Human Factors Engineering and Work Design

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

WORK METHODS DESIGN

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

NJ. . All rights reserved. Inc. ©2007 Pearson Education.Work Methods Design/Methods Engineering Emphasis in Methods Engineering Efficiency Cost reduction Labor reduction Workplace layout Facility layout Elimination of waste “One best way in doing work” Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. Groover. Measurement.. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. and Management of Work by Mikell P.

Human Factors Engineering/Ergonomics Emphasis in Ergonomics and Human Factors Safety Comfort Interaction between human and equipment Workplace environment Fitting the work to the individual Reduction of human errors Accident avoidance Work Systems and the Methods. All rights reserved. Groover.. Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement. Upper Saddle River. NJ. . ©2007 Pearson Education.

All rights reserved. NJ. . Measurement.Human Factors Engineering Industrial Accidents Work Systems and the Methods.. Groover. Upper Saddle River. Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ©2007 Pearson Education.

Human Factors  Human factors is synonymous with ergonomics  Ergonomics emphasizes work physiology and anthropometry  Europe – industrial work systems  Human factors emphasizes experimental psychology and systems engineering  U.S. and Management of Work by Mikell P.. All rights reserved. Measurement. – military work systems Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. Groover. . ©2007 Pearson Education. NJ. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Inc.

a branch of biology concerned with the vital processes of living organisms and how their constituent tissues and cells function  Important in work because work requires expenditure of physical energy  Anthropometry – a branch of anthropology concerned with the dimensions of the human body.Human Factors  Physiology . ISBN 0-13-140650-7. NJ. such as height and reach  Important in work because the dimensions of the human body affect capabilities of worker Work Systems and the Methods. Inc. Upper Saddle River. Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement.. . All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education.

ISBN 0-13-140650-7.. . ©2007 Pearson Education. Inc.Physical and Cognitive Demands Most work activities require a combination of physical and cognitive exertions Work Systems and the Methods. Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P. NJ. Measurement. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.

NJ. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. Inc.PHYSICAL DEMANDS Work Systems and the Methods. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. .. Measurement. Upper Saddle River. ©2007 Pearson Education.

Upper Saddle River. Inc. Groover.. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement. . NJ.MENTAL DEMANDS Work Systems and the Methods. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education.

©2007 Pearson Education. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 1984) Job design Work Systems and the Methods. Groover. Inc. All rights reserved. and Management of Work by Mikell P. .What is Ergonomics? ERGONOMICS Ergon (WORK)  Nomos (LAW) Study of Human at work worker workplace  Fitting the task to the worker (Chaffin and Andersson.. Upper Saddle River. NJ. Measurement.

.Objectives in Ergonomics  Greater ease of interaction between user and machine  Avoid errors and mistakes  Greater comfort and satisfaction in use of the equipment  Reduce stress and fatigue  Greater efficiency and productivity  Safer operation  Avoid accidents and injuries Work Systems and the Methods. ©2007 Pearson Education. NJ. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Inc. Measurement. . and Management of Work by Mikell P.

©2007 Pearson Education. NJ. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Inc. Upper Saddle River.. Measurement.SAMPLE ILLUSTRATION Work Systems and the Methods. . All rights reserved. Groover.

comfort.Ergonomics Application Areas  Work system design  Objectives: safety. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. accident avoidance. avoidance of liability lawsuits Work Systems and the Methods. user-friendly. Inc. ©2007 Pearson Education. . Measurement. mistake proof. Groover. improved functional performance  Also includes environment such as lighting  Product design  Objectives: safety.. NJ.

Groover. Inc. Measurement. . ISBN 0-13-140650-7. and Management of Work by Mikell P. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River.LIGHTING Work Systems and the Methods.. NJ.

PRODUCT DESIGN Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River.. and Management of Work by Mikell P. NJ. Groover. ©2007 Pearson Education. . Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Measurement. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education. Inc. NJ. how much can an average worker lift?  Design and engineering applications  Use the research findings to design better tools and work methods Work Systems and the Methods. e.Ergonomists – What They Do  Research on human capabilities and limitations  Discover the characteristics of human performance. Upper Saddle River. ..g. Measurement.. Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P.

NJ. Measurement. Inc. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. .LIFTING REQUIREMENTS Work Systems and the Methods. Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P.. Upper Saddle River. ©2007 Pearson Education.

ISBN 0-13-140650-7. . Groover. educational requirements for technical positions Work Systems and the Methods. Measurement. Inc. Upper Saddle River. and Management of Work by Mikell P. All rights reserved. using worker size and strength as criteria for physical work  Common philosophy prior to ergonomics  FPJ is still important  For example.. NJ. ©2007 Pearson Education.Fitting the Person to the Job  Considers worker’s physical and mental aptitudes in employment decisions  For example.

and Management of Work by Mikell P.Fitting the Job to the Person  Opposite of FPJ  Philosophy: design the job so that any member of the work force can perform it  Why the FJP philosophy has evolved:  Changes in worker skill requirements  Demographic changes (e. Groover. Upper Saddle River. NJ. equal opportunity laws) Work Systems and the Methods. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education. more women in the workforce)  Social and political changes (e. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ...g. Measurement.g. Inc.

