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Civil Engineering Design (1) Prestressed Concrete
Dr. Colin Caprani, Chartered Engineer
Dr. C. Caprani
Civil Engineering Design (1)
1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2. Background...................................................................................................... 3 Basic Principle of Prestressing ........................................................................ 4 Advantages of Prestressed Concrete ............................................................... 6 Materials .......................................................................................................... 7 Methods of Prestressing................................................................................. 10 Uses of Prestressed Concrete......................................................................... 15
Stresses in Prestressed Members ..................................................................... 16 2.1 2.2 Background.................................................................................................... 16 Basic Principle of Prestressed Concrete ........................................................ 19
Design of PSC Members ................................................................................... 29 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Basis............................................................................................................... 29 Minimum Section Modulus ........................................................................... 32 Prestressing Force & Eccentricity ................................................................. 37 Eccentricity Limits and Tendon Profile ........................................................ 49
Prestressing Losses ............................................................................................ 56 4.1 4.2 4.3 Basis and Notation......................................................................................... 56 Losses in Pre-Tensioned PSC........................................................................ 57 Losses in Post-tensioned PSC ....................................................................... 60
Ultimate Limit State Design of PSC ................................................................ 66 5.1 5.2 Ultimate Moment Capacity ........................................................................... 66 Ultimate Shear Design................................................................................... 71
Dr. C. Caprani
Civil Engineering Design (1)
The idea of prestressed concrete has been around since the latter decades of the 19th century, but its use was limited by the quality of the materials at the time. It took until the 1920s and ‘30s for its materials development to progress to a level where prestressed concrete could be used with confidence. Freyssinet in France, Magnel in Belgium and Hoyer in Germany were the principle developers.
The idea of prestressing has also been applied to many other forms, such as: • Wagon wheels; • Riveting; • Barrels, i.e. the coopers trade; In these cases heated metal is made to just fit an object. When the metal cools it contracts inducing prestress into the object.
Dr. C. Caprani
Concrete Concrete is very strong in compression but weak in tension.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1. Therefore the ‘beam’ of books cannot even carry its self weight. To overcome this we provide an external initial stress (the prestress) which compresses the books together.2 Basic Principle of Prestressing Basic Example The classic everyday example of prestressing is this: a row of books can be lifted by squeezing the ends together: The structural explanation is that the row of books has zero tensile capacity. Caprani . In an ordinary concrete beam the tensile stress at the bottom: 4 Dr. Now they can only separate if the tensile stress induced by the self weight of the books is greater than the compressive prestress introduced. C.
Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) are taken by standard steel reinforcement: But we still get cracking. 5 Dr. because the prestressing keeps the concrete in compression. C. This is often preferable where durability is a concern. which is due to both bending and shear: In prestressed concrete. no cracking occurs.
Durability Since the entire section remains in compression. with far greater durability.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1. especially bridges and also means that concrete tanks can be made as watertight as steel tanks. C. the second moment of area is bigger and so the section is stiffer: N A N A RC PSC Smaller Deflections The larger second moment of area greatly reduces deflections for a given section size. Hence a given section can span further with prestressed concrete than it can with ordinary reinforced concrete. 6 Dr. no cracking of the concrete can occur and hence there is little penetration of the cover. This greatly improves the long-term durability of structures. Caprani . Increased Spans The smaller section size reduces self weight.3 Advantages of Prestressed Concrete The main advantages of prestressed concrete (PSC) are: Smaller Section Sizes Since PSC uses the whole concrete section.
• A mix that reduces creep of the concrete to minimize losses of prestress. You can see the importance creep has in PSC from this graph: 7 Dr. Caprani . • A high early strength is required to enable quicker application of prestress.4 Materials Concrete The main factors for concrete used in PSC are: • Ordinary portland cement-based concrete is used but strength usually greater than 50 N/mm2. C. • A larger elastic modulus is needed to reduce the shortening of the member.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1.
• Tendon: A collection of strands encased in a duct – only used in posttensioning.Civil Engineering Design (1) Steel The steel used for prestressing has a nominal yield strength of between 1550 to 1800 N/mm2. The different forms the steel may take are: • Wires: individually drawn wires of 7 mm diameter. • Bar: a specially formed bar of high strength steel of greater than 20 mm diameter.7 mm diameter (but with an area of 150 mm2)7-wire super strand which has a breaking load of 265 kN. C. 8 Dr. Prestressed concrete bridge beams typically use 15. Caprani . • Strands: a collection of wires (usually 7) wound together and thus having a diameter that is different to its area.
Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) 9 Dr. C.
in Stage 2 the concrete is cast around the stressed wires/strands. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) 1.5 Methods of Prestressing There are two methods of prestressing: • Pre-tensioning: Apply prestress to steel strands before casting concrete. once it has sufficient strength: 10 Dr. Pre-tensioning This is the most common form for precast sections. • Post-tensioning: Apply prestress to steel tendons after casting concrete. C. and in Stage 3 the prestressed in transferred from the external anchorages to the concrete. In Stage 1 the wires or strands are stressed.
at the ends of the member. C. This is to keep the stresses within allowable limits where there is little stress induced by self with or other loads: 11 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) In pre-tensioned members. Therefore. Caprani . the strand is directly bonded to the concrete cast around it. there is a transmission length where the strand force is transferred to the concrete through the bond: At the ends of pre-tensioned members it is sometimes necessary to debond the strand from the concrete.
Civil Engineering Design (1) Post-tensioned In this method. A lot of ordinary reinforcement is often necessary. Caprani . C. A typical tendon anchorage is: 12 Dr. The strands or tendons are fed through the ducts (Stage 1) then tensioned (Stage 2) and then anchored to the concrete (Stage 3): The anchorages to post-tensioned members must distribute a large load to the concrete. the concrete has already set but has ducts cast into it. and must resist bursting forces as a result.
C. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) And the end of a post-tensioned member has reinforcement such as: 13 Dr.
