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1: -

21.
.
. .
. .
. ,
.
:
. . .
. .
( ).
. .

22.
.
. .
. .
. .
. .
.
:
. .
. . (, , ,)
. . , (
, ).
. .
. ,

.

-1-

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24. ;
:
.

25. ; .
;
: ( ) .
:
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3
()

CH3-CH3 + CH2=CH2
()

()

, ,
.

26. : ) )
.
: ) CH4 +Cl2

CH3Cl + HCl

) CH4 +2Cl2
C + 4HCl
)

28. : ) , )
, ) ,
.
: ) CH CH + H2 CH2 = CH2
)

CH CH + CH CH

HC CH + Na

CuCl, NH4Cl

CH2 =CH-C CH

HC CNa +1/2H2

29.
.

-2-

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: ,
.

) CH2=CH

(-CH2-CH-)

A
) CH2=C-CH=CH2

(-CH2-C-CH-CH2-)

30. .
: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-

32. Kekule
;
: Kekule,
.
,
.

34. .
:
.
C6H6 + Br2

C6H5Br + HBr

35. ()
():
: CH3CH=CH2 + H2

CH3CH2CH3

36. :
: CH3CH=CH2 + H2

CH3CH2CH3

37. :
: ) CH2=CH2 + HBr

CH3CH2Br
-3-

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Markovnikov, (
) .
, ,

.
) CH2=CH2 + H2

CH3CH2

, ( )
,
.
) CH3CH=CH2 + HCl

CH3CHCH3
Cl

(
),
. Markovnikov
.
( )
.
) CH2=CHCH2CH3 + H2

CH3CH2CH2CH3

.
(
).

38. :
:
) CH3CH=CH2 + Br2

CH3CHCH2
Br Br

39.
:
) C2 C2+2
.
)
.
) .
) CH2+1 ,
Cl, Br, .
) .
-4-

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: ) . .
C2+2 C2.
) .
) .
. , .
) .
) . .

40.
:
) .
) (
).
) , , .
) C6H6.
:
) . .
) .
) . , .
) . .

41. ()
().
:
1-

42. C5H8:
. .
.
, C5H8.
-5-

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:
(
, )
(

, ,
).
. 5 , 8 .
, (
):
HC CCH2CH2CH3
1- ( ,
,
)
CH3C CCH2CH3

2-

1- (
), :
HC CCHCH3
CH3
3--1- (
)
(CH3 )
. 2-, ,
,
.
,
(
: C2-2 ).
. , .
. 3--1.
, ,
.
:
CH2=CCH=CH2
CH3
2--1,3- (
,

).
CH3C=C=CH2
-6-

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CH3
3--1,2- (
).

43. C4H6 :
: 3, : 4, : 5, : 6.
.
:
.
:
HC CCH2CH3 1-
(
,
).
CH3C CCH3 2-
:
CH2=C=CHCH3 1,2
CH2=CHCH=CH2 1,3
, C4H6 4
.

44. C4H10.
.
;
. .
:
. 2+2 ,
C2+2.
. ,
. :
CH3CH2CH2CH3
CH3CHCH3 2--
CH3
-7-

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45. , ,
Br2 CCl4, :
.
.
.
.
.
:
.
, ,
.
.

48. C6H14:
:3 :4 :5 :6
.
:
. :
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
CH3CH2CH2CHCH3 2--
CH3
CH3CH2CHCH2CH3 3--
CH3

CH3
CH3CCH2CH3 2--
CH3
CH3
CH3CCHCH3 1,3--
CH3

-8-

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,
. ,
5 .
49. C4H8.
.
;
. .
. .
:
. (
). C2.
. :
CH2=CHCH2CH3 1-
CH3CH=CHCH3 2-
CH2=CCH3

2--1-

CH3
( ).

. ,
.
. , :
CH2=CHCH2CH3 + 2

CH3CHCH2CH3

Markovnikov,
,
.
:
CH3CH=CHCH3 + 2

CH3CHCH2CH3

,
( ).

