BASIC WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
FOCUS ENERGY LTD.
Many empirical methods are used to extract this parameter from log measurements with varying degrees of success. all the questions really come down to just this one practical concern. The most important input is a determination of permeability. The value of the measurement is plotted continuously against depth in the well. The traditional role of wireline logging has been limited to participation primarily in two general domains: formation evaluation and completion evaluation. porosity. between two milestones: the surface seismic survey. This quantity. or geological body. is of utmost importance. must be identified. Where are the hydrocarbons? The depth of formations. Well logging plays a central role in the successful development of a hydrocarbon reservoir. it is the most difficult to answer from inferred formation properties. Its measurements occupy a position of central importance in the life of a well. Another key factor is oil viscosity. and the production testing. A number of measurement devices and interpretation techniques have been developed. How much hydrocarbon is contained in the formation? An initial approach is to quantify the fractional volume available for hydrocarbon in the formation. The goals of formation evaluation can be summarized by a statement of four questions of primary interest in the production of hydrocarbons: Are there any hydrocarbons.BASIC WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
3. Unfortunately. How producible are the hydrocarbons? In fact. This last item falls largely beyond the range of traditional well logging. A second aspect is to quantify the hydrocarbon fraction of the fluids within the rock matrix.1 INTRODUCTION
The continuous recording of a geophysical parameter along a borehole produces a geophysical well log. often loosely referred to by its weight. which has influenced the decision for the well location. They provide. as in heavy or light oil. and if so are they oil or gas? First. The third concerns the areal extent of the bed. which contain accumulations of hydrocarbons. Formation evaluation is essentially performed on a well-by-well basis.
. it is necessary to identify or infer the presence of hydrocarbons in formations traversed by the wellbore. which contains the hydrocarbon.
an estimate of their producibility. Despite the availability of this rather large number of devices. the final answers derived are mainly three: the location of oilbearing and gas-bearing formations. shaliness and hydrocarbon saturation. 3. values of porosity. (Adapted from Pickett) Logging applications for petroleum engineering Rock typing Identification of geological environment Reservoir fluid contact location Fracture detection Estimate of hydrocarbon in place Estimate of recoverable hydrocarbon Determination of water salinity Reservoir pressure determination Porosity/pore size distribution determination Water flood feasibility Reservoir quality mapping Interzone fluid communication probability Reservoir fluid movement monitoring
which can be related to the volume fraction and type of hydrocarbon present in porous formations. the purpose of well logging is to provide measurements.principally. and an assessment of the quantity of hydrocarbon in place in the reservoir. each providing complementary information. and acoustic. using the knowledge of local geology and fluid properties that is accumulated as a reservoir is developed. Measurement techniques are used from three broad disciplines: electrical.2 APPLICATIONS In the most straightforward application. Because of the wide variety of subsurface geological formations. nuclear. many different logging tools are needed to give the best possible combination of measurements for the rock type anticipated. as a function of depth. Usually a measurement is sensitive either to the properties of the rock or to the pore-filling fluid.
Uses of well logging in petroleum engineering.
Porosity logs (Density. what is the quantity present? 3.g.
Next step: Scan the porosity logs on the track 3 to see which of the zones have good porosity against the high resistivity zones. This base line indicates shale i.3.
Next step: To scan the resistivity logs in track 2 to see which of the zones of interest gives high resistivity readings. sand.e. If so. Scanning the log in track one and it has a base line on the right. Where are the potential producing hydrocarbons zones? (II). Neutron and Sonic).
. the permeable zone logs are presented in track one. impermeable zones and swings to the left indicate clean zones.3 Well Log Interpretation: Finding the Hydrocarbon
The three most important questions to be answered by wellsite interpretation are: 1.
Generally. The interpreter focuses his attention immediately on these permeable zones. Select the interesting zones for the formation evaluation. limestone etc.. How much hydrocarbons (oil or gas) do they contain?
