Chirhsons

uidq

rhs

AEk ose resme

303

6f rh6r joursy, rhsy 'temhed

w dr Famtr justdt rhs hour b,s monlle over rhe ea r trccompa nhd by h,avy iimLcai clouds whhh dk.hafgsd rhen w ery oppo !D'1y or bndins". PrcbablY lh8 jourey 1iav6lh, 3r rr's rase 'hbuq,th6Bakkhal' oi lvhich rhe wearhe, prcve ed them inre,io, p t or rho tom iindiie aid rhey Ee,e'oblised ro p*s rhs nishr n rhe qrr." Nezr dry (he sxlh Julyl ddawo rhey dkmbqk.d aid

hs .

ode

'whd road (thcy) BDIed th 'lhs hu13 aloiq
cDqu

propos-i 1o

tolei,

Ma

r

quedloi 6s owins ro heavy G tr rhc dr..ms nom ths hillsw o s!ch voluma aid rolm iir su.h violsnr wal?r ion$s,hd even EhDhin6 coul4 nor rord r56m Thev w.Isadvhed oi Jllv 7, rhev bsumed rhen the lafd

ry

,evealed

loumey ]hey !v,s

'dtrte

rhey "decid€d 'o b.d ovc, {ho tEo leaoucs ups'eam m lhs roor Ithlikalyrhdrvla que aid his pa Yrakhs Eak khalr moved lf,land aE t'a. as Galan 3, pos,bly $! lin I mir o, Lft oivis.blitv ot ths
an com6

luhbhsd wnh ma(rcsses tuqs, aid clisionE anl wdll dosed in w h w.rcloh abovs aid cFalnson tlE sids." oi Julvs, whan rhey warB abour ro ra rhen inland iouhey, . man was
whll6, rha vicum

uD' rhe elsDhanG,

hor uril

rhe €lephanb

nowdah" 'tullv

wd

rlqe,, as la,se as a youns b!11." Aftei a rcscEd wirh svre hjd,ies in hk body.rh* rheY had ro p.* ft

w h ouns

in

haids,

oco3sion3ll

3091A H,sr.ry ot chinasono

wild aiimah ori rhs road. ' soaked by h6avy rah and -erpori eicins sre dLff'culry mud" rhcy rea.hed a "culivaed openins', (he plaiihnc howeei rhs two hill Enqes) ar ;hout 4 o.ock. Thev did oor dae to
be Mo leasuos. Thsy en.ampsd ar lhe loor i,shl oi rhar niqhr rhsy ws'a lashed by "a
wh]ch badly
rhoir

,Ul]ou6

wiid,,

$n'h July, fiey resmed
rhen cb$es

jolney bu(sooi
or

round themselv6s

ii.lemeicY o,ihs

aid n $s tshe*
rhe

wsE robliosd 10

cb

off

,ound somo

desqkd
oood

v.ry early houB aid r.ached rhe roor hills.

ai

Thoie rhey wetcome shslLer

:,wa,c old
day

ofrh6mo iins iumed

dEtul

elsvsn o'ctock

aid nrshr. Oi rha mohiiq ot Jtrty

106 or rho TGVels ,s Thela.dauns mounrars which ,oh rh. and Assam tads, likino uo wtrh rhe srsdln Fais8. Ar rhe bds or oa 'rha,l*daune

rhe6 ror rhe whole 12, ihey Eiched rhe idenrited bv $eedi,

oi

July 17,

rhey

prcbably ns rbubryi rhe Myo.ka..houno. Raioo aid rca.hed Peroem rhere rhem'ssonary n,eeu da rd hs fil:l

is noi d'lriculr
loasues

b

by Manrique in proleEics ro olhr buies, o@ss Tho laid roure riom Dhnq Lo rhs a6.

ustrrlly rok.s rwatvs 0ov4 rh6 disctr.s or "rough mou ,inous

lois. lr

chk6sons und$ rho A,ak.ns$ rogimo

l3l0
w6

sw:mps. lo alli rheD w.rc as
rhe uBvallars

,,om

msny

rh !ihd.

on5

rhese.rorieridm Didq or chi(aqois drecrlo MEtrk.u (Mrch+ uns), which rook Eccodiis ro Man,ique, only "a fsw days"
Manriqus

chftsons.

hk r,oi. fliohr ro AEkli. Iha rhnd roub.id rhomo*ha4dous was rhat uaad by our sGemed kavst!4 Manrque uidondok hls mis6ion ro Aakai ro pacirv rhs khs and ro Blhin himlrom sond is mkiis rorcas ro uprooi rho Po ususss ol chirrssons. rhr rFedd\'-a 4d a*'aLJ h.r'a 'Fourh, prlncipal[ies of rho rhrough which he h3d hlsway, wd8 mcss.ry itr influsnclns rho arakaitussovsreion, in rhe condlcror i.soriarions withihesovernoc

joum3y rrom araktn ro Tho seoond was fio laid roure riom chihasois via which wa! p,obably ued by Pfica Shuja in

ii

his

,eru

CHA?TER XII

PORTUGIESf, ACTIVITIES IN CHTTTAGONC : Pr!RT

II

6dlon I Doriu€u.3. ac.ivid.s tn chftr.sons !h. Bedm.
^r6k.n€ss

durins

Tho Amk.nse ,uts chitosoiq wlissed rhe ponusu.$ inllraroG, which i5 evident tn lhsn *mbl,shnrnr ot sotomonrs and jn rh8i' misioidry .s woll ae pnagcdl ocriv ri6,

ii

skardar shah 0571-15e3 a D), kins or tudkan "was ravourebly dispoed hwads rh6 ponusuossr bs.atr$ lhe la sis bdhyal ,o rtu T puE helped him in seinn siva rhsm msiy racitiries fo. c ryf,s on r.do wlhitr hh knsdom; bur ihs Ia 6rh hishhaodadEs aid disloyatry ro rhe Arakaiesa lv.ined rho sood Btaiioi rhat had bEsn prcvaliis borw*n rhem, one ponusueso maEudsr, souza Godnh!, bok up ams .saiid the AG.

'Knqs
3

l6rcr" qr

H J, p. 20J, aho c6mpog, oD. d'.i p. 67

adruges erivi'3 in chiuasois
rhe kins

1312

a royal assir ro buld a
rhs
requ6Ls

of Pon4al

lhs ol ol th6 Po uqu*8. The khs also ,uhed down ths Pon4ueso ptEn rho tuakaneso kiis.