CH2=CCH3 + 2

CH3CCH3
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CH3

CH3

Markovnikov,
.
50. C5H10 :
:4 :5 :6 :7.
.
:
. :
CH2=CHCH2CH2CH3 1-
CH3C=CHCH2CH3 2-
CH2=CCH2CH3 2--1-
CH3
( )
CH2=CCHCH3 3--1-
CH3

CH3C=CCH3 3--2-
CH3
5 (
- - ) .

51. HCl 1- :
.1-,
.2-,
.1,1- . 2-1-.
.
: :
CH2=CHCH2CH3 + HCl

CH3CHCH2CH3
Cl

Markovnikov,

( ) .
2- (
- 10 -

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).

52.
:
:
HBr 1- (CH2=CHCH2CH3)
Markovnikov : CH3CHCH2CH3
Br
(CH2=CHCl) :
(-CH2-CH-) ( )
Cl
(CH CH) : CH2=CH2 (

( Markovnikov ).

57. 8
56. Br2.
:
) C4H8.
)

) :
) .

: ( )
56, :
+ C = 56
( 1), C
( 12),
(
).
=8. , :
81 + 12 = 56 =

56 8
4
12
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4
: C48. .
, .
.
, ,
. .
, , .
, .

58. . ,
100g.
) ;
) mol ;
:
) :
CH2=CH2 + Br2

CH2CH2
Br Br

1,2-.
) mol 1,2-.

m
m
MB

100g.
:
=2C + 4ABH + 2ABBr = 212 + 41 + 2 80 = 188
, mol :
n= 100/188=0,53 mol
mol 1,2, mol (
). ,
1,2 , 0,53 mol.

60. H 56000. 5,6 L


7 g STP :
) .
) .
- 12 -

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:
) 5,6 L 7g STP. , 22,4 L
28g ( ). (1 mol
22,4
L STP).
, ( C2 ) :
= C + 2 28= 12 + 2 1 = 2
, C2H4 () : CH =CH2.
) =28
56000, : =2000. ,
2000 .

61. 21 g 11,2 L STP.


) ;
:
:
C2 + 2

C2+2

:
C2

1mol

1mol

(14)g

22,4L

21g

11,2L

C2+2

: (14)g11,2L=21g11,2L =3
: CH3CH=CH2.

62. 4,48 L STP ,


10,8 g .
. ;
. 10 L 500 L 20% ' (v/v)
2 80% ' (v/v) 2.
.
:
:
C2 + 3/22

CO2 + H2O
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1mol

mol

22,4L

18g

4,48L

10,8g

=3, C36 .
:
3CO2 + 3H2O ( =3)

C3H6 + 9/2O2
1mol 4,5mol

3mol

1L

4,5L

3L

10L

x=45L O2 y= 30L CO2


500L , 80% ( 400L), 30L
(100L), 45L
, 100-45=55L.

63. 62 g () 2 112 L STP.


. ();
. 15,5 g () Ni ().
STP ();
:
) x mol (C2H4) y mol (H2).
, x

m1
m1
m1
m

1 m1 28 x
MB 2 ABC 4 AB H 2 12 4 1 28

m1
y

m2
m2
m
m

2 2 m2 2 y
MB 2 AB H 2 1 2

m2
62g. , :

m1 m2 62 28x 2 y 62

(1)

, ( ):

V1
V1 22,4 x
22,4
- 14 -

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V1 (
)
y

V2
V2 22,4 y
22,4

V2 ()
, ,
112L STP, :

V1 V2 112 22,4 x 22,4 y 112L

(2)

(1) (2), : x=2mol y=3mol.