• The concrete shrinks as it further cures. that is.Civil Engineering Design (1) Losses From the time the prestress is applied. In post-tensioning. continues to strain over time. Caprani . • The concrete creeps. The sources of these losses depend on the method by which prestressing is applied. In both methods: • The member shortens due to the force and this relieves some of the prestress. that is. there are also losses due to the anchorage (which can ‘draw in’ an amount) and to the friction between the tendons and the duct and also initial imperfections in the duct setting out. the prestress force gradually reduces over time to an equilibrium level. losses will just be considered as a percentage of the initial prestress. For now. C. • The steel ‘relaxes’. the steel stress reduces over time. 14 Dr.
for very long spans (e.. • This is “glued segmental” construction. • Precast segments are joined by post-tensioning. • Pre-tensioned precast “hollowcore” slabs.g. 15 Dr.6 Uses of Prestressed Concrete There are a huge number of uses: • Railway Sleepers. • Pre-tensioned Precast Double T units . • Pre-tensioned precast inverted T beam for short-span bridges. • Post-tensioned ribbed slab. • Communications poles. • In-situ balanced cantilever construction . • Pre-tensioned precast PSC piles. Caprani . • Pre-tensioned precast portal frame units. Tendons around circumference of tank. • And many more.post-tensioned PSC. • Barges.precast segments post-tensioned together on site.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1. C. 16 m span for car parks). • PSC tank .
there are two checks required: At Transfer This is when the concrete first feels the prestress. Since we deal with allowable stresses. the concrete has its full strength but losses will have occurred and so the prestress force is reduced. at any section in a member. If there is insufficient capacity. 16 Dr. The ultimate capacity at ULS of the PSC section (as for RC) must also be checked. The concrete is less strong but the situation is temporary and the stresses are only due to prestress and self weight. you can add non-prestressed reinforcement. Caprani . the SLS case. Most of the work of PSC design involves ensuring that the stresses in the concrete are within the permissible limits.e. At service stage. only service loading is used. At Service The stresses induced by the SLS loading. i. in addition to the prestress and self weight.Civil Engineering Design (1) 2. C. This often does not govern. For the SLS case. Stresses in Prestressed Members 2. must be checked.1 Background The codes of practice limit the allowable stresses in prestressed concrete.
The ratio of prestress after losses (service) to prestress before losses. Allowable compressive stress ain service. bottom fibre = − I yb (taken to be negative). Caprani . The applied moment in service. C. Allowable compressive stress at transfer.Civil Engineering Design (1) Notation For a typical prestressed section: We have: Section modulus. Allowable tensile stress in service. Allowable tensile stress at transfer. Section modulus. The applied moment at transfer. top fibre = I yt . Zt Zb ftt ftc f st f sc Mt Ms α 17 Dr. (transfer).
In BS 8110. Caprani .36 f ci for post-tensioned members 1 N/mm Compression: ftc 0. C.33 f cu * there are other requirements for unusual cases – see code 18 Dr.5 f ci * In service Tension: f st 0 N/mm 2 0.45 f ci for pre-tensioned members 0. there are 3 classes of prestressed concrete which depend on the level of tensile stresses and/or cracking allowed: Stresses Class 1 2 Class 2 Class 3 At transfer Tension: ftt 0.Civil Engineering Design (1) Allowable Stresses Concrete does have a small tensile strength and this can be recognized by the designer.36 f ci (post) Compression: f sc 0.45 f ci (pre) See code table 0.
if we assume a rectangular section as shown.2 Basic Principle of Prestressed Concrete Theoretical Example Consider the basic case of a simply-supported beam subjected to a UDL of w kN/m: w A VA C L B VB In this case. we have the mid-span moment as: b wL2 MC = 8 d Also. Caprani . C. we have the following section properties: A = bd bd 2 Zt = 6 bd 3 12 bd 2 Zb = 6 I= Therefore the stresses at C are: σt = MC Zt σb = MC Zb 19 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) 2.
then. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) Case I If we take the beam to be constructed of plain concrete (no reinforcement) and we neglect the (small) tensile strength of concrete ( ft = 0 ). as no tensile stress can occur. Caprani . no load can be taken: wI = 0 Case II We consider the same beam. but with centroidal axial prestress as shown: w P A VA C L P B VB Now we have two separate sources of stress: P A MC Zt + P MC + A Zt + P A + = MC Zb P MC − A Zb 20 Dr.
Civil Engineering Design (1) For failure to occur. C. we have: A M C P wL2 = = Zb A 8Z b wII = 8Z b P L2 A Note that we take Compression as positive and tension as negative. Also. Caprani .A. we will normally take Z b to be negative to simplify the signs. Case III In this case we place the prestress force at an eccentricity: w e P A VA C L B VB e P Using an equilibrium set of forces as shown. just prior to failure. Hence. we now have three stresses acting on the section: N. the moment caused by the load must induce a tensile stress greater than P . e = P M = Pe P 21 Dr.
Civil Engineering Design (1) Thus the stresses are: P A Pe Zt - MC Zt + + = P M C Pe + − A Zt Zt + P A + + Pe Zb MC Zb P M C Pe − + A Zb Zb Hence. then: d 6 wIII = 8Z b ⎛ P P d 6 ⎞ 16 Z b P = 2 × wII ⎜ + ⎟= 2 L2 ⎝ A bd 2 6 ⎠ L A So the introduction of a small eccentricity has doubled the allowable service load. 22 Dr. C. we take e = . for failure we now have: M C P Pe = + Zb A Zb wIII = 8Z b ⎛ P Pe ⎞ ⎜ + ⎟ L2 ⎝ A Z b ⎠ If. for example. Caprani .
is I/x. 23 Dr. I. Check stresses. It is simply supported spanning 12 m with dead load equal to self weight and a live load of 6 kN/m (unfactored).Civil Engineering Design (1) Numerical Example – No Eccentricity Prestress force (at transfer). P = 2500 kN. First calculate the section properties for a 300×650 beam: A = = 300×650 195 000 mm2 h x=h/2 Second moment of area. For a rectangular section 650 mm deep. is bh3/12: 300×6503/12 6866×106 mm4 I = = Section modulus for the top fibre. Losses between transfer and SLS = 20%. Zt. C. 300 wide and 650 mm deep. the centroid is at the centre and this is: 6866×106/325 21.12×106 mm3 Zt = = (some people use the formula for rectangular sections. Permissible stresses are: f tt = -1 N/mm2 f st = 0 N/mm2 f tc = 18 N/mm2 f sc = 22 N/mm2 The section is rectangular. The prestress force is applied at the centroid. Zt = bh2/6 which gives the same answer). Caprani .
3 × 0.: (4. Mt = 87.8 kNm SLS moment.88 kN/m The maximum moment due to this loading is: 4. Hence: 25(0. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) Similarly.65) self weight = = 4.88 + 6)(12)2/8 = 195. Caprani .e.12×106 mm3 (sign convention: Zb is always negative as the measurement to the bottom fibre is negative).88(12)2/8 = transfer moment. Ms = The prestress causes an axial stress of P/A = 2500×103 / 195 000 = 12. The only applied loading at transfer is the self weight which is (density of concrete) × (area). i.8 N/mm2: P 24 Dr. Zb = -21.8 kNm w wl2/8 l The total loading at SLS is this plus the imposed loading.