Ponusuese Po trsal

ol chiLLasois b6s€ed lo n rhe potr row. of

The kiis of Ponrsal subjods ro ayold an med conflcr wLh iho Iocal ptuc€s tsnd ro bs p%ceful serlsE.r c'mpoe howevar, r ndsfsulwirh rhe Pc. .lhsarsfa.rioi on rhe nesligov nm.trr rhar raled ro 2 Th6 .oncl,dton Eachod bs rw6ei fte A'akaicse aid rho Po rsless
Lhlaw cold

wde' on rh8 pEposl.

From rhe beqmnins or his rclsi. kins solrm Shah 1612 A D) re 6d

I

(1593-

welldisposed rowdds rhem rhar m 1596 A D he hmtued rhBs Dsce .r rh6 durhs rhdrthsy used roEv 3

rhe

Iha
Tha

Potuquese

pi

icioardn in rhe Ahkaiese klnqs

PBsu

ki.s or Po usal

i hs le er ro rhe vi.eroy or Po usuese
ro
re$s

do

sous. Godinha osined rho

ouese)

to

bu

ld ,o

w.ora thd A o o or chdrsro by rorce ol ahs olfore (p milinq Lho Ponu

shotrld be accspred aid ir wlll bo enorsh ro ruinrain wirh h'm sood I ond6hlp," H l, F. 203r ale campos, op, (t, p.75

3

,,Li la did rtu kis kiow th it ths Podusuese had ascrsd rons in chilEgons aid ai.kai rhay misht h3v6 d6fi3d rh6 (iio or Arikin oi laid as rh6y del6d his IlsG ar s6. in rhe consranr drussler ih aros ln rho no lew yods, 'Klnss loto., q( H , p, 7,"3

Pdnuouce ac'iviL as
sxped rron (15es A D) 1vd

ii

Chiilasoos | 313

rew d.d vJirh coacesson and p,viloss. Gu€trBi'o wiLes: Almst all lho po (or ch{rasons) has b.si lile rhere, aid ro whom rh6 siven ovs, 10 rhe (ins h vory w6ll-inclned, as thev haw assedhlm in his w!8, aid havs beoi ol snho ro him ii msiv orh$ wavt. To 6om6 o, rhem ha ha. slvens(peidsomor iiglo finry rhoNlnd crus.dos a ha hssdockred hk inron oi or makns oo0 ol lham b$rlrr ,h. rwo m'$iondlos, he would e aiss lor $eft manr& them allowame which ha would doubls rhs

Th*s

concesions
acco,dno

wirh

an immone

ihen i3val

basos

to Guareno,
I

Lha Pontrqu€56 iavy

oi

rreisrh ths Pontrgues che

shed

b

ba

rhe

und'spued mane6

of all ftc po s of Beigala 6nd

rn the bsqhiiiq ol the sevenb.nLh ce ulv, !h6 kland ol saodw'D was bDitrq ruled bv kda' nn, ch Br or B3kL ThasreBinsal rhrc etr8d his dual Mlsh.l e:panslon iavdlllah, ho evenru.llY .oitrol ov rhe sland and rc.ordis ro ,ho lor looo had an 6vd on losr it io them.s rhis ch slaid rook advaftse ol this stu ion"6 Domrso Car 'o{ vJa Po Lqleta h Bs' !l or ovai ii

6 liay ullah, Ta,i[h.]-akbflormJ, qr E

D,

314lA

Hsrory

ol

chiLGqoiq

lndD," and who "was

i

the soruico of xs&r

Fai,-l

-rhrcw

TheiihabiEib of sandvrip, howevo, rctusd io ac@pl rhe dom_ inarion o! ths lo:elsne+.
and bear rhem ofl fiom rL: slaid, cuvallo, m exr€m di$a$, 10 Mriuer ii Deans" rordetvuancg ftoh surcaiirhLLrioi. M6tros rssponded to rh6 appcal. H!, "Biur foor hLnc'ed m.d, rcached s.ndwlp oid mada a sudden inroceir tnhhbiranbot rhs isl.nd.id dispercd rhe peopl4 Lry swod .od ine. cad,lho aid Malroe rhon becams rhejoirsovemoE ol rhe,staod aid ruLd ror of $en brll3ir seivicss, rho kins of Ponuqal creaEd c valh. aid rrra oi Fidnoos da casa Rsal (i o rha noble, and bes,owed oi rhem rhe

opFald

Tha conqlB* ol noso moi ch alirm Tho Muslim cou e6 o1 ackai,

as sGred by

Gu6 e,o, cau[oied

1602

A D, s lleot ro drva our rh€ po usure chef dronshold, l(ccar fiaj, chjef of Bdkla,

.)

Tho Araitaaess k ns dGparched

1oin6d ths khs sot sc6nt ol rh6 mpei.l is aftck look ro rh:n shps and saitsd orl wirh all $cn could nor r.co rh6 sidmyt €nohous lorces. ihose of ch trtrsoig also besrn bescaoow Lh rtun mo$ prccioos
1

)btd,

Gunrtrq p, 195,

scB

allo iuprq p,240

Po uguee activirid in chitbsong |315

ot chiri.qons,"1 Thaiolnr atrack complotalv rdulcd ths Po usu6s naw, Man@l da M.nos, fta Po uouese capEli of Diais esdped wirh his llcer ro saidwp The Po (su6e upoi the A6kaneso, on Nolombq 10, ca alho ioio y mado a ds$o upon chi(ta3oio and d6rrcwdfi' Arek.tree iauyanchoriiq ner Lha po Thc sove,nor or Chitraooiq who wqe rllled ii th combd lhs Ponusu' esd, how.vs, dled ior Lo c5p1ur. chnkqois immedilElv' when lhs news of the Ponusu*s mid o! Chirrasons was
cornunic.bd ro
Lhe

AEkaies' kiis, he hunGdlvse'ran iiforc6m0nr

ruhcd his atenlioi Io ths Po ugu' He disDamEd an !no'm.us rls6l to Sandwp, nBvY, aid dhpmed wdn ? Pvrhlc vl.Lorv

oi nHrcal
lhri

acriviLies. 0n ,hs iurrloriry of Gu reno,lr 6 k'own ono Portusues .aphn aamed Basuan Goncaluez4 who in

His aiqllcizsd iamr is Srb*tan Goizals n ivo or rhevillaoe or S. A oiio delTozel,

ner Lhb.o ando

ror lndia aid otr his , val tharo w?nt tu Brnsal, whera hs t'st eNed :s a souio,, "b prc5rblv thG prolD$oi did nor uri ouIwcll. "subscquanrly hcombarked in tha srlr tads, bv mdans olwhkh hs made.uflicisnr to DurcEss asalla (a sftll vessl), in whth hecir ed a calgo or 6ah to Dlanoa" (Danvds,0P dr' $0. Bs I'od Acrodins

"m.n.lcbscraexmdion"

