as a desander or desilter, the waste product is deposited at the bottom and the fluid moving trough the vortex finder is returned to the active system. If used as a clay ejector, the under-flow contains barite particles which are returned to the mud system, while the fluid moving out of the vortex is deposited as waste. Degasser - This vessel is used for gas contamination removal. It consists of a vessel which has inclined flat surfaces in thin layers and a vacuum pump. The mud is allowed to flow over the inclined thin layers which help break out entrained gas in the mud. The vacuum pump reduces the pressure in the vessel to about 5 psi which extracts the gas from the mud. This device is about 99% efficient. Mud Gas Separator - This is generally the first device available to extract gas from the mud. It consists of a tower with baffle plates, which are flat plates that force the fluid through a certain path. The mud is allowed to flow in the tower over the baffle plates which separate some of the entrained gas. This device generally can extract 50% to 60% of the gas. The accumulator is a hydraulic system that maintains and stores enough high-pressured fluid to operate every function of the blow-out preventors (BOP’s) at least once and still have a reasonable reserve, as defined by the governing agency rules. The system has a pump which pumps the hydraulic fluid into storage bottles. The storage bottles have floats which separate the hydraulic fluid from the gas (nitrogen) in the upper part of the chamber. As fluid is pumped into the chamber bottles, the gas is compressed, resulting in the pressure needed to move the hydraulic fluid to operate the BOP’s. Bag-Type Preventers (Annular Preventers) this preventer is used the most because the rubber sealing element can conform to any shape or size conduit in the hole. The annular preventer can further collapse completely and seal the annulus with no conduit to the hole. (This is not recommended.) The annular preventers consist of a rubbercovered, metal-ribbed sealing element. This element is caused to collapse and seal by allowing the pressurized hydraulic fluid from the accumulator to move a tapered, formfitted cylinder against the rubber which causes collapse.
Ram Preventers - This type BOP is used mainly as a backup to the bag-type preventer or for high-pressure situations. A. The pipe rams have two rams on opposite sides that close by moving towards one another. The ram themselves have semicircular openings which match the diameter of pipe being used. Each different size pipe requires correctly sized rams. B. If a tapered string is being used to drill a well, such as a 5” drill pipe and a 3-1/2” drill pipe, then two ram-type preventers must generally be used. This type preventer cannot allow the pipe to be worked through it. C. The blind rams do have the semicircular opening of the pipe rams. Instead, the front surface of the blind rams is flat, and they can only be used to seal the annulus when there is no pipe in the hole. D. The shear blind rams are designed to cut through the drill pipe and seal the hole. this type of preventer should only be used as a last resort. Diverter System - The diverter system is used in conjunction with the annular preventer to divert the path of mud flow either overboard or through the mud gas separation facilities. This system is generally only used when drilling at shallow depths where the formation has a weak fracture gradient. This system generally consists of a drilling spool with two 4” outlets. Attached to the outlets is a valve or valves which connect to a line leading away from the rig. Choke Manifold- This is a system of valves and lines which are attached to the choke line, and in some cases, kill line. The manifold is used to help control a well that has kicked by diverting the flow to various functions such as an adjustable choke. It is designed for versatility in diverting the mud flow after experiencing a kick. Adjustable Choke - The adjustable choke is usually hydraulically controlled from a remote panel located on the rig floor. The purpose of the adjustable choke is to hold the correct back pressure on a well when controlling a kick so as not to allow any more formation fluid into the hole and/or prevent breaking the formation down while controlling the well. HCR Valve - the HCR valve is a hydraulically operated gate valve. This valve is used on diverter systems and chokes lines leading from the blow out preventers. The advantage of the valve is that it can be operated remotely. Float - The float is a check valve run in a special sub in the bottomhole assembly. It prevents any back-flow up the drill pipe. This should be run in shallow drilling operations to help control “shallow” kicks.
Mouse Hole - A section of steel casing that extends below the rig floor where drill pipe is placed to be made up in the drill string or to the kelly. It is further used in laying down drill pipe. The joint of drill pipe is broken off in the mouse hole, picked up with the sir hoist or catline, and moved out the V-door down to the catwalk. Drill Collars - The drill collars are thick-walled heavy steel tubulars used to apply weight to the bit. The drill collars should take all of the compressive loading, leaving the drill pipe in tension. Drill Pipe - The major part of the drill string is composed of drill pipe. Drill pipe is hotrolled, pierced, seamless tubing. Drill pipe is specified by its outside diameter, weight per foot, steel grade, and range (length). The drill pipe transmits rotation, vertical movement and drilling fluid to the bit. Heavyweight Drill Pipe - Thick-walled heavy drill pipe is used in lieu of drill collars. It is generally used in high-angled well where too many drill collars hamper drilling operations. Standpipe - The standpipe is that pipe which carries mud from the rig floor into the derrick to the kelly hose. It must be pressure-tested to the working pressure of the BOP’s. Kelly Hose - The kelly hose is a section of high-pressured hose connecting the standpipe and the swivel. The kelly hose allows for the vertical movement of the drill string as well as circulation of fluid down the drill string. Substructure - the substructure provides the support for the derrick and derrick loading. It also provides the necessary clearance beneath the rig floor for the preventor stack. Cat Walk - The cat walk is where the pipe is laid down from the drill floor. Any elevated walkway may be referred to as a catwalk.
COMPONENTS OF JACK UP RIGS AND THEIR FUNCTION There are some main components of a Jack up Unit:
Derrick Load-bearing tower like framework over an oil/gas well which holds the hoisting and lowering equipment.
Draw works Hoisting mechanism on a drilling rig which spools off or takes in the drilling line and thus raises or lowers the drill string and bit.
Foundation on which the derrick and engines sit. Contains space for storage and well control equipment. 04. Drill pipe Steel pipe, in approximately 30-foot (9-meter) lengths, screwed together to form a continuous pipe extending from the drilling rig to the drilling bit at the bottom of the hole. Rotation of the drill pipe and bit causes the bit to bore through the rock.
Drill String String of individual joints of pipe that extends from the bit to the Kelly and carries the mud down to, and rotates, the bit.
Cantilever The platform carrying the drill floor and derrick. Skids in and out of rig.
Legs The 3 or 4 legs of a jack-up rig are lattice structures made from vertical, horizontal and diagonal tubes. They can move up and down using jacking motors/gears.
Living Quarters Where the crew lives. Up to 120 men onboard. Helipad For reception of helicopters delivering supplies and change of crew. Hull Main structure of the rig. Triangular rigid and water-tight. Spud Can Circular ‘shoes’ of the legs. Designed to penetrate deep into the seabed for good foothold.
These are most important and necessary components of a jack up rig. On the continuation of the article we will discuss about this items and the other equipment that are exist on a jack up and their function, types and etc.
On the next page the above mentioned components are showed. All above described items will be explain in technical word and more complete.
A jack up rig and components.14
Derrick The term derrick comes from Thomas Derrick, a hangman who invented a type of gallows using a movable beam and pulley system during the Elizabethan era. During his lifetime, Derrick executed over 3,000 people, many of them with his modified gallows device, and the supporting framework for his gallows came to be known as a derrick. The term was adopted to describe cranes and other lifting devices which used a similar support mechanism.
An oil derrick is a drilling rig designed for use in oil and natural gas production. The basic oil derrick has an upright stationary section which is potentially capable of supporting hundreds of tons of weight, combined with a movable boom which is used to raise and lower equipment. Derricks of various designs have been in use for centuries to extract valuable resources from under the Earth, and continue to be widely used today. Early derricks consisted of a framework which was designed to hold a large pole used for percussive drilling, which is accomplished by repeatedly beating the earth to make a hole. A modern oil derrick typically uses a drill bit which is capable of biting through the substrate, and cooled with constant slurry of mud to prevent it from getting too hot. Typically, as the drill bit sinks in, the hole is lined to prevent a cave in. Once the drill reaches the oil, it is withdrawn so that pumps and pipes can be inserted into the hole to extract it. The basic oil derrick design is familiar to residents of areas rich in oil, and is also used on offshore oil drilling platforms which extract water from under the ocean. A large oil derrick requires an extensive crew to run properly, and is often located in a field of similar derricks, all of which operate on a constant basis. The oil derrick crew typically includes geologists, engineers, mechanics, and safety inspectors to ensure that the workplace is well maintained.
Some picture of derrick.15
Picture of a derrick in operation.16
Types of Derricks: Triple- has the capacity of pulling 90’ stands of pipe Double- has the capacity of pulling 60’ stands of pipe Single- has the capacity of pulling 30’stands of pipe (one 30-ft joint) Standard Derricks - Four sided structures that must be assembled and disassembled when transporting. Portable Derricks - Telescoping and jackknife types. The telescoping derrick is raised and lowered in an extending and collapsing fashion and lowered in one piece, but may be disassembled to some degree after being lowered.
Draw works (Heart of the rig) The primary function of the draw works is to reel out and reel in the drilling line, a large diameter wire rope, in a controlled fashion. The drilling line is reeled over the crown block and traveling block to gain mechanical advantage in a "block and tackle" or "pulley" fashion. This reeling out and in of the drilling line causes the traveling block, and whatever may be hanging underneath it, to be lowered into or raised out of the well bore. The reeling out of the drilling line is powered by gravity and reeling in by an electric motor or diesel engine. The principal parts of the draw works are the drum, the drum brakes, transmission, and cathead. The principal function is to convert the power source into a hoisting operation and provide braking capacity to stop and sustain the weights imposed when lowering or raising the drill string.
Diagram of draw works and component.18
As can be observed in above pictures there are some components related to the draw works. In the continuation of this article we will explain most important part of draw works briefly.
Crown Block - A series of sheaves affixed in the top of the derrick used to change the direction of pull from the draw works to the traveling block. On the other word a Crown block is the stationary section of a block and tackle that contains a set of pulleys or sheaves through which the drill
line (wire rope) is threaded or reeved and is opposite and above the traveling block.
As can be understand, crown block has to endure loads and carry out its function. There is a simple equation to evaluate load on crown block. This formula can be writing as: 1: Static crown load for two sheaves (SCL) = fast-line load+ hook load+ deadline load SCL= W /2+ W+W/2=2W 2: Static crown load for three sheaves SCL= W/4+ W+W/4=3/2W
1: Static crown load for N lines or sheaves SCL=W/N+W+W/N= (1+2/N)W
Traveling Block A Traveling block is the free moving section of a block and tackle that contains a set of pulleys or sheaves through which the drill line (wire rope) is threaded or reeved and is opposite (and under) the crown block (the stationary section). On the other word traveling block is a movable unit, consisting of sheaves, frame, clevis, and hook, connected to, and hoisted or lowered with, the load in a block-andtackle system. Also known as floating block; running block.
Drilling hook The drilling hook, capable of swiveling, is attached to the underside of traveling block. This hook serves to join the hoisting equipment to 1) the swivel which suspends the drill string, or 2) the elevator which grips a stand or column of casing, tubing, or drill pipe to be raised or lowered in to the hole.