First step: The first step in the log interpretation is to locate the permeable zones. a log interpreter has to solve the following problems. Resistivity logs (MFSL. Permeable zone logs (SP. are: 1.e. Does the formation contain hydrocarbons. Shallow and Deep resistivity logs) 3.. and if so at what depth and are they Oil or gas? 2. Using such a set of logs. the resistivity logs are run in track two and porosity logs on track three. (I). Caliper) 2. Discard the tight formations. which are required for the adequate formation evaluation. High resistivities reflect either hydrocarbons in the pores or low porosity. which is called the shale base line. GR.4 INTERPRETATION PROCEDURE
The basic logs. Are the hydrocarbons recoverable?
5 FORMATION EVALUATION Determining Geothermal Gradient The first step involved in determining temperature at a particular depth is to determine the geothermal gradient (gG) of the region. and the temperature gradient of a particular region depends upon the geologic. porosity (Ø) and the "true" resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt) cannot be measured precisely for a variety of reasons. mud weight. depth of invasion. the higher the geothermal gradient.Tms/TD) x100 Where: BHT = bottom hole temperature (from header) TD = total depth (Depth-Logger from header) Tms = mean surface temperature Determining Formation Temperature (Tf) Once the geothermal gradient (gG) has been established. Factors affecting these responses may include hole size.
Where: Tms = mean surface temperature gG = geothermal gradient D = depth at which temperature is desired
Environmental Corrections In actual logging conditions. If the geothermal gradient of an area is not known. and other properties of the logging environment and formation. or tectonic. activity within that region. Geothermal gradients are commonly expressed in degrees Fahrenheit per 100 m (°F/100m). Several types of corrections and the tools for which these corrections are necessary are illustrated in table 3.1
. gG= (BHT. bed thickness. Many of these effects have strong impacts on analysis and must be corrected prior to evaluating the formation. Temperature increases with depth. it is possible to determine the temperature for a particular depth. then it can be determined by chart or by formula.3. This is often referred to as formation temperature (Tf). The more activity.
Correction may be applied through the use of a chart (GEN-5) or an equation (Arp's equation). it is possible to calculate a hydrocarbon-bearing zone as a wet zone if the temperature correction is not applied.77 when temperature is expressed in °F k = 21.5 when temperature is expressed in °C
. and therefore any value of Rmf and/or Rw determined at one depth must be corrected for the appropriate formation temperature (Tf) where those values will be used to calculate water saturation (Sw).
Where: R2 = resistivity value corrected for temperature R1 = resistivity value at known reference temperature (T1) T1 = known reference temperature T2 = temperature to which resistivity is to be corrected k = temperature constant k = 6.Table 3. Therefore. It is vital that formation water resistivity (Rw) be corrected for temperature.1: Required Environmental Corrections
Correcting Resistivity for Temperature Resistivity decreases with increasing temperature. Failing to correct Rw to a higher temperature will result in erroneously high values of water saturation (Sw).
. ρf = pore fluid density in the borehole. either by chart or by calculation the matrix density and the type of fluid in the borehole must be known. Cross-Plot Porosity Equation
Where: ΦD = density porosity ΦN = neutron porosity 2.
There are a variety of methods--visual. There are two methods for the determination of porosity: 1. ρma = matrix density of formation. ρb = bulk density of the formation.Density porosity Formation bulk density (ρb) is the function of matrix density. and second by the density of the drilling fluid. Porosity measurements taken from logs are rarely adequate for use in calculating water saturation. porosity. The formula for calculating the density porosity is:
Where. Cross. mathematical. To determine density porosity. and density of the fluid in the pores (salt mud. fresh mud. and graphical--used to determine the cross-plot porosity of a formation. or hydrocarbons).Plot Porosity from Chart The proper Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) chart is determined first by tool type.
