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WELL LOG INTERPRETATION
FOCUS ENERGY LTD.
. Where are the hydrocarbons? The depth of formations. is of utmost importance. The value of the measurement is plotted continuously against depth in the well. which contain accumulations of hydrocarbons. or geological body. which contains the hydrocarbon. A number of measurement devices and interpretation techniques have been developed. Well logging plays a central role in the successful development of a hydrocarbon reservoir. A second aspect is to quantify the hydrocarbon fraction of the fluids within the rock matrix. must be identified. Formation evaluation is essentially performed on a well-by-well basis. and if so are they oil or gas? First. This quantity. it is necessary to identify or infer the presence of hydrocarbons in formations traversed by the wellbore. it is the most difficult to answer from inferred formation properties. Another key factor is oil viscosity. The third concerns the areal extent of the bed. which has influenced the decision for the well location. as in heavy or light oil. How much hydrocarbon is contained in the formation? An initial approach is to quantify the fractional volume available for hydrocarbon in the formation. The most important input is a determination of permeability. The traditional role of wireline logging has been limited to participation primarily in two general domains: formation evaluation and completion evaluation. and the production testing. This last item falls largely beyond the range of traditional well logging. Its measurements occupy a position of central importance in the life of a well. between two milestones: the surface seismic survey. The goals of formation evaluation can be summarized by a statement of four questions of primary interest in the production of hydrocarbons: Are there any hydrocarbons. How producible are the hydrocarbons? In fact. Unfortunately. porosity. Many empirical methods are used to extract this parameter from log measurements with varying degrees of success. often loosely referred to by its weight.BASIC WELL LOG INTERPRETATION 3. all the questions really come down to just this one practical concern. They provide.1 INTRODUCTION The continuous recording of a geophysical parameter along a borehole produces a geophysical well log.
using the knowledge of local geology and fluid properties that is accumulated as a reservoir is developed.2 APPLICATIONS In the most straightforward application. Usually a measurement is sensitive either to the properties of the rock or to the pore-filling fluid. shaliness and hydrocarbon saturation. an estimate of their producibility. and acoustic. nuclear. Uses of well logging in petroleum engineering. Measurement techniques are used from three broad disciplines: electrical. the purpose of well logging is to provide measurements. many different logging tools are needed to give the best possible combination of measurements for the rock type anticipated. Because of the wide variety of subsurface geological formations. 3. the final answers derived are mainly three: the location of oilbearing and gas-bearing formations. (Adapted from Pickett) Logging applications for petroleum engineering Rock typing Identification of geological environment Reservoir fluid contact location Fracture detection Estimate of hydrocarbon in place Estimate of recoverable hydrocarbon Determination of water salinity Reservoir pressure determination Porosity/pore size distribution determination Water flood feasibility Reservoir quality mapping Interzone fluid communication probability Reservoir fluid movement monitoring .principally. each providing complementary information. and an assessment of the quantity of hydrocarbon in place in the reservoir. values of porosity. Despite the availability of this rather large number of devices. as a function of depth. which can be related to the volume fraction and type of hydrocarbon present in porous formations.
3 Well Log Interpretation: Finding the Hydrocarbon The three most important questions to be answered by wellsite interpretation are: 1.. which is called the shale base line. Are the hydrocarbons recoverable? 3. If so. are: 1. GR. (I). Discard the tight formations. Scanning the log in track one and it has a base line on the right. what is the quantity present? 3. Resistivity logs (MFSL.. Porosity logs (Density. Where are the potential producing hydrocarbons zones? (II). Next step: Scan the porosity logs on the track 3 to see which of the zones have good porosity against the high resistivity zones.4 INTERPRETATION PROCEDURE The basic logs. How much hydrocarbons (oil or gas) do they contain? First step: The first step in the log interpretation is to locate the permeable zones. Using such a set of logs. sand.3. Next step: To scan the resistivity logs in track 2 to see which of the zones of interest gives high resistivity readings. Shallow and Deep resistivity logs) 3. High resistivities reflect either hydrocarbons in the pores or low porosity. and if so at what depth and are they Oil or gas? 2. Does the formation contain hydrocarbons. Select the interesting zones for the formation evaluation. which are required for the adequate formation evaluation. Generally. Permeable zone logs (SP.g. the resistivity logs are run in track two and porosity logs on track three.e. Neutron and Sonic). impermeable zones and swings to the left indicate clean zones. limestone etc. the permeable zone logs are presented in track one.e. Caliper) 2. . The interpreter focuses his attention immediately on these permeable zones. a log interpreter has to solve the following problems. This base line indicates shale i.
