I

Ðû¦è[ªHari:

Hi Hema, What's new?

has played (has + past participle) =

(óÀª ›ï°÷ª, ÔÙæ¨ Nø™-ÿ§õª?)

÷ô¢ÚÛª Îè¯è[ª.

Hema: Every thing OK. Thank you. How is
the world with you?

(ÍÙê¦ ò°Þ¥û¶ ÑÙC. ìªîµyö° Ñû¦oîËÂ?)
Hari: Good so far, Thanks.

(Ïí£pæ¨ ÷ô¢ÚÛª ò°Þ¥û¶ ÑÙC.)
Hema: I've (I have) been waiting here for the
bus for the past twenty minutes. It
hasn't turned up. By the way, Where
are you coming from?

(ñúà ÚÁú£Ù 20 ENª-ÿ§-õªÞ¥ Óë]ªô¢ª àŸ«ú£ªhû¦oìª. ÍC Ïí£pæ¨÷ô¢ÚÛª ô¦ö¶ë]ª. ú£¸ô-Ú¥F,
ìªîµy-ÚÛ\è… ìªÙ# ÷ú£ªh-û¦o÷±?)
turn up = ô¦÷è[Ù, áô¢÷è[Ù
by the way- topic ÷«ô¢a-è¯-EÚ¨ î¦è¶ ÷«å
Hari: From college. I have been going
round the college for my certificates
for the past three days. They haven't
(have not) made them ready yet. The
clerk hasn't (has not) been attending
college since the college reopened
last week.

(÷´è[ª ôÁV-õªÞ¥ ú£Jd-íƇ-·Úåx ÚÁú£Ù ÚÛü‹-ø‹õ
àŸªå«d Aô¢ª-Þœª-꟪û¦o. î¦RxÙêŸ÷ô¢ÚÛª î¦æ¨E
·ôè† à¶óŸª-ö¶ë]ª. Ú¨Ùë]æ¨ î¦ô¢Ù ÚÛü‹-ø‹õ êµJ#-ì-í£pæ¨ ìªÙ# Î ÚÛxôÂ\ ô¦÷è[Ù ö¶ë]ª)
Hema: I understand your trouble.
have been waiting, have
been going, has been attending
verbs
form- have been + ing/
has been + ing.
I, We, You and They
have been+ ing;
He, She, It
has been + ing
form
verb
present perfect continuous
tense
lesson
verb formhave + PP/has + PP - Present Perfect tense)
have been + ing/has been + ing
sentences
have + PP, has + PP

šíj ú£ÙòÅ°-ù£-éö˺

Íû¶

Þœ÷ª-EÙ-à¦ô¢ª ÚÛë¯. Oæ¨
OªÚÛª êµL-ú‡Ùë¶ ÚÛë¯?
Íô³ê¶
Íô³ê¶
î¦è[ê¦Ù. Ð
ö˺
ìª
ÍÙæ°Ù.
ö˺ ÷ªìÙ àŸ«ú‡ì
(Ú¨Ùë]æ¨

êÁ ÷ªJ-Ú•Eo
í£J-Q-LÙ-àŸÙè…. î¦æ¨-êÁ-ð§åª Ï#aì
êÁ Ñìo î¦Ú¥u-õìª ú£J-ð¼-

õaÙè….

ñªëÅ]î¦ô¢Ù 3 ÎÞœú£ªd 2005

Ïí£pæ¨

has been playing (has been + ing) =

ÏÙÚ¥ Îè[ªêŸª-û¦oè[ª.
Íö°¸Þ 2(a) She has been working here since

the opening of the office.
verb- has been working = (has been +
ing)

ÏÚÛ\è[
ÏÚÛ\è[ Îíƈúà vð§ô¢Ù-GÅÙ-#-ì-í£pæ¨ ìªÙ< ÏÚÛ\è[
í£Eà¶þ¼hÙC.
(Íí£pæ¨ ìªÙ# Ïí£pæ¨÷ô¢¸Ú Ú¥ÚÛªÙè¯ ÏÙÚ¥ ÚÛ«è¯).
Íë¶ 2 (b) Íô³ê¶ verb has + pp - ÏÙêŸ÷ô¢ÚÛª í£Eà¶-ú‡ÙC ÍE.
for

ÚÛª,

since

ÚÛª ê¶è¯

a)

ÏEo ÞœÙå-õªÞ¥, ÏEo ôÁV-õªÞ¥, Ïû¶o-üŒ‰xÞ¥
Íô³ê¶ for the past (so many) hours/ days/
years ÍÙæ°Ù.
b) íÆ£ö°û¦ çµjÙ ìªÙ#, íÆ£ö°û¦ ôÁV ìªÙ#, íÆ£ö°û¦
ú£Ù÷-êŸqô¢Ù ìªÙ# Íô³ê¶ since ÍÙæ°Ù.
(since = ÞœêŸÙö˺ × ú£÷ªóŸªÙ ìªÙ#)