'

ll6lAHlsro,y

ol Cx n.sois
h mselr

@mbindiloi wilh sehhin Godnh:, 'mads ii fide oa s ddsc.DdBd

s,.dly

laai€d

yrd

ir" li ihcr$3ulr, ho r.aptr:d srly pie.es ot a ll€iy'1 Ns D ed oi simhrd{tucrlva acLuiies ii rhe r'.diac€irv'Uases
"incnded to do I ks. wis ro th.lo res dch isar",3 uur to w* .."t"a oy m rolloweE ro whom -rhe saux world ba a vs,y porlous alfan.'4 The Po'tusEse wss "unwillns ro rsk Lheir llvcr's Ii rho wa' n srre or Lhe D,ovo.,ive ,criois oi rhe ce!:.Lion or hoeilliat
He 3lso

o, ABc., rho Po.rusleso uid.r Nicotado s,ho nadc Sy'am rh!i, stroiohold. To
chilrason!. rh€y

Ni.ob beosld
who -nor bern! rivolcbly dsp Dropo$l ,id,p6,surded d6srd ob :r po".s-,o, 'o bL &ir:!6 nm .,r q .iiqdo-.'
16

rho

kno ol A,sk.n ro
ho

obled io, whch

c!siiaib, he, in collabororidi wnh Bel.hio: Godinha, mvassd Di:nq. H' a..ompEnhd seb:n an pnro as a leulsn.nr drinq rhe 6i6qa ol SaidwlD AtueNads. he be.ame16 iideo.ide ruIe,. ses ruDrc, p. 2a5j aho ses adni,, p. 173

7 D,nu.,t

"p.

dt.,

,'142

Po usuese acrivirios
upon his khqdom, rhe Amkanes3 kin! ord3red

i

Chi'bqons | 317

a sen*al m63i.rc

batuarclslv c ,ied Poruqucn: Ion thar lives rn rh cold blooded wdods. wh'ld othe6 mnaoed ro ,ea.r r5en ve$3b and pd our r. seo, am.ns{ whon lvas s.bdho Goi?ales 41 Ths deaih ol Nratr$l ds M ros, ,,lord or srndtva tshnd, n

d riem h€ pur all ,h: chrish)i ihab('nb of rh' i:hidrl d.rh. Mon or rhe and sdidwip f,!$i ss c.3ied ro Bakb 3id fom uidq rhe a'rr or rh. Raj: or
kll:d by

ndep.nd!n1 Mrslim p, nc pal iy Po rqu6a. h a d'ivo a!

ri,
Lho Po

fier.e

iavil

snsrs.m4nl Faraxhan was

uquse, cormanccd bv sotranhn Pinro Ths u6. sallant senecl Th6 Po{usuesr scbcbd GoiztsLs 6s a3n chnl coiz les
Eakla) rhai hs should recaive halr rhc revenues ofrhe htand ir h6 would asskr ii rikms , (s,nd!vp).'3 The [hs of Baklj, accor dhsly sEDr lome shies and rqo huidrcd hdse. 'ey Mnch, 1609, Gonznos ,ound 5im:alr toay n.t and 400 Ponusue$ w h wh,ch hep,o.eeded ro rtr,ck rhe strd " 4 He rhetr

rh: clat:iame Brii.alD? in r Daiv s Io.arcs on rhe wcyq, 3nd id8iired w nrodeh Bharkt on j. rhe Maltrbar co so tur as the m.ssnr irradon scoic*n.d, ths pla.an3he E rcaloa s pos blv rh. wroiq,iprcdu ion

313

rA

Hkrory

or

chinaqono

o, a s:ll.ii doteice by ths Mtrslim$ Ths Po !su,sa, rheicsroMad, ,ebli edin E very ctu6t miis,. AII rha Muslim nhablkds ol irro istandi a rhousand in iuhba, wsrs

. r39.o,. -oo qo..uruc."codtd,o,co.crvs g(id EoFd ot.o,qtre,ino rh6 wlbl, e6 sn coad oa oi 'he rhs say of sdsal wnh chtrtasons aid Pesu rs bases to, rhsn
Seha iin conzil4s iJled hG htaid kiiodor.!ai r'indeosid6( sove,eisi 3 aid oi,aii,ed a soynimei! ol his own I kins. Bu rh6 Flicy.doDred by hG rhe policy ot rhs ptui allesianc. ncfte, ro rh or cDa. coozates ako ptayod rho

said\,tp

m

ked rho calminaroi

o

h6 ponu.

'slaid rhesconzlas s!5sqrc ly rook

rhB

wer6 arfi's( sm sd lads rheis, hur

iho khe or

0

ri.,loa ( ? srktrj halr rhe rcveiuas o, rhs kland

as hati been asreed
3

sonaror darsT ro r5o Araklnesi K ns. rn rhe earty p rofrhoyear 1615 AD, thaar:krnDrcltrids,oororhe sli^dof saidwip. -Goozales louid hiDltf iow h 3 pre.arious posnioit ond behq in ieed

to'

po

aid

"6

him

ie

"Hrotrded rh if rhr Vcsoy vrodd orre.ralty supl,ould b3come njblr y ro poruoal, aid pdy a satteon

3

Po usuese acdvi[es in
Ioad or rico yearly in .ckiowhdqeho ro b5 dslive,ede(hfl aiGoa or Malacca.

ch(asono j]O

&d

$ "aI

he

hsd done was rc .vsnsa ( led by e IE

D)anqa.-2

Goiz,16s, dopaal sent a rleer uids rho cohmaiil ct Dom Foxo, who atrvad Ahr.n oi ocrob 3, 1616.3 Tho Arekai8s kiis ii rh8 meadims, mido ai aliiica wirh rho Durci, rhs chiof comps oE on Ocrob 15_ rh6 iohr Arakaness d Dur.h rleer tauiched loE .4 Ttre naval eisaqemeii rhar rolrdwsd inll dsd orear lcss was k lled by a muskq balt. caspdr de Abreu,anoJer ponleues wotridcd did d,€d a Jew dar laG,, ssoris $6 revecss, Gon*tes " Dom Luiz de Azevedo who srcc€aded Menezss noxo wilhdrcw $€ ned alDserh.r and dned b saidw,p. ArieBard, h6 larl lo' oo ,ni,s rhs \up@1 ard p,oEdion FrudEred hy rhe d.1mr,

c

ares r.Lumed

b

saodwtp

br
rhs

Ih6 arakai€ss coplurc of sandwp n 1616
in rhis

A o sh(tsfd

rcsion. Tha portusue$ detoar, a.cordns ro Daivsd -end6d rh6 coireclion or rh6 Ponusu6so wrh rhose p rEj aid Oosrna.