)
( ).
, ,
. 15,5g -, mol :

15,5
mol 0,5mol
62

62g 2 mol
15,5g

mol :

15,5
mol 0,75mol
62

( )
15,5g

:
C2H4 + H2

C2H6

0,5 mol 0,5 mol 0,5 mol


, 0,75-0,5=0,25 mol
. ( ) :

n1

V1
V1 22,4 n1 22,4 0,5 11,2 L
22,4

n2

V2
V2 22,4 n2 22,4 0,25 5,6 L
22,4

- 15 -

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66. 10 mL 12 mL 2
. 66 mL O2.
.
:
:
CH2 + 2

CH2+2

10ml 10ml
:
CH2 + 2
1ml

CH2+2

1ml

1ml

10ml 10ml

10ml

( )
2ml, , 12ml
2ml 10ml .
, , 66ml .
:
:
2 + 1/22

1ml 0,5ml
2ml

1ml

:
CH2+2 + (3+1)/2 2
1ml

(3+1)/2 ml

10ml

[(3+1)/2]10 ml

CO2 + (+1)2

,
,
66ml. , :

3 1
10 66 3
2

, C4H8 (
) :
CH2=CHCH2CH3

1-

CH3CH =CHCH3

2-

CH2=CCH3 2--1-
- 16 -

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CH3

:
)
,
.
(mol, , ).
.
) mol (
, ):

m
MB

( )

n mol
m

V
22,4

( )

n mol
V
22,4 mol STP

68. ;
:
,
.
.

69. ;
: , ,
.
.

70.
.
- 17 -

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

: .
( 10km)
.
. :

.
.

71. ,
;
:
, , .
.

72. ;

.
: ,
. ,
. , (,
, , )
, .
. ,
,
.

73. .
: 1.
.
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .

- 18 -

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2: -

-
6. :
:
.
.
.
.
. .
. .
.
.
.
.

7. .
:
C6H12O6

2CH3CH2 + 2CO2

8. :
:
, .

.

9. :
:
- 19 -

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. CH3CH2CH2OH + |O| CH3CH2CH + H2O


).

. CH3CH2CH + |O| CH3CH2C ( )


. CH3CH=CH2 + H2O CH3CHC3 ( )

. CH3CHC3 + |O|

CH3CC3 + H2O ( )

. CH3CH2C + CH3CHC3 CH3CH2CCCH3 + H2O ( )

CH3

10. 2- H2SO4:
) 170 C, ) 140 C. .
:
2- ,
:
CH3CHC3

) H2SO4 , 170C,
.
2 SO4 ,170C
CH3CHC3 H

CH3CH=C2 + H2O

(1-)

) H2SO4 , 140C,
.
2 SO4 ,140C
2CH3CHC3 H

CH3CHCCH3 + H2O ()

CH3 CH3

11. .
(). ()
. ().
() () ().
,
(), (), ().
:
- 20 -

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,
:
CH2=CH2 + H2O

CH3CH2OH ( )

(
):
CH3CH2OH + 2

CH3COH + H2O ( )

, (
), :
CH3COCH2CH3 ( )

CH3COH + CH3CH2OH

13.
:
) ,
) ,
) ,
) .
:
) RCH2OH + 2

RCOOH + H2O (

, )
) RCOOH + ROH RCOOR + H2O
) C2 + H2O
) HC CH + H2
)
CH2=CH2 + H2O
CH3CH2OH +

C2+1
CH2=CH2

CH3CH2OH ( )
CH3CHO + H2O ( )

14. ,
C3H8O, ;
.
:
( ).
,

.

