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Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to "nanotech") is the manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter that occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size. Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Through its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the USA has invested 3.7 billion dollars. The European Union has invested 1.2 billion and Japan 750 million dollars. Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, etc. The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale. Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in medicine, electronics, biomaterials and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.
1 Origins 2 Fundamental concepts 2.1 Larger to smaller: a materials perspective 2.2 Simple to complex: a molecular perspective 2.3 Molecular nanotechnology: a long-term view 3 Current research 3.1 Nanomaterials 3.2 Bottom-up approaches 3.3 Top-down approaches 3.4 Functional approaches 3.5 Biomimetic approaches 3.6 Speculative
Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies. Meanwhile. and Robert Curl. The term "nano-technology" was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974. the term was used regarding subsequent work with related graphene tubes (called carbon nanotubes and sometimes called Bucky tubes) which suggested potential applications for nanoscale electronics and devices. Also in 1986. in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. exemplified by the Royal Society's report on nanotechnology. Inspired by Feynman's concepts.1 Health and environmental concerns 7 Regulation 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Origins Main article: History of nanotechnology The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Some . who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Eric Drexler independently used the term "nanotechnology" in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. C60 was not initially described as nanotechnology. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto. and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. Binnig. which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003. the field garnered increased scientific. and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989. Thus. K. Richard Smalley. political. emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler's theoretical and public work. the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds. Quate and Gerber also invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year. though it was not widely known. Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology.4 Tools and techniques 5 Applications 6 Implications 6. which proposed the idea of a nanoscale "assembler" which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology. For example. and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. The microscope's developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986. commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. In the early 2000s. Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute (with which he is no longer affiliated) to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.
typical carbon-carbon bond lengths. are in the range 0. the smallest cellular life-forms. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities. the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma. In its original sense.S. and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles. Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology. which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and established funding for research on the nanoscale. high performance products. To put that scale in another context.15 nm. nanophotonics and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology. beginning in the U. Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. are around 200 nm in length. of a meter. goals. Fundamental concepts Larger to smaller: a materials perspective . nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens. Members of the fullerene family are a major subject of research falling under the nanotechnology umbrella. On the other hand. materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete. is a representative member of the carbon structures known as fullerenes.12–0. Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount an average man's beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face. By comparison. which are approximately a quarter of a nm diameter) since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules. Buckminsterfullerene C60. nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent. such devices are on a larger scale and come under the description of microtechnology. In the "top-down" approach. The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size that phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device. These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturised versions of an equivalent macroscopic device. nanomechanics. The lower limit is set by the size of atoms (hydrogen has the smallest atoms. nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up. or 10−9. In the "bottom-up" approach. By the mid-2000’s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2 nm. and applications. the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. One nanometer (nm) is one billionth. nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics. or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule. By convention. with the National Nanotechnology Initiative. also known as the buckyball.
as well as quantum mechanical effects. enabling unique applications. optical. Image of reconstruction on a clean Gold(100) surface. the so-called quantum realm. but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics. Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale. Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. thermal and catalytic properties of materials. insoluble materials may become soluble (gold). For instance. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less. there are many examples of self-assembly based on molecular recognition in biology. Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale. most notably Watson–Crick . Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale. a number of physical (mechanical.Main article: Nanomaterials Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. opaque substances can become transparent (copper). quantum effects can become significant when the nanometer size range is reached. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. Thus. can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. as visualized using scanning tunneling microscopy. or the specific folding of the protein itself. Nevertheless. for example the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole. seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical. etc. The positions of the individual atoms composing the surface are visible. Such bottom-up approaches should be capable of producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than topdown methods. These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. However. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials. electrical. which is chemically inert at normal scales. Mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. stable materials can turn combustible (aluminum). Simple to complex: a molecular perspective Main article: Molecular self-assembly Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. Additionally. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level. The Watson–Crick basepairing rules are a direct result of this. as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate. A material such as gold.) properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. These include statistical mechanical effects.