The self weight moment at the centre generates a top stress of: Mt/Zt = 87. the stress due to prestress applies and.0 9 8.5 9 0.12×106 = 4.8 + -4.3 N/mm2. The top and bottom stresses due to applied load (Ms) are ±195. Hence the transfer check at the centre is: 12. the prestress has reduced by 20%.2 + -9.8×106/21.8×106 / 21.8 At transfer.6 Total 9 Self Weight At SLS.2 = 17. C.3 Prestress 9.9 Total 9 Self Weight 25 Dr. Hence the SLS check is: 10.12×106 = ±9.2 N/mm2.2 Prestress 4. the stress due to self weight.3 = 19.Civil Engineering Design (1) 12. Caprani . after the beam is lifted.
C.Civil Engineering Design (1) Numerical Example – With Eccentricity As per the previous example.7 26 Dr.1m P This is equivalent to: P 0.7 N/mm2 7. but the prestress force is P = 1500 kN at 100 mm below the centroid.1P 0. Caprani . An eccentric force is equivalent to a force at the centroid plus a moment of force × eccentricity: P 0.7 P/A = 1500×103 / 195 000 = 7.1P P Hence the distribution of stress due to prestress at transfer is made up of 2 components: 7.
8 9 + 14. At top fibre. this is - (1500 × 103 )(100) = -7.Civil Engineering Design (1) And + Pe/Z. Similarly the stress at the bottom fibre is +7.1 0.1 - + 7.6 Hence the total distribution of stress due to PS is: Hence the transfer check is: 14.6 Total 9 27 Dr. Caprani . C.e.6 4. i..2 Dead Load 10.8 0. negative.1 21.1 As the moment is hog. the stress at the top is tension.2 4.12 × 106 -7.8 Prestress = -4.
the prestress has reduced by 20% (both the P/A and the Pe/Z components are reduced by 20% as P has reduced by that amount). Hence the SLS check is: 0. Caprani .3 Applied load 9.3 9.Civil Engineering Design (1) At SLS.8 Prestress = -9.8 9 2. The stress distribution due to applied load is as for Example 1.48 + 11.5 Total 9 28 Dr. C.
• Stress: Positive compression. • Eccentricity of prestress: Positive above centroid. we now have: P A Pe Zt - MC Zt + + = σt + P A + + Pe Zb MC Zb σb Thus the final stresses are numerically given by: 29 Dr. • Section Modulus: Negative for the bottom of the member. With this sign convention.1 Basis Sign Convention In order to derive equations that enable design. Design of PSC Members 3. we maintain a rigid sign convention: • Moment: Positive sag. C. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) 3.
• the M C Z term is positive or negative depending on whether it is Z t or Z b . and. Caprani . • the Pe Z term is negative for Z t since Z t is positive and e is negative and the term is positive for Z b since now both Z b and e are negative.Civil Engineering Design (1) Top fibre: Bottom fibre: σt = σb = P Pe M C + + A Zt Zt P Pe M C + + A Zb Zb Note that the sign convention means that: • the P A terms is always positive. Governing Inequalities Given the rigid sign convention and the allowable stresses in the concrete. and noting that the losses are to be taken into account. These signs of course match the above diagrams. the stresses are limited as: Transfer Top fibre – stress must be bigger than the minimum allowable tensile stress: σ t ≥ ftt P Pe M t + + ≥ f tt A Zt Zt (1) Bottom fibre – stress must be less than the maximum allowable compressive stress: 30 Dr. C. as they should.
any allowable tension is a negative quantity. Therefore all permissible stresses must be greater than this allowable tension.Civil Engineering Design (1) σ b ≤ ftc P Pe M t + + ≤ f tc A Zb Zb (2) Service Top fibre – stress must be less than the maximum allowable compressive stress: σ t ≤ f sc α⎜ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s + ≤ f sc ⎟+ ⎝ A Zt ⎠ Zt (3) Bottom fibre – stress must be bigger than the minimum allowable tensile stress: σ b ≥ f st α⎜ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s + ≥ f st ⎟+ A Z Z ⎝ b ⎠ b (4) In these equations it must be remembered that numerically. Similarly. C. Caprani . that is. 31 Dr. ideally a positive number indicating the member is in compression at the fibre under consideration. all stresses must be less than the allowable compressive stress.
2 Minimum Section Modulus Given a blank piece of paper. Top Fibre The top fibre stresses must meet the criteria of equations (1) and (3). it is difficult to check stresses. Caprani . This is the first step in the PSC design process. Therefore we use the governing inequalities to help us calculate minimum section modulii for the expected moments. from equation (1): P Pe M t + + ≥ f tt A Zt Zt α⎜ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ Mt + ≥ α f tt ⎟ +α A Z Z t ⎠ t ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ Mt ⎤ − ⎢α ⎜ + ⎥ ≤ −α f tt ⎟ +α A Z Z ⎝ ⎠ t t ⎣ ⎦ If we now add this to equation (3): ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ Mt ⎤ α α α + + − + + ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ ≤ f sc − α f tt ⎟ ⎟ A Z Z A Z Z t ⎠ t ⎦ t ⎠ t ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎣ ⎝ Ms M − α t ≤ f sc − α f tt Zt Zt Hence: Ms − α Mt f sc − α f tt Zt ≥ (5) 32 Dr. Hence. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) 3.
Therefore a trial section or a reasonable self weight must be assumed initially and then checked once a section has been decided upon giving the actual Z t and Z b values. Thus. this is a function of the self weight of the section which is unknown at this point. Caprani . from equation (2): P Pe M t + + ≤ f tc A Zb Zb α⎜ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ Mt + ≤ α f tc ⎟ +α A Z Z ⎝ b ⎠ b ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ Mt ⎤ − ⎢α ⎜ + + α ⎥ ≥ −α f tc ⎟ A Z Z ⎝ ⎠ b b ⎣ ⎦ Adding equation (4) to this: ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ P Pe ⎞ Mt ⎤ α α α + + − + + ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ ⎢ ⎜ ⎥ ≥ f st − α f tc ⎟ ⎟ A Z Z A Z Z b ⎠ b ⎦ b ⎠ b ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎣ ⎝ Ms M − α t ≥ f st − α f tc Zb Zb Hence: Ms −αMt α ftc − f st Zb ≥ (6) Note that in these developments the transfer moment is required. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) Bottom Fibre The bottom fibre stresses must meet equations (2) and (4). 33 Dr. However.
which is a practical minimum. C. say. Determine an appropriate rectangular section for the member taking the density of prestressed concrete to be 25 kN/m3.5 N/mm2 at transfer and 2. the sefl weight load is: 34 Dr. Caprani . we estimate the section depth based on a span depth ratio of. 15: dtrial = 9000 = 600 mm 15 Try this with a width of 250 mm. • permissible compressive stresses are 20 N/mm2 at transfer and at service. simply-supported beam shown below carried the loads as shown. Solution We will check the requirements at the critical section which is at mid-span. Taking the losses to be 25% and: • permissible tensile stresses are 2.Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem The single-span. M t . To determine an approximate initial transfer moment.0 N/mm2 in service. Hence.