. Measurement. Groover.Human-Machine Systems   Basic model in ergonomics Defined as a combination of humans and equipment interacting to achieve some desired result Types of human-machine systems: 1. Manual systems 2. Mechanical systems 3. Upper Saddle River. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Automated systems  Work Systems and the Methods. ©2007 Pearson Education. NJ. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Inc. .

ISBN 0-13-140650-7. NJ. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ©2007 Pearson Education. Measurement.System Components  The human  The equipment  The environment Work Systems and the Methods.. Groover. . Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved. Inc.

©2007 Pearson Education. hands.to sense the operation  Vision. .to take action  Fingers. Inc. feet.Human Components  Human senses .. hearing. calculating. and Management of Work by Mikell P. and voice Work Systems and the Methods. and smell  Human brain . taste. touch. Upper Saddle River. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. planning. All rights reserved.for information processing  Thinking. making decisions. solving problems  Human effectors . NJ. Groover. Measurement.

Groover. Inc. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Upper Saddle River. ©2007 Pearson Education.to actuate and regulate the process  Steering wheel.. computer keyboard Work Systems and the Methods.Machine Components  The process – function or operation performed by human-machine system  Displays . NJ. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. . Measurement. All rights reserved.to observe the process  Direct observation for simple processes  Artificial displays for complex processes  Controls .

and humidity  Social environment  Co-workers and colleagues at work  Immediate supervisors  Organizational culture  Pace of work Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. Groover.Environmental Components  Physical environment  Location and surrounding lighting. Measurement. and Management of Work by Mikell P. temperature. All rights reserved. . noise. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education.. NJ. Inc.

. ©2007 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. . Measurement. Groover.Human-Machine Interactions Work Systems and the Methods. NJ. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Upper Saddle River.

. ©2007 Pearson Education.Topic Areas in Ergonomics     Physical ergonomics Cognitive ergonomics The physical work environment Occupational safety and health Work Systems and the Methods. . NJ. Measurement. All rights reserved. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Upper Saddle River. Inc. Groover.

ISBN 0-13-140650-7. All rights reserved. Groover. ©2007 Pearson Education. Inc. Measurement. NJ. Upper Saddle River. and Management of Work by Mikell P.Physical Ergonomics  How the human body functions during physical exertion  Physiology – vital processes carried out by living organisms and how their constituent tissues and cells function  How physical dimensions of the body affect capabilities of worker  Anthropometry – physical dimensions of the human body Work Systems and the Methods.. .

. All rights reserved. Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ©2007 Pearson Education. Inc. Measurement. NJ. Upper Saddle River.Biochemical Reactions in Metabolism  Food categories:  Carbohydrates (4 kcal/g) – converted into glucose (C6H12O6) and glycogen  Primary source of energy muscle  Proteins (4 kcal/g) – converted into amino acids  Lipids (9 kcal/g) – converted into fatty acids (acetic acid and glycerol) Work Systems and the Methods.. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.

and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement.2 kcal/min 4 kcal/min 7.Energy Expenditure Rates         Sleeping Standing (not walking) Walking at 4. All rights reserved. Groover.5 km/hr Jogging at 7. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.7 kcal/min 8.5 kcal/min 2. ©2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River.. NJ.3 kcal/min 8 kcal/min 10 kcal/min Work Systems and the Methods. Inc.2 km/hr Soldering work (seated) Mowing lawn (push mower) Chopping wood Shoveling in front of furnace BMRm 2. .

©2007 Pearson Education.Work Activity and Energy Expenditure Energy expenditure. heart rate. All rights reserved. NJ. Groover. .. Measurement. Upper Saddle River. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Inc. and Management of Work by Mikell P. and oxygen consumption for several categories of work activity Work Systems and the Methods.

Muscle Endurance Work Systems and the Methods. All rights reserved. Groover. Upper Saddle River. Measurement. NJ. ©2007 Pearson Education. and Management of Work by Mikell P. .. Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.

Inc.. All rights reserved. .Static Dimensions of Human Body Standing Seated Work Systems and the Methods. Measurement. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. NJ. Upper Saddle River.

