BY : Wirman Valkinz

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the discussion on the background of the study, statement of the problems, objective of the study, scope and limitation of the study, significance of the study, assumption of the study, and definition of key terms. 1.1. Background of the Problem

Language is one of the most important things in communication and it is used as a toll of communication among the nations in all over the world. As an international language, English is very important and has many interrelationships with various aspects of life owned by human being. The most often become to complain is the teachers ability in applying appropriate approaches, methods, strategies or techniques in teaching or learning. So, many students are not interest in learning English. Therefore, the English teach suggested in order to be able mastering of method, such as, Nababan (1991: 4) notices that a qualified teacher is the teacher who is able to suit best method or technique to the material that is being taught. One of the methods researchers uses to get a clearer picture of what learners generally do while reading in a foreign language is think aloud. This is one type of verbal reports, obtained from the readers during reading (Cavalcanti, 1987). Think-aloud means that readers report their thoughts while reading, but they are not expected to analyze their behavior as in introspection (Cohen, 1987). By means of asking their subjects to say out loud whatever goes through their minds, researchers hope to get a more direct view of the mental processes readers are engaged in while reading (Rankin, 1988). In order to master reading skill, a teacher as an educator have to use good method in teaching learning process. In this case, the researcher concerns with theof think aloud

strategy toward students reading skill study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014.

3.2. The hypothesis of this study was prepared as a tentative answer for the research problem stated previously. To what extent is the achievement of students‟ Reading skill in study at 9thgrade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014? 2. Objective of the Study Based on the research statement. In this case the alternative hypothesis as read follow: “Think Aloud Strategy has effect toward Students Reading Skill ” Because of statistical computation the alternative hypothesis need to be change into null hypothesis (Ho)as follow: “Think Aloud Strategy has not effect toward Students Reading Skill ” The result of this study is suggested to apply the think aloud strategy to increase the students‟ .4. 2. The extent of think aloud strategy toward students reading skill study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014 1. The achievement of students‟ Reading skill in study at 9 grade SMP Negeri 19 th Mataram in academic year 2013/2014. b. b. Statement of Problem 1. Significance of the Study The result of the study is expected to be used theoretically and practically: 1. Practically competence in English reading skill. Theoretically a.1. Hypothesis of the Study A hypothesis is a statement of the research assumption about the relationship between two variables that the researcher plans to test within the framework of the researcher study (Kumar. The use of think aloud strategy in reading can make the students are more enjoyable in doing their tasks associated with the reading materials. The result of this study is expected to be able to widen the skill of teachers in using think aloud strategy in order to improve student‟s reading skill. this particular study aimed at finding out: 1. 1993: 9). 2. 1.5. As a reference to other researchers who want to study think aloud strategy more intensively in teaching reading. To what extent of think aloud strategy toward students reading skill study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014? 1. a.

and fluency. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . Object The object of this study is the effect of Think aloud strategy towards students reading skill. Definition of Key Terms In order to clarify the key terms used in this study. Effect is words indicate things." With this strategy. Reading skills enable readers to turn writing into meaning and achieve the goals of independence. 1. 5.7. Reading is a kind of activity in translating written symbols into corresponding sound. Think-aloud have been described as "eavesdropping on someone's thinking. or follow as a consequence. Reading skill is the capability of understanding or getting information from reading material.6. comprehension. 1. solving math problems. 4. 3. Subject The subject of this study at 9th grade SMP Negeri 19 Mataram in academic year 2013/2014 2. some definitions are put forward. 1. Scope and Limitation of the Study The scopes of the study are limited to the subject and object investigated. Their verbalizations include describing things they're doing as they read to monitor their comprehension. which arise out of some antecedent. or simply responding to questions posed by teachers or other students 2. teachers verbalize aloud while reading a selection orally. The think-aloud strategy asks students to say out loud what they are thinking about when reading. The purpose of the think-aloud strategy is to model for students how skilled readers construct meaning from a text. Strategies According to Gony and Kingsmey (1974:12) the strategy is a process of individual behavior which modified or changed through practice or learning on the other hand.1.