Civil Engineering Design (1) wsw = 25 ( 0. C.25 ) = 3.75 × 38 20 − 0.75 ( 20 ) − ( −2. Therefore: wL2 3.0 × 106 mm3 And at the bottom: Ms −αMt α ftc − f st 291 − 0.75 ( −2.75 × 38 0.5 ) Zt ≥ Zt ≥ Z t ≥ 12.6 × 0.75 × 92 Mt = = = 38 kNm 8 8 At service the moment is: wL2 [3.75 kN/m At transfer only self weight is present.4 × 106 mm3 35 Dr.75 + 5 + 20] × 9 Ms = = = 291 kNm 8 8 2 Check the section modulus at the top fibre: Ms −αMt f sc − α f tt 291 − 0.0 ) Zb ≥ Zb ≥ Z b ≥ 15. Caprani .
then Z b = Z t and so the requirement for Z b governs: bh 2 Z= ≥ 15. Note that this changes the self weight and so the calculations need to be performed again to verify that the section is adequate.4 × 106 ) 250 h ≥ 609 mm Thus adopt a 250 mm × 650 mm section.Civil Engineering Design (1) If the section is to be rectangular. These two effects just about cancel each other out.4 × 106 6 Keeping the 250 mm width: 250h 2 ≥ 15. C. Caprani . Verify This 36 Dr. the increase in self weight is offset by the larger section depth and hence larger section modulii which helps reduce stresses. However.4 × 106 6 h≥ 6 (15.
Civil Engineering Design (1)
Prestressing Force & Eccentricity
Once the actual Z t and Z b have been determined, the next step is to determine what combination of prestress force, P and eccentricity, e, to use at that section. Taking each stress limit in turn:
Tensile Stress at Transfer
Taking the governing equation for tensile stress at transfer, equation (1), we have:
P Pe M t + + ≥ f tt A Zt Zt ⎛1 e P⎜ + ⎝ A Zt ⎞ Mt ⎟ ≥ f tt − Zt ⎠ f − M t Zt since e Z t is negative P ≤ tt 1 A + e Zt
1 1 A + e Zt ≥ P f tt − M t Z t
⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 1 Zt 1A ≥⎢ ⎥e + ⎢ ⎥ P ⎣ f tt − M t Z t ⎦ ⎣ f tt − M t Z t ⎦
This is a linear equation in 1 P and e. Therefore a plot of these two quantities will give a region that is acceptable and a region that is not acceptable, according to the inequality.
Dr. C. Caprani
Civil Engineering Design (1)
Dr. C. Caprani
Civil Engineering Design (1)
Compressive Stress at Transfer
Based on equation (2) which governs for compression at transfer, we have: ⎛1 e ⎞ M P ⎜ + ⎟ ≤ f tc − t Zb ⎝ A Zb ⎠
Which leads to:
⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 1 Zb 1A ≥⎢ ⎥e + ⎢ ⎥ P ⎣ f tc − M t Z b ⎦ ⎣ f tc − M t Z b ⎦
Another linear equation which gives the feasible region graphed as:
Dr. C. Caprani
when the slope is positive. this line can have a positive or negative slope. However.Civil Engineering Design (1) Compressive Stress in Service Equation (3) governs for compression in service and so we have: ⎛1 e + A Zt ⎝ ⎞ Ms ⎟ ≤ f sc − Zt ⎠ α P⎜ From which we get another linear equation in 1 P and e: ⎤ ⎡ α A ⎤ 1 ⎡ α Zt ≤⎢ ⎥e + ⎢ ⎥ P ⎣ f sc − M s Z t ⎦ ⎣ f sc − M s Z t ⎦ (9) This equation can again be graphed to show the feasible region. 1 P must be under the line. 1 P must be over the line. C. When the slope is negative. Both possible graphs are: 40 Dr. Caprani . A simple way to remember this is that the origin is always not feasible.
C. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) 41 Dr.
Civil Engineering Design (1) Tensile Stress in Service Lastly. Caprani . we have equation (4) which governs for tension at the bottom fibre during service. C. This gives: ⎛1 e ⎞ M + ⎟ ≥ f st − s Zb ⎝ A Zb ⎠ α P⎜ Which gives: ⎤ ⎡ α A ⎤ 1 ⎡ α Zb ≤⎢ ⎥e + ⎢ ⎥ P ⎣ f st − M s Z b ⎦ ⎣ f st − M s Z b ⎦ (10) And this is graphed to show the feasible region: 42 Dr.
when these four equations are plotted. Added to the basic diagram is the maximum possible eccentricity – governed by the depth of the section minus cover and ordinary reinforcement – along with the maximum and minimum allowable prestressing forces. Caprani . a feasible region is found in which points of 1 P and e simultaneously satisfy all four equations. 43 Dr. The geometric quantities Z t A and Z b A are known as the upper and lower kerns respectively. C. For economy we usually try to use a prestressing force close to the minimum. They will feature in laying out the tendons. As can be seen.Civil Engineering Design (1) Magnel Diagram A Magnel Diagram is a plot of the four lines associated with the limits on stress. Any such point then satisfies all four stress limits.
Take prestress losses to be 20%.35 ) = 1. Caprani .75 kN/m The section properties are: A = bh = 200 × 350 = 70 × 103 mm 2 bh 2 200 × 3502 Zt = Zb = = = 4. Draw the Magnel diagram for the mid-span section and determine an economic prestressing force and its corresponding eccentricity.083 × 106 mm3 6 6 At transfer only self weight is present. Solution The self weight is: wsw = 25 ( 0.2 × 0. The concrete is grade 40 and the prestress is transferred at 32 N/mm2 cube strength.9 kNm 8 8 At service the moment is: 44 Dr. 200 mm wide × 350 mm deep spans 10 m and carries 3 kN/m live load in addition to its dead weight.Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem A beam. Therefore: wL2 1.75 × 102 Mt = = = 21. The member is to be a Class 1 member. C.