5 65.0 66.7 68.7 66.4 63. .7 Females Centimeters 165 169 166 162 154 150 159 153 167 161 153 Inches 65. ©2007 Pearson Education.1 62. Upper Saddle River.6 60. South Japan Southeast Asia Australia (European) Africa.2 65.2 Work Systems and the Methods.3 69. North Africa.7 63.8 67. and Management of Work by Mikell P.Standing Heights of Males and Females throughout the World Males Region North America Northern Europe Central Europe Southeastern Europe India.5 65. West Centimeters 179 181 177 173 167 162 172 163 177 169 167 Inches 70.8 60.2 69. Measurement.7 63.7 64. Inc.1 65.4 60.. Groover.6 59. All rights reserved.5 71. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. NJ. North India.

All rights reserved.. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. . Inc. ©2007 Pearson Education. NJ.Normal Distribution in Anthropometry Normal distribution for a given anthropometric variable of interest Work Systems and the Methods. Measurement. Upper Saddle River.

Different Sizes for Different Size Users Example: Men’s suit coat sizes available from mail-order clothing store Coat sizes Short (under 5’8”) Regular (5’8” to 5’11”) Long (6’ to 6’3”) Extra long (over 6’3”) Portly short (under 5’8”) Portly regular (5’8” to 5’11”) 37 38 39 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. Measurement. Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P.. Inc. ©2007 Pearson Education. NJ. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. All rights reserved. .

and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement.. . NJ.Cognitive Ergonomics  Concerned with the capabilities of the human brain and sensory system while performing information processing activities  Human cognitive processes include:  Sensing and perception  Use of memory  Response selection and execution Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Groover. Inc. ©2007 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. . ISBN 0-13-140650-7.Anatomy of the Human Eyeball Work Systems and the Methods. ©2007 Pearson Education. Measurement. NJ. Inc.

All rights reserved. Groover. Measurement.Anatomy of the Human Ear Work Systems and the Methods. Inc. .. NJ. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ©2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River.

Groover. Inc. All rights reserved. and radiation Work Systems and the Methods.Physical Work Environment  Visual environment  Lighting levels and workplace design  Auditory environment  Intensity and duration of noise  Climate  Air temperature. Measurement. ©2007 Pearson Education.. . Upper Saddle River. NJ. humidity. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. air movement. and Management of Work by Mikell P.

©2007 Pearson Education. Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P.Incident Light is at Angle  E = I cos  / d2 Work Systems and the Methods. Inc. Measurement. Upper Saddle River. NJ. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.. .

and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement. . ©2007 Pearson Education.. All rights reserved. Groover. NJ. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Inc. Upper Saddle River.Types of Luminaires Direct lighting Work Systems and the Methods.

and Management of Work by Mikell P..Types of Luminaires Indirect lighting Work Systems and the Methods. ©2007 Pearson Education. Inc. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. Measurement. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Groover. . NJ.

Types of Luminaires Combination of direct and indirect lighting Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River. . ©2007 Pearson Education.. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. and Management of Work by Mikell P. All rights reserved. NJ. Measurement. Inc. Groover.

. and Management of Work by Mikell P. NJ. ©2007 Pearson Education. Measurement. Inc. Groover.Occupational Safety and Health  Occupational safety – concerned with the avoidance of industrial accidents  One-time events that cause injury or fatality  Occupational Health – concerned with avoiding diseases and disorders caused by exposure to hazardous materials or conditions  Develop after prolonged periods of exposure  May take years before symptoms reveal the onset of the malady Work Systems and the Methods. All rights reserved.. Upper Saddle River. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.

. Measurement. . joints and spinal disks. Work Systems and the Methods. NJ.Ergonomic related injuries        May be called: CTD’s (cumulative trauma disorders) RSI’s (repetitive stress injuries) RMI’s (repetitive motion injuries) Which are all considered: MSD’s (musculoskeletal disorders) MSD’s can affect muscles. tendons. nerves. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Inc. Groover. ©2007 Pearson Education.

. Measurement. All rights reserved.. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Inc. NJ. ©2007 Pearson Education. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Groover.Common types of MSD’s         Tendonitis Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Tennis Elbow Neck and Back injuries Strains/Sprains Bursitis Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Trigger finger Work Systems and the Methods. Upper Saddle River.

Measurement. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.Risk factors and causes of MSD’s Task Physical Characteristics  Repetition  Force  Posture  Contact trauma  Velocity/acceleration  Duration  Segmental Vibration  Recovery Time  Heavy Dynamic exertion Work Systems and the Methods.. All rights reserved. ©2007 Pearson Education. NJ. Inc. . Upper Saddle River.

Risk factors and causes of MSD’s

Environmental Characteristics  Heat Stress  Cold Stress  Whole Body Vibration  Lighting  Noise

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Identifying Risk Factors
 Conditions or circumstances that increase the chances of developing a MSD.  The likelihood of developing an injury is dependent on the frequency and duration of exposure to risk factors.  Both occupational and personal risk factors can affect an individuals well being at home or work.