porosity (Ø) and the "true" resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt) cannot be measured precisely for a variety of reasons.Tms/TD) x100 Where: BHT = bottom hole temperature (from header) TD = total depth (Depth-Logger from header) Tms = mean surface temperature Determining Formation Temperature (Tf) Once the geothermal gradient (gG) has been established. Temperature increases with depth. mud weight. then it can be determined by chart or by formula.1 . Many of these effects have strong impacts on analysis and must be corrected prior to evaluating the formation. bed thickness. and other properties of the logging environment and formation. depth of invasion. Geothermal gradients are commonly expressed in degrees Fahrenheit per 100 m (°F/100m). This is often referred to as formation temperature (Tf). it is possible to determine the temperature for a particular depth. gG= (BHT. The more activity. activity within that region. If the geothermal gradient of an area is not known. Several types of corrections and the tools for which these corrections are necessary are illustrated in table 3.3. and the temperature gradient of a particular region depends upon the geologic. or tectonic. the higher the geothermal gradient. Where: Tms = mean surface temperature gG = geothermal gradient D = depth at which temperature is desired Environmental Corrections In actual logging conditions.5 FORMATION EVALUATION Determining Geothermal Gradient The first step involved in determining temperature at a particular depth is to determine the geothermal gradient (gG) of the region. Factors affecting these responses may include hole size.
Therefore.Table 3.1: Required Environmental Corrections Correcting Resistivity for Temperature Resistivity decreases with increasing temperature. Where: R2 = resistivity value corrected for temperature R1 = resistivity value at known reference temperature (T1) T1 = known reference temperature T2 = temperature to which resistivity is to be corrected k = temperature constant k = 6.5 when temperature is expressed in °C . Failing to correct Rw to a higher temperature will result in erroneously high values of water saturation (Sw). it is possible to calculate a hydrocarbon-bearing zone as a wet zone if the temperature correction is not applied. Correction may be applied through the use of a chart (GEN-5) or an equation (Arp's equation).77 when temperature is expressed in °F k = 21. It is vital that formation water resistivity (Rw) be corrected for temperature. and therefore any value of Rmf and/or Rw determined at one depth must be corrected for the appropriate formation temperature (Tf) where those values will be used to calculate water saturation (Sw).
either by chart or by calculation the matrix density and the type of fluid in the borehole must be known.Density porosity Formation bulk density (ρb) is the function of matrix density. mathematical. Cross-Plot Porosity Equation Where: ΦD = density porosity ΦN = neutron porosity 2. porosity. . Cross. The formula for calculating the density porosity is: Where. and second by the density of the drilling fluid. Porosity measurements taken from logs are rarely adequate for use in calculating water saturation. ρma = matrix density of formation. and graphical--used to determine the cross-plot porosity of a formation. and density of the fluid in the pores (salt mud. ρb = bulk density of the formation. or hydrocarbons). To determine density porosity. Cross-Plot Porosity There are a variety of methods--visual. fresh mud.Plot Porosity from Chart The proper Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) chart is determined first by tool type. There are two methods for the determination of porosity: 1. ρf = pore fluid density in the borehole.