37 N/mm 2 Hence: 45 Dr.243 P • f tc : The denominator stress is: σ tc = f tc − M t Z b = 16 − 21.37 ⎥ P ⎢ ⎣ −6.083 = 21.75 + 3] × 10 Ms = = = 59.Civil Engineering Design (1) wL2 [1.37 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 106 ≥ −0. from the previous table: f tt = −1 N/mm 2 f st = 0 N/mm 2 f tc = 0.33 × 40 = 13.083 = −6.5 × 32 = 16 N/mm 2 f sc = 0.37 N/mm 2 Hence: 1 ⎡1 4. C.33 N/mm 2 Next we determine the equations of the four lines: • f tt : The denominator stress is: σ tt = f tt − M t Z t = −1 − 21.9 4.0385e − 2. Caprani .4 kNm 8 8 2 The allowable stresses are.9 −4.083 × 106 ⎤ ⎡1 70 × 103 ⎤ ≥ ⎥ e + ⎢ −6. for a Class 1 member.
8 70 × 103 ⎤ ≤⎢ e + ⎥ ⎢ −1.57 ⎥ P ⎣ 14.8 70 × 103 ⎤ ≤⎢ e + ⎥ ⎢ 14.37 ⎥ P ⎣ 21.24 N/mm 2 Hence: 1 ⎡ 0.0115e + 0. To plot these lines. C.158e − 9.4 4.083 × 106 ⎤ ⎡ 0.24 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 106 ≤ −0.4 −4.668 P • f tc : The denominator stress is: σ sc = f sc − M s Z t = 13.8 4.21 P • f st : The denominator stress is: σ st = f st − M s Z b = 0 − 59.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1 ⎡1 −4.00135e + 0. note that the vertical intercepts are known and the x-axis values are also known to be: 46 Dr.33 − 59.57 N/mm 2 Hence: 1 ⎡ 0.083 × 106 ⎤ ⎡1 70 × 103 ⎤ ≥⎢ e + ⎥ ⎢ 21.24 ⎥ P ⎣ −1.083 = 14.784 P Notice that the 106 has been brought to the left so that we are working with larger numbers on the right hand sides.8 −4.083 = −1.57 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 106 ≤ −0. Caprani .37 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 106 ≥ −0.083 × 106 ⎤ ⎡ 0.
C.33 mm 70 × 103 A We plot the lines using these sets of points on each of the axes: ftt 106/P (106/N) 10 8 6 4 2 0 -150 -100 -50 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 50 100 150 Eccentricity (mm) ftc fsc fst For clarity in these notes.083 × 106 = = −58. Caprani . we zoom into the area of interest: 47 Dr.083 × 10 ) = = +58.Civil Engineering Design (1) − Z t −4.33 mm A 70 × 103 6 − Z b − ( −4.
5 Eccentricity (mm) 0 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 So from this figure. Caprani . C.4 P 106 P= 2.Civil Engineering Design (1) ftt 106/P (106/N) 3 ftc fsc fst 2.4 = 416 × 103 N = 416 kN The corresponding eccentricity is about 120 mm below the centroidal axis. which is about 2.5 2 1. Hence: 106 = 2. Obviously these values can be worked out algebraically. 48 Dr.5 1 0. however such exactitude is not necessary as prestress can only be applied in multiples of tendon force and eccentricities are to the nearest 10 mm practically. the minimum prestressing is the highest point in the region (or maximum y-axis value) permissible.4.
4 Eccentricity Limits and Tendon Profile Up to now we have only considered the critical location as defined by the position of the maximum moment: the mid-span of the simply supported beam. the governing inequalities (i.e. However. The only remaining variable is the eccentricity. we must change some aspect of the prestress also. Tension on Top at Transfer We determine an expression for the eccentricity in terms of the other knowns: P Pe M t + + ≥ f tt A Zt Zt e≥ Z t f tt ⎛ Z t M t ⎞ −⎜ + ⎟ P ⎝A P ⎠ Hence we have a lower limit for the eccentricity as: Z t Z t f tt − M t + A P elower ≥ − (11) 49 Dr. C. Thus far we have established an appropriate section and chosen a value for P. Caprani . Since the moments change along the length of a beam.Civil Engineering Design (1) 3. As we wish to limit possible tensile stresses. the stress limits) must apply at every section along the beam. which remains essentially constant along the length of the span. we only examine equations (1) and (4) corresponding to tension on the top at transfer and tension on the bottom in service. We have also found a value for the eccentricity at the critical location.
C. it can be seen that the cable limits follow the same profile as the bending moment diagrams at transfer and in service. and since P is also constant. 50 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) Tension on the Bottom in Service Using equation (4): ⎛ P Pe ⎞ M s + ≥ f st ⎟+ A Z Z ⎝ b ⎠ b Z f ⎛Z M ⎞ e ≥ b st − ⎜ b + s ⎟ αP ⎝ A αP ⎠ α⎜ Hence we have an upper limit for the eccentricity as: Z b Z b f st − M s + αP A eupper ≤ − (12) Since the upper and lower kerns (the Z t A and Z b A quantities) are constant for constant geometry. Caprani .
Solution In the previous example.33 mm A −Zb = +58.083 − M t .02 − t .083 kNm M st = Z b f st = ( −4.083 × 106 ) ( −1) = −4. x = −58. x 450 M = −59. x 450 elower = − 51 Dr.Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem For the beam of the previous example. C.33 mm A The ‘tension moments’ are: M tt = Z t f tt = ( 4. Caprani .33 + 450 M = −58. sketch the upper and lower eccentricities given a prestress of 450 kN.33 − 1.083 × 106 ) ( 0 ) = 0 kNm Hence for the lower limit we have: Z t Z t f tt − M t + A P −4.35 − t . the kerns were found to be −Zt = −58.
x 360 eupper = − Knowing the values of the bending moments at positions along the beam.00 4.x = 58.33 − s . Caprani .00 2.00 Distance Along Beam (m) In this figure the upper and lower eccentricities are very close at the critical section.Civil Engineering Design (1) And for the upper: Z b Z b f st − M s + αP A 0 − M s.33 + 0.00 8.00 10. A higher prestress would give ‘looser’ limits. This is because the chosen prestress is very close to the minimum possible from the permissible region.8 × 450 M = 58.00 6. 52 Dr. we can now plot the eccentricity limits: centroid low er upper 250 Distance from Soffit (mm) 200 150 100 50 0 0. C.
00 10. From the previous example the new eccentricity limits are: centroid 250 low er upper Straight Profile Distance from Soffit (mm) 200 150 100 50 0 0. we can find a solution to this problem.00 4.Civil Engineering Design (1) Debonding Notice from the eccentricity limits of the previous example that a straight cable/tendon profile will not work. However. By changing the prestress force along the length of the beam. Caprani . Hence the stresses will be acceptable in this zone also.00 2. Note that it appears that there remains a problem at the ends of the beam.00 Distance Along Beam (m) It can be seen that an eccentricity of 85 mm below the centroidal axis works.e.00 6. the cable force gradually increases in reality due to the transmission zone (i. Yet we know from the discussion on factory precasting of prestressed sections that straight tendons are preferable. C. the bond between the tendon and concrete).00 8. 53 Dr.