- 21 -

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15.
.
:
) ,
,
( ):
HC CH + H2

CH2=CH2

CH2=CH2 + H2O

CH3CH2OH

CH3CH2OH + 2

CH3CO + H2O

)
(
-
- ) . ,
() :
HC CH + H2O

CH2CHOH

CH3CHO +

CH3CO

CH3CHO

17.
; .
: ,
.
. , :
C6H12O6

2CH3CH2 + 2CO2 ( )

2 SO4 ,170C

CH2=CH2 + H2O ( )
CH3CH2 H

CH2=CH2

(-CH2-CH2-) ( )

19. 40 g 50% w/w 90% . mL


0,8 g/mL ;
: 50% w/w 100g
, 50g .
, 40g

40 g 50 g
20 g .
100 g

- 22 -

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90%,

90
20 18 g .
100

18g ( 66) :

m
m
18
18

0,1mol
MB 6 ABC 12 AB H 6 ABO 6 12 12 1 6 16 180

,
:
C6H12O6

2C2H5OH + 2CO2

1mol

2mol

0,1mol

x=0,2mol
mol :

m
m n MB n (2 ABC 5 AB H 1 ABO 1 AB H ) 0,2 46 9,2 g
MB

,
:

m
m
9,2 g
V
11,5mL
V
0,8 g / mL

21. 20 L
14 ( ); = 0,8 g/mL.
:

:
C6H12O6

2C2H5OH + 2CO2

x mol ,
2x mol . mol
, mol
( ).
- 23 -

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.
14 . 100mL
14mL (
). 20L,
:

14
14
V
20 L 2,8L 2800mL
100
100

m
m V (0,8 g / mL) 2800mL 2240 g
V

, mol (
66):

n1 2 x

m
m
2240
2240

48,70mol
MB 2 ABC 6 AB H 1 ABO 2 12 6 1 1 16
46

,
, mol mol :

n2 x 24,35mol
, :

m
m x MB x (6 ABC 12 AB H 6 ABO ) 24,35 180 4383g
MB

22. 25 L 12,
10;
:
12 100mL , 12mL .
, 100L 12L . , 25L
( ), :

12
12
V
25L 3L
100
100

10 , 100L ,
10L . :

10
10
V
25L 2,5L
100
100
- 24 -

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x
2,5L
25L . ,

2,5
(
25

)
. :

2,5
3

x 5L
25 25 x
5L
10 .
23. , 6,4 g , 4,6 g
7,4 g 1- .
25 C 740 mmHg.
2;
:

. mol :
(CH3OH):

n1

m
m
6,4
6,4

0,2mol
MB 1 ABC 4 AB H 1 ABO 1 12 4 1 1 16 32

(CH3CH2OH):

n2

m
m
4,6
4,6

0,1mol
MB 2 ABC 6 AB H 1 ABO 2 12 6 1 1 16 46

1- (CH3CH2CH2CH2OH):

n3

m
m
7,4
7,4

0,1mol
MB 4 ABC 10 AB H 1 ABO 4 12 10 1 1 16 74

,
, mol .
CH3OH + Na

CH3ONa + 1/2H2

0,2 mol ( )

CH3CH2OH + Na
0,1 mol ( )

x1=0,1mol

CH3CH2ONa + 1/2H2
x2=0,05mol

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CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + Na

CH3CH2CH2CH2ONa + 1/2H2

0,1 mol ( )

x3=0,05mol

0,1mol+0,05mol+0,05mol=0,2mol .

. :

pV nRT V

nRT
(1)
p

.
, : T 273 273 25 298K .

p (740mmHg)

1atm
0,97atm
760mmHg

1atm=760mmHg. , R ,
atm, R=0,082Latm/molK. , ,
(1) :

nRT 0,2mol 0,082 L atm / mol K 298K

5L
p
0,97atm

24.
r=60.
. ,
.
:
: C2+1, :

MB ABC (2 1) ABH ABO ABH 12 2 1 16 1 14 18


=60, 14+18=60 =3.
:
CH3CH2CH2OH 1-

CH3CHCH3 2-

1-
:
CH3CH2CH2OH +
CH3CH2CHO +

CH3CH2CHO + 2 ( )
CH3CH2CO

( )

2- :
- 26 -

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CH3CHCH3 +

()