Top drive It is a device that turns the drill string. It consists of one or more motors (electric or hydraulic) connected with appropriate gearing to a short section of pipe called a quill, that in turn may be screwed into a saver sub or the drill string itself. The top drive is suspended from the hook, so the rotary mechanism is free to travel up and down the derrick. This is radically different from the more conventional rotary table and kelly method of turning the drill string because it enables drilling to be done with three joint stands instead of single joints of pipe. It also enables the driller to quickly engage the pumps or the rotary while tripping pipe, which cannot be done easily with the kelly system. While not a panacea, modern topdrives are a major improvement to drilling rig technology and are a large contributor to the ability to drill more difficult extended-reach wellbores. In addition, the top drive enables drillers to minimize both frequency and cost per incident of stuck pipe.
Drill floor The Drill Floor is the heart of any drilling rig and is also known as the pad. This is the area where the drill string begins its trip into the earth. It is traditionally where joints of pipe are assembled, as well as the BHA (bottom hole assembly), drilling bit, and various other tools. This is the primary work location for roughnecks and the driller. The drill floor is located directly under the derrick.
Drill floor device has two or more mouse holes for assembly and disassembly of pipe string sections. The mouse holes are arranged to be displaced underneath the drill floor by a drive system and positioned under a hole or an opening in the drill floor. At least one of the mouse holes is provided with an elevator arranged to raise and lower a pipe or a pipe string section located in the
mouse hole, between an upper working position in which the upper end of the pipe/pipe string section projects above the drill floor and a lower position of rest in which the upper end of the pipe/pipe string section is below the drill floor. increasing the depth of the mouse hole allows a pipe or a stand located in the mouse hole to be lowered to a lower position of rest where the upper end of the pipe/stand is below the drill floor. An empty mouse hole, or a mouse hole where a pipe or a stand has been lowered as indicated, may be moved horizontally underneath the drill floor, as mentioned above. Positioning a mouse hole containing a lowered pipe or a lowered stand under an opening in the drill floor and then making the mouse hole shallower by raising the pipe support, allows the upper end of the pipe/stand to be brought to a working height above the drill floor. By use of the invention a three-pipe stand can be constructed in the following way. An empty first mouse hole is positioned under an opening in the drill floor, and a first single pipe is brought to a vertical position through the opening and placed in the mouse hole, by use of previously known equipment. The pipe support of the mouse hole is placed at a distance below the drill floor that leaves the upper end of the pipe at a working height above the drill floor, making it easy to disengage the lifting equipment. The depth of the mouse hole is increased by lowering the pipe support until the upper end of the pipe is below the drill floor, and the mouse hole is displaced horizontally away from the opening in the drill floor. An empty second mouse hole is brought into position under the opening in the drill floor, and a second pipe is placed in this second mouse hole. A third pipe is brought into the area over the second mouse hole and is coupled to the upper end of the second pipe, which projects above the drill floor. This creates a two-pipe stand which is then lifted out of the second mouse hole. The now empty second mouse hole is displaced horizontally underneath the drill floor away from the opening in the drill floor, and then the first mouse hole containing the first pipe is positioned under the opening. The first pipe is raised by means of the elevator and the pipe support, lifting the upper end of the pipe through the opening and up to working height. The two-pipe stand consisting of the second and third pipes is lowered and added to the upper end of the first pipe, whereby a three-pipe stand is created, which is lifted out of the mouse hole in the assembled state and placed in intermediate storage or brought to the central area of the drill floor for use in a pipe string. As is evident from the above, it is sufficient for the first mouse hole to be provided with raisable/lowerable pipe support.
Drill pipe and drill string Drill pipe is hollow, thick-walled, steel tubing that is used on drilling rigs to facilitate the drilling of a wellbore and comes is a variety of sizes, strengths and weights but are typically 30 to 33 feet in length. They are hollow to allow drilling fluid to be pumped through them, down
the hole and back up the annulus. Because it is designed to support it's own weight for combined lengths that often exceed 1 mile down into the crust of the Earth, the case hardened steel tubes are expensive, and owner's spend considerable efforts to re-use them after finishing a well, replacing the drill stems with thinner walled tubular casing, tapping the natural resources of oil reservoirs. Used drill stem is often sent to a yard for inspection, sorted, and stored until new drill sites can be explored.
Also, a drill string on an oil rig is a column, or string, of drill pipe that transmits drilling fluid (via the mud pumps) and rotational power (via the kelly drive or top drive) to the drill bit. The term is loosely applied as the assembled collection of the drill pipe, drill collars, tools and drill bit. The drill string is hollow so that Drilling fluid can be pumped down through it and circulated back up
the annulus (void between the drill string and the formation). The drill string is an assembly of components, from the bit to the swivel, used for drilling by rotary method. In the below picture the drilling string and its components arrangement has been shown.
Drill string and arrengment.26
Kelly is a square or hexagonal member at the upper most part of the drill string (immediately below the swivel) that passes through a properly fitting bushing known as the Kelly bushing or drive bushing. The drive bushing transmits rotary motion to the kelly which results in the turning of the drill string.
A Swivel is a mechanical device used on a drilling rig that hangs directly under the traveling block and directly above the kelly, that provides the ability for the kelly (and subsequently the drill string) to rotate while allowing the traveling block to remain in a stationary rotational position (yet allow vertical movement up and down the derrick) while simultaneously allowing the introduction of drilling fluid into the drill string.
Drill bit are at the end of the drill string that actually cuts up the rock; comes in many shapes and materials (tungsten carbide steel, diamond) that are specialized for various drilling tasks and rock formations.
Type of drilling bit.28
Cantilever is a projecting beam or other horizontal member supported at one or more points but not at both ends. Some engineers distinguish between a cantilever, supported at only one fixed end, and an overhanging beam that projects beyond one of its end supports. The free, unsupported end is capable of supporting a weight or surface, such as a concrete slab. Any beam built into a wall with a projecting free end forms a cantilever, which may carry a balcony, canopy, roof, or part of a building above. Cantilevering can be used for constructions as simple as bookshelves or as complicated as bridges. Most of our jack-up rigs are equipped with a cantilever system that enables the rig to cantilever or extend its drilling package over the aft end of the rig. This is particularly important when attempting to drill over existing platforms. Cantilever rigs have historically enjoyed higher day rates and greater utilization compared to slot rigs.
Method and apparatus for transferring a derrick from a jack-up rig to an offshore platform are disclosed which include positioning the rig and platform next to each other, providing an elevator pad on the platform that is set at the same level as the deck of the rig, installing skid beams between the deck of the rig and the top of the elevator pad, skidding the rig from the rig to the pad, and lowering the pad and derrick to the normal level of the platform for use in drilling operations. On the other word; in aligning the skid beams of the jack-up rig with those on the top of the upper platform section, the jack-up rig is jacked up and anchored at a level where the longitudinal beams are just above the rails on the top of the upper platform section. The upper platform section is then slowly raised until the rails carried at the top thereof are in horizontal alignment with the longitudinal beams of the jack-up platform so that the derrick thereof can be skidded laterally onto the upper platform section. Subsequently, the upper platform section together with the derrick now mounted thereabove, is lowered by the jacks until the jacks are totally retracted and the upper platform section rests at the tope of the platform on the skid beams below the upper platform section. In this manner, the jacks do not have to support the heavy hook loads which are encountered during normal drilling operations.
How to skid Cantilever.31
Rack and Pinion Skidding Systems are used for moving the cantilever and the drill floor of a jackup rig in order to locate the well center at correct position
Leg and spud can The legs and footings of a Jack Up are steel structures that support the hull when the Unit is in the Elevated mode and provide stability to resist lateral loads. Footings are needed to increase the soil bearing area thereby reducing required soil strength. The legs and footings have certain characteristics which affect how the Unit reacts in the Elevated and Afloat Modes, while going on location and in non-design events. The legs of a Jack Up Unit may extend over 500 ft above the surface of the water when the Unit is being towed with the legs fully retracted. Depending on size and length, the legs usually have the most detrimental impact on the afloat stability of the Unit. The heavy weight at a high center of gravity and the large wind area of the legs combine to dramatically affect the Unit’s afloat stability. For Units of the same hull configuration and draft, the Unit with the larger legs will have less When in the Elevated Mode; the legs of a Jack up Unit are subjected to wind, wave, and current loadings. In addition to the specifics of the environment, the magnitude and proportion of these loads is a function of the water depth, air gap (distance from the water line to the hull baseline) and the distance the footings penetrate into the seabed. Generally, the larger the legs and footings, the more load wind, wave, and current will exert on them. Legs of different design and size exhibit different levels of lateral stiffness (amount of load needed to produce a unit deflection). Jack Up stiffness decreases with increases in water depth (or more precisely, with the distance from the support footing to the hull/leg connection). Furthermore, for deeper water depths, flexural stiffness (chord area and spacing) overshadows the effects of shear stiffness (brace). Leg stiffness is directly related to Jack Up stiffness in the elevated mode, thereby affecting the amount of hull sway and the natural period of the Unit (which may result in a magnification of the oscillatory wave loads). All Jack Up Units have legs. Their purpose is to provide elevation of the hull above the storm wave crest; withstand wave, current, and wind loads; and to transmit operational, environmental, and gravity loads between the hull and footings. There are two kind of legs; cylindrical and trussed. Cylindrical legs are hollow steel tubes. They may or may not have internal stiffening, and may have rack teeth or holes in the shell to permit jacking of the hull up and down the legs. Cylindrical legs are currently found on Units operating in water depths less than 300 feet. The newer Units operating in water depths of 300 feet and greater all have trussed legs. The main reason for this is that cylindrical legs require more steel to provide the same resistance to environmental loads and provide the same elevated response as truss legged Units The primary advantage of cylindrical legs is for Units that operate in shallow water as these Units are normally smaller and have less deck area. Cylindrical legs take up less deck area and are generally less complicated requiring less experience to construct than trussed legs.
Trussed legs consist of chords and braces. In general, the braces provide the shear capacity of the leg while the chords provide the axial and flexural stiffness. One of the main benefits of the Trussed legs is that they allow for optimal steel utilization and result in lighter stiffer legs with reduced drag loads.