In a similar way. 6) The related Study and 7) The Role of Background Knowledge in Comprehension.. Think aloud are also used to model comprehension processes such as making predictions. (1997) declare that “think aloud is a technique in which students verbalize their thoughts as they read” (p.] it becomes their inner speech. It helps students to reflect upon their own reading process. it was decided to implement the think-aloud strategy because it was used as an instructional approach. Afflerbach and Johnston cited by McKeown and Gentilucci (2007). an invaluable step in helping students understand that learning requires effort and often is difficult.1. as students think aloud. Keene & Zimmerman. 1). creating . and they develop into reflective. a better understanding of the texts may emerge in the classroom. 2. 4) Aspect of Reading Comprehension. It is intended to provide some theoretical concepts which could support this investigation. claim that think-aloud serves firstly as a method of measuring the cognitive reading process. This argument encloses all the issues that imply think-aloud in a reading process. Another definition of this strategy is provided by Pressley et al. In that sense. Thus. the means by which they direct their own behaviours and problemsolving processes. independent learners. in McKeown and Gentilucci‟s (2007) work: “think-aloud is one of the "transactional strategies" because it is a joint process of teachers and students working together to construct understandings of text as they interact with it” (p. and 8) Theoretical frame work. Another illustration about think aloud is provided by Tinzmann in Teacher Vision website (2009). 2) Using of think aloud. this strategy is useful because students are verbalizing all their thought in order to create understanding of the reading texts. then as metacognitive tool to monitor comprehension. Therefore. Think aloud is also a process in which readers report their thoughts while reading (Wade 1990).. 3) The nature of reading. the think aloud is appropriate for this study because through this strategy the students can monitor their comprehension process. and also because this strategy helped readers to comprehend more easily what was being read by them. he says that: When students use think out loud with teachers and with one another. 3)Concept of reading. Through the interactions that think aloud promotes. 1). 5) Comprehension Skill. they learn how to learn. they gradually internalize this dialogue [.This chapter presents about some related information topic of the recent study. metacognitive. Theory of Think aloud In this research. The discussion is presented under the following sub headings: 1) Theory of think aloud.

Readers' thoughts might include commenting on or questioning the text. These sub-strategies will be defined in the ensuing sections. & Seifert-Kessell. Davey. and overcoming problems with word recognition or comprehension (Gunning. or making inferences or predictions. Explain that reading is a complex process that involves thinking and sense-making."  Demonstrating how you connect this information with prior knowledge: "'Saturated fat'? I know I've heard that term before."  Verbalizing obstacles and fix-up strategies: "Now what does 'angiogram' mean? Maybe if I reread that section.1. so students know when you are reading and at what points you begin and end thinking aloud. I'll get the meaning from the other sentences around it: I know I .  Coping strategies you can model include: Making predictions or hypotheses as you read: "From what he's said so far. Wade. bringing their prior knowledge to bear. verbalize your thoughts. Select a passage to read aloud that contains points that students might find difficult."  Describing the mental pictures you " see" : "When the author talks about vegetables I should include in my diet. I'll bet that the author is going to give some examples of poor eating habits. Jones. 1983. monitoring comprehension. As you read. or ambiguous wording. Develop questions you can ask yourself that will show what you think as you confront these problems while reading. These comments reveal readers' weaknesses as well as their strengths as comprehenders and allow the teacher to assess their needs in order to plan more effective instruction 2. Using of Think Aloud How to use this strategy a. unknown vocabulary terms. While students read this passage silently. b. I learned it last year when we studied nutrition.images. linking information in text with prior knowledge.1. and the process you use to solve comprehension problems. It is helpful if you alter the tone of your voice. c. d."  Creating analogies: "That description of clogged arteries sounds like traffic clogging up the interstate during rush hour. green spinach leaves. 1990). 1993. the skilled reader's mind is alive with questions she asks herself in order to understand what she reads. the questions you develop. The think-aloud is a technique in which students verbalize their thoughts as they read and thus bring into the open the strategies they are using to understand a text (Baumann. read it aloud. I can see our salad bowl at home filled with fresh. 1996 in teacher vision).