(ðƼûË à¶óŸª-è¯-EÚ¨= to call; ðƼûË BóŸªè[Ù= lift)
ô¢÷ªé: ñø‹ î¦üŒxÙ-ë]ô¢« ÓÚÛ\-è…-·Újû¦ îµü‹x¸ô?
(ñø‹= perhaps)
5) ví£þ§ëÂ: íÆ£é¨ Íô¢-ÞœÙ-åÞ¥ Î í£E à¶ú£ªh-û¦oè[ª.
ÏÙÚ¥ í£²Jh à¶óŸª-ö¶ë]ª.
ví£Ú¥ùÃ: ·ôÙvèÁ-V-õªÞ¥ ÍêŸ-è…êÁ × Nù£óŸªÙ
÷«æ°x-è¯f-EÚ¨ ví£óŸª-Ao-ú£ªh-û¦oìª. ÏÙêŸ-÷ô¢ÚÛª çµjÙ ë•ô¢-ÚÛ-ö¶ë]ª.
ví£þ§ëÂ: Ð í£û¶ ÍêŸè…E øŒE-î¦ô¢Ù ìªÙ# G@Þ¥

Prakash: I've (I have) been trying to talk to/
discuss with him something. I
haven't (have not) found the time.
Prasad: This work has been keeping him
busy since saturday. He hasn't
found the time even to see the doctor.
Prakash: What's (What is) his problem?
Prasad: For the past (one) week he has
been having a bad cold and
headache.

ÑÙàŸª-êÁÙC. è¯ÚÛdôÂìª ÚÛõ-÷-è¯-EÚ¨ ÚÛ«è¯
ÍêŸ-EÚ¨ çµjÙ ë•ô¢-ÚÛ-ö¶ë]ª.
(çµjÙ ë•ô¢-ÚÛÚÛð¼÷è[Ù = not find the time;
ÚÛ«è¯= even)
ví£Ú¥ùÃ: ÔNªæ¨ ÍêŸè… ú£÷ªú£u?
ví£þ§ëÂ: ÍêŸ-è…Ú¨ î¦ô¢ÙÞ¥ áõª-ñªÞ¥, êŸõ-ûË•-í‡pÞ¥
ÑÙC.

6) Jayanth: Have you read (gone through)
today's paper?
Jayakar: We haven't received/ got the
paper yet/ so far. Of late we
have been getting the paper
late.
(of late = lately =
Jayanth: Haven't you
(have you not)
complained to
the agent?
Jayakar: I have been
complaining
since sunday.
He
hasn't
cared. Since
M. SURESAN
sunday we've
(have) been getting the paper at
7:30 AM. What's the news in the
paper?
Jayanth: The paper has reported a terrorist
attack in Kashmir
Jayakar: How many have died?
Jayanth: Eight. The terrorists have set fire
the Government Hospital.

Ïí£±pè[ª ÚÛ«è¯...!

He has worked/ has been working here for
the past 2 years/ since 2003 (2005-

2=2003)
for the past 50 years - since 1955 (200550=1955)

Ð Ú¨ÙC ú£ÙòÅ°-ù£é Þœ÷ª-EÙ-àŸÙè….
Shyam: What have you been doing since
this morning?

(ð»ë]ªlæ¨ìªÙ# ÔÙ à¶ú£ªh-û¦o÷±?– Ïí£±pè[ª ÚÛ«è¯)
Ramu: I have been studying for exam
tomorrow.

(¸ôí£æ¨ í£K¤Û ÚÁú£Ù àŸë]ª-÷±-꟪-û¦oìª – Ïí£±pè[ª ÚÛ«è¯)

ÎÙÞœxòÅ°ù£é 27

Shyam: How many chapters have you covered?

(Ïí£pæ¨÷ô¢ÚÛª ÓEo à¦í£dô¢ªx í£²Jh-à¶-ø‹÷±?)
Ramu: I have finished nine chapters so far.

(ÏÙêŸ-÷-ô¢ÚÛª ê•NªtC à¦í£dô¢ªx í£²Jh-à¶-ø‹ìª)
Shyam: How long have you been using your
scooter?

(ìª÷±y ÓÙêŸ-Ú¥-õÙÞ¥ F ú£«\å-ôÂìª Ñí£óµ«-T-ú£ªh-û¦o÷±?)
Ramu: It has been serving me well for the
last two years. It hasn't given me any
trouble.

