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Review for Medical Physiology

Note: All contents in this file are just the key points for the questions in the Summary. It is required that in the examination students should give much more detailed description for every question.)

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Regulation of body functions. (1) Nervous regulation; (2) Humoral regulation; (3) Autoregulation. Describe the ways of membrane transport. (1) Simple diffusion; (2) Facilitated diffusion; (3) Active transport; (4) Endocytosis and exocytosis. Describe the physiological role of sodium pump. (1) Maintaining the Na+ and K+ gradients across the cell membrane; (2) Partly responsible for establishing a negative electrical potential inside the cell; (3) Controlling cell volume; (4) Providing energy for secondary active transport List the important factors in the establishment of the normal resting potential. (1) K+ diffusion potential; (2) Na+ diffusion; (3) Na+-K+ pump

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Describe the mechanism of the initiation and termination of AP. (1) Mechanism of the initiation of AP: a. Local response and Na+ channel activated; b. Regenerative cycle of Na+ influx; c. Threshold potential. (2) Mechanism of the termination of AP: a. Na+ channel inactivated; b. K+ channel activated.

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Describe the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction. (1) Increase of intracellular calcium level; (2) Combination of calcium ion with troponin C; (3) Conformational change of troponin complex and tropomyosin;

(4) Uncovery of active sites of the actin; (5) Interaction of myosin and actin filaments; (6) Sliding mechanism, walk-along theory.