320 |

a

H,sro,v

or

ch

ksois

ordin y lrh1ory of sebirko Goizalea Iib:o'l Eeiis ro'Bd ro Ldra saidwip, Goiuales rook rcruse aL srptrr. Bui sve,ybody htsd ha dor hh iolorous iam Bnd iobodtrrhere. lorc, c@d ro orrer hlm shelrd lhus h6unLiio nom ph.B ro p1r.s ha ull maroly pa*sd ii{o oblNion BoIh hk tueaid ilrl weehEqy, H6 lvsd a very inGchivous bur advedurous Iira uipaiolhkd in rha hisro,y or rhs ol hs tr€,chcrcus acts rhe ddkes, bloE'2 Fadr y souzs dispdEsinsry rcma,ks: 'His $@ssLy pascd !(e a shddow, hhprids wrs humblad and hh vllhiiies ptrn'shed,'r asaulr
or

rhe poiruouese basee $sro
'he

wE

orhe, tacLore

lhE rcgjon, rha uiion ol

clowm of Po Ugal

noi iovolwd Po uq:t tn a hosIliry wlth ths Durch 6nd rhe Enslhh w h whcm was $ef atlaudand this caused and ov seas colonios. rr 1603 A o, rhe Arakrieso psm trod fi6 buldfo ,rcarions $en he,o ro drv.
nro ai open .ksh ariackiis rho Po usu*e wi,h iha Ponueuee. campos approoriarsly rema,ks, "Tha ev€ ( ls' rl -r or o' 5r r aqo ro"Le).,,eal"d r . L e or qoto'._r
^ elsewhsrc we,e Loo heavy ro accspl rrrs olrdr.4 ln 1615.16 A D Lre Durch deriitrelv cam Io help rE Ahkais$ in

2
,)

F ia o
and

souza,

ll ,263, qr

bed'l whlle rhe t veller 1630 A D (r, rgk, r, e2). HaMy in ..itids. HEary ofh,tlo,

h

Ba oloms coisalBs
was

/,{

s 3, N l,

tvll

in

chirraqons | 321

in chirboros a. oh.(has wa,e no less evldsir, Ah3ollLa w.ir lha docor dh.plhe and laiily or mocL conklburad sredly 'oBevohnd polvsr. wrlre Ponugusso Podusuese , liiB ol rhe 'Tho ryhnnl.al in ii.dins with lho n jv6,.,No

beroE rhs Po usuese '1 Thi. aicired indonalion ot rho na:ive ruh6,saiisihem aid tho Arakaisebsoan ro lhow favour ro rhB Durch ln [a.i, f6udu)ence, p]lndsdis aid hishhaidedis$ PotusuesDtads in rh6 poft .l chiGqons. Bsr

1 . d.dY ol rhsi

Iaityasc,ibable ro rh6ir mhdeeds."2

The Mlghal conqucd ol chtaqoio cdmpkr.d rhe ruii ot rhB Po ucuese inrllBros in chirrasons. All ihsr GiiiLo al aid r6de lac LLes thaL they oiroysd undd rhe Arakan66 rulo

wd bIs dstond.d o/ rhe Ponusus$ 6.ssd ison. HcnceloMad, a srodq Muqhal sa ro bs an iidoFnds and assrs*ivo powon Thsy wqeomployed D,lm ly as h ed soldiere "Ihe Eerqal Ninraln chrh atr troops mo* probsblv Po ugussB at chirasons 176C.61 whon rLro dis cr wtu hdtrded ovo,

Portuslo.e tr6clic.

ol

Pkacy

.hd ll.v.

slavery and .laE trade in chiuaqons oxsted simulraisu.ly rha subco ined 8ur rho phdh6 of wirh thos6 slsswhda davsry and slavo rcd' did .ppea, in iG wore( roh wnh lho

ii

I

Fsv.

Lois m rho

C

n,

ll

(1332), 35

Abdul Mliid Khan, Ih. rftrsnbr tn B.nedl, p, 3

322 I

A Hislory or chi,looiq

3

pon!su*a adiviries in chirhsons 325 |

yJh

s)aves or [hcn uih3pDy could ior ba .movedj rrinucciqives ft6 sama desuiprjon

ev

and th,ew rhem inro $esoa2

hh compai'oB rs lol6w! F . (io Bsns;l) rhey(re

loo

r

r1s r.ov.

lrrnr

6,p"dirior ol

pirares orArBkan chidasois) would srck aid derroy alllhev'lhqDs ard sdrlcme s on rhs baiks ol rh6 Gaisas, ro . dtsEice or rwo o, rhree hasuss upn,sam, oid besldes remov io atl rh6 hosr vatuabla rhhss rhey fouid, would alsc hko caprivs any p2oplo wnh wiom thoy crme

From rhe above n raLton rcan bs conctrdod rh rho Fiiisi hok a leadiis pa in rhB slavs hu ns 6:pedirtois, !trd rho pa icparon ol ,ho Arkane€. in su.h sxpediriois was oi
pna@s

much

le$

scala

324 | A Hisrory ol chirksons

Tho Emopean tavsllss, such as Mairiquc, Ednier, aid Manucci umnino6ly da rh il was ths Po uoueso Ftrads who rook rha hadlno pan in plurderns fts coasbt .a and in ddv6 hunrins €rpsdirions, rhs only wkh Lho sh e of rhd bodry and rhey leh no ie.e$ y or joiiins rhs pn s qho

rrs

Po1Lg.6sa

rool rho had.o
a

only'ioccrs onally

1r3o',s admtcd rhr rrr r rh" r:c.o! plrldo'fs: rew Mash s€lros rollowins in rhen waka..l

i

Thd pe.ph or nobl! o,eii capr!red rhus by rhs pnacs w6r. in rhsn contds2roo rc hdrer rhan dru -d'iven anih:ls. T:lhr rvrires of rhen p,Lhnic ccndirloi .s ,ollows l maiy purc and $yy d bom whri, wa,. lompslled ro undssoih3 dksm@ ol elavdy, i.kedmen. Musl s ui&rMnr ruoh opp,.*ion ii I'h iilidella