a molecular actuator. namely. . and should be clearly distinguished from. sometimes called molecular manufacturing. bearings. This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to. and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator. They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor.basepairing and enzyme-substrate interactions. The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler's book Nanosystems. In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale. An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means. put forth by Carlo Montemagno. non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage. a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Drexler and other researchers have proposed that advanced nanotechnology. stochastically optimised biological machines can be produced. perhaps using biomimetic principles. as all one has to position atoms on other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. and structural members) that would enable programmable. ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles. Yet another view. positional assembly to atomic specification. describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. it is known that sophisticated. When the term "nanotechnology" was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. is that mechanosynthesis is impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules. although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means. See nanotube nanomotor for more examples. Molecular nanotechnology: a long-term view Main article: Molecular nanotechnology Molecular nanotechnology. The premise was that molecular scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler. put forward by the late Richard Smalley. the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles. Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley. However. Another view. motors. a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in addition to natural ones. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal. Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible. is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines.
DNA nanotechnology utilizes the specificity of Watson–Crick basepairing to construct well-defined structures out of DNA and other nucleic acids. Development of applications incorporating semiconductor nanoparticles to be used in the next generation of products. bispeptides). Nanomaterials with fast ion transport are related also to nanoionics and nanoelectronics. molecular self-assembly seeks to use concepts of supramolecular chemistry. This technique fits into the larger subfield of nanolithography. Nanoscale materials are sometimes used in solar cells which combats the cost of traditional Silicon solar cells. and molecular recognition in particular.Current research Nanomaterials The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions. and various nanoparticles and nanorods. Progress has been made in using these materials for medical applications. This DNA tetrahedron is an artificially designed nanostructure of the type made in the field of DNA nanotechnology. Each edge of the tetrahedron is a 20 base pair DNA double helix. and each vertex is a three-arm junction. such as display technology. lighting. such as carbon nanotubes and other fullerenes. Approaches from the field of "classical" chemical synthesis (inorganic and organic synthesis) also aim at designing molecules with well-defined shape (e. useful as a molecular switch. solar cells and biological imaging. see quantum dots. More generally. to cause single-molecule components to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation. Graphical representation of a rotaxane. Atomic force microscope tips can be used as a nanoscale "write head" to deposit a chemical upon a surface in a desired pattern in a process called dip pen nanolithography.g. Bottom-up approaches These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies. Top-down approaches . see Nanomedicine. most present commercial applications of nanotechnology are of this flavor. Nanoscale materials can also be used for bulk applications. Interface and colloid science has given rise to many materials which may be useful in nanotechnology.
or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. For an example see rotaxane. Functional approaches These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled. Nanocellulose is a potential bulk-scale application. These could then be used as single-molecule components in a nanoelectronic device. Molecular nanotechnology is a proposed approach which involves manipulating single molecules in finely . Synthetic chemical methods can also be used to create synthetic molecular motors. Peter Grünberg and Albert Fert received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2007 for their discovery of Giant magnetoresistance and contributions to the field of spintronics. For example. Many technologies that descended from conventional solid-state silicon methods for fabricating microprocessors are now capable of creating features smaller than 100 nm. causing the nanocrystals to emit visible light. this technique is used routinely to create sub-100 nm sections of material for analysis in Transmission electron microscopy. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology. including use of viruses and lipid assemblies. to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. or even deposit material when suitable pre-cursor gasses are applied at the same time. which is then followed by an etching process to remove material in a top-down method. Giant magnetoresistance-based hard drives already on the market fit this description. Speculative These subfields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield. as do atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. Focused ion beams can directly remove material.These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly. which are related to microelectromechanical systems or MEMS. with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created. Bionanotechnology is the use of biomolecules for applications in nanotechnology. Molecular scale electronics seeks to develop molecules with useful electronic properties. Atomic force microscope tips can be used as a nanoscale "write head" to deposit a resist. Biomineralization is one example of the systems studied. such as in a so-called nanocar. falling under the definition of nanotechnology.  Bionics or biomimicry seeks to apply biological methods and systems found in nature. Biomimetic approaches This device transfers energy from nano-thin layers of quantum wells to nanocrystals above them. Solid-state techniques can also be used to create devices known as nanoelectromechanical systems or NEMS.