CH3CCH3

:
CH3CO + CH3CH2CH2OH

1-

CH3COCH2CH2CH3 + 2

CH3COCHCH3 + 2

CH3CO + CH3CHCH3

CH3

2-

25.
r=116. ,
.
:
:
CH3CO + C2+1 CH3COC2+1 + 2

:
= (2+)C + (3+2+1) + 2 = (2+)12 + (2+4)1 + 216= 60+14
116, :

60 14 116 4
C4H9OH.
:
CH3
CH3CHCH3

, :
CH3
CH3COCCH3
CH3

- 27 -

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26. () ( )
() r=102. () ()
(), () ().
:
:
CH3CO + C2+1 CH3COC2+1 + 2
=14+60
112, =3. ,
C3H7OH. , ,
, 2-:
CH3CHCH3

, :

CH3COCCH3
CH3

2- :
CH3CHCH3 +

CH3CCH3 + 2

27. ,
. 6,61 g 1 L STP.
: ) ) .
:
:
C2+1 + Na

C2+1Na + 1/2H2

1 mol

mol

(MB)gr

VSTP

(14+18)gr

22,4L

6,61gr

1L

=4
- 28 -

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) C4H9OH ) 144+18=74gr.
( :
= C + (2+1) + 1 + 1 = 14+18 )

28. 45 g .
500 mL a 2 .
.
:
x mol (CH3CH2OH) y mol (CH3CHO). ,
45g, :

m m 45g n MB n MB
x 46 y 44 45 (1)
(
)
, :
CH3CH2OH + 2

CH3C + 2

x mol

x mol

( )

CH3CHO +

CH3C + 2 ( )

y mol

y mol

, (x+y) mol.
500mL NaOH
2. 2mol NaOH .
500mL (=0,5L) , n (2mol / L) 0,5L 1mol .
:
CH3C + NaOH
(x+y) mol

CH3Ca + 2

(x+y)mol

NaOH 1mol, : x+y =1. (2)


(1) (2) :
x=0,5mol y=0,5mol

- 29 -

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
m x MB 0,5 46 23g
m x MB 0,5 44 22 g

29. 2,3 g
C. NaOH.
NaOH 1,12 L STP.
;
:
,
C2+1CH2OH.

C2+1CH2OH +2

C2+1COOH + H2O

x mol

x mol

NaOH:
C2+1COOH + NaOH

C2+1COOa + NaOH

x mol

x mol

, :
C2+1COOa + NaOH
x mol

C2+2 + a2CO3
x mol

1,12L. mol
:

V
1,12

0,05mol
22,4 22,4

, 2,3g 0,05 mol.


:

m
m 2,3
MB
46
MB
n 0,05

=14+32 (
), :
14+32=46 =1
, C2H6O, .
- 30 -

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30. ()
18,9% .
;
:
,
C2+1CH2OH. :
C2+1CH2OH +2
1mol

C2+1COOH + H2O
1mol

1mol 1mol
. , (
14+32) ( 14+46).
18,9%
. :

m m

18,9
m
100

14 46 (14 32) 0,189 (14 32)

3
, C3H7O
:
CH3CH2CH2OH 1-

CH3CHCH3 2-

- 31 -

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- 32 -

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3:

-
11.
.
. .
. .
:
. .
. . ,
.

12.
:
) )
:
) ,
.
.
, :
CH2=CH2 + H2
CH3CH2OH + 2

CH3CH2
CH3C + 2 (
- 33 -

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

, )
) ,
( ).
:
HC CH + H2O
CH3CHO +

CH2CHOH

CH3CHO

CH3C

13. :
:
. CH3CN + 2H2O CH3COOH + 3
)

. RCH2OH + 2|O| RCOH + H2O ( )


. 2CH3COOH + CaO (CH3COO)2Ca + H2O ( )

14. :
) , ) , ) , ) .
:
) CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COOa + H2O
) 2CH3COOH + CaO (CH3COO)2Ca + H2O
) 2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 2CH3COOa + H2O + CO2
) 2CH3COOH + Mg

(CH3COO)2Mg + H2

18. , ,
.
. .
:
. ,
,

: ,
.