For isorly hil, d cenrury, chi asotr]] was a breediis srouid rha pnaLos rvho revssad rhawhoto or Lowd Beisal, d.populiled lr and rtrhed ir ro wlldeiiE$. The dedrucrivc elfecc ol rhaslavs hlntiio orpadirlons can h. a.conained ftom rh€ ia aiva of a trinq' ptrr:o h.r tus beE. quord by ldl'rn a, ro'lows (Wh6i Nawab Shai.r. Kh,n iiqurcd a ruiway Po usue.e pcra abo!r1hen sala,y, rheldrcrEpli6d) our.al y was rh6 imredal dodllo, W€ .o soaao r\s trlol" or E{d'r d ou,j., . All $6 rw6lvo mo hr of fto yoar ws mld6 our colledioi ( i a, boory )wirhdurtoubl6. Wa had nor ro bdh ouElvss abour amhs aid imiis: nd h:d waro baldic6r ro 6nybody Pas6a€a over wdd w4 ou, ( rcld ) survoy. ws isv6r shckonad o oirai@me4r ot ou, Dnri

ol

Ponusdesd adivnks

in

chirlasons I 32s

viz,6ooLy For yoac we havs btuno arBarc or ohk) rcvsnua. Wo hoi of rho boory vnks. bY villase rorlha hsr fony y6rs.1
Trrh

dp,oJrcioi o, rewords
eriron,

spoken by a

prak h suflicis
wrtres

ro

tow Peisrl

r

ralallar o, 16so A D

aid osociaring wnh piaros aid h$dr or all
no subj.drion ro ft6n

kind

ol

sdvdrisnLy na0ons owsd

o..dao:or.
aclivlri6s ol rhe Ponusu.se pErcs rloiq wi(h rtuir Amk ese colhboraloh e ned lor chr,qo,, g,,bls aid lasriio namss or "Masher Muluk and "H mads' Muuuk h

o, rho Maoh Firiis' pErcdl o iviras, rhe proviico
of lhon ac&i(ks.

sll

was

Ths capiivEs w 6 emptoyed itr sev.Bl occuparionr. Frsr, rhe kirsdom of Arakrn w,s a spesely populared aGi, wxlch requirrd humBi labou' ror ayi.ulruE. A laGe ot stavss wss smploFd ii dg,ictrltural acrvir.s From'umbd Monrqus's ac.ouir wa
caprives werc cmployed utrd.r t\E Po trsuess kian.y h cartral ctrirkso.s. "Ths Mashs as $ared by Talish, ,emDloy.d du rhDn capriv.s 3 aoriculLuro aid other klnds or

ah,so nunb4 ot

in tho dlLso ot bnd

ii

s i...

s66idly, ahlo

rh. nfund{i|g wire6I ,Those whowm iotdkabhd by 6sa, $e piEras koot in rh.n se,vhs, ni n trq rhen upro rhs Iov6 or ,obb3ry 5id

bodied shrps. Bs,nier

326 AUkto,y or ch

rdsoio

Thirdly rha capdve tromsn weE aporcpri.Ed s thar as wiv6q hous6lrold seNa s Amois ths lor rhs Youtrq andlatrlooklns wo si caprives wss luckv 10 bs h bdrar posnhi

Foll y. aLso

The slaves wda amployed siftd ln domasric s5vi6 as artndant

Pymi wrlles

rh
s@ iumbs or rh'
a

upP
d

class sochlv,

'hiva

Fii,ly,

a

h rel

Talsh slv.s
rhev

vi"

ciptivss we,o sold ii fteoFi mcdu ol lho Po usuete solliio ol
'apr
ves

SdmE(lma6

ftc

rdmluk aid ths Potr or Baleshw " sale w.s rhis:-rhe wBrches 6od to n lhcir shloe anchd orishon dhknce local

Po{uou.se) brousht fte

ror lale

nom rho shoie

!lr

Tamldk or Bale depredarion

orr"rs fe ns ler
or

sldlld

.omm

I aiv

rha Pnatss lhcro,slood on kdnappms

'ho

ol rollow s, aid Ihs D racr. lf ths rha moiev and s€it the Drisoids wIh Dnats look

lho

Linschoci, TrE Voloc. rt )ahh HltEheav@ rtu Eolr /,d,., vol, l, n. euhell, P. 231

po usuo$ adv tes in Chircsons s27 t

mai

Only ths Fnitrsi pnaressotd rhotrprisonorc,,..

1

Talistr's repo s co,oborar€ wirh rhose of Eehior who wrir6 : "Thoy h.d rha audacLy ro ofier tor $te, ,n rhe placB wh,ch rhsy had bur dc€ ly ,avasod. 2 Th€ ssvsnr@nrh and oishroenrh

this

brural pmc,.6

ol

rh6 6nstavsms ot humai vicrims and

Ths Eiditrs w:s

pronounced by rtre provinciat

couicil

ar coa

32e A
rhk

Hhrory

or chirbsoxs

...on th€

|fr, aid Gachedrhe villass of soioraDsrh (From poil) r rh6y whhed D ptund J6sso,e, Hushli and
uP rhs Ganses

aid Da..a,

i,

rhoy

w:nrcd ro

ratd

rhoy

Mrtriqre sp?cilically menriois such pliccs:s rhe p'incip:Lly J:ssoa, ol rhe teriro,ies or EamL, solimaivas',2 whsre rtE por rusuesa csred rlran plundqlns oprarons. Tha ravetlff to her wi'6: 'rMy (h! Poruq@$ sl3w htrnrere) usuatly made rhse s€1orl a_d(., r L.o, lolr rm ralds which weni on mo or ttu year,-3

of nE

,vtrch Friisi

opuh0oi aid economy or Eensal oivesevdcncs o, $6 conssqusic6s ot rhe hoad. hunlins expedrons ol rh8 pnaGs ii Lowcr seisrt ae to)lowsi ropeded deproddrions rhd wa soe so many rno !hE mourh or rho c6noes, to,mqly rhickly 'slandsar peopl.d, now eirrcly rhs desolare la6 or ris s aid.rher witd be 6.4 a',ranucci srar6 thlL, ,1hess inhrbirants (ths po usu.rs) ,n icrsd g'eal dairso on rhs hnds or Beisal.,5 Tatish d6q bss rha widogprsad dssrucrion cau*d by rhs Maoh Fniisipllnds is r.ids on rhs delLalc B8isll

ten cou ,y prospsred, and rh€n iuhba' ,n esed. whila sansat doly l)36ma moE aid mor6 do:orars, ts$ lid lo*