Another method of Rw determination is by means of Hingle plot. These charts may be used as an alternative to the neutron-density cross-plots. however. INVERSE ARCHIE METHOD: Rwa Where: Rt = resistivity of the uninvaded zone Φ = porosity .SONIC POROSITY Sonic Tool Cross-Plot Charts The "Sonic versus Bulk Density" and "Sonic versus Neutron Porosity" charts may be interpolated and extrapolated in the same manner as the "Bulk Density versus Neutron Porosity" charts. Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the Inverse Archie Method: Determining a value for formation water resistivity (Rw) from logs may not always provide reliable results. ∆tma = formation matrix travel time. Two of the most common methods of determining Rw from logs are the inverse-Archie method and the SP method. ∆tf = fluid travel time Cp = compaction factor. in many cases logs provide the only means of determining Rw. or an additional method for providing more information on the possible lithology of a formation. Wyllie-Time Average Equation: Consolidated and compacted sandstones: Unconsolidated sands: Where: ∆tlog = travel time from the log.
Where: Rmf = resistivity of mud filtrate. produced water samples. Rxo = resistivity of flushed zone. . The water saturation equation for clean formations is as follows: Archie's Equation Where: Sw = water saturation n = saturation exponent a = tortuosity factor. Moveable Hydrocarbon Index (MHI) One way to investigate the moveability of hydrocarbons is to determine water saturation of the flushed zone (Sxo). Other sources include measured formation water samples (DST or SFT). but can be obtained from logs under ideal conditions. Often best obtained from the customer.Sw Calculations: Water saturation may now be calculated for those zones that appear to be hydrocarbon bearing. m = cementation exponent. Φ= porosity. This is accomplished by substituting into the Archie equation those parameters pertaining to the flushed zone. Rt = formation resistivity Rw = formation water resistivity Among the most difficult variables to determine. or simply local reservoir history. but one which has a tremendous impact upon calculated values of water saturation (Sw).
then hydrocarbons were likely moved during invasion.Once flushed zone water saturation (Sxo) is calculated. . If the value for Sxo is much greater than the value for Sw. and the reservoir will produce. An easy way of quantifying this relationship is through the moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI). it may be compared with the value for water saturation of the uninvaded zone (Sw) at the same depth to determine whether or not hydrocarbons were moved from the flushed zone during invasion.
Calculation of Vshale: The first step in the shalysand analysis is the calculation of volume of shale from a gamma ray log. Volume of shale from gamma ray log is determined by the chart or by the following formulas: Where: IGR = gamma ray index GRlog = actual borehole-corrected GR response in zone of interest GRmin = minimum borehole-corrected GR response against clean zones GRmax = maximum borehole-corrected GR response against shale zones Determining Effective Porosity (Φe): The second step of shaly sand analysis is to determine the effective porosity of the formation i. Whenever shale is present in the formation.SHALYSAND INTERPRETATION The presence of shale (i. porosity tools like. The only exception to this is the density log. These erroneous results are not limited to sandstones. It will not record too high a porosity if density of shale is equal to or greater than the reservoir’s matrix density. the presence of shale in a formation will cause resistivity logs to record lower resistivity.e.e. (sonic and neutron) will record too high porosity. Effective Porosity from Neutron-Density Combinations: Φn-corrected = Φn . but also occur in limestones and dolomites. clay minerals) in a reservoir can cause erroneous results for water saturation and porosity derived from logs. determining porosity of the formation if it did not contain clay minerals.(Vcl x Φnsh) Φd-corrected = Φd .(Vcl x Φdsh) For Neutron For Density . In addition.
which is as follow Where: Rt = resistivity of uninvaded zone Vcl = volume of clay Φe = effective porosity Rcl = resistivity of clay Rw = resistivity of formation water .These values of neutron and density porosity corrected for the presence of clays are then used in the equations below to determine the effective porosity ( effective) of the formation of interest. However. the most suitable equation is the Indonesian Equation. Determining Water Saturation (Sw) :( Indonesian Equation) There are many different equations by which water saturation (Sw) of a clay-bearing formation may be calculated.
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