Trussed 4legs jack up.32
Cylindrical 3legs jack up.33
3-Lgged versus 4-legged jack ups The great majority of Jack up Units in the world have no more than four legs, with three being the minimum required for stability. There are some Units built with more than four legs. Units with 3 legs have the legs arranged in some triangular form. The main advantage of three-legged Units is that they completely eliminate the need to build extra leg(s). Furthermore, for a given hull size, they can carry more deck load in the afloat mode; and usually have a reduced number of elevating units (pinions, cylinders, etc), resulting in reduced power/maintenance requirements, and less weight. Disadvantages of three-legged units include the fact that they require preload tankage and they have no leg redundancy. Units with 4-legs usually have the legs arranged in some rectangular form. Four legged Units require little or no preload tanks on board. This is because four-legged Units can preload two legs at a time using the elevated weight as preload weight. This results in a savings of piping and equipment weights, and more usable space within the hull. Because of the fourth leg, these Units are stiffer in the elevated mode than a three-legged Unit. This apparent advantage may be offset by the fact that the additional leg adds wind, wave and current loads. In the afloat transit mode, the fourth leg is a disadvantage as its weight
causes a direct reduction in the afloat deck load when compared to an equivalent three-legged unit. 3-chorded legs versus 4-corded legs Trussed legs have either 3 or 4 main vertical structural members called chords. All trussed-leg Jack Up Units operating today have one of these chord arrangements. In essence, the benefits and disadvantages of three- versus fourchorded legs are comparable in nature to those of three- and four-legged Jack Ups (i.e., overall weight/drag loads and redundancy), except that they do not affect preloading procedures in any way. How to elevate In the offshore oil and gas well drilling and production industry, it is common to use jack-up barges or jack-up rigs for many purposes. These rigs can be used to repair or work over oil and gas wells. Very large jack-up rigs are fitted as oil and gas well drilling rigs for drilling for oil and gas in a marine environment.
It is known in the art to use an elevating system for raising a barge relative to the legs of a jack-up rig using a rack and pinion type gearing mechanism. In such a case, a plurality of pinion gears engages a toothed rack mounted on each leg of the jack-up rig. It is also known to mount such a rack on a truss-type leg that is typically triangular or square in horizontal cross section or cylindrical pipe.
When using such a rack and pinion type elevating mechanism, there is a need for a brake system for locking the elevating unit relative to the leg when the hull is to be fixed at a desired position relative to the underlying waters surface. “Elevating Equipment” refers to the equipment and systems aboard a Jack up Unit which are necessary for the Jack Up to raise, lower, and lock-off the legs and hull of the Jack Up. All Jack ups have mechanisms for lifting and lowering the hull. The most basic type of elevating system is the pin and hole system, which allows for hull positioning only at discrete leg positions. However, the majority of Jack Ups in use today are equipped with a Rack and Pinion system for continuous jacking operations. There are two basic jacking systems: Floating and Fixed. The Floating system uses relatively soft pads to try to equalize chord loads, whereas the Fixed system allows for unequal chord loading while holding. There are two types of power sources for Fixed Jacking Systems, electric and hydraulic. Both systems have the ability to equalize chord loads within each leg. A hydraulic-powered jacking system achieves this by maintaining the same pressure to each elevating unit within a leg. Care must
be taken, however, to ensure that losses due to piping lengths, bends, etc., are either equalized for all pinions or such differences are insignificant in magnitude. For an electric powered jacking system, the speed/load characteristics of the electric induction motors cause jacking motor speed changes resulting from pinion loads, such that if jacking for a sufficiently long time, the loads on any one leg tend to equalize for all chords of that leg. All Jack Ups have mechanisms to guide the legs through the hull. For Units with Pinions, the guides protect the pinions from “bottoming out” on the rack teeth. As such, all Units are fitted with a set of upper and lower guides. Some Jack up Units, which have exceptionally deep hulls or tall towers of pinions, also have intermediate guides. These guides function only to maintain the rack the correct distance away from the pinions and are not involved in transferring leg bending moment to the hull. Guides usually push against the tip (vertical flat side) of the teeth, but this is not the only form of guides. There are also other forms of guides such as chord guides, etc. Depending on accessibility, some guides are designed to be replaced and are sometimes known as “wear plates.” In addition to protecting the pinions and hull, all upper and lower guides are capable of transferring leg bending moment to the hull to some degree determined by the design. The amount of moment transferred by the guides to the hull as a horizontal couple is dependant on the relative stiffness of the guides with respect to the stiffness of the pinions and/or fixation system (if any).
Rack and pinion system.34
Leg and its elevating equipment.35
Spud can Most of the jack-up rig has three legs, each equipped with a shallow conical underside footing known as a ‘spud-can'. Spud cans are footings of a jack-up unit that is commonly employed for offshore drilling when the water depth is less than 100m. The footing is an inverted conical structure with polygonal plane area and its diameter typically ranges from 10 to 25m. As the spud can size increases, the bearing pressure decreases, resulting in lower soil penetration will be happened. Larger spud can size, however may require larger leg well openings on the hull, reducing its afloat stability and its capacity to pick up buoyancy forces in the event of rapid penetration.
Spud can and penetration.36
Helipad A helicopter deck (or heli deck) is a helicopter pad on the deck of a jack up, usually located on the stern and always clear of obstacles that would prove hazardous to a helicopter landing. In the U.S. Navy it is commonly and properly referred to as the flight deck. In the Royal Navy, landing on is usually achieved by lining up slightly astern and on the port quarter, as the ship steams into the wind and the aircraft captain slides across and over the deck. Shipboard landing for some helicopters is assisted though use of a haul-down device that involves attachment of a cable to a probe on the bottom of the aircraft prior to landing. Tension is maintained on the cable as the helicopter descends, assisting the pilot with accurate positioning of the aircraft on the deck; once on deck locking beams close on the probe, locking the aircraft to the flight deck. This device was pioneered by the Royal Canadian Navy and was called
"Beartrap". The U.S. Navy implementation of this device, based on Bear trap, is called the "RAST" system (for Recovery Assist, Secure and Traverse) and is an integral part of the LAMPS MK III (SH-60B) weapons system. A secondary purpose of the haul-down device is to equalize electrostatic potential between the helicopter and ship. The whirling rotor blades of a helicopter can cause large charges to build up on the airframe, large enough to cause injury to shipboard personnel should they touch any part of the helicopter as it approaches the deck. This was depicted in the 1990 motion picture The Hunt for Red October. In the film, CIA analyst Jack Ryan (Alec Baldwin) is flown out to the submarine Dallas in a helicopter. With no place to land, Ryan has to be lowered to the Dallas, but brushes the officer charged with trying to hook him. The officer is shocked and receives a minor injury. Ryan releases himself from the harness and is rescued by divers. Coaxial rotor helicopters in flight are highly resistant to side-winds, which makes them suitable for shipboard use, even without a ropepulley landing system.Marine and Offshore Helicopter decks onboard offshore oil platforms and Ships are typically regulated by the rules defined within CAP 437, which defines standards for the design and marking, and lighting of Marine/offshore Helicopter decks, and is produced by the Civil Aviation Authority. The Largest Marine Heli decks will accommodate the Boeing CH47 Chinook , which requires a D value of 30m, and has a weight of 21.3t.
Helipad of jack up.38
Hull The Hull of a Jack up Unit is a watertight structure that supports or houses the equipment, systems, and personnel, thus enabling the Jack Up Unit to perform its tasks. When the Jack up Unit is afloat, the hull provides buoyancy and supports the weight of the legs and footings (spud cans), equipment, and variable load. Different parameters of the hull affect different modes of operation of the Unit. These are described below. In general, the larger the length and breadth of the hull, the more variable deck load and equipment the Unit will be able to carry, especially in the Afloat mode (due to increased deck space and increased buoyancy). Also, larger hulls generally result in roomier machinery spaces and more clear space on the main deck to store pipe, 3rd Party Equipment, and provide for clear work areas. The larger hull may have larger preload capacity that may permit increased flexibility in preloading operations. Larger hulls generally have the negative effects of attracting higher wind, wave and current loads. Since Jack Ups with larger hulls weigh more, they will require more elevating jacks of larger capacity to elevate and hold the Unit. The large weight also affects the natural period of the Jack up Unit in the elevated mode. The draft of the hull, or the distance from the afloat waterline to the baseline of the hull, has a direct effect on the amount of variable deck load that can be carried and the stability when afloat. The draft of the hull has an opposing relationship with the hull’s freeboard, or the distance from the afloat waterline to the main deck of the hull. Every incremental increase in the draft of a Jack Up decreases the freeboard by the same increment. For units with identical hulls, the one with the deeper draft weighs more. This increased weight could be in the form of lightship weight or variable deck load. Conversely, for Units with identical hulls, the unit with the deeper draft will have less afloat stability than the unit with shallower draft. Perhaps the most influential parameter in a Jack Up unit’s afloat stability is freeboard. For units with identical hulls and leg length, the one with the larger freeboard will have the larger afloat stability margin. The equipment required to satisfy the mission of the Jack up Unit affects both the hull size and lightship weight of the Unit. There are three main groups of equipment on a Jack up Unit, the Marine Equipment, Mission Equipment, and Elevating Equipment. “Marine Equipment” refers to the equipment and systems aboard a Jack up Unit that are not related to the Mission Equipment. Marine Equipment could be found on any sea-going vessel, regardless of its form or function. Marine Equipment may include items such as main diesel engines, fuel oil piping, electrical power distribution switchboards, lifeboats, radar, communication equipment, galley equipment, etc. Marine Equipment, while not directly
involved with the Mission of the Jack up Unit, is necessary for the support of the personnel and equipment necessary to carry out the Mission. All Marine Equipment is classified as part of the Jack up Lightship Weight. “Mission Equipment” refers to the equipment and systems aboard a Jack up Unit, which are necessary for the Jack Up to complete its Mission. Mission Equipment varies by the mission and by the Jack Up. Two Jack up Units which are involved in Exploration Drilling may not have the same Mission Equipment. Examples of Mission Equipment may include derricks, mud pumps, mud piping, drilling control systems, production equipment, cranes, combustible gas detection and alarms systems, etc. Mission Equipment is not always classified as part of the Jack up Lightship Weight. Some items, such as cement units, are typically classified as variable deck load as they may not always be located aboard the Jack Up. “Elevating Equipment” refers to the equipment and systems aboard a Jack up unit which are necessary for the Jack Up to raise, lower, and lock-off the legs and hull of the Jack up. All Jack up Units must load the soil that supports them to the full load expected to be exerted on the soil during the most severe condition, usually Storm Survival Mode. This preloading reduces the likelihood of a foundation shift or failure during a Storm. The possibility does exist that a soil failure or leg shift may occur during Preload Operations. To alleviate the potentially catastrophic results of such an occurrence, the hull is kept as close to the waterline as possible, without incurring wave impact. Should a soil failure or leg shift occur, the leg that experiences the failure loses load-carrying capability and rapidly moves downward, bringing the hull into the water. Some of the load previously carried by the leg experiencing the failure is transferred to the other legs potentially overloading them. The leg experiencing the failure will continue to penetrate until either the soil is able to support the leg, or the hull enters the water to a point where the hull buoyancy will provide enough support to stop the penetration. As the hull becomes out-of-level, the legs will experience increased transverse load and bending moment transferred to the hull mostly by the guide. With the increased guide loads, some braces will experience large compressive loads. There are detailed procedures to be followed during such a failure to minimize the structural damage, but these are beyond the scope of this primer. During normal preload operations it is important to keep the weight of the hull, deck load, and preload as close to the geometric center of the legs as possible, as this will assure equal loading on all legs. Sometimes, however, single-leg preloading is desired to increase the maximum footing reaction of any one leg. This is achieved by selective filling/emptying of preload tanks based on their relative position to the leg being preloaded. Preload is water taken from the sea and pumped into tanks within the hull. After the preload is pumped on board, it is held for a period of time. The Preload Operation is not completed until no settling of the legs into the soil occurs