much like in a phonograph but on a much smaller scale. Tools and techniques There are several important modern developments. newer scanning probe microscopes have much higher resolution. and many of its proposed techniques are beyond current capabilities. . A microfabricated cantilever with a sharp tip is deflected by features on a sample surface. allowing the deflection to be measured and assembled into an image of the surface. has proposed four states of nanotechnology that seem to parallel the technical progress of the Industrial Revolution.e. A laser beam reflects off the backside of the cantilever into a set of photodetectors. Nevertheless. since they are not limited by the wavelength of sound or light. Due to the popularity and media exposure of the term nanotechnology. although these are only used rarely and informally. reversibly and externally controlled though a fusion of information science and materials science. This is more theoretical than the other subfields. Various techniques of nanolithography such as optical lithography. Programmable matter seeks to design materials whose properties can be easily. progress on innovative materials and methodologies has been demonstrated with some patents granted about new nanomanufacturing devices for future commercial applications. the words picotechnology and femtotechnology have been coined in analogy to it. atomic) nature of matter and the possibility of exponential growth. Because of the discrete (i. one of the architects of the USA's National Nanotechnology Initiative. but well-understood fundamentals of manufacturing. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology. this stage is seen as the basis of another industrial revolution. this is still a slow process because of low scanning velocity of the microscope. Feature-oriented scanning methodology suggested by Rostislav Lapshin appears to be a promising way to implement these nanomanipulations in automatic mode. There are hopes for applying nanorobots in medicine. There are other types of scanning probe microscopy. X-ray lithography dip pen nanolithography. which also progressively helps in the development towards nanorobots with the use of embedded nanobioelectronics concepts. progressing from passive nanostructures to active nanodevices to complex nanomachines and ultimately to productive nanosystems. deterministic ways. electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography were Typical AFM setup. However. Mihail Roco. Although conceptually similar to the scanning confocal microscope developed by Marvin Minsky in 1961 and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) developed by Calvin Quate and coworkers in the 1970s. not necessarily using novel nanoscale-emergent properties. Productive nanosystems are "systems of nanosystems" which will be complex nanosystems that produce atomically precise parts for other nanosystems. Nanorobotics centers on self-sufficient machines of some functionality operating at the nanoscale. but it may not be easy to do such a thing because of several drawbacks of such devices.controlled. The tip of a scanning probe can also be used to manipulate nanostructures (a process called positional assembly).
 At present. atomic layer deposition. with new ones hitting the market at a pace of 3–4 per week. Trousers and socks have been infused with nanotechnology so that they . and further including molecular self-assembly techniques such as those employing di-block copolymers. surface coatings. These techniques include chemical synthesis. feature-oriented scanning approach. Carbon allotropes used to produce gecko tape. Another group of nanotechnological techniques include those used for fabrication of nanotubes and nanowires.also developed.[citation needed ] Applications Main article: List of nanotechnology applications As of August 21. In contrast. Most applications are limited to the use of "first generation" passive nanomaterials which includes titanium dioxide in sunscreen. Further applications allow tennis balls to last longer. focused ion beam machining. paints and outdoor furniture varnishes. Lithography is a top-down fabrication technique where a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern. it is expensive and time-consuming for mass production but very suitable for laboratory experimentation. MBE allows scientists to lay down atomically precise layers of atoms and. for example. Alfred Y. 2008. the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies estimates that over 800 manufacturer-identified nanotech products are publicly available. clothing. they can be used for carving out structures on surfaces and to help guide self-assembling structures. Arthur. stresssensitive Transfersome vesicles. and cerium oxide as a fuel catalyst. bottom-up techniques build or grow larger structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. and even bowling balls to become more durable and have a harder surface. build up complex structures. and Art C. and are