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frequenciesFormules General Navigation Departure L x cos x 60 Earts Convergence L x sin Conversion Angle x L x sin Vertical Speed (ft/min) gradient

radient (%) x GS Rate of Descent 5 x GS on a 3 (=5,2%) Schaalberekening (Mercator) o S = S0 / cos o S = S0 x sec ( sec = 1/cos) Constant of Cone (Lambert) C.C = sin x T Mar off-track Distance (Track Distance/230) x L