during the holding period while achieving the target footing reaction. The amount of preload required depends on the required environmental reaction and the type of Jack Up Unit. Mat Units normally require little preload. Four-legged independent Units usually require little or no preload water. This is because four-legged Units preload two diagonally opposite legs at a time using the weight of the hull. These Units jack to their preload air gap, then lift two legs slightly off the seabed. This causes the Unit to settle on the other two legs. The hull is jacked back up to preload air gap, and the procedure is completed when all four legs have been preloaded to the target footing reaction and no additional penetration takes place. Three-legged independent Units require the most preload water. For Units that cannot jack with preload, preload water is pumped on board after the hull reaches the preload air gap. If significant settling occurs, the preload must be dumped before the hull is jacked to its preload air gap again, and the procedure repeated until no settling occurs. For Units that can jack with full preload, preload is pumped into the hull while the hull is still in the water. The hull is then jacked up, usually stopping for a short time at certain pre-arranged drafts. This continues until the hull is at the preload air gap and holds the preload for the holding period. Once the preload is held for the specified time, the preload water is dumped and the Jack Up is ready to be elevated to the operating air gap. On the continuation of this section, three groups of equipment which were mentioned will be more detailed. Mission Equipment “Mission Equipment” refers to the equipment and systems aboard a Jack up Unit, which are necessary for the Jack up to complete its Mission. Mission Equipment varies by the mission and by the Jack up. Two Jack up Units which are involved in Exploration Drilling may not have the same Mission Equipment. Examples of Mission Equipment may include derricks, mud pumps, mud piping, drilling control systems, production equipment, cranes, combustible gas detection and alarms systems, etc. some of mission equipments as an example , derrick, has been detailed in previous pages. Mud pump In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid is a fluid used to
drill boreholes into the earth. Often used while drilling oil and natural gas wells and on exploration drilling rigs, drilling fluids are also used for much simpler boreholes, such as water wells. The three main categories of drilling fluids are Water based mud (which can be dispersed and non dispersed), non aqueous mud, usually called oil based mud, and gaseous drilling fluid, in which a wide range of gases can be used. The main functions of drilling fluids include providing hydrostatic pressure to prevent formation fluids from entering into the well bore, keeping the drill bit cool
and clean during drilling, carrying out drill cuttings and suspending the drill cuttings while drilling is paused and the drilling assembly is brought in and out of the hole. The drilling fluid used for a particular job is selected to avoid formation damage and to limit corrosion. Many types of drilling fluids are used on a day to day basis. Some wells require that different types be used at different parts in the hole, or that some types be used in combination with others. The various types of fluid generally fall into a few broad categories: Air - compressed air is pumped either down the bore holes annular space or down the drill string itself. Air/water - Same as above, with water added to increase viscosity, flush the hole, provide more cooling, and/or to control dust. Air/polymer - A specially formulated chemical, most often referred to as a type of polymer, is added to the water & air mixture to create specific conditions. A foaming agent is a good example of a polymer. Water - Water by itself is pumped to do very specific things in very specific formations. Water-Based Mud (WBM) - A most basic water-based mud system begins with water, then clays and other chemicals are incorporated into the water to create a homogenous blend resembling something between chocolate milk and a malt (depending on viscosity). The clay (called "shale" in its rock form) is usually a combination of native clays that are dissolved into the fluid while drilling, or specific types of clay that are processed and sold as additives for the WBM system. The most common of these is betonies, frequently referred to in the oilfield as "gel". Gel likely makes reference to the fact that while the fluid is being pumped, it can be very thin and free-flowing (like chocolate milk), though when pumping is stopped, the static fluid builds a "gel" structure that resists flow. When an adequate pumping force is applied to "break the gel", flow resumes and the fluid returns to its previously freeflowing state. Many other chemicals (e.g. Potassium Formate) are added to a WBM system to achieve various effects, including: viscosity control, shale stability, enhance drilling rate of penetration, cooling and lubricating of equipment. Mud engineer, the name given to an oil field service company individual who is charged with maintaining a drilling fluid or completion fluid system on an oil and/or gas drilling rig. This individual typically works for the company selling the chemicals for the job and is specifically trained with those products, though
independent mud engineers are still common. The work schedule of the mud engineer or more properly drilling Fluids Engineer is arduous, often involving long shifts. In offshore drilling, with new technology and high total day costs, wells are being drilled extremely fast. Having two mud engineers makes economic sense to prevent down time due to drilling fluid difficulties. Two mud engineers also reduce insurance costs to oil companies for environmental damage that oil companies are responsible for during drilling and production. The cost of the drilling fluid is typically about 10% (may vary greatly) of the total cost of well construction, and demands competent mud engineers. Large cost savings result when the mud engineer performs adequately. As every body can understand, the main device to complete mud circuit is pump, Mud pump is a reciprocating plunger device designed to circulate drilling fluid down the drill string and back up the annulus.
Mud pumps come in a variety of sizes and configurations but for the typical petroleum drilling rig, the triplex (three plunger) mud pump is the pump of choice. Bop The first line of defense in well control is to have sufficient drilling fluid pressure in the well hole. During drilling, underground fluids such as gas, water, or oil under pressure (the formation pressure) opposes the drilling fluid pressure (mud pressure). If the formation pressure is greater than the mud pressure, there is the possibility of a blowout. The blowout preventer (BOP), accumulator andchoke manifold are installed by the rig crew after thesurface casing is set and cemented. The accumulator and choke manifold have been set into place during rigging up and now need to be hooked up and tested. The choke line valve is used to redirect the mud from the well bore to the choke manifold during a kick. The kill line valve is used to direct drilling fluid to the BOP during a kick. The BOPs, accumulators, and choke manifold should be tested and properly maintained. Potential Hazards: Being hit by hoses or sprayed by hydraulic fluid if there is a seal or hydraulic line failure during pressure testing. Possible Solutions: Ensure workers stand clear of pressurized lines during testing procedures.
Drill-mud circulation system.40
A type of Bop.41
Shale shaker Shale
the drilling fluid while circulating and drilling. There are many different designs and research into the best design is constantly ongoing since solids control is vital in keeping down costs associated with the drilling fluid. The name shale shaker is a description of what it does. The basic design consists of large, flat sheets of wire mesh screens or sieves of various mesh sizes that shakes or vibrates the drill cuttings, commonly shale, across and off of the screens as the drilling fluid flows through them and back into the drilling fluid system, often called a mud system. This separates the drill cuttings, often called solids, from the drilling fluid so that it can be recirculated back down the wellbore. Drilling mud, typically a mixture of clay, water
and various additives, is pumped through a hollow drill string (pipe, drill collar, bit, etc.) down into a well and exits through holes in a drill bit. The mud picks up cuttings (rock bits) and other solids from the well and carries them upwardly away from the bit and out of the well in a space between the well walls and the drill string. At the top of the well, the solids-laden mud is introduced to a shale shaker, a device which typically has a series of screens arranged in tiered or flat disposition with respect to each other. The screens catch and remove solids from the mud as the mud passes through them. If drilled solids are not removed from the mud used during the drilling operation, recirculation of the drilled solids can create viscosity and gel problems in the mud, as well as increasing wear in mud pumps and other mechanical equipment used for drilling. In some shale shakers, a fine screen cloth is used with the vibrating screen. The screen may have two or more overlying layers of screen cloth. The frame of the vibrating screen is suspended or mounted upon a support and is caused to vibrate by a vibrating mechanism, e.g. an unbalanced weight on a rotating shaft connected to the frame. Each screen may be vibrated by vibratory equipment to create a flow of trapped solids toward an end of the screen on a top surface of the screen for removal and disposal of solids. The fineness or coarseness of the mesh of a screen may vary depending upon mud flow rate and the size of the solids to be removed. n certain prior art shale shakers having one (or more) processing screens, such screens cannot adequately deal with a surge in fluid flow or high fluid flow rates, e.g. During a “bottoms up” or riser pipe circulation condition. La other prior art systems, the discharge of one or more shale shakers is fed to another shale shaker for further de-liquefying and de-oiling. Such a process necessarily requires at least two shale shakers. However, on offshore drilling rigs, space is at a premium. For this reason, tiered or tandem shale shakers are used to affect a finer screening of the mud on the second level. But, in high volume operations, such tandem shale shakers may not be able to handle the throughput due to their limited size. Accordingly, there is a need to enhance the capacity of a tandem shale shaker during high mud volume operations without increasing their “foot print”, i.e., the area of floor space required by the base of the tandem shale shaker.
Shale shaker system.42
Mud tank A Mud tank is an open-top container, typically made of steel, used as a reserve store for the active circulation of the drilling fluid on a drilling rig. They are often called mud pits, which comes from the fact that they used to be nothing more than pits dug out of the earth. The tanks are open-top and will have walkways on top of them to allow traversing and visual observation of the drilling fluid and to monitor the level of fluid in the tanks. The walkways also allow access to other equipment mounted on top of the mud tanks. For typical petroleum drilling rig there are normally 2 tanks. Each tank is sectioned off into smaller separate compartments designed for more specific purposes, such as a settling tank (sometimes called a sand trap), used to allow solids such as sand to settle out of the drilling fluid before it flows into the next compartment. Other compartments will have agitators (which are large fan blades) that stir the fluid to prevent the chemical constituents of the drilling fluid from settling out. All mud is drawn out of the front tank and all mud is deposited into the rear tank, which creates a flow from the rear tank to the front tank. There are only two paths for mud to get to the front tank, both through the sand trap and through the overflow in the common wall forming a center divider. Mud will
take the path of least resistance, most often this is the sand trap at the bottom of the tank. This loads the sand trap pipe and forces the mud to flow from the rear tank to the front tank. The de sander pump draws a suction on the forward sand trap, which keeps the mud and sand moving to the de sander pump with a small amount of mud flowing from the front tank into the sand trap. Because the mud from the shaker and de sander cones is deposited into the rear tank, the rear tank will overflow through the center divider to the front tank. Now, mud in the front tank is clean with the de sander cones continuously reprocessing the mud so that the mud in the front tank gets cleaner and cleaner. The suction point for the down hole pump is above the bottom of the tank there by clean mud is drawn off the top of the front mud tank.
De sander De sander is a centrifuge-type device for removing sand from drilling fluid in order to prevent abrasion damage to pumps. Also is a hydro
cyclone device that removes large drill solids from the whole mud system. The desander should be located downstream of the shale shakers and degassers, but before the desilters or mud cleaners. A volume of mud is pumped into the wide upper section of the hydrocylone at an angle roughly tangent to its circumference. As the mud flows around and gradually down the inside of the cone shape, solids are separated from the liquid by centrifugal forces. The solids continue around and down until they exit the
bottom of the hydrocyclone (along with small amounts of liquid) and are discarded. The cleaner and lighter density liquid mud travels up through a vortex in the center of the hydrocyclone, exits through piping at the top of the hydrocyclone and is then routed to the mud tanks and the next mud-cleaning device, usually a desilter. Various size desander and desilter cones are functionally identical, with the size of the cone determining the size of particles the device removes from the mud system.