Lado (1961: 56): Reading in the foreign language consists of grasping meaning in the written language. or at least what they see some good reasons to read. for example readings for literary appreciation are properly the real of reading in the native language. other types of reading. as in the following statement by Berry (1956: 44): There must be question on the text. moreover some questions are also important of the passages. the pupils must read carefully. 2. Learning to read a new language. and the question are (1) who is playing hide and seek in the playground ? (2) What are the children playing in the playground? (3) What are they doing in the playground and where are they playing hide and seek? . Periodically revisit this strategy or have students complete the assessment that follows so these metacomprehension skills become second nature. for example. the passage is about “hide and seek”. some aloud. Have students work with partners to practice "think-aloud" when reading short passages of text.can't skip it because it's in bold-faced print. In this case." e. this essential. there are some purposes of reading such as reading for specific items of information. etc. 1961: 65). If I still don't understand. The questions are to help the pupils understanding every detail on the passage. reading foreign language is the grasping of full linguistics meaning of what is to read in subject within the common experience of the culture of which the language is a central part. so it must be important. Gloria (1988: 43) States that the definition of reading comprehension is most likely to occur when pupils are reading what they want to read. I know I can ask the teacher for help. Furthermore.2. the children are playing hide and seek in the playground. The Nature of Reading Reading is an active cognitive process of interaction with print and monitoring comprehension of establishing meaning which means the brain does not work in reading. the pupils get information by comprehending the massage and the teacher motivate the pupils to read (Lado. It means that the questions on the passage are able to facilitate the pupils understanding of the passage. In other word. for general and detail information in a given field. He further maintains that linguistics means to include the denotation conveyed by language to all speakers of it is as opposed to meaning that are receptive only by those have specific background information not known by the other speakers in general.

in Long. This view usually leads to a next premise. Among discoveries of the researchers. reading process is a progress report. the pupils should be able to (1) scan. (c) there are developmental pattern from grade to grade and from year to year. Concept of Reading Although. and (d) there are no basic reading comprehension which can be taught or learned once or for all. on the world wide level.1. It means that reading is thought integrated with the other language skill. the 1994 English GBPP Stresses the implementation of teaching reading skill in an integrated skill unit. This model has been developed using the . 2. therefore. 2. usually this translates to „reading is matching sounds to letters‟. Knowledge is non-cumulative in improving reading instruction largely because either ignore the reading process and focus on the manipulation of teacher or pupils behaviors of because they related reading as an unknowable mystery. paragraphs and texts. To be effective reader.3. Goodman. (3) read between the lines. in other words.Psychologists and the reading experts have been conducting extensive research in the nature of reading and the sequential development of language skill. as stated by Lewis and Sisk in Gerry (1956: 34) are: (a) reading is not a single skill but an interrelated process of many skill. which can be taught to pupils who are ready to learn. (b) reading is development process. punctuation and the way construct sentences.3. in instruction. The development of reading skills mostly occurs in this stage. (4) read intensively. they are merely simpler or more difficult levels of reading proficiencies. It means that a major reason for the lack of forward motion in attempts to develop more effective reading in striation was a common failure to examine and articulate a clear view of the reading process it self. Both views are non-productive at best and the worst seriously impede progress. reading comprehension develops sequentially as pupils nature. whatever ‟works‟ is its justification. Reading Process In very real sense. Furthermore. grammar. the effort has been to create a model of the reading process powerful enough to explain and predicate reading behavior and sound enough to be a base on which to build and examine the effectiveness of reading instruction. (2) skim. Such as. H Michael and Jack C Richards (1988: 11) says that: “(1) Reading is what reading is and everybody knows that. (2)‟Nobody knows how reading works‟”. but wide variations in reading ability exist among pupils in any grade or of any age. and (5) deduce meaning from the context. teaching vocabulary. the format of teaching reading skill may differ according to local circumstances.