Tendulkar has been playing cricket ...
1. a) Tendulkar has been playing cricket for
the past fifteen years. (since 1989/1990)
b) Tendulkar has played cricket for the
past fifteen years (since 1989/1990).
2. a) She has been working here since the
opening of the office.
b) She has worked here since the opening
of the office.
1 (b), 2 (b)
1(b)
(for) / 198990
(since)
sentence
verb- has+ PP.
1(a)
1(a) Tendulkar has been playing cricket for
the past fifteen years/ since 1989-90
1(a)
verb- has been + playing (has been +
ing).
cricket

Íô¢nÙ OªÚÛª êµõªú£ª–
çµÙè[«-õ\ôÂ ÞœêŸ í£C-›ï°-û¶-üŒ‰xÞ¥
ìªÙ#
vÚ¨·ÚæËÀ Îè¯è[ª (Ïí£pæ¨÷ô¢ÚÛª).
ö˺
Ð
DEE
êÁ ð¼õaÙè….

ö˺
DE Íô¢nÙ çµÙè[«-õ\ôÂ ÞœêŸ í£C-›ï°-û¶-üŒ‰xÞ¥
Îè[ª-꟪-û¦oè[ª (ÏÙÚ¥).
(1989–90 ìªÙ#)

(·ôÙè¶-üŒ‰xÞ¥ ÍC û¦ÚÛª Ñí£-óµ«-Þœ-í£-è[ª-êÁÙC.
ÏÙêŸ÷ô¢ÚÛª ÔÙ våñªöËÀ Ï÷y-ö¶ë]ª.)
... Þœ÷ª-EÙ-à¦ô¢ª ÚÛë¯!
1) have + pp/ has + pp - Ú•ÙêŸÚ¥õÙ vÚ¨êŸÙ ìªÙ#
Ïí£pæ¨÷ô¢ÚÛª áJ-Tì í£ìª-õÚÛª î¦è[ê¦Ù.
2) have been + ing/ has been + ing - Ú•ÙêŸ
Ú¥õÙ vÚ¨êŸÙ ìªÙ# ÏÙÚ¥ áô¢ª-Þœª-꟪ìo í£ìª-õÚÛª
î¦è[ê¦Ù.
3) þ§÷«-ìuÙÞ¥ so far, for the past, for the last,
since õìª have + pp/has + pp; have been
+ ing/ has been + ing- verb õêÁ î¦è[ªêŸªÙæ°Ù. Oæ¨êÁð§åª have + pp/has + pp êÁ
already (Ïí£p-樸Ú), yet (ÏÙÚ¥... ö¶ë]ª) Íû¶
÷«åõª ÚÛ«è¯ ÷ú£ªhÙ-æ°ô³.
Ú¨ÙC î¦Ú¥u-õìª English ö˺ practice à¶óŸªÙè….
1) ÓÙêŸÚ¥õÙÞ¥ Oªô¢ª ÏÚÛ\è[ í£E à¶ú£ªh-û¦oô¢ª?
2) Ïí£pæ¨÷ô¢ÚÛª Oªô¢ª Ð ûµõö˺ ÓEo ú‡E-÷«õª
àŸ«ø‹ô¢ª?
3) û¶ìª í£ë¶-üŒ‰xÞ¥ Ð ›íí£ô àŸë]ª-÷±-꟪-û¦oìª/ Ð
›íí£ô ð§ôÈ¢-ÚÛª-è…Þ¥ Ñû¦oìª (reader î¦è[Ùè…).
4) ô¢÷ªé: ÍøÉÁÚ ÷à¦aè¯?
ô¢N: ÏÙÚ¥ ô¦ö¶ë]ª. ÍêŸE ÚÁú£Ù Íô¢-ÞœÙ-åÞ¥
àŸ«ú£ªh-û¦oìª (wait î¦è[Ùè…).
ô¢÷ªé: ìª÷±y ÍêŸè…Ú¨ ðƼûË à¶ø‹î¦?
ô¢N: ÍêŸ-è…Ú¨ ðƼûË à¶óŸª-è¯-EÚ¨ Íô¢-ÞœÙ-åÞ¥ ví£óŸªAo-ú£ªh-û¦oìª. î¦RxÙæ˺x Ó÷ô¢« ðƼûË BóŸªö¶ë]ª.