De sitter Desilter is a hydrocyclone device that removes large drill solids from the whole mud system. The desander should be located downstream of the shale shakers and degassers, but before the desilters or mud cleaners. A volume of mud is pumped into the wide upper section of the hydro cylone at an angle roughly tangent to its circumference. As the mud flows around and gradually down the inside of the cone shape, solids are separated from the liquid by centrifugal forces. The solids continue around and down until they exit the bottom of the hydro cyclone (along with small amounts of liquid) and are discarded. The cleaner and lighter density liquid mud travels up through a vortex in the center of the hydro cyclone, exits through piping at the top of the hydro cyclone and is then routed to the mud tanks and the next mud-
cleaning device, usually a desilter. Various size desander and desilter cones are functionally identical, with the size of the cone determining the size of particles the device removes from the mud system.
Degasser It is a device that removes air or gases (methane, H2S, CO2 and others) from drilling liquids. There are two generic types that work by both expanding the size of the gas bubbles entrained in the mud (by pulling a vacuum on the mud) and by increasing the surface area available to the mud so that bubbles escape (through the use of various cascading baffle plates). If the gas content in the mud is high, a mud gas separator or "poor boy degasser" is used, because it has a higher capacity than standard degassers and routes the evolved gases away from the rig to a flaring area complete with an ignition source.
Schematic of the circulating system has been shown in fig40: The drill bit, drill collar, annulus, drill pipe, kelly and swivel are depicted in the upper right. Drilling mud flows through the mud return line (center) upon its return to the surface from the hole to the shale shaker (upper left), then to the adjacent desander, desilter and degasser back to the mud tank (upper left). Mud passes through the suction line, and the mud pump (center) circulates the mud through the discharge line (above), the stand pipe (upper right) through the rotary hose (right) and the swivel (lower right), back to the kelly and into the drill pipe. Crain A crane is a machine that is capable of raising and lowering heavy objects and moving them horizontally. Cranes are distinguished from hoists, which can lift objects but that cannot move them sideways. Cranes are also distinguished from conveyors, that lift and move bulk materials, such as grain and coal, in a continuous process. The word crane is taken from the fact that these machines have a shape
similar to that of the tall, long-necked bird of the same name. Human beings have used a wide variety of devices to lift heavy objects since ancient times. One of the earliest versions of the crane to be developed was the shaduf, first used to move water in Egypt about four thousand years ago. The shaduf consists of a long, pivoting beam balanced on a vertical support. A heavy weight is attached to one end of the beam and a bucket to the other. The user pulls the bucket down to the water supply, fills it, then allows the weight to pull the bucket up. The beam is then rotated to the desired position and the bucket is emptied. The shaduf is still used in rural areas of Egypt and India. An important development in crane design occurred during the Middle Ages, when a horizontal arm known as a jib was added to the boom. The jib was attached to the boom in a way which allowed it to pivot, allowing for an increased range of motion. By the sixteenth century, cranes were built with two treadmills, one on each side of a rotating housing containing the boom. Safety is the most important factor to be considered during crane manufacturing. The steel used to make the crane is inspected to ensure that it has no structural flaws that would weaken the crane. Welds and bolts joints are inspected as well.The United States government sets specific regulations through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration that limit the weight that a specific crane is allowed to lift. The Crane Manufacturers Association of America sets its own safety standards which exceed those required by the government. Special devices within the crane prevent the user from attempting to lift a weight heavier than that allowed.A completed crane is first tested without a weight to ensure that all of its components operate properly. It is then tested with a weight to ensure that the crane is able to lift heavy objects without losing stability.Safety ultimately depends on proper use of the crane. Crane operators must be specially trained, must pass specific tests, and must be examined for any visual or physical problems. The crane should be inspected each working shift, with a more thorough inspection of the motor and lifting apparatus on a monthly basis. Crane operators must be aware of changes in the environment in order to avoid accidents. For example, cranes should not be used during very windy conditions. Every jack up has some carnies, and with regard to their decks, the carnies are located. Look at the picture to understand the meaning of more important issue about the deck.
Basic area of a jack up hall.47
The carnies that Located on the jack up, these are used for cargo operations and retrieval where no shore unloading facilities are available. Most are diesel-hydraulic or electric-hydraulic. On the next page there is a diagram showing the most important components of a pedestal crane which is use on jack up rigs normally.
Components of a cran.48
Modes of operation of a jack up Jack up Units operate in three main modes: transit from one location to another, elevated on its legs, and jacking up or down between afloat and elevated modes. Each of these modes has specific precautions and requirements to be followed to ensure smooth operations. A brief discussion of these modes of operations along with key issues associated with each follows. Transit from one location to another The Transit Mode occurs when a Jack up Unit is to be transported from one location to another. Transit can occur either afloat on the Jack up Unit’s own hull (wet tow), or with the Jack Up Unit as cargo on the deck of another vessel (dry tow). These Transit Modes are discussed in more detail below. Main preparations for each Transit Mode address support of the legs support of the hull, watertight integrity of the unit, and stowage of cargo and equipment to prevent shifting due to motions. Though the Unit’s legs must be raised to ensure they clear the seabed during tow, it is not required that the legs be fully retracted. Allowing part of the legs to be lower than the hull baseline not only reduces jacking time, but it also reduces leg inertia loads due to tow motions and increases stability due to decreased wind overturning. Lowering the legs a small distance may also improve the hydrodynamic flow around the open leg wells and reduce tow resistance. Whatever the position of the legs during tow, their structure at the leg/hull interface must be checked to ensure the legs can withstand the gravity and inertial loads associated with the tow. Field Tow corresponds to the condition where a Jack Up Unit is afloat on its own hull with its legs raised, and is moved a relatively short distance to another location. For a short move, the ability to predict the condition of the weather and sea state is relatively good. Therefore, steps to prepare the Unit for Field Tow are not as stringent as for a longer tow. Most Classification Societies define a “Field Tow” as a Tow that does not take longer than 12 hours, and must satisfy certain requirements with regards to motion criteria. This motion criterion, expressed as a roll/pitch magnitude at a certain period, limits the inertial loads on the legs and leg support mechanism. For certain moves lasting more than 12 hours, a Unit may undertake an Extended Field Tow. An Extended Field Tow is defined as a Tow where the Unit is always within a 12-hour Tow of a safe haven, should weather deteriorate. In this Condition, the Jack up Unit is afloat on its own hull with its legs raised, similar to a Field Tow. The duration of an Extended Field Tow may be many days. The motion
criterion for an Extended Field Tow is the same as for a Field Tow. The main preparations for a Unit to undertake an Extended Field Tow are the same as those for a Field Tow with the additional criteria that the weather is to be carefully monitored throughout the duration of the tow. A Wet Ocean Tow is defined as an afloat move lasting more than 12-hours which does not satisfy the requirements of an Extended Field Tow. In this condition, the Jack Up Unit is afloat on its own hull with its legs raised as with a Field Tow, but, for many Units, additional precautions must be made. This is because the motion criteria for a Wet Ocean Tow are more stringent than for a Field Tow. The additional preparations may include installing additional leg supports, shortening the leg by cutting or lowering, and securing more equipment and cargo in and on the hull. A Dry Ocean Tow is defined as the transportation of a Jack Up Unit on the deck of another vessel. In this condition, the Jack Up Unit is not afloat, but is secured as deck cargo. The motion criteria for the Unit are dictated by the motions of the transportation vessel with the Unit on board. Therefore, the precautions to be taken with regard to support of the legs must be investigated on a case-by-case basis. Generally, though, the legs are to be retracted as far as possible into the hull so the Jack Up hull can be kept as low as practicable to the deck of the transport vessel and to reduce the amount of cribbing support. The other critical precaution unique to Dry Ocean Tow is the support of the Jack Up hull. The hull must be supported by cribbing on strong points (bulkheads) within the hull and in many cases; portions of the hull overhang the side of the transportation vessel. These overhanging sections may be exposed to wave impact, putting additional stress on the hull, and if the overhanging sections include the legs, the resultant bending moment applied to the hull (and amplified by vessel motions) can be significant. Calculations should be made to ensure that the hull will not lift off the cribbing with the expected tow motions.
Arriving on location Upon completion of the Transit Mode, the Jack Up Unit is said to be in the Arriving On Location Mode. In this Mode, the Unit is secured from Transit Mode and begins preparations to Jack Up to the Elevated Mode. Preparations include
removing any wedges in the leg guides, energizing the jacking system, and removing any leg securing mechanisms installed for the Transit thereby transferring the weight of the legs to the pinions.
Soft pinning the legs If an independent leg Jack up Unit is going to be operated next to a Fixed Structure, or in a difficult area with bottom restrictions, the Jack up Unit will often be temporarily positioned just away from its final working location. This is called “Soft Pinning” the legs or “Standing Off” location. This procedure involves lowering one or more legs until the bottom of the spud can(s) just touches the soil. The purpose of this is to provide a “Stop” point in the Arriving on Location process. Here, all preparations can be checked and made for the final approach to the working location. This includes coordinating with the assisting tugs, running anchor lines to be able to “winch in” to final location, powering up of positioning thrusters on the Unit (if fitted), checking the weather forecast for the period of preloading and jacking up, etc.
FINAL GOING ON LOCATION Whether a unit stops at a Soft Pin location, or proceeds directly to the final jacking up location, they will have some means of positioning the unit so that ballasting or preloading operations prior to jacking up can commence. For an independent leg Jack up Unit, holding position is accomplished by going on location with all three legs lowered so the bottom of the spud can is just above the seabed. When the Unit is positioned at its final location, the legs are lowered until they can hold the rig on location without the assistance of tugs. Mat type Jack up unit is either held on location by tugs, or they drop spud piles into the soil. These spud piles, usually cylindrical piles with concrete fill, hold the Unit on location until the mat can be ballasted and lowered.