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Repetition
 Occurs when the same or similar movements are performed frequently.  Repetition can also occur when different tasks are performed if those tasks have the same movements.  Injury may result from repetition when the tissues do not have adequate time to recover.

Work Systems and the Methods, Measurement, and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover, ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

 With excessive force the muscles are contracting much harder than normal. . Groover.  A pinch grip produces 3-5 times more force on the tendons in the wrist than a grip with the whole hand. NJ. Upper Saddle River. Measurement. ©2007 Pearson Education.. Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.Force  Force is the amount of physical effort required by a person to do a task or maintain control of tools or equipment. tendons and joints. All rights reserved. Work Systems and the Methods. this can lead to stress on the muscles. and Management of Work by Mikell P.

 A “neutral” body position is safest and most efficient position in which to work. . Inc. Upper Saddle River. and Management of Work by Mikell P. tendons and joints.  Awkward posture puts stress on muscles. NJ. neck and low back Work Systems and the Methods. Groover.. ©2007 Pearson Education.Awkward Posture  Is a deviation from the “neutral” body position.  Wrist. Measurement. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. shoulder.

and Management of Work by Mikell P. ©2007 Pearson Education.  The muscles will become fatigued from a lack of blood flow during a static posture. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Upper Saddle River.Static Posture  Static posture occurs when one position is held for a prolonged period of time.. Work Systems and the Methods. . All rights reserved. Groover.  This fatigue can lead to discomfort and even injury. Measurement. NJ. Inc.

Contact Trauma  Local mechanical stress generated from sustained contact between the body and an external object  Local mechanical stress generated from shock impact Work Systems and the Methods. All rights reserved. . Upper Saddle River. Measurement. ©2007 Pearson Education. and Management of Work by Mikell P. NJ. Inc. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Groover..

Upper Saddle River. respectively  Mean wrist flexion/extension of 490 deg/sec in low risk jobs and 820 deg/sec in high risk jobs (Marras and Schoenmarklin. 1991..Velocity/Acceleration  Angular velocity/angular acceleration is the speed of body part motion and the rate of change of speed of body part motion. Measurement. . 1993) Work Systems and the Methods. NJ. ©2007 Pearson Education. Inc. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P.

Upper Saddle River. minutes or hours per day or as the years of exposure to a risk factor or a job Work Systems and the Methods. Inc. and Management of Work by Mikell P. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.. . ©2007 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Groover. NJ. Measurement.Duration  Time quantification of exposure to a risk factor.

All rights reserved. . or performance of an activity that allows a strained body area to rest.Recovery Time  Time quantification of rest.  Short work pauses have reduced perceived discomfort (Hagberg and Sundelin. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. 1970) Work Systems and the Methods. Measurement. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Upper Saddle River. NJ. performance of low stress activity. ©2007 Pearson Education.. 1986)  Rest periods between exertions have reduced performance decrement (Caldwell. Inc. Groover.

NJ. . ISBN 0-13-140650-7.Heavy Dynamic Exertion  Muscle demand for metabolites can not be met (metabolic energy expenditure rate exceeds the body’s energy)  Localized fatigue – tired/sore muscles  Whole body fatigue (from long-term heavy carrying/lifting/climbing stairs) Work Systems and the Methods.. All rights reserved. Inc. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Groover. ©2007 Pearson Education. Measurement. Upper Saddle River.

. and Management of Work by Mikell P.. Take proper breaks. Measurement. Upper Saddle River.     Develop an Ergonomics program. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. ©2007 Pearson Education.What you can do to prevent injury. Health and Fitness. Work Systems and the Methods. Inc. NJ. Groover. All rights reserved. Be aware of your hobbies away from work.

 Adjust focal requirements. ©2007 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Upper Saddle River.Adjusting the Workstation  Adjust the Chair. . Inc. Groover. Measurement.  Adjust reach requirements. NJ. Work Systems and the Methods. ISBN 0-13-140650-7..

Correct the Environment  Check lighting. Work Systems and the Methods. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Measurement.  Check work processes. Groover. .. ©2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. NJ. noise and temperature. Inc.  Check work pace and stress levels.

All rights reserved.. Inc. Groover. Upper Saddle River. ©2007 Pearson Education. ISBN 0-13-140650-7. NJ. and Management of Work by Mikell P. .Improve Posture and Habits  Modify wrist/hand motions  Improve neck and back postures  Consider personal preferences Work Systems and the Methods. Measurement.

All rights reserved..Personal Protective Equipment  PPE acts as a barrier between a person and a hazard. These devices should not be used in place of incorrect work techniques. . Groover. and Management of Work by Mikell P. Work Systems and the Methods. Inc.  Back belts and other braces are not considered PPE. Measurement. NJ. ©2007 Pearson Education.  PPE is only appropriate in situations when engineering or administrative controls cannot be implemented. Upper Saddle River. ISBN 0-13-140650-7.

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