. structure and cultural allusions will be unfamiliar to them in passage. Reading as a Language Skill From the four integrated skills (listening. without the aid of the teacher. (H)e is satisfied with a meaning which makes sense of the context. it is communicative act between a writer and reader. predicting.” According to Grellet (1981) reading may be classified as four simply categories. 2002). control from a teacher is compulsory and it will provide a basis for elucidation of difficulties of structure. Finnonchiro (1983) also glanced that the intensive reading when the student‟s attention should be focused on all expression. by trying in the new experience with personal background of the learning. consisting of cycle of sampling. by systematically extending the reading vocabulary (Betts). the activity is not completely controlled by the teacher. interpretation and perception of written or printed material. 1986) Suhirman (2002) further mentions as follows:  Firstly. To the same extent reading should be stimulated when the students need to create the sense condition.  Secondly. 1968 and Suhirman. testing and confirming. In other words. In this extent. Meanwhile Godman says reading is a psycholinguistic guessing game. the interdisciplinary science that is concerned with how thought and language are interrelated. Ying (2001) states that “reading is the process of recognition. scientific methodology.3.2. as Wallace (1982) cited from Ying (2001) puts it: “The mother tongue speaker learns to be content with approximate meaning…. reading and writing skill). Ying continues her statement that “reading is a process of hypothesis formation and verification. intensive reading. speaking. the writer is interested to come up with a more elaborate description about reading skill as what Tarigan (1987) cited from Huda (2000) calls that reading skill as the third skill that the children have gained after speaking and before writing. In this type of reading. Consequently. 2. and for the extension of vocabulary. nations sound.concepts. skimming and scanning (Cited in Ommagio. and terminology of psycholinguistics. The extensive reading activity is mostly concerned with the purpose of training students to read directly and fluently by his/her own employment. the reader‟s understanding is unlikely to be 100% accurate. The students have learner to read without the teacher‟s role. intensive reading is reading activity that is being related to further progress in language learning under the teacher guidance. extensive reading. To the same extent. the students will be guided to find the real answers of question they have in mind. Purposeful reading is encouraged by creating an interest in content. extensive reading is developed at the student‟s own pace according to his individual ability (Rivers.

finding statistical information in tables. The procedures for scanning are as follows. or graph. then. the students are trained to think of clues to help them find the specific information. read the section containing the clues to get information needed.Structures in the test will be already familiar to him and new vocabulary will be introduced slowly in such a way that its meaning can be deduced from the context. From linguistics point of views. In this technique. Not like speaking which just involves an encoding process reading applies decoding process by which a reader must grasp and guess the meaning of written words used in writing scripts. Finally. etc. numbers. It is true by reading people get to know the other people scientific achievement. and can find sections that are the special interest to him.  Survey Through survey. reading the symbols to the oral language meaning (Anderson in Tarigan (1991) and Suhirman (2002)). skimming is the skill that helps the students read quickly and selectively in order to obtain a general idea of the material. finding the heading under which required information appears an index.  The third is skimming There are great many materials related to each professional area. reading can be defined as “bringing meaning to and get meaning from points or written materials” (Finnochiro and Banama in Tarigan. the student can discover the purpose and scope of the material.  The fourth is scanning Scanning helps the student search quickly of the specific information he wishes to get from the material. such as finding the meaning of a word in a dictionary. Method of Skimming  Preview By previewing. and Suhirman. punctuation. find the clues. charts. the student can find out whether a specialist in a certain fields written book or article and whether it contains the information he/she is seeking. reading is recording and decoding process. These clues may be a word or words. the student will get the general idea of what the material contains. the students must be taught to be selective.  Overview In over viewing. Next the clues which will help to find the required information have to be decided. 1987. specific information must be located. Skimming techniques will enable them to select the worth reading. First. In short. or some . 2002). and finding the answers to certain questions from the text. In short. alphabetical order.