Preload operation All Jack Up Units must load the soil that supports them to the full load expected to be exerted on the soil during the most severe condition, usually Storm Survival Mode. This preloading reduces the likelihood of a foundation shift or failure during a Storm. The possibility does exist that a soil failure or leg shift may occur during
Preload Operations. To alleviate the potentially catastrophic results of such an occurrence, the hull is kept as close to the waterline as possible, without incurring wave impact. Should a soil failure or leg shift occur, the leg that experiences the failure loses load-carrying capability and rapidly moves downward, bringing the hull into the water. Some of the load previously carried by the leg experiencing the failure is transferred to the other legs potentially overloading them. The leg experiencing the failure will continue to penetrate until either the soil is able to support the leg, or the hull enters the water to a point where the hull buoyancy will provide enough support to stop the penetration. As the hull becomes out-of-level, the legs will experience increased transverse load and bending moment transferred to the hull mostly by the guide. With the increased guide loads, some braces will experience large compressive loads. There are detailed procedures to be followed during such a failure to minimize the structural damage, but these are beyond the scope of this text. During normal preload operations it is important to keep the weight of the hull, deck load, and preload as close to the geometric center of the legs as possible, as this will assure equal loading on all legs. Sometimes, however, singleleg preloading is desired to increase the maximum footing reaction of any one leg. This is achieved by selective filling/emptying of preload tanks based on their relative position to the leg being preloaded. Preload is water taken from the sea and pumped into tanks within the hull. After the preload is pumped on board, it is held for a period of time. The Preload Operation is not completed until no settling of the legs into the soil occurs during the holding period while achieving the target footing reaction. The amount of preload required depends on the required environmental reaction and the type of Jack Up Unit. Mat Units normally require little preload. Four-legged independent Units usually require little or no preload water. This is because four-legged Units preload two diagonally opposite legs at a time using the weight of the hull. These Units jack to their preload air gap, then lift two legs slightly off the seabed. This causes the Unit to settle on the other two legs. The hull is jacked back up to preload air gap, and the procedure is completed when all four legs have been preloaded to the target footing reaction and no additional penetration takes place. Three-legged independent Units require the most preload water. For Units that cannot jack with preload, preload water is pumped on board after the hull reaches the preload air gap. If significant settling occurs, the preload must be dumped before the
hull is jacked to its preload air gap again, and the procedure repeated until no settling occurs. For units that can jack with full preload, preload is pumped into the hull while the hull is still in the water. The hull is then jacked up, usually stopping for a short time at certain pre-arranged drafts. This continues until the hull is at the preload air gap and holds the preload for the holding period. Once the preload is held for the specified time, the preload water is dumped and the Jack Up is ready to be elevated to the operating air gap.
Jacking to full air gap operations Once Preload Operations are completed, the unit may be jacked up to its operational air gap. During these operations it is important to monitor the level of the hull, elevating system load and characteristics, and for trussed-leg units, Rack Phase Differential (RPD). All of these must be maintained within design limits. Once the unit reaches its operational air gap, the jacking system is stopped, the brakes set, and leg locking systems engaged (if installed). The unit is now ready to begin operations.
Elevated operation condition When the unit is performing operations, no particular differences exist between the various types of Units. Likewise, there are no particular cautionary measures to take other than to operate the unit and its equipment within design limits. For units with large cantilever reach and high cantilever loads, extra care must be taken to ensure that the maximum footing reaction does not exceed a specified percentage of the reaction achieved during preload. When the unit is performing operations, the weather is to be monitored. If noncyclonic storms which exceed design operating condition environment are predicted, Operations should be stopped and the unit placed in Storm Survival mode. In this mode, Operations are stopped, equipment and stores secured, and the weather and watertight enclosures closed. If cyclonic storms are predicted, the same precautions are taken and personnel evacuated from the unit. On the below picture, all above mentioned levels about, mode of operation is shown.
Different mode of jack up operation.49
Class approval There are many parties involved in the safety regime for jack ups. These include Shelf States (national legislation), Flag States (national maritime legislation), Class Societies (class rules), and International Bodies (international codes, e.g., MODU code, etc.). Jack ups may not require a flag but are free to move in international waters when carrying flag. In such case a jack up has to comply with safety regulations of the Maritime Authority in the country whose flag the unit is flying (the Flag State). Jack up drilling unit is normally registered with a Flag State Governmental Administration. The role of the Flag administration is to implement statutory requirements of the government for registering the unit. Normally, these statutory requirements are derived from internationally agreed regulations developed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Today, Flag Administrations largely delegate the tasks of verification of compliance with IMO Conventions to classification societies. Classification societies also issue Loadline, Tonnage and Marpol certificates on behalf of Flag Administrations. Besides classification and statutory requirements, some governments require drilling units, regardless of flag, operating in their territorial waters to comply with their own safety and pollution requirements. A typical example is in the UK. The UK Health and Safety Executive’s Offshore Division enforces health and safety laws on offshore installations, including jack up drilling units. Classification societies are independent, third party organizations that serve as a verification system for a number of parties who have special interest in the safety and quality of jack ups. These may include regulatory authorities, insurance underwriters, owners, building yards and sub-contractors, finance institutions, and charterers.
Classification societies Classification is a comprehensive verification service providing assurance that a set of requirements laid down in rules and standards established by the classification society are met during design and construction and maintained during operation of the jack up. The rules and standards ensure safety against hazards to the unit, personnel and the environment. Each classification society, such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Lloyds Register (LR), etc., has its own rules for classification of jack ups. However, many aspects of classification rules of different classification societies are harmonized through the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS).
Like ships and other marine structures, jack up drilling units are designed and constructed to satisfy the rules of classification societies. While classification certificates issued by a classification society attest to compliance with such Rules, they also indicate that the unit meets a minimum industry standard for structural and mechanical fitness. To maintain the unit in class, classification societies require periodical surveys to check that the unit is adequately maintained. The class structural scope includes structural strength, materials, welding, fabrication and corrosion protection for jack up hull, superstructures, legs, spud cans, etc. The rig’s ultimate strength in different operation modes, like storm survival, elevated operations, transit, preloading and jacking, etc. are considered. Possible accidental conditions and fatigue are also examined. Design conditions used as bases for the strength approval, such as hull weights, water depths, environmental conditions, etc., are presented in the rig’s operation manual. Assumed foundation fixities may be considered and in such cases included in the operation manual. However, foundation capacity and safety is not part of class structural approval for a jack up rig. It is the owner’s responsibility to operate the jack up within the conditions used as basis for class approval, and to confirm that the unit can safely operate at a particular site. Classification rules (e.g. ABS Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units) typically address the following areas: o Materials of construction and fabrication o Structural integrity o Afloat stability o Safety issue such as structural fire protection and means of escape o Machinery and systems o Periodical survey Since jack up units are mobile in nature and can be expected to operate in any part of the world, the rules for structures are not associated with the environmental, geotechnical and operational conditions of any specific area. The owner and designer define the environmental and operational conditions to which the unit has been designed; these are the design criteria and theoretical operating envelope of the unit. Designers and owners must assess the desired operating modes and site conditions to ensure they are within the approved envelope. Classification rules require global analyses of the primary structure of the unit in the jacked up and afloat modes of operation. In the transit (afloat) condition leg structures are assumed subjected to
defined roll characteristics and gravity bending moment, with correspondingly more demanding criteria in severe storm condition. In addition to the global structural analysis, fatigue analyses are required for classification of all new construction jack ups. Machinery and systems classification requirements are derived mainly from rules for ships, except for specific equipment, such as jacking gears, and safety requirements related to hazards of drilling operations, such as definition of hazardous areas and the installation of electrical equipment in such areas, high pressure piping systems related to drilling, fire safety systems, emergency shutdown systems, and others. Classification rules impose stability criteria for jack up units in all afloat conditions, including temporary conditions, such as lowering leg structures. Two sets of criteria are specified: intact stability and damage stability criteria. While classification of a jack up unit signifies its compliance with a set of minimum standards (Classification Rules), it does not imply that the jack up is adequate to operate in any specific area. In fact, in each case, the owner/operator of the unit should assess the adequacy of the jack up taking into consideration the water depth, environmental, geotechnical, seismic and climatic conditions of the area of operation. For this purpose, industry has developed a standard: SNAME T&R Bulletin 5-5A Guidelines for Site Specific Assessment of Mobile Drilling Units, which can be used as a guide for performing such assessments (See 5.2 Site Specific Assessment below).
Site specific assessment When a jack up is to operate at a particular location, the Shelf State Legislation of the country in which it is to operate will regulate the activity. Industrialized countries are normally well regulated and have comprehensive rules for activities on the continental shelf, while other countries may have less developed regulations and it will be the oil company / owner’s responsibility to define the documentation basis for the site assessment. Both shelf state legislation and oil company / owner’s specification may refer to their own regulations or international guidelines like “Recommended Practice” (RP) for the Site Specific Assessment of Mobile Jack Up Units (SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 5-5A) issued by The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME) for site assessment of jack ups. In some cases Class Rules and other standards are also considered.
As the name indicates, a Site Specific Assessment is an evaluation of the capability of a jack up in the elevated condition to meet a set of standards for structural strength of the jack up and foundation (soil strength of the site) supporting the jack up at a particular site. In general, the rig owner will be given the environmental conditions that must be met, along with the soil information needed to perform the assessment. It is not uncommon for oil companies to have in-house criteria modifying the SNAME RP to better reflect their risk philosophy. The main objective of the SNAME RP is to document foundation capacities and global structural strength for jack up site operations. In cases where the rigs loads, actual environmental condition and soil conditions fall clearly within the basis for class approval of the structure, it may be that only foundation capacities need to be considered. FIELD MOVES Classification rules require that jack up drilling units meet the intact and damage stability criteria outlined in the rules. To meet typical intact stability requirements, jack up units must be capable of withstanding a wind velocity of not less than 36 m/s (70 kn) for field transit and 51.5 m/s (100 kn) in severe storm (ocean tow) conditions. Typically leg strength for transit conditions must meet the following: Field Transit – Leg strength is to be developed to withstand a bending moment caused by a 6-degree single amplitude roll or pitch at the natural period of the unit plus 120% of the gravity moment at that angle of inclination of the legs. Severe Storm (Ocean Transit) – Legs are to withstand acceleration and gravity bending moments resulting from the motions in the most severe anticipated environmental transit conditions, together with wind moments corresponding to a velocity of not less than 51.5 m/s (100 kn). During dry tows, classification societies consider the jack up as cargo on the transport vessel and are not normally requested to review field or ocean transit arrangements. This is normally carried out by Warranty Surveyors. However at the completion of an ocean tow, classification societies usually require a comprehensive survey of the legs, leg to hull connections, the jack house to hull connections, and any other areas deemed to be highly stressed during the tow. Warranty survey companies are often requested to approve wet and dry tow arrangement and weather predictions of transit routes. Areas that warranty surveyors normally review and approve
for wet tow are: hold down arrangements of cantileversand any cargo on the deck. The warranty surveyor also ensures that the jack up meets the classification rule requirements for intact and damage stability. For dry tows warranty survey companies review and approve such things as the motions of the transportation vessel, cribbing, size of towing tug and towlines, and weather en route. The weather en route and motions of the jack up and/or towing vessel are carefully monitored throughout the duration of the tow.
Global pearl (GSF High Island III) Drilling Rig
Arriving late September 2005 in the Gulf of Mexico, Rita sliced through one of the busiest oil and gas regions as a Category 5 hurricane, bringing 155 mph winds and 60 foot seas. Rita caused significant damage offshore including:
• • •
66 platforms destroyed, with 32 more suffering extensive damage. 13 MODUs broke their moorings and were set adrift. 1 jackup rig was sunk, with 7 jack-ups and 2 semi-subs experiencing extensive damage. One of those rigs that endure rita was global pearl rig. The High Island was evacuated before Rita and was also broken off its legs before being set adrift. It sustained major damage, including the loss of its derrick was found run aground in a self-created trench in shallow waters off the Louisiana coast. The High Island has gone on to share a similar fate as the Adriatic VII. Its derrick was not salvaged and is now an underwater obstruction. The legs of the rig were salvaged in October 2006 by Smit. The hull of the rig was towed back to Port Arthur shipyard, Texas and sat alongside Adriatic VII. By September 2006, GSF had decided to dispose of the High Island III and was evaluating whether to sell the remains or declare the
rig a constructive total loss for insurance purposes. On the continuation of this section some information about global pearl rig has been mentioned.