Caprani .00 6.Civil Engineering Design (1) The straight profile required the following variation of prestress: 700 600 500 Prestress (kN) 400 300 200 100 0 0. • From 3 to 5 m all 3 tendons are to act (Note that the prestress is symmetrical.00 Distance Along Beam (m) Note that the maximum prestress has been increased from 450 kN to 600 kN.00 8. C. each of 200 kN prestress: • From 0 to 1.5 to 3 m 2 tendons are to act.5 m only 1 tendon is to act.00 2. it is offset by the constructability of the member.00 10.00 4. Imagine there to be 3 tendons acting. Even thought he extra strand is an added expense. Note that the prestress steps up in units of 200 kN at two points. • From 1.) 54 Dr.
the bending moments. the section properties. Caprani . the governing stress limits must be checked at ‘every’ point along the length of the beam. Therefore the bond between the concrete and tendon is broken by using plastic tubing over the required length. all 3 tendons will be present and yet some are not to act. C. Hence for our beam. the layout will look like: (Note this is slightly unrealistic as vertical symmetry is maintained in reality.Civil Engineering Design (1) In a factory setting.) Briefly then for post-tensioned members in general. 55 Dr. and the prestress all may change along the length of a member: Mt and Ms Sagging Mt = Ms = 0 Mt and Ms Hogging In such beams.
= prestress force at transfer. Notation fp Ap Ep Ec Ag Ig P Pjack fc = prestress in strand or tendon. C. = strain.and post-tensioned PSC. Pt . Prestressing Losses 4. = strain in concrete due to shrinkage. = creep strain in concrete an infinite time after prestressing at SLS. Losses can be before or after transfer: • Before-transfer losses are the difference between what is applied by the hydraulic jack. = prestress force applied by jack (prior to before-transfer losses). 56 Dr. = modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) of prestressing steel. Ps = α Pt . = stress in concrete. The calculation of losses is different for pre. = gross second moment of area of concrete member. P and the force at SLS. = gross cross-sectional area of concrete member. = creep strain per unit of sustained stress. Pjack and what the concrete feels at transfer. = modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) of concrete. Caprani ε ε sh ε∞ φ .Civil Engineering Design (1) 4. • After-transfer losses are the difference between the transfer force. = cross-sectional area of prestressing tendon.1 Basis and Notation Recall that transfer is the moment at which the concrete first feels the prestress.
e . at a level y.e and Ap E pε c . elastic shortening loss in pre-tensioning is ‘before-transfer’. Hence. y = Pjack Ag + ( P e) y + M jack o y Ig Ig At the level of the strands. y = e . with associated stress and force losses of E pε c . Elastic Shortening Loss In pre-tensioning. 57 Dr. the strands are stressed before the concrete is cast.e Ec Since the strands are bonded to the concrete.2 Losses in Pre-Tensioned PSC 1. after jacking ( Pjack ) has been applied. Therefore. Hence.e = f c . ε c .e = Pjack Ag + Pjack e 2 Ig + M oe Ig And the concrete at the level of the strands has a strain of: ε c .e . the concrete is subjected to the stress: fc. C. Hence: Ap E p ⎛ Pjack Pjack e 2 M t e ⎞ ∆Pε = + + ⎜ ⎟ Ec ⎜ A I Ig ⎟ g ⎝ g ⎠ The concrete never feels the full jacking force since the strands shorten as the concrete strains. they undergo a loss of strain of the same amount. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) 4. the stress in the concrete at that level is: f c .
58 Dr. C. 3. Once again. The amount of shrinkage depends on the humidity and the surface area to volume ratio. Depending on the quality of the steel. It is due to a realignment of the steel fibres and is the same phenomenon as creep.Civil Engineering Design (1) 2. Hence it is ‘after-transfer’. Shrinkage Loss Concrete shrinks as it sets and for a period afterwards. relaxation losses can vary in the range of 3% to 8%. Stress ε = constant time Relaxation is ‘after-transfer’. Caprani . as the strands are bonded to the concrete they undergo the same strain. prestressing strand gradually loses its stress with time (like a guitar going out of tune). Relaxation Loss When maintained at a constant strain. Hence the loss of prestress is: ∆Psh = Ap E pε sh Shrinkage loss is long-term.
e The creep factor φ depends on a number of things such as concrete quality and its age when loaded. As creep loss contributes to α . when stress is kept constant: Strain σ = constant time Creep causes a strain in the concrete adjacent to the strands and over a long time is: ε ∞ = φ f c . an exact calculation is iterative. dead load and superimposed dead loads such as such as parapets and road pavement). Thus the strands slacken as before. Creep Loss Creep is the ongoing increase in strain with time. hence it is an ‘after-transfer’ loss.Civil Engineering Design (1) 4. 59 Dr. and the loss of force is: ∆Pcreep = Ap E pε ∞ = Ap E pφ f c . Caprani .e ⎡ α P α Pe 2 M e ⎤ = Ap E pφ ⎢ t + t + perm ⎥ Ig Ig ⎦ ⎢ Ag ⎥ ⎣ M perm is the moment due to the permanent loads such as the prestress. C. Creep is long term.
in the concrete adjacent to Tendon 1. resulting in a prestress loss in Tendon 1.3 Losses in Post-tensioned PSC 1. The strain due to the stressing of Tendon 2. This causes strain at the level of Tendon 1.2 = P2 ( P2e2 ) y + Ag Ig Note that the actual properties are approximated with the gross properties. The beam shortens during this process but this is compensated for. Two Tendons As a simple example. as it is jacked until the required prestress force is applied. Elastic Shortening Loss This loss only occurs in post-tensioning when there is more than one tendon. Tendon 1 is anchored and Tendon 2 is stressed. is: 60 Dr. Hence there is no elastic shortening loss to be allowed for at this stage. C. Ag and I g .Civil Engineering Design (1) 4. The stress due to Tendon 2 is: f c . take the following beam with two tendons: Tendon 1 is stressed first. Caprani . The operator applies prestress until the gauge indicates the required prestress force is applied.