including the identification of situations or processes analogous to those described in the passage.6. reasoning. The Role of Background Knowledge in Comprehension Ommagio (1986) writes that cognitive psychologist in the late 1960s place great emphasis on the importance of meaningfulness and organization of background knowledge in the learning process. There are six types of reading comprehension questions. Because the written passage upon which the questions are based presents a sustained discussion of a particular topic. (4) Possible applications of the author‟s ideas to other situations. Aspects of Reading Comprehension According to Sheng (2003) reading comprehension questions measure student‟s ability to read with understanding.4.happening in other region of the country.and reading beyond the lines.reading between the lines…. Through reading we can improve our skill and enlarge our human development achievement. Critical reading has to do with evaluating or making judgments about what an author said and meant. These types focus on these aspects. 2. (5) The author‟s logic. In the . Edgar put it well when he referred to these three categories as “reading the lines …. including student‟s ability to recognize both explicitly stated elements in the passage and assumptions underlying statements or arguments in the passage as well as the implications of those statements or arguments. This type of question explores the ability to analyze a written passage from several perspectives. (2) Information explicitly stated in the passage. Ommagio (1986) quotes Ausubel‟s (1968) views that learning which involve active mental process must be meaningful to be effective and permanent.    Literal comprehension has to do with understanding or with answering questions about what an author said.” 2. 2. insight and discrimination.5. or persuasive technique.. Inferential comprehension refers to understanding what an author want by what was said. (3) Information or ideas implied or suggested by the author. (1) The main idea or primary purpose of the passage. Comprehension Skill According to Hilerachi (1983) most of the reading professional list three categories of reading comprehension. (6) The tone of the passage or the author‟s attitude as it is revealed in the language used.

The first researcher is Alexander Moreno cardenas ( 2009 ) with title “The Impact Of The Think-Aloud Strategy In The English Reading Comprehension Of Efl 10th Graders. it is important to highlight that the role of the teacher as a guide was crucial in thinkalouds because he could assist and foster students to use reading strategies such as predicting. Ommagio (1996) included as in the comprehension process all three types of background knowledge: comprehenders make use not only of the linguistic information of the text. 1986). Rather. Third. and prior knowledge in order to comprehend the reading texts. Through the use this strategy they could interact and construct meaning from the texts at once when they developed the reading tasks. visualizing. he found that the students increased their engagement in the activities because of the think-aloud strategy. students then are the main protagonists of the reading process. Knowledge of the language. Clearly. Ability to remember the previous cues. and 4. Ommagio (1986) presents Yorio‟s statement who isolates the following factors in reading process.7. is that students constantly . Thus. 2. they select the fewest. Efficient readers do not need to perceive precisely or identify all elements of the text. here are some researches of The Effect Think Aloud Strategy Toward Students Reading Skill. but also of their knowledge of the world and their understanding of discourse structure to make sense out the passage. Ability to predict or guess in order to make correct choice. In line with the above statement. as Ommagio (1986) cited from Kolers (1973) also maintains that reading is only incidently visual. The Related of Study As the comparison of this research. most productive cues necessary to produce guesses about the meaning of the passage and verify the hypothesis as the process discourse further (In Ommagio. Finally. 3. Ability to make the necessary associations between the different cues selected. He describes reading as a sampling process in which readers predict structures. Being the teacher‟s role only as a guide. the reader then contributes more information by the print on the page. 2. Along with Godman‟s idea. Ommagio (1986) also maintains that the efficient language users will take the most direct routine to their goal comprehension. another positive impact of the think-aloud strategy. Second.second language comprehension process. at least three types of background knowledge are potentially activated: Godman describes that reading as a “psycholinguistic guessing game” involving the interaction between thought and language. those are: 1.