Global Petrotech Company has planned to repair and upgrade this rig. Main Upgrading plane on the global pearl can be described as below,the rig was originally designed to work as a drilling in 250 ft water-depth in hurricane conditions of Gulf of Mexico. EXISTING SPECS
The objective of this design study is to upgrade following items of the existing design for the Persian Gulf requirements.
As a result of the upgrades (extra leg length and cantilever modifications ) and additional weights it is likely that the rig will need sponsons during transit conditions to enable it to meet wet tow" stability requirements and to keep draft to within reasonable limits. The loading of the cantilever is converted into loading at the push up and hold down points. The new cantilever loading will be to would be able to support a maximum of 1000 kips consisting of combined hook+ setback + pipe rack load. The cantilever would be able to reach 45' aft of the transom and 24 transversely both ides. With regarding to below diagram, there is free space for new cantilever.
The maximum Spud leg footing reaction = 7100 Kips (Present) The reactions at the spud cans for the combination of static and environmental cases will be determined to check whether value will increase for the revised parameters and also With the jacking variable load distribution & new lightship values including increased cantilever weights, an estimate on the leg reactions at the jacking cylinder location will be made in order to estimate the jacking system design and working pressures and loads. For the repair and up grading of jack up a table has been provided and works and activities in some important subject have been categorized according to below: 1- Hull related (will be detailed as Series 1000) 2-Legs, Spud cans, Jacking system, RW tower, Cranes (will be detailed as series 2000) 3-Cantilever, skidding, Drilling package HP/LP mud &Well control (will be detailed as series3000) 4-Power Generation & Electrical (will be detailed as series 4000) 5-Instrumentation such as fire & Combustible Gas Detection system (will be detailed as series5000) 6-Machinery & Auxiliary systems such as Potable water tanks (will be detailed as series 6000) 7-Accommodation and HVAC (will be detailed as series 7000) 8-Life saving and other systems (will be detailed as series 8000) 9-Painting (will be detailed as series 9000) The jack up unit condition is much more complicated than can be describe, because all above mentioned work has more subtitle as below; and in this section we just try to entitle them.
1000. HULL RELATED 1001. Detail of steel replacement 1100 Hull Accessories 1101 Hinged hatch covers - Cargo Hatches, Preload tank covers 1102 Flat plate Deck Hatch covers 1103 Handrails & Bulwarks 1104 Deck Houses – Paint locker & Deck store, welding shop 1105 Watertight door 1106 Tank vents, sounding tubes & depth indicators (PLT & Mud pit) 1200 Main deck Marine related 1201 Anchor Winches 1202 Anchors & Anchor racks 1203 Fair leads 1204 Smit towing Brackets
1205 Towing Guides (Panama Chocks) 1206 Anchor Buoys & pendant wires 1207 Towing Bridle 1208 Emergency Towing Arrangement 1209 Deck Bollards
2000. LEGS, JACKING SYSTEM, RAW WATER TOWER & CRANE 2100 Leg installation procedure 2200 Spud can installation procedure 2300 Jack house & Guides 2301 Jack Case Structure & Accessories 2302 Jack House Support on Main Deck 2303 Leg Guides – Upper guides and Lower Guides 2304 Walkways & Platforms 2400 Jacking System 2401 Gearboxes & Pinions 2402 Electrical Jacking Motors 2403 Jacking Console 2405 Electrical cables and Junction Boxes 2406 Anode installation plan 2500 Raw Water system (Sea water) 2501 Raw water Tower structure 129 ft 2502 RW Pumps 2503 RW Gearboxes & Motors (2) 2505 Raw water pumps – Electric submersible 2600 DECK CRANES 2601 Port Deck Crane 2602 Starboard Deck Crane 2603 Forward Deck Crane 2604 Electrical & Instrumentation 2605 Crane load testing
3000. Cantilever & longitudinal skidding 3001 Main Cantilever beams
3002 Hold Down & Push-up Structures 3004 Cantilever walkways, staircase & platforms 3005 Cantilever skid rails 3006 V-Door Ramp & Supports 3007 Accumulator platform & Trip tank platform 3010 Longitudinal Skidder Unit Foundation & Supports 3011 Longitudinal Skidder Unit 3020 Sub base Structure 3021 Sub base Structure Walkways, ladders, platforms 3022 Transverse skidder Unit foundations on deck 3025 Drilling Line Reel platform 3026 HP hoses hookup platform 3027 BOP Trolley beams 3100. Drilling Package 3101 Drill floor substructure & rotary beams 3102 Drill floor framing & Setback area 3103 Pollution pan 3104 Draw works shelter 3105 Dog House 3106 Driller's Cabin (Structural & Outfitting) 3107 Snubbing Posts 3108 Walkways, Handrails, Staircases & Ladders 3109 Poor boy degasser 3110 Derrick - Foundation 3120 Hoisting System 3121 Procure & Install Derrick 3122 Procure & Install Crown block 3123 Install Deadline Anchor 3124 Install draw works 3125 Install auxiliary brake – elmagco 3126 Install Rotary table and drive motor 3127 Install travelling Block & Hook 3128 Install Top drive 3129 Install Drill Line Spool
3130 Other Drill Floor Equipment 3131 Drill Floor Winches – Air taggers 3132 Mathey Slick wire line Unit 3133 Iron Roughneck 3134 EZY Torque 3135 Mud Bucket 3136 Power Tongs 3200 HP Mud System related 3201 Mud Pumps Existing Overhaul 3202 3rd Mud pump – Installation related 3203 Mud Pump controls - Local 3204 Mud pump accessories – Pop off valve, oil pump, water pump etc 3205 Supercharging Pumps 3210 HP Mud lines – from MP to Drill floor standpipe 3211 Standpipe Manifold at DF 3300 LP Mud System related 3301 General note related to piping 3305 Mud Pits 3306 Mud pit piping – mixing & transfer 3307 Mud pit mixing & transfer pumps – Suction and discharge 3308 Low Pressure Lines in mud pit area 3310 Mud guns and mud gun lines in mud pit area 3311 Mud Agitators 3312 Mud mixing hopper 3313 Mud Shear system 3314 Mud Pit Level Indicators 3315 Mud Pit pressure control 3400 Mud Return & Mud treatment 3401 Sand trap tanks 3402 Bell nipple, Flow Line – transverse & longitudinal 3405 Shale shakers 3406 De sander, De silter , Mud cleaner 3407 Centrifuge unit 3408 Centrifugal Pumps for above
3409 Mud Degasser – Vacuums type 3500 Well Control & Testing System 3501 Annular Type BOP – Diverter stack 2000 PSI 3502 Annular Type BOP – 13 5/8 inch 5 K Hydril 5000 PSI 3503 Double pipe ram BOP's - 13-5/8 10 K CIW 3504 Mud Cross 3505 Choke & kill line valves 3506 Flexible armored Kill & Choke hoses to BOP 3510 Cellar deck – BOP work deck 3511 Cellar deck – 4 drum air winch 3512 Texas deck - Conductor Support Platform 3513 BOP storage cradles - PORT & STBD 3514 BOP tie down winches 3515 BOP hoists and trolley 3516 Man rider units for BOP work 3517 Trip tank system 3520 Accumulator Unit 3521 Hydraulic control lines to BOP 3522 BOP control panels – Local, Rig floor and TP office 3530 Choke & Kill manifold 3531 Remote control panel for choke 3532 Well Testing 3600 Drilling Instrumentation
4000 POWER SYSTEM & ELECTRICALS 4100 Main Engine Generator Set 4101 Removal of engines 4102 Layout & foundation details for new CAT 3516 B engines 4105 Ventilation – Supply and Exhaust fan 4110 Engine alarm panel 4111 Emergency shut down system 4114 Cold air start compressor & piping 4115 Lube oil pump, piping 4116 Engine waste oil & drain
4117 Exhaust muffler & Piping 4120 Engine cooling system 4121 Engine cooling piping 4122 Engine cooling platform structure 4123 Radiator details 4500 Emergency Power System 4501 Engine D 379 Caterpillar 4502 Alternator Kato 400 KW 4503 Switchboard and MCC 4504 Emergency generator room outfitting 4600 SCR/Switchboard/MCC 4601 General guidelines 4602 Power control room PCR (control cubicles) 4603 Silicon controlled rectifier system SCR 4604 Main distribution system 4605 Distribution switch board 4700 Transformers 4800 Rig Cabling 4801 Specification for power and control cable 4802 Cables for power and lighting circuits 4803 DC power cable 4804 Cables for control Circuit 4806 festoon system to rig floor 4807 cable drags chain system 4808 MCT – multi cable transits 4900 Rig Lighting 4901 Lightning intensity 4902 Navigation light and obstruction light 4903 Heli deck lighting
5000 INSTRUMENTATION & ELECTRONICS 5100 Fire and combustible gas detection system 5200 Fixed fire protection systems – CO2, Foam, Chemical 5300 Public Address and General alarm and telephone system
5400 Control room and radio room equipment 5500 H2S gas detection system
6000 MACHINERY & AUXILLIARY SYSTEMS 6010 Potable Water System 6011 Potable water tanks and tank coating 6012 Potable Water Piping Complete 6013 Potable water heaters 6014 Potable Water UV Sterilizer 6015 Waste heat Water Maker system 6016 Potable water Pressure sets 6020 Drill Water System 6021 Drill water tanks 6022 Drill Water Manifold & Piping Complete 6023 Drill Water Pumps 6030 Bilge System 6031 Bilge Manifold & Piping Complete 6032 Bilge Pumps & Motors 6033 Bilge alarm system 6040 Fire Main Piping System 6041 Fire Pumps 6042 Fire Main Piping Complete 6043 Fire Hose Stations & Boxes 6044 Fire shore connection 6060 Rig Drain & Anti-Pollution System 6061 Rig Drain Piping Complete 6062 Skimmer Tank & System and oily water separator 6065 Sewage waste system & treatment unit 6070 Sea Water System 6071 Sea water Manifold on Deck 6072 Sea water Transfer Pumps 6073 Sea Water Piping Complete 6074 Sea Water Cathodic Protection 6075 Overboard Preload Pump & hook up
6080 Rig Air Systems 6081 Rig Air Compressors 6082 Rig Air Dryer 6083 Air Receivers 6084 Rig Air Piping and accessories 6085 Rig air low pressure alarms 6090 Cementing System 6100 Bulk Mud & Cement System 6101 P-Tanks Bulk Tank 6102 Bulk Mud & Cement Piping Systems 6103 Bulk air pressure reducing station 6110 Fuel Oil System - Diesel 6111 Fuel Oil tanks & day tank 6112 Fuel oil pumps 6113 Fuel oil piping 6114 Fuel oil centrifuges 6120 Dirty oil system 6121 Dirty oil tank 6122 Dirty oil pump 6123 Dirty oil piping
7000 ACCOMMODATION, HEATING, VENTILATION & AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC) 7010 Accommodation Externals 7020 Accommodation Internals 7100 Living Quarters HVAC –HVAC report 7200 Hull Mechanical Ventilation – HVAC report 7500 HELIDECK 7501 Helideck Structure – All steel work 7502 Helideck Safety related 7503 Helideck Landing markings
8000 LIFE SAVING & OTHER SAFETY SYSTEMS – SOLAS REPORT 8100 Lifeboats & Platforms 8101 Lifeboats
8102 Lifeboat launching davits, 8103 Lifeboat Muster areas 8200 Life rafts & launch davit 8300 Other Safety Equipment – Marine related 8400 Fire fighting equipment 8500 Miscellaneous safety equipments 8600 Miscellaneous safety equipments
9000. RIG PAINTING 9100 Hull External
I was sent on duty to U.A.E on 6th April to 11th April. On the continuation of negotiation with companies which had attended to global petrotech tender, I had to visit lamprell company and try to survey some topics with lamprell employees. As a result, the main discussed matter is mentioned below.