extensions in the development of scientific advancements rather than techniques which were devised with the sole purpose of creating nanotechnology and which were results of nanotechnology research. Scanning probe microscopy is an important technique both for characterization and synthesis of nanomaterials. based on responsive nanomaterials. Researchers at Bell Telephone Laboratories like John R. Samples made by MBE were key to the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect for which the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded. and molecular vapor deposition. self-assembly and positional assembly. By using. Cho. MBE is also widely used to make samples and devices for the newly emerging field of spintronics. Atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. are under development and already approved for human use in some countries. disinfectants and household appliances. much as manufactured items are made. However. silver in food packaging. golf balls to fly straighter. and some food products. Important for research on semiconductors. By designing different tips for these microscopes. Gossard developed and implemented MBE as a research tool in the late 1960s and 1970s. Another variation of the bottom-up approach is molecular beam epitaxy or MBE. surface coatings. cosmetics. in the process. nanoimprint lithography. those used in semiconductor fabrication such as deep ultraviolet lithography. zinc oxide in sunscreens and cosmetics. new therapeutic products. such as the ultradeformable. The top-down approach anticipates nanodevices that must be built piece by piece in stages. The project lists all of the products in a publicly accessible online database. electron beam lithography. Dual polarisation interferometry is one tool suitable for characterisation of self assembled thin films. atoms or molecules can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe microscopy techniques. The precursors of these techniques preceded the nanotech era.
regardless of interest in the transformative possibilities of more ambitious and far-sighted work. from the use of the term by scientists and entrepreneurs to garner funding. and the like” which will “end up with a few suppliers selling low margin products in huge volumes. goals of the sort in molecular manufacturing proposals. ." Further applications which require actual manipulation Nanostructures provide this surface or arrangement of nanoscale components await further research. Public health research agencies. the term still connotes such ideas. Nanotechnology may have the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioner's office and at home. or is forming already. This study concludes that much of what is sold as “nanotechnology” is in fact a recasting of straightforward materials science. Here is a simulation of such a nanowire. some groups advocate that nanotechnology be regulated by governments. which is leading to a “nanotech industry built solely on selling nanotubes. faster. Some nanoparticle products may have unintended consequences. which lets technologies branded with the term 'nano' are sometimes little related to water droplets roll down the inclined and fall far short of the most ambitious and transformative technological plane. Video game consoles and personal computers may become cheaper. For these reasons. These particles are then flushed into the waste water stream and may destroy bacteria which are critical components of natural ecosystems. Others counter that overregulation would stifle scientific research and the development of beneficial innovations. According to Berube. as suggested by nanotoxicology research. Researchers have discovered that bacteriostatic silver nanoparticles used in socks to reduce foot odor are being released in the wash. and contain more memory thanks to nanotechnology. The National Science Foundation (a major distributor for nanotechnology research in the United States) funded researcher David Berube to study the field of nanotechnology. farms. One of the major applications of nanotechnology is in the area of nanoelectronics with MOSFET's being made of small nanowires ~10 nm in length. and waste treatment processes. Though with superhydrophobicity. such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are actively conducting research on potential health effects stemming from exposures to nanoparticles. Implications Main article: Implications of nanotechnology An area of concern is the effect that industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials would have on human health and the environment. there may be a danger that a "nano bubble" will form.will last longer and keep people cool in the summer. nanowires. His findings are published in the monograph Nano-Hype: The Truth Behind the Nanotechnology Buzz. Cars are being manufactured with nanomaterials so they may need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future. Bandages are being infused with silver nanoparticles to heal cuts faster.
neurological disease and aging".Public deliberations on risk perception in the US and UK carried out by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society found that participants were more positive about nanotechnologies for energy applications than for health applications. Scotland. the particles settled in the brain and lungs. can be as harmful for the lungs as asbestos is. heart disease. A major study published more recently in Nature Nanotechnology suggests some forms of carbon nanotubes – a poster child for the “nanotechnology revolution” – could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities. so called nanofibers. the insurability of nanotechnology is contested. including director of the Woodrow Wilson Center's Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies David Rejeski. Fibers larger than 5 micrometer were capsuled in the lungs where they caused inflammations (a precursor for cancer like mesothelioma). but ultimately rejected it. Cambridge. Massachusetts in 2008 considered enacting a similar law. So those sorts of materials need to be handled very carefully. with health applications raising moral and ethical dilemmas such as cost and availability. A newspaper article reports that workers in a paint factory developed serious lung disease and nanoparticles were found in their lungs. namely cancer. There is significant debate about who is responsible for the regulation of . and public engagement. Paull and Lyons (2008) have called for an exclusion of engineered nanoparticles in food. California is currently the only city in the United States to regulate nanotechnology. risk research strategy. Without state regulation of nanotechnology. Health and environmental concerns Main articles: Health implications of nanotechnology and Environmental implications of nanotechnology Researchers have found that when rats breathed in nanoparticles. Relevant for both research on and application of nanotechnologies. In experiments the scientists have seen how mice breathed nanofibers of silver. in everything from aircraft wings to tennis rackets. who contributed to the article on carbon nanotubes said "We know that some of them probably have the potential to cause mesothelioma. which led to significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response and that nanoparticles induce skin aging through oxidative stress in hairless mice. A two-year study at UCLA's School of Public Health found lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxide showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree "linked to all the big killers of man. the availability of private insurance for potential damages is seen as necessary to ensure that burdens are not socialised implicitly. Regulation Main article: Regulation of nanotechnology Calls for tighter regulation of nanotechnology have occurred alongside a growing debate related to the human health and safety risks of nanotechnology. This scientists warn for in the publication "Toxicology Sciences" after experiments with mice. Experts. Extremely small fibers." In the absence of specific regulation forthcoming from governments. Anthony Seaton of the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Edinburgh. Nanofibers are used in several areas and in different products. have testified that successful commercialization depends on adequate oversight. Berkeley.
reproductive technologies. biotechnology. Stakeholders concerned by the lack of a regulatory framework to assess and control risks associated with the release of nanoparticles and nanotubes have drawn parallels with bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow" disease). concludes that there is insufficient funding for human health and safety research. enhanced labelling and additional safety data development requirements in relation to certain forms of nanotechnology. Some regulatory agencies currently cover some nanotechnology products and processes (to varying degrees) – by “bolting on” nanotechnology to existing regulations – there are clear gaps in these regimes. and recommended that “manufacturers of products that fall under extended producer responsibility regimes such as end-of-life regulations publish procedures outlining how these materials will be managed to minimize possible human and environmental exposure” (p. The Center for Nanotechnology in Society has found that people respond differently to nanotechnologies based upon application – with participants in public deliberations more positive about nanotechnologies for energy than health applications – suggesting that any public calls for nano regulations may differ by technology sector.msu. and as a result there is currently limited understanding of the human health and safety risks associated with nanotechnology. nuclear energy. Reflecting the challenges for ensuring responsible life cycle regulation. thalidomide. the Institute for Food and Agricultural Standards (https://www. worker and environmental standards. Davies (2008) has proposed a regulatory road map describing steps to deal with these shortcomings. Dr. destruction and recycling. chief science advisor to the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies. and asbestosis. Andrew Maynard. They also propose that NGOs and other citizen groups play a meaningful role in the development of these standards. with delayed marketing approval. As a result. xiii).edu/~ifas/) has proposed that standards for nanotechnology research and development should be integrated across consumer. genetically modified food. The Royal Society report identified a risk of nanoparticles or nanotubes being released during disposal. See also Main article: Outline of nanotechnology Bionanoscience Energy applications of nanotechnology List of emerging technologies List of software for nanostructures modeling Materiomics Molecular design software Molecular mechanics Nanoengineering Nanobiotechnology Nanofluidics Nanohub Nanometrology Nanoscale networks Nanotechnology education Nanotechnology in water treatment . some academics have called for stricter application of the precautionary principle.nanotechnology.
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