Po

!q

ss

rtivircs r ch Eqong 3i9
hou$holder was l6tr

.b)a ro resr

and

Ba[a, a pdr or B.issl, Iyns in ftan u:urLpa(h, wEo Lroma'ly) Iull o, culLvaroi aid housrand yElded every )?a . Lqe.mou ro rrE impsial qova'nmsnr asduLy oi lLs bdeliuts. plunder rsd abd!dFn, le ins roie Io kindL a nre r all rh: ta.Ll

nar lon ol lalGh r caEs rhs axlenr ol rh' dsstruc0ve erfscLsol rh3 Mrsh-F r isi plundsinss, whhh p Ec. lioally depopulaLsd a la,so po on ol Lowd Bensal, Ihh depopulaLed a,ea hos s'ice rhen sdduauy bedi traisromed inb a r:.r or Lhckwood and juisl*and named rcmantically as suid ol rhs lo,elgn navellsE and somo olc maps Lhs rhrck sedemc E i^ rha slid4bans.red a.
Iire as rhs s{een'h ce u,y. Ds Baaois mspshowsmoy bwns and i Renielfsmap 011771 .euled plac.s ii A D, the whoi6 ea ol tho sundarbans is shown as a naor .dopoptrl:red by rho Mashs." Th6 impo alior or rh6 shves inlo rha kiiqdom of Arakatr produ@d rd ,sa.h ng results. wIh rhe ENranr avalor. la,g. number .r €pdves, rhs szr ol rho pDpul loi ol a,akai ndeased conBde,ably. somelmos, rhe impo ol such wrebhsd vctimE reactud 3uch a sreahese rhri .coordiis ro ai sdimalo, "bdwe€n 1621 a D 3nd 1624 a o rePo ususssb'ou. ehr ro chiLbsons 42,ooo slaves."2 Manrlquo wdcs "Duriis rho riv6 ye e (162s.3r A D) I speir itr PeoPIo came to rhB Po s ol Dionsd and ansaGcrls./3 Eeror6 hisa iv.l ar chirEqono, "ovo, (wonry rhoud.

2 Fa$or ftlauiorr, calholic

En.yclopaedia', qr

3sd /aHiso,v o,

CI

aqois

rhe$ nons {ot chilasorq).-1 eemd $ys patr (rha Muslimror tuakrn-chkEqons) raksi ih "ror rho mos olavee he,e at rrio€, by lhosa FGnoui. {Fi'neisl,"
plains chidaooiq $s As o resulL ol rrrr .ornins of slavcs 'n DecenEse ol Musl'm popuhrioi roso as hish as 30%ot rhe ioral poruLlioi thouqh in Htl chir$sof,s whe,e rhe crptive M$lms w4e nor alrow:d ro serJs, ir is as low as lo Lo 15% or ihs robl populalon, ln AEr.n prop rhs i,Itrslifrs Bccou'rsd ror io le* lhai ois sixh or lhe roral popuh oi,
in A6k!tr pDpor aro kiown as rhe Kolas o, K.las, whoaEsuopossd by snA P PhryG ro ba or aBsnsatidessnr,,rh6 Ths

MGlift

s.hol& wares or this psopl.: (rhs A€kanese) 6ppe ro havo s iumbeB ot rhs iih.b. raDc (of Eensrl) inro Ahkao I slavss, wh.ncs arN rhs eEsei! (ora (orcrsie, popula0 .bour l5% or i[e whola populaion. rhe A6ki Moosulhluis pr€6s o rhe laigu:sa oi rhen ,oeroh lor coltoqu6t puposes, bur alMy: .lso adoprad rha d,ss or 6e cou ry,
Th6

iumb, or

rhesc Kola peorls senliis in the veu6v

or

rhe

(rhe Klladro is naired aner rhe K:tos or rhe lorcisiaG.
Nsedless

ne

c alry ar idrarion prcdoce rod hooy (he Po usu65. eiraca) haL or rhs slaves rhus obhined w* mos cuet."3 Tathhw "Maiy hrsh bom p.Misand Sayyid!, m y wom.n, wqo @mpslled b und6G. rhs

ro say rh{ lhs slaves surere.r lnhumai

Podusu6ss ac vit,os o chirhsons | 331

dsq,aoo or slov y,ssvtc. or coicrbiiase or Lhc.e wickad mer.-I Talkh s,aph 6lly slaws rcsivod rom rhsn cruol caprors ai alen coudry,z Hs (the stavs hLnrcE) omptoyed rhe rew hsd.lyed eprvesrhd suruiead (rhis reahs t in rillago aid orher hlrd csks, accordiis Lo rhe, powu, wrh sEd
3videnc6 6r slav: iDsfr.cLon ii rh6 kiisdom or araksn ihousrr sotrrces give indi,6cr sviden.s of ihh th P,ncashula du nsh's amed rebsllioi asah{ rhs Aftkonesa kno, or ,e local Mrrim! who,,se modty of staB orisii Thk ibor caldmiriols ro ,he Mrslms who strrrercd much ar ,hs haids or lhe royil roops.4 Pod alaol allesld ro bs a rebeltoi w.s onsof rE6urfarere. Th6 succa_ $lul Mlghal milir y oFqarioi i. chnaeonq rha open ,evolr or the Muslrms, ,krdnap@d rrom Beisal',. They joitr3d rho vicrorious Muohal my in drrvins oor rh6 Ahkanese

be admnEd

$d ior all lhe slaves w

s

ol,hs .oy3l cou uide' whoss rrfuonrhl sdppo
1

Bubjacr ro ill trearoBn! norwus thay to,ced ro lead a hmilialiig liro I k ro bs r6m6mbrcd ihar th6 orod{xL Eenqalea ooorof rho svenree h cE Uy wrsorioFally a shveqho in his boyhood days was kidiapped by the Po usuEo manh! cu dunns a b*r ioumgy wirh his rarher A role ed m,D a5 tu w3s, Alaolsoon l of tho loyal bodYguald sa a,, Hjs1rch,y s€niG soon arhckd rhs nonc6 or lho Muslm nobtahstr
rho posL

wror

6a,hi, p. 114; slso Ahott

works

332 ,

A

Nisrory

ol chirhoois

l..rion 3
Ahois
rhe

Portusuo.o Softt.h6nis rn Chirtssonq
rhe

*rl6me s in chilacois sois is ior hr io s€ek

EroD.hs,

eshblsh Tha Eason of rheratuadioiror chnh_ Herc rhe po roup6e iound I coidirtoi
werc tho
ro

po uqk!6

nd

,nlerruliand sNkrDj in LE sms dnecrioi rhe h Itsor p.nue.t and ch aqois 63:rudcd; rhe cti aE o, chirbooio h hlc{ F i ot rhe coashl Ths iarivs rule,s qeiqiltv showed tavotr, ro rher yrled 116 The oood hrbdu.qe facihy of rha iD or Bensdl aid rh^ paronEsg or rh. hdivs tuk6 orfqed rhem a rcalv uiavotd.bte oDp6 uiry

roi.oloiizalioi.

Trr6ss

ra

some o

s6lscrrdrhh pla.e aq $sneiLh, p_qmined or rmpoEry restdu,us.