6)

áóŸªÙêÂ: Ð ôÁV ›íí£ô àŸC-î¦î¦?
áóŸª-ÚÛôÂ: ÏÙêŸ-÷-ô¢ÚÛª ÷«ÚÛª ›íí£ô ô¦ö¶ë]ª. Ð
÷ªëÅ]u ÷«ÚÛª ›íí£ô à¦ö° Îõ-ú£uÙÞ¥
÷þ¼hÙC (get î¦è[Ùè…).
áóŸªÙêÂ: ÔâµÙ-æËÀÚÛª complain à¶óŸª-ö¶ë¯?
áóŸª-ÚÛôÂ: ÎC-î¦ô¢Ù ìªÙ# complain à¶ú£ªhû¦o.
Ú¥F ÍêŸè[ª í£æ¨dÙ-àŸªÚÁ÷è[Ù ö¶ë]ª. Î
ôÁV ìªÙ# ÷«ÚÛª ›íí£ô Ôè[ª-ìo-ô¢ÚÛª
÷þ¼hÙC. ÔNªæ¨ ›íí£ôÁx Nø™ù£Ù?
(í£æ¨dÙ-àŸª-ÚÁ-ÚÛ-ð¼-÷è[Ù = not care).
áóŸªÙêÂ: Ú¥QtôÁx ÖÚÛ çµvô¢-Jú£ªd ë¯è… ÞœªJÙ#
›íí£ô Jð¼ôÂd à¶ú‡ÙC.
áóŸª-ÚÛôÂ: ÓÙêŸ-÷ªÙC àŸE-ð¼-óŸ«-¸ô-Nªæ¨?
áóŸªÙêÂ: ÓE-Nª-C-÷ªÙC. ví£òÅ¡ª-ê¦y-ú£ª-í£vAE çµvô¢-Jú£ªdõª êŸÞœ-õ-òµ-æ°dô¢ª.
(êŸÞœ-õ-òµ-ådè[Ù = set fire)

Answers:
1) How long have you been working here?
2) How many movies have you seen so far
this month?
3) I have been reading/ I have been a reader
of this paper for the past ten years.
4) Ramana: Has Ashok come?
Ravi:
No. I've (have) been waiting for
him for the past half an hour.
Ramana: Have you phoned him?/ Have
you called him?
Ravi:
I have been trying to phone him/
ring him up/ call him for the past
half an hour. No one in his place
has lifted the phone.
Ramana: Perhaps they have all gone
somewhere.
5) Prasad: Phani has been doing that work
for the past half an hour. He hasn't (has not) yet completed it.

Ð ÷ªëÅ]u)

ví£øŒo: How do you do? ÍÙç¶ Íô¢nÙ ÔNªæ¨?
DEÚ¨ ú£÷«-ëůìÙ Óö° àµð§pL?
– þ§ëÅ]ªõ ví£òÅ°-ÚÛôÂ, ÚÛKÙ-ì-ÞœôÂ
áî¦ñª: How do you do? ÍÙç¶ ÚÛªøŒõ÷«?/ò°Þœª-û¦oô¦?/Óö°-Ñ-û¦oô¢ª? Íô³ê¶ Ð
expressionìª ÷ªìÚÛª Ó÷-ô¢o-ô³û¦ îµ³åd-îµ³-ë]-æ¨þ§J í£J-àŸóŸªÙ à¶ú‡-ì-í£±pè[ª ÍÙæ°Ù. î¦üŒxìª ÷ªìÚÛª
í£J-àŸóŸªÙ à¶óŸª-Þ¥û¶ 'How do you do?' ÍE í£õÚÛ-Jþ§hÙ. ÍÙë]ªÚÛª Í÷-êŸL î¦üŒx ú£pÙë]ì ÚÛ«è¯ How
do you do?û¶. êŸô¦yA ìªÙ# How are you ÏêŸô¢
÷«åõª î¦è[ê¦Ù.

ví£øŒo: I have finished my work.

Have I finished my work.
I haven't finished my work.
DEÚ¨ interrogative- have In't finished
my work? ÏC ú£·ôj-ìë¯ Ú¥ë¯?

– Ó. ô¢íÆ£³-í£A, û¦óŸ³-è[ª-›íå
Íû¶C
‘û¶ìªû¦ í£E í£²Jh à¶óŸª-ö¶ë¯?’ (ÍÙ綖 û¶ìª í£Eí£²Jh à¶ø‹ìª Þœë¯?) Íû¶ Íô¢nÙêÁ Íô³ê¶ ÚÛ·ô¸Úd.
Íö°¸Þ I haven't finished my work Íû¶C, Have
you finished your work? Íû¶ question ÚÛª
answerÞ¥ ÚÛ·ôÚÂd. šíj î¦uú£Ùö˺ present perfect
continuous tenseìª ÞœªJÙ# N÷-ô¢é ÑÙC.
àŸ«è[Ùè….

áî¦ñª:

'Haven't I finished my work?

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