For 4 tendons: 1.2 = This is the amount of strain lost in Tendon 1. 3. 2nd and 3rd. 3 and 4. 4. stressing the 2nd causes a loss in the 1st.Civil Engineering Design (1) 1 ⎛ P2 ( P2e2 ) e1 ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ Ec ⎜ A Ig ⎟ ⎝ g ⎠ ε c . Hence the first tendon has losses due to the stressing of Tendons 2. stressing the first tendon does not cause any losses. Caprani . 61 Dr. stressing the 4th causes losses in the 1st. Multiple Tendons Similar calculations can be made for any arrangement of tendons. 2. Hence the loss of prestress force is: Ap1 E p ⎛ P2 ( P2e2 ) e1 ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ Ec ⎜ A Ig ⎟ ⎝ g ⎠ ∆P2 = The stressing of Tendon 2 does not cause any losses in Tendon 2 – it only causes losses in tendons that have already been anchored. stressing the 3rd causes losses in the 1st and 2nd. the second due to the stressing of 3 and 4 and the third due to the stressing of 4 giving: ∆P2− 4 = + Ap1 E p ⎡ P2 + P3 + P4 ( P2e2 + Pe + P4e4 ) e1 ⎤ Ap 2 E p ⎡ P3 + P4 ( Pe + P4e4 ) e2 ⎤ 3 3 + + 3 3 ⎢ ⎥+ ⎢ ⎥ Ec ⎣ Ag Ig Ec ⎢ Ig ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ Ag ⎦ Ap 3 E p ⎛ P4 ( P4e4 ) e3 ⎞ ⎜ + ⎟ Ec ⎜ Ig ⎟ ⎝ Ag ⎠ Elastic shortening loss is ‘before-transfer’. C.
C. 3. Shrinkage Loss Calculation is as for pre-tensioned PSC and is an ‘after-transfer’ loss. Creep Loss Calculation is as for pre-tensioned PSC and is an ‘after-transfer’ loss. the loss is: ∆Pfric = Pjack − Pl = Pjack (1 − e − µθ ) 62 Dr. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) 2. Relaxation Loss Calculation is as for pre-tensioned PSC and is an ‘after-transfer’ loss. there is a friction between the tendon and the duct that prevents the interior parts of the beam/slab from feeling the full force: ‘live’ anchor friction dead end anchor Pjack Examining a portion of the tendon. Friction Curvature Loss When the jacking force is applied. 5. 4.
regardless of sign. Pjack θ P1 = Pjacke -µθ Example (jacked from left only) Jack Dead θ2 Pjack Anchor C θ1 A B θ3 At A: loss = Pjack (1 − e − µθ ) 1 At B: loss = Pjack (1 − e − µ (θ +θ ) ) 1 2 At C: loss = Pjack (1 − e − µ (θ +θ +θ ) ) 1 2 3 where θ1 + θ2 + θ3 is the aggregate change in angle from Pjack. Friction curvature loss happens between the jack and a-section.Civil Engineering Design (1) where θ is the aggregate change in angle from the jack (in radians) (the sum of the absolute values of each change in angle) and µ is the roughness (friction) coefficient. Caprani . 63 Dr. Therefore the section never feels the full jacking force and this loss is ‘before transfer’. C.
Civil Engineering Design (1) 6. Friction Wobble Loss This loss is due to ‘unintentional variation of the duct from the prescribed profile’: wobbly duct tendon friction This loss increases with distance from the jack and is given by: ∆Pwobble = Pjack (1 − e − µ kx ) where x = distance from jack. and k is a wobble coefficient (function of workmanship. C. distance between duct supports. This is a ‘before transfer’ loss. 64 Dr.). Caprani . stiffness of duct. etc.
C. Caprani . 65 Dr. Formulas are available which give the extent and magnitude of the draw in loss. Draw-In Loss Anchors consist of wedges that ‘draw in’ when the jack ceases to be applied: wedges wedge strand draw in Jack During stressing After jack is The draw in of the wedges can be up to 10 mm but the loss is generally local: Force Pjack Friction losses (curvature + wobble) Draw in Prestress force after friction and draw in losses Distance from live anchor Draw in losses are not transmitted more than about 5-10 m from the live anchor.Civil Engineering Design (1) 7. There is some debate about whether draw in should be considered to be ‘beforetransfer’ or ‘after-Transfer’ but it is safer to take it to be an ‘after-transfer’ loss.
The following diagram shows the strain diagram at three stages of loading: Stage 1 This is the strain diagram at transfer. Caprani . This is similar to the approach for ordinary reinforced concrete.1 Ultimate Moment Capacity The ULS moment capacity of a PSC section is calculated using the assumption that plane sections remain plane. Ultimate Limit State Design of PSC 5.Civil Engineering Design (1) 5. The strain in the concrete at steel level is compressive. There is one difference: • the strain in bonded prestress steel is equal to the strain caused by the initial prestress plus the change in strain in the concrete at the prestressing steel level. with magnitude of: 1 ⎛ Pt Pe 2 ⎞ ε ct = ⎜ + Ec ⎝ A I ⎟ ⎠ 66 Dr. C.
Hence the strain in the prestressing steel is now ε pt + ε ct . the change in strain in the prestressing steel is equal to that of the concrete at the steel level. it is only ε cpu that is not known. Stage 3 This is the strain diagram at the ultimate load. This can be obtained once a depth of neutral axis is found that balances horizontal forces. is related to the concrete strain at the top of the section by similar triangles: ⎛ dp − x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ε cpu = ε cu ⎜ The change in strain in the prestressing steel is. Provided there is a bond between the steel and concrete. ε cpu . by compatibility. Caprani . the same as ε cpu . C. 67 Dr. Final The final strain in the prestressing steel at ultimate load is thus: ε pu = ε pt + ε ct + ε cpu In this equation. The concrete strain at the steel level.Civil Engineering Design (1) The stress and strain in the prestressing steel are: f pt = Pt Ap ε pt = f pt Ep Stage 2 The applied moment is sufficient to decompress the concrete at the steel level.
00040 68 Dr. Caprani .Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem Determine the ultimate moment capacity of the section shown. The steel tendon has a transfer prestress of 1200 kN and the area of the strand is 1000 mm2.45fcu Fc s = 0.00615 ε pt = E p Ap (195 × 103 ) (1000 ) The strain in the concrete caused by the initial prestress is: 1 ⎛ Pt Pe 2 ⎞ ε ct = ⎜ + Ec ⎝ A I ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ 1200 × 103 (1200 × 103 ) ( 275 )2 ⎞ 1 = + ⎜ ⎟ 3 ⎟ 29.8 × 103 ⎜ 750 350 350 750 12 × × ⎝ ⎠ = 0.9x 750 650 Ap Beam Section εcpu Strain Diagram Pu Stress/Force Diagram Solution The initial strain in the tendon due to the prestress is: Pt 1200 × 103 = = 0. C. 350 εcu x 0. The elastic modulus for the prestressing steel is 195 kN/mm2 and the concrete is 45 N.