8. reading is the most important language skills for students t study hard. the writer arrives at theoretical framework of this study. Theoretical Frame Work Based n the theoretical description and result of the relevant studies. According to hadi (1988: 56) that is an experimental design is one of the precise methods to . even at elementary school emphasize the English language teaching on the reading comprehension ability. By teaching four language skill in interactively. But. that is involves reading. Therefore. listening. speaking and writing. vocabulary. beside developing their ability in other language skills.. In English language teaching in Indonesian. So that in this case. mostly the success of the students in learning the English should be determined by themselves. In teaching and learning process. they should hard at home. that is by repeating again what they are getting at the school from the teacher to recognize or memorize the materials. and listening skill. we can see it from the curriculums. Beside the students study the English at the school. especially in English. In this case is limited for the reading skills itself to involve the pupils in learning activities i. reading is placed in high priority. (3) to expands the pupils social intercourse.1 Method of The Study The recent study was an experimental research to find out the result of a certain technique. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.e. (1) To expands the pupils knowledge and art. the ability of the pupils will be increased by using textbook with are published by Depdikbud (Government) and Yudistira (Private Publishing Company). many problems and activities face by the students and also the teachers. junior high school curriculum. (2) to motivates the student to be a good personality in their country. But reading without comprehension is means nothing because reading comprehension is an active process to get the information from the text. Senior high school curriculums. 2. by reading the knowledge of the pupils will gradually increase.mentioned that they had an enhancement in some specific aspects of English language such as: pronunciation.

quantitative and also qualitative hit the certain characteristic from all clear and complete corps member is which wish learned by the nature In this study. the first measurement serve as the pre-test and the second as the posttest. (1) it has two groups of experimental subjects or treatment group and control group.2 Population and Sample 3. The study design is adopted from Ary.1 Randomized group. result of counting/calculating or measurement. Think aloud strategy and reading skill. pre-test and post-test Independent Group Pre-test Post-test variable E Y1 X Y2 C Y1 Y2 Notes : E = experimental group C = control group Y1 = pre-test X = treatment on the experiment group Y2 = post-test This research design will present several (2002: 308). flora. Therefore. (3) both groups will be measured twice. the group of sample would have test to measure the effect that students get after treatment. Table 3. This study tries to describe the effect of treatment of two distinction. While according to Sudjana ( 2005 : 74) population is totality of all value which possible. animal. 3. the design is called a pre-test and post-test control group design. Nawawi ( 2003) in Iskandar ( 2009 : 118) population is grand total of subject research which can be consisted of by the human being. The instructional activity was designed only to teach reading skill students by using Think aloud strategy as a techniques toward the experimental group. instruction toward a group and experimental sample. there are as the population and for observation the . symptom. object. assess the test or event as data source owning certain characteristic in a research. (2) the two groups compared with respect two measurements of observation on the dependent variable. the population of the study includes all nine grade students of the SMPN 19 Mataram in the academic year 2012/2013. The result of the test would be analyzed and compare using statistical computation.examine the cause and effect because of the fact.1Population Population is represent entire/all subject research. the research design is pre-test and post-test. and (5) the experimental group manipulated with particular treatment. et. (4) measurement on the dependent variable for both groups will be done at the same time with the same test.2.