19. :
) 3- .
- 34 -

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com

) .
:
) ( ),
Br2 , .
( ) .

3- . Br2
, , 3-
.
:
Br2 ,
( )
.
) ( )
.
.
21.
(CH3CH2OH). 11,5 (
). CH3COOH 1 L .
=0,8 g/mL. (
.)
:

. . ,
( ) :
CH3CH2OH +

CH3C

mol 11,5
. ( 66
):

m
m
m
(1)

MB 2 ABC 5 AB H 1ABO AB H 46

. :

m
m V (0,8 g / mL) V (2)
V

( 1000mL
) 11,5
100mL , 11,5mL):

V 1000mL

11,5mL
115mL (3)
100mL
- 35 -

sciencephysics4all.weebly.com
H (2) : m (0,8g / mL) 115mL 92 gr
(1): n

92
2mol
46

, :
CH3CH2OH + 2

CH3C + 2

1mol

1mol

2mol

2 mol

, 1L ( 1L )
2mol ( 1L 2mol
). mol :

m
m
m

m n 60 2 60 120 g
MB 2 ABC 4 AB H 2 ABO 60

24. 1 L NaOH 0,2 M 6 g CH3COOH.



.
. ;
:
NaOH (
NaOH CH3COOH ).
, 0,2, :

m (0,2mol / L) 1L 0,2mol
6g CH3COOH :

m
m
6

0,1mol
MB 2 ABC 4 AB H 2 ABO 60

0,2mol NaOH
0,1 mol ( 0,1mol NaOH
).
,
:
CH3COOH + NaOH

CH3COOa + H2O

1mol

1mol

1mol

0,1mol

0,1mol

0,1mol

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0,1mol NaOH 0,1mol


CH3COOa.

4:

-
36.
:
.
.
.
.
.
:
.
( ) .
.

38. . ,
. .

;
:

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( ).
,
.

41. ( i):

;
:
.

42.

:
. . . .
:
. :
.

, .
.
( ).
, ,
.
.
,
, .

65. :
:
.
essences.

67. (C17H33COO)3C3H5 + H2 (C17H35COO)3C3H5 :


. . . .
:
.
. (
) ( ).
,
.
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69. H :

1 mol 1 mol
. , 1/3 mol
. :
. 66,6% . 33,3% .0,333 .11,1%
:
1 mol , 1/3 ,
1/3 33,3% 0,333. , .

70. : ( )
. .
.
. , H2SO4
.
.
:
( ).

71. ,
.
. .
:
CH2OOC-C17H35
CHOOC- C17H35
CH2OOC- C17H35

CH2OH
+3KOH

CHOH + 3 C17H35COOK
CH2OH

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72. 40 L 0,1 mol Ca2+


L. g Na2CO3 ( )
Ca; [NaOCO(CH2)16CH3 ]
306 Ca;
:
mol Ca2+ 40 L

0,1mol
4mol .
1L

Ca2+ Na2CO3 :
Ca2+ + Na2CO3
1mol

1mol

4mol

4mol

CaCO3 + 2Na+

4mol Na2CO3 Ca2+


. mol :

m
m n MB n (2 AB Na 1ABC 3 ABO ) 4 (2 23 12 3 16) 4 106
MB

m 424 g Na2CO3
NaOCO(CH2)16CH3 =306,
:
Ca2+ + 2CH3(CH2)16 CONa
1mol

2mol

4mol

8mol

(CH3(CH2)16 COO)2Ca +2Na+

, 4mol Ca2+ 8mol .


8mol : n

m
m n MB 8 306 2448 g .
MB

73. :
. 12 C
. 18 C
. .
:
. .
. ( )
.
. .
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74. 1970, 75% .


;
.
:

.
.

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