0035 ⎜ And so the final strain in the prestressing steel is: ⎛ 650 − x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ε pu = 0.9 x ) = 6379 x At the correct depth to the neutral axis we will have horizontal equilibrium of forces.00655 + 0. Caprani .0035 ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ The force in the concrete is: Fc = ( 0. Pu = Fc .45 × 45 )( 350 × 0. C.0035 ⎜ And the final force in the prestressing steel is: Pu = Ap E pε pu ⎡ ⎛ 650 − x ⎞ ⎤ = (1000 ) (195 × 103 ) ⎢0.00655 + 0.00655 + 0. the concrete strain at the level of the prestressing is: ⎛ 650 − x ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ x ⎠ ε cpu = 0.Civil Engineering Design (1) At failure.0035 ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎝ x ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎡ ⎛ 650 − x ⎞ ⎤ = 195 × 106 ⎢0. Hence we iteratively try to find this value of x: 69 Dr.
97 -291.992 Hence the moment capacity is: M u = Pu z = Pu ( d p − 0.45 × 314. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) x 350 250 300 315 314 314.4 ) = 1020 kNm 70 Dr. Caprani .4 Fc 2232563 1594688 1913625 2009306 2002928 2005479 Pu 1862250 2369250 2073500 2003083 2007568 2005771 Difference 370312.917 -4640.45 x ) = 2005771 × ( 650 − 0.5 -774563 -159875 6222.
similarly to ordinary reinforced members. Note that nominal links are required in PSC members.2 Ultimate Shear Design Background The shear design procedure for PSC is quite different from ordinary RC. there is one issue with PSC that can have a significant influence on shear design. θ P sinθ P P θ Bearing Also. C.Civil Engineering Design (1) 5. This is the vertical component of the prestress force which can have a significant beneficial effect. Caprani . However. the shear capacity depends on whether or not the section has cracked under the ultimate flexural moments at the section. It varies significantly from code to code. 71 Dr.
33 bv d vc ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 0. is the effective depth. is empirically give by: ⎛ f ⎞ M Vcr = ⎜1 − 0. is the ultimate tensile strength of the tendon. Caprani . Vcr . M 0 . is the moment required to remove 0.33 72 Dr. is the design shear strength of the concrete: 0.8 of the compressive stress at the level of the prestress: M0 M 0 = 0.25 ⎛ f cu ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 0. is the shear acting at the section. The cracked shear capacity. defined below.e where: f c .8 f c . C. is the shear width of the web/section.55 ps ⎟ vcbv d + o V ≥ 0.79 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ 1.1bv d f cu ⎜ f pu ⎟ M ⎝ ⎠ In which: M V is the moment acting at the section.e = I e 2 Ps Pe + s Ag Ig f ps f pu is the stress in the tendon at SLS.Civil Engineering Design (1) Shear Capacity for Cracked Sections A section is cracked in flexure if the moment is greater than a design cracking moment.25 ⎝ bv d ⎠ 0.
resisting the applied shear.67bh (f 2 t + 0. 73 Dr. C. Based on a Mohr’s circle analysis. In such section. the following equation is derived: Vco = 0.Civil Engineering Design (1) Shear Capacity for Uncracked Sections A section is uncracked if the applied moment is less than M 0 . Caprani .24 f cu . the principal tensile stress in the web is limited to f t = 0. And the remaining variables have their previous meaning.8 f t f cp ) + Vp In which: f cp is the compressive stress due to prestress at the centroidal axis: f cp = Ps A Vp is the vertical component of prestress at the section.
4bv = sv 0.87 f yv • V > Vc + 0.87 f yv dt Where: Asv sv f yv is the link area.4bv d : Shear links are used: Asv V − Vc = sv 0. from the compression face. is the characteristic strength of the links. Caprani .4bv d : Shear links are used: Asv 0. • V ≤ Vc + 0. ordinary or prestressed. C. dt 74 Dr.Vcr ] The shear design is: • V ≤ 0. is the depth to the furthest steel.Civil Engineering Design (1) Shear Design The design shear resistance at a section is: Uncracked: Vc = Vco Cracked: Vc = min [Vco . is the link spacing.5Vc : no links are required.
Solution First determine the following: Pt = Ap f s = (1803)( 0.8 × 1.24 f cu = 0. The concrete is grade 50.1) + 1893sin 3D 75 Dr.6 × 1750 ) = 1893 kN Ps 1893 × 103 = 6. has rib width of 200 mm and a depth of 1000 mm. as shown. Its area is 310 × 103 mm2 and its second moment of area is 36 × 109 mm4. C.67bh (f 2 t + 0.7 2 + 0.Civil Engineering Design (1) Example Problem A Y-beam.1 = 547.67 ( 200 × 1000 ) = 448.7 N/mm 2 Uncracked shear capacity: Vco = 0. Caprani .24 50 = 1. The area of prestressing steel is 1803 mm2 which has strength of 1750 N/mm2 and is stressed to 60% of its strength in service at an eccentricity of 290 mm. Note that the tendon is inclined by 3˚ at the section considered.2 + 99.1 N/mm 2 f cp = = 3 A 310 × 10 f t = 0.7 × 6. Check the section for a shear of 400 kN and associated moment of 800 kNm.8 f t f cp ) + Vp = 0.3 kN (1.
Caprani .7 = 605. use nominal links.33 Hence: ⎛ f ⎞ M Vcr = ⎜1 − 0.33 0. C.25 0.8 (10. Therefore.25 ⎛ f cu ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 0.78 N/mm 2 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 790 ⎠ ⎛ 50 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 0.79 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ 1.Civil Engineering Design (1) For the cracked shear capacity.8 f c .55 × 0.1( 200 × 790 ) 50 ( 800 = 605.e I e ⎛ 36 × 109 ⎞ = 0.4 kN The section is uncracked since M ≤ M 0 and so the design shear strength is 547.55 ps ⎟ vcbv d + o V ≥ 0.33 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 0.25 ⎝ 200 × 790 ⎠ = 0. 76 Dr.4 ≥ 111.78 × 200 × 790 ) + 400 × 103 ) ≥ 0.6 given 2 Ps Pe s f c .e = + Ag Ig 1893 × 103 (1893 × 10 ) ( 290 ) = + 310 × 103 36 × 109 = 10.1bv d f cu ⎜ f pu ⎟ M ⎝ ⎠ 1046 = (1 − 0. we have the following inputs: f ps f pu = 0.33 0.3 kN which is greater than the applied 400 kN.52 N/mm 2 3 2 M 0 = 0.25 ⎝ bv d ⎠ 0.52 ) ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 290 ⎠ = 1046 kNm 0.79 ⎛ 100 × 1803 ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 1.6 )( 0.
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