3 Instrument In any scientific research. 3.4 Technique of Data Collection The method of collecting data for this research is used testing. Heaton (1975: 89) states that the test used must be appropriate in term of our object. The contents or the reading task include factual question. In this case. Furthermore. 3.2Sample Sample is shares or proxy from accurate population ( Arikunto. the writer has compiled 25 items of multiple choice and 10 items of essay question taken from various sources.2. if the subject is more than one hundred it can be taken between 10-15% or 20-25% or more that it. Suharsimi (2006) stated that if the subject is less than one hundred it is better to take the entire subject. A test is a group of questions. which are learned at SMPN 19 Mataram. 20 students is students who join who experimental group and 20 students as a control group. the instrument for the data collection should be well prepared. Ary (1979: 216) states that a test is a set of stimuli present to an individual in order to elicit responses on the basic of which a numerical score can be designed. 2006 : 87). the researcher gave the students reading test in using Think aloud strategy. Moreover. 3. Related to the research problems. tasks or exercises for measuring individual or groups skill. The accuracy of the result of research was mostly dependent on how accurate the use of instrument. the dependable in the evidence provides. Those choices from multiple choice questions are as follows: a. Before research carried out.samples are only 40 students consist of 2 classes namely experimented class and control class SMPN 19 Mataram. instrument for collecting data was absolutely important. determining a title and determining the main idea. 1995: 229). This study aimed at knowing the students achievement in Reading skill. and applicable to our particular situation. For those reason. in this research the writer take 40 students as the sample. While according to Sugiyono ( 2003 : 56) sampel is " some of amount and characteristic owned by population. As for becoming sampel of at this research is all student of nine grade class. sampel is an used by example of from the lion's share. While in big dictionary of Indonesian. where the students was asked to tell by using Think aloud Strategy was used to make the students achievement in reading skill (Nurgiantoro. the writer used reading test as an instrument. The test of those three aspects of reading comprehension was compiled by the writer herself collecting information about the subjects. Factual questions : 16 items .

For the purposes. So. : 4 items Determining the main idea : 5 items Every question is valued at 4 points. For the purpose. Determining a title : 4 items a. the researcher got the students scores of the experimental and control group. 1998: 124) Then.Idea of the text understood 3 . the essay questions are described a follows.Not able to create a title . the following formula is used: Notes: M = the mean score of experimental group X = the deviation of score pre-test N = the number of sample  = the sum of (sigma) (Arikunto. an Australian PhD candidate (2003).Difficulties in connecting the different passage 1 . b. Determining a title c.Some difficulties in understanding some of the passage 2 .Title of reading passage suitable but not perfect .Main idea of the text lost 3. the formula that was used for the control group as follows: Notes: .b. to test the hypothesis. will be used here is statistical analysis that is descriptive analysis. which is the score for pre-test and post-test. the writer took students‟ score of experimental and control groups. Thus. The score check for the pre-test and post-test. the writer calculated the mean score of the experimental group.5 Technique of Data Analysis The technique of data analysis. Before testing the proposed hypothesis.Suitable title of reading passage given .6 Hypothesis Testing Before hypothesis testing. it was used t-test with the level of significance 0.Title of reading passage is not very fitting . The first step was the researcher calculated the mean score of experimental group. thus a total of 100 points. the are as follows: 4 . 3. Determining the main idea : 6 items There are 4 band scales to measure reading comprehension test in essay questions described by Lucky Prang.05 (5%).

Huda. Grondund. NE. Arif. Finally. the writer computed the hypothesis significant. it was used formula recommended by Arikunto (1998: 300). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Teaching Methods. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Pengantar Penelitian Dalam Pendidikan. 2000. 1987. USA: Bowling Green State University. Bandung: Bina Aksara. Hornby. 1974. Keraf. 1998: 124) The mean score that obtain through the above formula was analyzed and interpreted. 1985. L.My = the mean score of control group Y = the deviation score of pre-test and post-test N = the number of sample  = the sum of (sigma) (Arikunto. Linguistik Bandingan Historis. 1984. For the sake of computation. Furchan. Robert. Robert Ralph. Suharsimi. AS. 1998. Hillerich. Gramedia. English Competency of KMI Students of Pondok Modern Gontor (a thesis). Gorys. Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching. Surabaya: Usaha Nasional. It was to know whether the Ho was accepted or not. Ponorogo: Islamic Studies of Darussalam Gontor. England: Encyclopedia Compact Disk. Prosedur Penelitian. the formula was as follows: Where: M= mean deviation of each group N = number of subject X = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the experimental group) Y = deviation between pre-test and post-test (the control group) REFERENCES Arikunto. 1993. The Principal’s Guide to Improving Reading Instruction. USA: Oxford University Press. Bolgar. . 1982. S. Jakarta: PT.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful