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This page takes a long time to load all the pictures Colours Patterns Tail Types Genotypes Disclaimer
WHAT TYPES OF BETTAS ARE THERE?
The Betta has been bred in many different types, having a variety of different colours, colour patterns and tail forms. The selective breeding began in S.E. Asia long ago, with breeding of the Plakat Morh, the true Fighting Fish of Thailand, Plakat Khmer, the Cambodian colour form, and the Plakat Cheen, the long-finned, ornamental variety. Modern breeding programmes have greatly extended the range of colours, fin types and patterns so that many combinations exist. These all derive from the Plakat Khmer and Plakat Cheen. The main forms and colour types are listed here, with a brief description of their genetics and breeding. At our hatchery, we are developing the Royal Blue/green complex, Crown Tails and the Double-tailed varieties, in an attempt to breed improved Double-tailed Turquoise and Royal Blue Bettas. Delta Tails and Half Moons will be a future breeding line. We also keep Red, Yellow and Cambodian Bettas. The pictures on this page are not necessarily of my fish but are images gathered from many places over time. I thank all those Betta growers and photographers whose pictures I have used for their assistance and co-operation. This is a free, educational page and all images are used for study purposes.
The Colours in Betta splendens
dReds Solid reds are non iridescent colours and must have the colour spread evenly over the body. A clean red is desirable, without iridescent colours and no fading. Reds range in hue from beautiful, vermillion reds to deep crimson and red/brown colours. The quality of the colour varies among strains, with most red Bettas showing some iridescence or other colours to some degree. Any opaque overlay detracts from a good red, giving rise to muted reds and pinks.
A brilliant cherry red is most desired in red Betta splendens without any iridescence or opaque colour to mask the solid red. The Red Loss factor causes Bettas that are red as juveniles to lose that colour as the mature. This factor is present in Cambodians and in yellows and apricot colours.
The ideal colour of a true Black Betta splendens resembles that of the Black Mollie. Black in Bettas is often a smoky black. Black Lace forms have transparent, smoky fins. Black is one of the most difficult colours to achieve, as the melano gene produces infertile Black females. Several crosses with other colours have tried to alleviate this problem, e.g. Melano x Celophane or yellows. The Melano x Black Lace lines are infertile; Steel Blue females x Melano males and Royal Blue females x Melano males have produced Blacks with considerable iridescence present.
A smoky Melano with some royal blue
Steel Blue is also sometimes called Metallic Blue. Steel Blue This colour has a metallic iridescence when compared to the Royal Blue Betta. Steel Blue results from the allele combination blbl.
25% Green. with a distinct blue hue. Royal Blue x Royal Blue gives 50% Royal. rich royal blue in the green/steel blue/royal blue complex. Green x Royal Blue gives 50% Royal. are rare. to distinguish them from the common green. 50% Steel Blue Turquoise is a variation of the "green" colouring (BlBl alleles). Corn-flower blues are the same genotype as royal blues but with a dark head and cornflower blue body.a characteristic of the dt gene. patterns and genetics. Colours that tend to be either a very pale yellow or a yellow-brown tinted are inferior colours. 25% Steel. 50% Green. with golden iridescence. The ideal colour lacks reds and greens. only the operculum is iridescent gold. This and the turquoise hues derive from the same alleles (BlBl). Fish with colours close to turquoise are often found in Royal Blue and Steel Blue spawns. Choice greens are dark green. Steel Blue x Royal Blue gives 50% Royal. The most common form has a dark head and royal blue body and fins. Turquoise.com/types. Royal blues with red factors may appear violet or purple when young and will lose it if the red-loss factor is present and so produce royal blues. A green RT female. forest green is rare. by colour. Green x Steel Blue gives all Royal Blue. Crossings: Steel Blue x Steel Blue gives100% Steel Blue off-spring. In my yellow/apricot strain. Royal Blue Male Veil Tail Yellow Brilliant lemon yellows or even a butter yellow are the best yellow colours produced so far. Yellow results from a gene that transforms red so sometimes the presence of red is also visible. solid royal blue is the choice form: the genotype Blbl or blBl gives a deep. It is often difficult to distinguish these two hues. Consistent colour across the fish is rare. Golden yellow Bettas. http://watershed3. Most Green Betta splendens have a bluish green hue but less so than a Turquoise variant. tailss. although some breeders claim to have produced a golden yellow. Green Green is the least fixed single colour and varies in shade from fish to fish and line to line. The choice colour contains tones of blue rather than any Green or Yellow shades. Page 2 of 9 Steel Blue.tripod. A turquoise HM males Royal Blue and Corn-flower Blue The consistent. Green. Green x Green gives100% Green.Types of Bettas. The much sought after. Notice the additional rays in the dorsal fin of this Double-tailed type-.html 1/28/2013 . and Green. Double Tailed Steel Blues. Turquoise A variant of the green. The ideal is a dark shade of turquoise. dark. Red loss occurs also occurs in Steel Blue. Royal Blue. Green and Turquoise Bettas have an interesting genetic inheritance pattern based on the Bl / bl alleles that show incomplete dominance and determine iridescence.
Page 3 of 9 AVT yellow. Chocolate variants can be bred to yellow to improve colour of both the yellow and the chocolate fry. with body flesh-coloured. "Pineapple" Bettas are yellows with a distinct black outline to the scales.tripod. tailss. Whites of this type have black eyes. including the eyes which appear red. patterns and genetics. Apricot yellows have a distinct pale orange tint to the yellow. with no pigmentation. Eyes are pigmented (not albino). by colour. but are actually a black and yellow mix. White Opaques appear dense white to opaque steel blue. colour from the body organs can cause the fish to look pink.html 1/28/2013 . left. Some yellow Bettas show a faint orange tint to the fins and are called Apricot.Types of Bettas. giving a net-like or pineapple appearance. Chocolate Chocolate Betta splendens look brown to the eye. not a colour type. white Bettas are a truly beautiful dense white due to the Opaque factor. White (Not albino) Some solid. Like Cellophane. A characteristic of any true Albino fish is that the body lacks all pigmentation. Pastels can be almost any pastel colour. There is an opaque form of each of the main colour types if the Op allele is present. Opaques (Pastels) The Opaque allele gives the fish a milky white overlay that dilutes the underlaying colours to pastel shades.com/types. True albino Bettas have red eyes. shows blue due to the colour rendering. http://watershed3. Apricot and Peach These are yellow pastels of varying intensities. A lutino form exists. A Peach Male Betta. Whites may have black eyes if they are not albino. The image. in which the eyes are yellow. To continue the fruity colours. including the eye colour in most cases. Clear or Cellophane Has completely transparent fins. these are completely colourless fish and may appear pinkish white or solid white if the opaque factor is present. too. Pineapple Bettas are pattern form. Albino Rare. The fish is white.
patterns and genetics. yellow. and concepts of "orange" varies with individual breeders. the body is one colour and the fins and tail are another colour. My Royal Blue strain throws purple or violet fry that appear violet at their first show of colour and darken to royal blues within a few months. Orange Betta Lavender. Truly Purple Betta splendens are also very new and rare and it appears that the colour results from blending red and blue. Page 4 of 9 Orange Orange Bettas are a new strain of Betta splendens. purple. Truly violet coloured Bettas are rare. bi-coloured Essentially. These colours should be well defined and high in contrast The butterfly type is a variety of bi-coloured patterning in Bettas. with some blue/green iridescence. and . imbellis. with dark fins (including the cambodian trait). black and white. chocolate brown. Solid colour forms should have no colour breaks or show any iridescence. Includes both iridescent and non-iridescent colours. lavender. as the red fades (due to the red-loss factor. Betta splendens or Betta imbellis? solid colours Any continuous. with light fins. solid colour covering the entire body as well as the fins gives a fish of one colour. L) as the fish mature . turquoise.html 1/28/2013 .Types of Bettas. the main colours being red.. Pictured is a specimen sold to me as a wild type Betta splendens but it looks very much like B. except for light reds that look more vermillion/orange than true orange and yellows that have a slight wash of orange/red. The many colours of aquarium-raised strains of Betta splendens can be grouped into several colour patterns: "wild type" The typical red/brown Betta splendens is a dull red.tripod. steel blue. The two species are closely related and the modern varieties of Betta splendens may descend from a hybrid of B. by colour.dark fins type bi-colour Cambodian http://watershed3. The body and fins can be any combination of the recognised solid colours . tailss. There are two types of Bi-coloured Betta: a) dark body types. royal blue.com/types. Light body . How "orange" is orange? Perhaps an agreed colour chart would help distinguish true colour classification. In each case.. imbellis. b) light body types. I have not seen any true orange Bettas in Australia. Purple and Violet A lavender Betta is genetically a Cambodian Betta splendens with extended Red and a layer of light iridescent blue-green. only two colours should appear on the fish. steel blue. green.
a modern attempt at reproducing the Tutweiler BF in Crown tails bred in Indonesia. Fins should display a distinct banded pattern. white or transparent zone. The bands should also encircle the body of the fish with a well defined oval shape. Cambodian Crown-tailed Betta butterfly A bi-coloured form in which the colour pattern of the body (which may be of any colour) partially blends into the transparent or white fins and tail (body / blend / fin edges).com/types. The strain is Cambodian based and not yet stable. "Tutweiler" BF Crown Tail A notable early expression of this pattern was in Tutweiler"s BF. BettaBiz displays some choice new varieties. patterns and genetics. However. new variegated types << Pictured is a beautiful fish. Butterfly: a variegated butterfly type in which the band near the body is particularly wide. displayed on the California Betta Society web page. this pattening is more frequently encountered.tripod. the "Tutweiler" BF) << Beautiful tri-coloured "Butterfly" types: while not a true BF in the strict sense. Some butterfly trains are tri-coloured. Claire McHendrie's tri-coloured Butterfly: note the enhanced dorsal fin and the lack of ventral fins in this fish. Butterfly Betta. tailss. tri-coloured Butterflies (incl. with strong contrast and well defined edges.html 1/28/2013 . Variegated types show beautiful patterning that may or may not match the "butterfly" look. Above.Types of Bettas. is Diwa's "Tutweiler". http://watershed3. It shows the trend in modern breeding lines for colour and pattern development. Page 5 of 9 The pla kat kmer: a pinkish or white body with coloured fins (normally red) was the original Cambodian. in which the body is paler than the band closest to the body. This is a sub-group of the bi-coloured Betta splendens. which ideally is separated from the body by a narrow. that pattern was not a fixed strain. Both light bodied and dark bodied forms exist. Choice Butterfies have a coloured body with a white blend into the fins and then a final blend back to the body colour towards the edge of the fins. The effect is to create an oval band around the fish. by colour.
blue and steel blue. deadly in females. metallic blue-green iridescence* green iridescence* removes red. colour varies from cherry red to vermillion. causes spread of iridescence over body and fins produces an opaque. Tri-colours fit in this category. green.com/types. COLOUR INHERITANCE IN BETTAS There are four layers of color--the yellow is the bottom most. http://watershed3. lower case denotes a recessive or semi-dominant trait. white coating on the body and fins. then black. colour blotches streaked fins and butterfly trait all red.tripod. present in all pastel colours. notation: [+ denotes wild or "normal" form. Many modern Bettas fit this category. The fins of the choice Coloured Marble show a sharp-edged mix of light and dark colours (red. all red colour fades as the fish matures. dark spots like freckles. by colour. white and some Cambodians dilutes colours by reducing melanin. and b) the Coloured Marble.Types of Bettas. revealing the other colours if present. present in yellow. Two types of Marble Betta exist: a) the traditional Marble or Piebald. and the iridescent layer is upper most. which is a dark bodied fish with a white head or face and lacking in the colours red. upper case denotes dominance over +. A true butterfly would have a well defined colour break where the fins are blue in this specimen. limits black black males. and steel blue) and the face and chin are white or pink / salmon coloured. Page 6 of 9 marbled White or salmon pink faced Bettas in which the colours are splashed or blotched with no defined borders between the body and the fins or tail. tailss. Thus. green.) w white eye c Cambodian b black or m melano Si spread Iridocytes Op opaque bl Bl nr non-Red b blond L red-Loss mb marbled pattern Vf variegated fins ER (or R ) extended red recessive recessive recessive dominant dominant incomplete dominance incomplete dominance recessive recessive dominant recessive dominant dominant white outer ring to the eyes. Colour Genotypes. speckled In this colour pattern. depending on other factors present. A Coloured Marble multicoloured "Multicoloured" includes those fish that do not fit into any of the above mentioned pattern categories and have two or more contrasting colours. red. opaque and variegated alleles. << Pictured left: a tricolour with Cambodian.html 1/28/2013 . blue. the body and fins are speckled with irrigular. ++ or +w or w+ give normal coloured eyes and ww gives white eye. patterns and genetics.
by colour. anal fin for sizean effect of the dt allele that imparts additional rays to the dorsal fin.Types of Bettas. Triple Tails are very rare. evenly sized caudal fins. Breeding from this fish may improve colour depth in yellows and. This fish almost has perfect. The dt allele in a single dose is used in breeding to give improved tails and dorsal fin count (bred from one parent only and therefore not expressed as the recessive Even dt-splits show an enhanced characteristic). Even dt-splits from this line will show improved dorsal fins. How would you describe this fish? A dark bodied bi-colour or cellophane? This is a fish showing the red-loss factor. in which there DT Melano-Yellow Butterfly male are two distinct tails (two caudal peduncles) and not just a split in a I have bred from a fish very similar to the above single tail: specimen. L. the dorsal fin mirrors the anal fin in approx. ww & dtdt.html 1/28/2013 . Notice how the dorsal fin (upper most fin) almost matches the lower most. P veil tail dominant: long. drooping tail dt double-tail recessive: a true double caudal fin. Blbl or blBl gives royal blue. It also has the recessive white eye and doubletail factors. of course. Heart Tails have a partially fused twin caudal fin that gives them their characteristic shape. throw nice trailing DTs if the female carries that allele. turquoise. dorsal fin. too. which is hard to achieve in DTs.tripod. has a tail form that is better than the wild form and approaches the delta-tail shape. His body was also pineapple patterned. patterns and genetics. dorsal and anal fins fused as one entire fin (rare). size and shape and has additional rays. >> Round-tail Male juvenile.com/types. corn-flower and royal blue colours. Fuse Tails have caudal. Multi-DTs. the "wild form" tail type Female Round-tail Betta The specimen pictured at the right. blue-green. except that the fins were outlined in royal blue. the Bl & bl alleles determines steel blue. http://watershed3. tailss. It was bred from a Red strain. Fuse Tails and Triple Tails are all due to the dt allele. BlBl gives green and blbl gives steel-blue.B. Page 7 of 9 *N.each scale was outlined in black against a pale body. Above: DT Steel Blue Male Heart Tails. "Quasimoto" Alleles for Fin type + round-tail All alleles dominant or recessive against this allele.
Note the long. straight edges to tail fin desired in this trait. with multiple branching of the rays of the fins. Page 8 of 9 Delta Tail recessive: Greek D shaped tail. recessive fin rays extend beyond the fin webbing: this is usually a single. A turquoise HM males: the tail spread is <180o. tailss.tripod. triple ray and quadruple ray (double-doubles!) extentions. with wide spread but less than 180o. One of improved delta tails Delta Tail hm half moon recessive: Possibly a multiple factor inheritance is expressed in this type: tail shaped like a capital D. Note the double-ray extentions in the caudal fin. extending ray.Types of Bettas. double and delta-tailed forms to give considerable variation. double rays. This type is becoming very popular Crown tails are also crossed with other tail forms such as short. Dorsal and anal fins are also enhanced with this trait.com/types. I have no definite information regarding the allele(s) for this trait. by colour.html 1/28/2013 . in this photograph. reflecting the attitudes and experience of some growers who have experienced variable (and http://watershed3. held well. an enhanced form of the Delt tail. possibly a multiple factor inheritance. extended. double ray extensions like an improved combtailed Betta. long. One of Sherri Kish's HM Bettas. to give a semicircular outline with caudal fin spread of 180o. with double ray. p comb tail Many so-called Half-Moons (HMs) do not have the full 180o spread and are sometimes known as "Super Delta" Tails. other fins have long extensions. recessive crown tails. There is considerable variation in this trait. One of Indra's Java Crown Tails flaring. A new type originating in Asia in the 1990s. "clown tails" The name "clown tails" is a corruption or 'crown' tails. patterns and genetics.. a new trait caudal fins have long.
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