SONIC POROSITY Sonic Tool Cross-Plot Charts The "Sonic versus Bulk Density" and "Sonic versus Neutron Porosity" charts may be interpolated and extrapolated in the same manner as the "Bulk Density versus Neutron Porosity" charts. Another method of Rw determination is by means of Hingle plot. Two of the most common methods of determining Rw from logs are the inverse-Archie method and the SP method. INVERSE ARCHIE METHOD: Rwa
Where: Rt = resistivity of the uninvaded zone Φ = porosity
. however. or an additional method for providing more information on the possible lithology of a formation. ∆tf = fluid travel time Cp = compaction factor. These charts may be used as an alternative to the neutron-density cross-plots. ∆tma = formation matrix travel time. in many cases logs provide the only means of determining Rw.
Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the Inverse Archie Method:
Determining a value for formation water resistivity (Rw) from logs may not always provide reliable results.
Wyllie-Time Average Equation: Consolidated and compacted sandstones:
Where: ∆tlog = travel time from the log.
but one which has a tremendous impact upon calculated values of water saturation (Sw). The water saturation equation for clean formations is as follows: Archie's Equation
Where: Sw = water saturation n = saturation exponent a = tortuosity factor.Sw Calculations:
Water saturation may now be calculated for those zones that appear to be hydrocarbon bearing. Φ= porosity. or simply local reservoir history. but can be obtained from logs under ideal conditions. produced water samples. m = cementation exponent. This is accomplished by substituting into the Archie equation those parameters pertaining to the flushed zone.
. Other sources include measured formation water samples (DST or SFT).
Moveable Hydrocarbon Index (MHI) One way to investigate the moveability of hydrocarbons is to determine water saturation of the flushed zone (Sxo). Often best obtained from the customer. Rt = formation resistivity Rw = formation water resistivity Among the most difficult variables to determine.
Where: Rmf = resistivity of mud filtrate. Rxo = resistivity of flushed zone.
An easy way of quantifying this relationship is through the moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI). then hydrocarbons were likely moved during invasion. If the value for Sxo is much greater than the value for Sw. it may be compared with the value for water saturation of the uninvaded zone (Sw) at the same depth to determine whether or not hydrocarbons were moved from the flushed zone during invasion. and the reservoir will produce.
.Once flushed zone water saturation (Sxo) is calculated.
clay minerals) in a reservoir can cause erroneous results for water saturation and porosity derived from logs. It will not record too high a porosity if density of shale is equal to or greater than the reservoir’s matrix density.e.e. In addition.(Vcl x Φnsh) Φd-corrected = Φd . the presence of shale in a formation will cause resistivity logs to record lower resistivity.
Calculation of Vshale: The first step in the shalysand analysis is the calculation of volume of shale from a gamma ray log. porosity tools like. These erroneous results are not limited to sandstones. (sonic and neutron) will record too high porosity. The only exception to this is the density log. determining porosity of the formation if it did not contain clay minerals. but also occur in limestones and dolomites.SHALYSAND INTERPRETATION The presence of shale (i. Effective Porosity from Neutron-Density Combinations: Φn-corrected = Φn . Volume of shale from gamma ray log is determined by the chart or by the following formulas:
Where: IGR = gamma ray index GRlog = actual borehole-corrected GR response in zone of interest GRmin = minimum borehole-corrected GR response against clean zones GRmax = maximum borehole-corrected GR response against shale zones
Determining Effective Porosity (Φe): The second step of shaly sand analysis is to determine the effective porosity of the formation i.(Vcl x Φdsh) For Neutron For Density
Whenever shale is present in the formation.
However. the most suitable equation is the Indonesian Equation.These values of neutron and density porosity corrected for the presence of clays are then used in the equations below to determine the effective porosity ( effective) of the formation of interest.
Determining Water Saturation (Sw) :( Indonesian Equation) There are many different equations by which water saturation (Sw) of a clay-bearing formation may be calculated. which is as follow
Where: Rt = resistivity of uninvaded zone Vcl = volume of clay Φe = effective porosity Rcl = resistivity of clay Rw = resistivity of formation water