Bul

ii

was nor

abour 6ishcen Fac l.rer rhai rhoy lv*e able ro e{ablsh a fadon/ rhore. lr may rr3 rec.llcd $dsurrai chrysuddin M,hmudshah, ih6 hd sulran or dyiasy, our or necessiw pehited rhs Fon!eueso ro bJild r:crorks in chirheoos. Foldw ons Ntrio Fa and!, FHs was appohEd ?hict 0r rhs cusrons hous8 ol ChirLasond He was ior onlv aE ad . pi6ca or land wirh manv houses bur was c irlld ro collecr

iil

al.o

snrirled rd

mrnyorhs

privlhqshs

'hepDpb

rhss dsts

1 Anofier ierarktsble pssomliry was Do antoiio da Foza o who durins hh boyhood days wa Hs w:s broushr up and Lrer on .onvened by rhe Poru€u*3 aurho, or 8ro,,n4n ca6di. trnhnd, oas

ol

rho

€ lios

pr,nrcd Bonsali proso wo,ks.

F,om

rh

rime

chikroiE b6.amo.io

ol rha chkl Poirqu*q

PonuqFss iamed it as ?ono Gi.ide orIh6 q,ed pdfr and somdlmes

dd 36rr.ld o, r.6 c / or 86!"1 . thEUohour tha .ixreonth and rhe iid qua er uf rhs seveiteen,h @dtrry, rhey ii,q@ lv soased rhn msalves in btood/ wrs aid EvolG aoainsr rhc n4iva ru16r. A5 s rcsur, rhcn setlBmtrrs in ch Msois sulrsrud l.om rims ,o rime. Po usuess rcbellioi w3s mercils$lv nur down by rhs A,.kai6s krns. h is Iopo ed 'h ev.i ,lie .hildrei, Diaiq alons as sii huidred Poduoua$ 'n fta akk.nase kho su,h toublors eveNs rhe Poruqua:3 .ol.rnl e ablissmrG in chircoois. r: re dle 1o then o'xn loll is thar hey railed 6edablish a pqman6 .olory

'ir.'.

ii

chirrasonq beto's
Lhe

lo,eiqn rav4llcrs oivo evidenB

of

then

5aih. Br' h tr6
s6 I.n3iE

oi rh'

setrlemo s aiB oeosirlv rhdlha nume,l:rlstrsnsLh o, $l 2sri0 Poiu@se and $sn des'si, . ?kai."o Guereno noLc6d ii 1602 A D rhd ,blmox 3ll rhapotr (or - /i"ois) has b%i ovei ow loihe Po uqrsss w5o live rh6B, .nd !, whom ih€ khg u v6ry well ...Ho shows th6 Po unuess rhese Gvou'snow, becau$, 'nclnsd.
sea

ii

rhar kinsdom

AD, ddes rh aha Ponuluesr . € a lew (Ahkai) and slvd:l dwall risrc, wh lsr
nr

shoa"2 Wr havela

334 | A Hilrory

ot chihasdis
ihoir ssrvices hs k aixtous ro co snr 1h.h."1

corsr

ol

Bensit.,2

Tha

uava

4

rcas6 ro a po trsuss. advsdurs,

Portlsuese sorl6m6 s r chiLksoio seolome s ii somq

rid

D ans

dstri.r.

aid sm6 sm.Uar He atsowriros

bilahs or isnrlaids in rhs 6sc6$la (chakash) ddricr.,4 on rh6 $ha au'ho,hy w6 hNo leami thn rh. Pdnuoues. had. R6idency ii Dhio, "rh6 lo.al cefue of chturaniry,'5 rid then 6d eh€nr Th. cl6rsyman n querlon rdhsr wirss kino -ro.otled all rh6 d'rr6'snr pans dt rho kiisdom aid $ lr rhom

ssvsEl Ponuou6e s rte6, a sG idhhar ot . po{ususe, and orho, Fuiks coll6* e worltl ..Tha kiiq o..upyas4pod causd ch lsoi, and made rh,m sEnb ofland./7 Mrnucclspsaks o,lhoir ltourhhino serlem6nb n Chnrdsois Es foI ows: "Ths kisdom ofArakan adjoiisrh of Bsnsat ro fto Easr and on s bord€6 h.s as ic Iivad rhsrc, mei or varrous narions, prnccrrisron st,v.e o, hal,ca

po uouese acriyir 6,

ii

chi asong

336

"maiy FL,inos' who "lived happily ar ch4saoi,2 und4 rho Amkai6s6 rurelrse The Arakansso kins, ac.ord ns m him, . ooosldered ,he Fi i€' pnaLes in rhe Iishr of hra s6iva 5, and rdok ras hs sh a).,3 lr is norichbls rhar rhouoh Lhs P. usuese esrablsh6d a hw se l6m6nrs in rh6 aB. kan6sE ktrsdom, rhey showed iturl' alles 3ncs ro rhs Aiakancs or rhit fiey hmoiiod lqal ro rhair morhd
bi6rs corespond6i6 su4e srrlem€d. in chitu€ons durjns ihs
FaLhr
vis

3

rns

,ilohal rule,

rhs

chiuasonq

aod sold u leadss ro Iook arrer s iicrssrs, To locare deprcseir siGs ol fiese colones h undoubcdty a dlrcuh hsk. 0.6 or rhoso coloiies was siruarsd in Drais whtrs rhs ponusuoss aE said 10 livo in rhst placa rill rhs rirsr &cada of rhenrnerssn,h

sdl&manr mishi be m modori Jamal Khao, a municipal rovn. Accordmg ro a documerbry evjden6, Lldys Asuhprion s me oisd as arJabatcalda, whch mud bs Jamal Khrn (Jamal Khrldh') n6ar chi(asons, , we do nor know whsi il was sE edri6 Bssid6 rhs66etr. lsmnrs, rhe Poalsuao dGricl Amonq rh6 Ponususs sd€menrs

rhd

l,lnq,o.zal, Ihs

336 | A Htslory or qrhLdsons

rill
lhat or rhe vill,sa

rhe

end

or

ie Mushal rule wis

dr 00.m, piMnr by Elm KaseF,r a veq nrl uentbl Po uglese zami^dar and mdchaf,t ramrlv surrm;J s Dd Batros ws lrlfs m th villaso dmins rhe lala Mushsl F. hd

lr is ii,po:sble Lusuese popll on
sread

ro srds rhs iumarctsl drcnolh ol fio

Por

p,obablo

ly dedea*d du, os rha laE MuEh.l 6ure! ol lher ralL n poptrlaioi
Amdcrn colo
es.

rhei

n!m6i"

srcnsrh

o'Mall?v w,iL* {)at rhe Po usu €onq.2 Ns loc es He refe,s ro rhs locrl trldtrroi v,h ch lhe buccaness bu,ied

lon

Feie ins

'o

Lhc

viar or the$

s.hobre
Podtreuese

wro hslp.d sultan

Ghry'suddn

Mohmrd shah ro

b! ld a rorncss n ch

tasois.

Eul rhe sulGn

rcicded t& Po usuess requosr to havo o ml'biY esGblslimenl in rhe .hrt Fo ol his khsdom rhouqh ho rvBsed rhDm wIh nliy orhs privl€qss.4 \/a havo beci nformed by rhe Ponlsuess Po, aa o, ahlcsons 's k'ns I. hlild a to

mr mly pu, 6ld3 $sn prcposal as !'sccepEbla bul advn.d rheh nor to iicur d'sphr( c ol ,ha narvs rul.rc by buidios i

lor 6r
1

such qpa or ml,r.,y cslrblBhnc

.

Thc view oJ o'Malley

sdrgtn

A tcny

?onik

,

3

in

Ch

raqoio I

337

md campor 6 nor [lauiquo or bvde who adually vkirod chkrasons. pyhd de Lavat w,irss ii

Laval 1Fo7

"Tho Po uslesa h.vs her6 po o cEid6 and po o pequoio bur wirhour lo s and sov6rimenl-2 Ma iqus who sLayed ii ch rasons l,oh 162r rod in chncsoie V.i Lhsihobn wrir.s thar

ior

pot,c€ as in

(po

u.

su*er rtrda 0hey havo) "3 ri m.y b6 ADkaiase roii d r,re hean ot rho left batrk ot rha rivd (ahaprrulj miehr prcvBnr rhs Po"uor.ld a^. o..td.io Lo m r1,ry eribt. nsn> dywlgrd
Ihouoh thd m.lorry ol rha Po usueso hh:bira s w4, prorosidially pi .s and stovs hud6rs, ir sesms rhd $en rehrtoi whh rhe nariva plopl! dmiis rh6 Adkaf,s resihe Ms seieElly kiendly bur occasonally hdshta rh6 porusueseneely hcrma triod wirh itriva wdmsi. oi rhe surhoiry of Mamiquar we.oms to kiow rh rhs Hiidus liviis iear rhe p6 ueue$ settehenb bordwed adichs fioh tho Po uquA6 s rtsB the rtms 6f fe$ivals to rha cBhbrarioi or je Durqipuh fs{ival, Miiiiqus Haarheh lviis ie D.ansa aid o,h& ch'kriai sdllcms s were accu omed ro bo70w from rho ch,krair silk .loths, russ, jewethry a^d rho I'k€ ror rha rdonmsnr of rh6n ldots and alro or rh.n houses.,'4 oi rh6 same rhar rhh lr6i.ly relarton woutd rum inro honiliry ir rhe dsm:ids or $o lo.al peopte wirh, Ths unhappy n.id6n, oLed ii Manrtque,s accounrsprevcs

3sB

lA H no,y ol

chirEsdis
ro

thd $a lo.al peopls w.!ld larally h m aiybody triwLllns

ftnplv wirh

pl'

rho r Poirusuosr s6isreUy receired eood nearDe nom ttu loEal peo-

al,ii)

ro whom rhs and 'kblbo' (plysiciao.

3rhb

Gnhonoi,li.

rhs bisoEd d -:^.1 howsvsr, had a dmig dbliks or lhe idive reloio's Evensuch @pscted mksioi y mvoner as M3n que woulc nol coic6al his ill-l.6lircE ro!, d orhn ,eleions i H'nduism he saw a "falst Elisioi,"l ,{alse
Muslihs ln lis ey$, .d!e rha -rollorar or .v'1 aid,.ls. Alm,ai."3 Ta6 Musl,s ii h6 enim o ura" no rollowqs or i 'rak. doctr i' a lr

trhror6t

i

ituda

r.w

d

lr caiior be ileC berween tD

pre.isely

r?.lngs rhr

Drcva.

Howsver RalI Frch',s remrL rhri thon Li rud3 rowdds a iello,tr Eurcp.an would tror b: mrlulnced byriy touble h6 had w$ rhe rh€n sovehmsnL ch+ owins ro rh.ro,n sho .omiis:, led b ,o h a well oderud soc,erv. rhe i iva ,ukrs, rhen own recktdss rhemslvas dood n thr wly o, ro.m
ra

!

aruqda, and

tuarrhy

Portusress

?.ri!res n ch tasoDo

33s

vavellcG, a Ponrqueso peoa)o l,!ed
eckhss
somB

ioiii

a cvitized datr bur

rid

to'h of

tice iotrs tvno, rrray warc nor atro3erhs devod or 3oda1 life. Th.y rayd cdrh,drals for worship,and

boh

Lh,oush

the sa ed rcvjviiyns

secrroh

4,

Men ond Mor.te

orho roreisn travclte,s

340 A

H

ory ol chi(aqonq
uouese malero)k asG vaiously kiown as 'oao'a m', rdalqoj,

rhe iitluendal Po

le$a. Bur ii rcalry s va s aod advsnrurcG.
we,e snntod

vLEs

soldoG aid sxcgll w,s p 6cv, slave hunrlrs Unds th. AEktnesa,sqm6, som8 orlhtm or land-asisime s n rhs p,hcipolny or

k bd

illustrded in rhe c eer ol John sehsr an conzales,slim. beoi sivei ekewha,o n thh book. Strch 10 Ivo ii a b b.iic splendou, rnd srcw pluid ed booL,/ on kade aid wealrhy in Ma iquat accou is aiorher ryphol oxdm. _od" ple ol +a o' 'r. o' '5a Polrs-c.r .orr oes l.vnq n ,srsr oore6lves nom,6p'oducins a pon'oi of rrrs pa$dge lrom ou, travausr's €ccou

h $e

same vrll.qe

o, Aisfficals,

b6ro,e

Commaid?r, iamed osa.l,vsd theE. tre had qu rell coisequsices to himsolri had com. h live in ths po{ (aisdacale), rhen but i smau sdLl.ms . . rhs capE n used ro s6llv lonh riom this placs

w Lh hs soldisrs aid vessh aidftid e k Ldrios otBa.ola, Sdllmanvd, and Jeso,. Emboldoied by rhs rha Po usu*s commaidds roo aid Ld hlm oi ro stll more daiseiols en'sDrisos, and slnca (sodde$ ol Fodone) showercd lavours upon hm uniiu ii . a mo* d iiq aid spEad, re0ped rha usu.l llcky leadrr. ihus, a! hh ,ams be €i poeloi llo.[ns 10 ts,€ undsr

H6 lLved n rhk uJay s.v.El ye r admi,ed by rhd world as p,osp dus .nd rch in rampohl po$e$ione but 60 sngrossd

Po(usue& acriv ios

'i

chnLrCons I 341

n ft.m 63 wholly ro rorcd rhingr erehal, sunk ,n.luiury &yoid tha smca ol rha Farhs' ot' