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Chapter 5 Static corrections

Elevation (field) statics

• Elevation statics involve the computation and removal of the effect of different source

• This involves bringing the source and receiver to a common datum, usually below the
elevation of the lowest source or receiver.

• For this, we need a replacement velocity (Vr) for the material between the datum and

• The replacement velocity is either assumed from prior knowledge of the area or can
be estimated from uphole times or direct arrivals.

• The elevation static correction (tD) is given by:
tD = [(ES – ZS - ED) + (ER – ZR - ED)]/Vr, where, ES: ground elevation at shot location (from mean sea level), ZS: depth of shot (= 0 for a surface source), ER: ground elevation at receiver location (from mean sea level), ZR: depth of receiver (= 0 for a surface geophone), and ED: datum elevation (from mean sea level). (5.1)

• tD is subtracted from the two-way traveltime of the trace belonging to that particular

• Figure.

Uphole survey • A deep hole that penetrates below the weathering layer is used for this purpose. • A shot is fired at the surface near the hole and the direct traveltimes to the geophones are recorded. • A plot of the direct traveltimes versus the geophone depths can be used to compute the velocities of the weathering and sub-weathering layers as well as the thickness of the weathering layer at that location. • This method attempts to construct a model of the weathering layer by estimating the velocity and thickness of the weathering layer at several locations and interpolating between these locations. • The main methods used to correct for these effects are: Ø Uphole surveys. • Several geophones are placed at various (known) depths in the hole. . it is important to correct for the effect of variable thickness and lateral velocity variation of the weathering layer. Ø Residual statics. The geophone locations must span the weathering and sub-weathering layers.2 Near-surface (weathering) corrections • After elevation statics correction. • Figure. Ø Refraction statics.

Ø The generalized reciprocal method (GRM). Residual statics • This method is especially effective in estimating short-wavelength statics. which is difficult. • The least-squares methods employ the same concepts used for the residual-statics method. . Ø Least-squares methods.3 Refraction statics • This method is especially effective in estimating long-wavelength statics. • This method is used to construct a model of the weathering layer by estimating the velocity and thickness of the weathering layer. • The following are some of the methods used for refraction statics calculation: Ø Delay-time methods. • Wavelength of statics refers to the width of the lateral (velocity or thickness) change in the weathering layer relative to the spread length (maximum offset). which might not be available. • The first two methods involve picking first breaks. Surface-consistent residual statics corrections: • The basic assumption of this method is that the static shifts are time delays that only depend on the source and receiver locations on the surface. • The most widely used method is the surface-consistent method. not on raypaths in the subsurface. and require specific raypath geometries. but use refraction rather than reflection data.

(2) Decomposition of tijk into receiver. . in practice. structural. and Mk xij2: is the residual moveout that accounts for the imperfect NMO correction. we use least-squares approach to minimize the error energy: E = ∑ijk [(ri + sj + Gk + Mk xij2) . • Usually.4 • This assumption is valid only if all raypaths. and residual terms.3) Residual statics correction in practice • In general.tijk]2. residual statics correction. involves the following three phases: (1) Picking (calculating) the time shifts tijk. tijk. (5. Gk. source. while Mk is a hyperbolic term. • The surface-consistent assumption is generally good because the weathered layer usually has a low velocity and refraction towards the normal at its base tends to make raypaths vertical. • The purpose is to determine the unknowns ri. sj. sj: is the residual static time shift associated with the jth source. are vertical in the near surface. there are more equations than unknowns. • The total residual time shift.2) • Gk is a structural term. Gk: is the difference in two-way traveltime at a reference CMP and the traveltime at the kth CMP. (5. can be expressed as: tijk = ri + sj + Gk + Mk xij2. and Mk from the known variables tijk and xij. where ri: is the residual static time shift associated with the ith receiver. hence. regardless of source-receiver offset.

(10) (11) (12) The total time shift is given as: tijk = tijk(1) + tijk(2). (6) Shift each original trace by its corresponding time shift tijk(1). are picked. crosscorrelated with the shifted traces in the gather and new time shifts tijk(2) are computed. which consists of the following steps: (1) A CMP with good S/N ratio is gained and NMO-corrected using a preliminary velocity function. This final pilot trace is crosscorrelated with the traces of the next gather to construct the preliminary pilot trace for that gather. (3) The CMP gather is stacked. . (7) A preliminary pilot trace is constructed by stacking the time-shifted traces in the gather.5 (3) Application of derived source and receiver terms to traveltimes on pre-NMOcorrected CMP gathers. (8) This pilot trace is. in turn. A final pilot trace is constructed again by stacking the twice-shifted traces. Ø The most widely used method is the pilot trace method. event) is selected. (2) A specific horizon (reflection. (5) Time shifts tijk(1). (1) Picking: Ø It means estimating the time shifts tijk from the data. (4) Each individual trace in the gather is crosscorrelated with the stack trace. (9) Shift each once-shifted trace by its corresponding new time shift tijk(2). which correspond to maximum crosscorrelations.

Do residual statics correction again. v It should be as large as possible and outside the mute zone whenever possible. (14) The picked total time shifts (t ijk) are passed to the next phase (decomposition). v However. 4. Do residual statics correction. (c) Other considerations: v The residual moveout variations should not be large within the correlation window. (b) Correlation window: v It should be chosen in an interval with the highest possible S/N ratio.6 (13) The process is performed this way on all CMP gathers moving to left and right from the starting (reference) CMP. Do velocity analysis again. 2. a second pass of residual statics corrections must be done. 3. v In areas of significantly poor S/N ratio. it should be less than the dominant period of the data in poor S/N ratio conditions. Do velocity analysis. Ø The following parameters are important when picking the time shifts in practice: (a) Maximum allowable shift: v It should be greater than all possible combined shot and receiver shifts at any given location along the profile. v A second residual statics correction pass means: 1. .

receiver.7 (2) Decomposition: Ø It involves least-squares decomposition of the picked time shifts found in phase (1) into source. (3) Application: The individual static shifts associated with each source and receiver location are applied to the pre-NMO-corrected gather traces. Ø The procedure most widely used for solving the resulting system of linear equations is the Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure. structural.3). Ø (Not required): For more detail on the Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure. follow this link. . and residual terms using equation (5.

8 Appendix A Elevation Statics ES Ground surface ZS ER ZR Vr ES .ED ER – ZR .ZS .ED ED (ES − Z S − ED ) + (ER − Z R − ED ) tD = Vr Back .

9 Appendix B Uphole Survey DEPTH (M) 10 20 30 40 50 60 VELOCITY (M/S) 1000 1000 1000 2000 2000 2000 TIME (S) 0.045 Back .035 0.020 0.010 0.030 0.040 0.