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WX RADAR

WEATHER RADAR
Ground based

Antenna of the first KNMI weather radar

WEATHER RADAR
Airborne

Pilatus PC-12

WEATHER RADAR

Airborne weather RADAR


Weather radar operates on the same principle as primary radar with a few minor differences. Small wavelength, about 3 cm.
This allows detection of water droplets

Frequency: About 10 GHz. The antenna can be tilted to find cloud tops. The beam can be altered to map the ground Some systems also have doppler mode.

Basic Specs
Wavelength : Minimum range: Maximum range: Scan movement: Scan angle: Stabilization: 3,2 cm 0,2 NM 200 300 NM 15 /minute 90 to 120 deg L/R Gyro 20 25 degrees pitch and roll. 3 5 degrees. Variable.

Beam width: PRF:

Typical modern radar antenna


Few side lobes, efficient. No vacuum microwave transmitter Doppler capable.

Side lobes

Mapping beam
The signal from the radar antenna can be altered to scan the ground below. The radar system can then be used to map the ground ahead.

Doppler mode
Modern airborne wx radar systems can operate in doppler mode. Doppler mode can be used to detect turbulence in showers. YOU CAN NOT DETECT CLEAR AIR TURBULENCE!

Controls and indications

B777 EFIS Control panel

capt

fo

http://www.meriweather.com/777/glare-777.html

Controls and indications

Controls and indications


B777 WX radar panel

Controls and indications

Color mapping
B757/767

http://www.artietheairplane.com/radar.htm

Color mapping
B757/767

Range display

Antenna tilt
By adjusting antenna tilt you can find the height of cloud tops relative to your flight path.

Antenna tilt
Apply the 1:60 rule to calculate the tops.

Old school radar systems


EKCO E120 Weather Radar System

http://www.ekco-radar.co.uk/halsall/E120.php

Monochrome radar screens


Old radar screens are monochrome. Plotting color gradients can not be done.

Monochrome radar screens


Solution: The Iso-Echo contour system display developed by EKCO in 1951.

Bristol Britannia with Ekco E120

Latest developments

XM satellite link

XM satellite link