The quarter's modification has been considered on a minimum work basis with intention to retain the maximum materials possible. The sub-categories to be discussed in detail as follows. Architectural
General layout modifications:
A segregated AHU room of almost 12 sq.m on each level with provision for utilities is to be provided centrally on all levels. A separate AHU for the galley is stipulated as per IACS which is applicable to GL has to be provided along with another one for the mess room. Adequate space for fresh air duct to pass through the AHU room has to be considered. The roof to accommodate new fresh air handling units, condensing units for AHU of each level, chiller/ freezer units. Adequate muster stations to be provided near life boats of capacity 44 man with minimum area of 3.5×44 sq.m area on both port and starboard in addition to the davit launched life rafts of same capacity on each side on the main deck. 2 fire station locations ideally on each side (port and stbd.) as per regulation are to be provided as per new arrangement. The laundry to be separated from the change room. A separate riser location is to be arranged in the new layout. Galley to be rearranged as per new equipment schedule and new galley hood location besides the forward bulkhead. The existing equipments and their model number have been noted. But the functioning is uncertain. The requirement for new equipments has to be provided by the client to make the new layout.
Lamprell proposes to add the existing 4 man and toilet space to the existing mess room and have foldable partitions to separate the senior and junior mess rooms. Existing compressor room to be removed and that space can be added on to the pantry which is currently used as a part of the galley. New chiller/freezer rooms. Recreation/gym is to be rearranged as per new layout along with new furnishings. Offices/ state rooms in the third level to be rearranged with new joinery/furnishings/ceiling/flooring are:· Service company office,Company man office, Company man room with toilet, Sr. Tool pusher office, Tool pusher room with toilet. New control/radio room layout to be provided within the existing structure
Doors used inside the quarters do not show the fire rating. The modified areas will be provided with fire rated doors as per regulation. Windows used in modified areas will be fire rated as per regulation. Existing galley shutters/doors/ bulkheads are to be replaced with new A rated shutters/doors/ bulkheads. Tool pusher office may be used as the secondary control station and will have to be provided with new steel bulkhead and insulation of fire rating as per regulations. Curtain plates provided to maintain B class rating in corridors in the existing condition have to be modified to maintain the fire rating. Draught stops are to be modified as necessary. New AHU rooms to be rated to B class rating as per the new layout.
The under deck thermal insulation has to be replaced depending on new penetrations and damage. The new insulation is 45 kg/m3 50 mm thick glass wool insulation.
The thermal insulation around areas with layout changes will be required to be replaced. Under deck, Bulkhead rating of tool pusher office, emergency generator room and control house to be ensured by new insulation of adequate fire rating.(A-60 insulation- 60mm thick 100 kg/m3 Rock wool for bulkheads and 40mm thick 100 kg/m3 Rock wool wherever required.) New extensions on the roof for the lost area in the existing accommodation to be thermally insulated as per fire rating. Existing roof insulation have to be removed for new Schlumberger unit, condenser units, fresh air handling units foundations and replaced with new.
AHU room wall paneling to be sandwich panel of B class fire rating. The existing sandwich panels used are 600mm wide and they can be replaced with IMAC, Sweden make or similar. This is a long lead item. They may be replaced with 550 mm wide sandwich panels. The existing wall panels (almost 20%) to be replaced and layout changes require further more. The extension on the port side 3rd level has been done by pro-marine board. The office and recreation will be rearranged and redone with new sandwich panels. The wall panels used in main offices, company man room, tool pusher room, and control/radio rooms to be replaced. The new extension on the roof to be furnished with 550 mm sandwich panels.
The existing quarters contain 3 kinds of ceilings- Promarine board, gypsum board in the corridor, mess room, internal stair, galley and third level extensions and Cermaguard Armstrong (Both 2’×4’ and 2’×2’) in the state room and offices. The gypsum board cannot be replaced with the same material as it has no approval from regulations.
The new ceiling tiles used will follow the same pattern with promarine boards in the corridor. The ceiling grid used in the existing corridor is damaged and has to be replaced owing to current condition and for running new ducting and other services. The rooms in the main deck currently have Cermaguard Armstrong (Both 2’×4’ and 2’×2’). Almost 30% damage for the existing panels and have to be replaced. The runners are damaged in some areas and have to be replaced to run the new services. The lighting and diffuser in the ceiling will have to be modified and the detail scope as per the respective disciplines. Smoke detectors used in the existing quarters are battery operated. New sprinkler system if decided will require nozzles on every room except for office spaces. Detail to be provided by plumbing discipline. The new modified mess room shall be provided with Cermaguard Armstrong (2’×2’) tiles with recessed lighting and diffuser. The Galley will be provided with SS finish Cermaguard Armstrong (2’×2’) tiles with recessed lighting and diffuser. The rest of the rooms have used Cermaguard Armstrong (Both 2’×4’ and 2’×2’). The damaged ones (almost 30%) have to be replaced with the same make. New Cermaguard Armstrong (2’×2’) to be used in main offices, company man room, tool pusher room, extensions on the roof and control/radio rooms.
Epoxy flooring has been used in the existing quarters. New epoxy flooring to be used in the modified areas as per the new layout. Quarry tiles to be used in galley and pantry. The wet areas require new penetrations and hence change in the flooring. The wet areas in some of the existing quarters have no coaming. They have to be provided with new coaming and flooring. New epoxy flooring with same color pattern to be used in main offices, mess room, company man room, tool pusher room, extensions on the roof and control/radio rooms.
Lamprell proposes new flooring in the wet areas and other high traffic areas. The rooms are water clogged and that is an indication of leaks. The wet area flooring have to be removed to determine the state of steel underneath. The steel decks may have to be replaced depending on the condition.
MAIN DECK & MACHINERY SPACES STRUCTURAL
Raw Water Tower - Client needs to confirm extension of WT - Need thickness gauging report Mud Pit Capacity - Client to confirm increase capacity of mud pit Cement Unit - Need Equipment details. Client to confirm whether the unit is resting on main deck or will be elevated from main deck.
2. PIPING & PLUMBING
The actual condition of all sounding & vent pipes to be checked when the tanks are accessible & the scope shall be decided based on that report. Meanwhile the MTO of entire vent & sounding system shall be taken for bidding purpose - Client to confirm The condition of bulk cement piping looks good externally, however thickness guaging shall be done & scope shall be decided based on that report. - Meanwhile the MTO of entire Bulk system shall be taken for bidding pupose - Client to confirm Client to provide minimum ID required for high pressure cement piping All fire hose boxes to be replaced All Koomey unit piping to be replaced, all material will be carbon steel & suitable for 3000 psi - Client to confirm Client to provide new trip tank capacity & to confirm the installation of additional pump. There is no fire line on cantilever & drill floor area. Fire hydrant is connected through raw water. Need to provide fire line to meet GL requirement As per scope of work only some part of compressed air piping is to be changed. We recommend to change the entire compressed air piping due high possibility of internal corrosion as the rig is lying idle for years.
Client to provide raw water pump curve & pressure required at raw water manifold. This is to asses the existing raw water pump is suitable for extended raw water tower length & additional raw water requirement (Deluge etc.) The actual condition of bilge piping inside & outside tanks to be checked when the tanks are accessible & the scope shall be decided based on that inspection & thickness gauging report. Meanwhile the MTO of entire bilge system shall be taken for bidding purpose - Client to confirm The actual condition of drill water piping inside & outside tanks to be checked when the tanks are accessible & the scope shall be decided based on that inspection & thickness gauging report. Meanwhile the MTO of entire drill water system shall be taken for bidding purpose - Client to confirm The engine cooling system scope is only limited to radiator. This shall be extended up to engine room as we are changing engine models The existing sanitary water pressure tank is without pump & connected to raw water system. We recommend to install 2 nos pumps (1 working & 1 standby) dedicated for this service. The existing hot water system for accommodation is only form heaters. We recommend to install a circulating pump in that system. As informed by you, the thickness gauging for all LPM lines are done but results were not uniform, Lamprell needs to redo the thickness gauging & piping replacement scope shall be decided based on that. Meanwhile the MTO of entire LPM (low pressure mud) system shall be taken for bidding purpose - Client to confirm We recommend to replace globe valve in mud pit suction lines by knife gate valve (Already existing two valves are replaced) The minimum capacity required for each fire pump to meet helideck & GL requirement is 172 m3/hr (760 gpm) - Client to confirm if the existing fire pump meets this requirement. A booster pump needs to add in the fire line to get the required pressure (7 bar) at helideck.
The fire main header size to be changed to 6" from 5", as for above mentioned fire pump capacity the flow velocity in 5" Sch. 80 pipe is high (4.07 m/sec)
New water heater to be installed in place of old one Water heater panel to be relocated to new position at suitable height away from flanges Skidding system to be equipped with limit switches, requirement of additional skidding and transverse motors are subject to study, change can cause replacement/modification of skidding panel Booster heater panel located in unsuitable position and polluted by some leak, to be relocated and overhauled Power connection for new cement unit to be arranged Most of main deck/machinery space cabling are old and require replacement Most of pushbutton stations at main deck/machinery space are old and require replacement Anchor winches junction boxes/MCT's require replacement Main deck welding workshop no job required Main deck to be equipped with new sockets (except accommodation) Main deck lighting to be totally new Machinery space lighting
Option 1) Replacement of light fittings in bad condition, and DB's repair job Option 2) totally new lighting arrangement, with new DB's
Raw Water Tower:
Option1) New cables to be installed instead of existing and those, which missing Option2) New controls to be provided Option 3) Elevation Control panel to be modified for case with additional pump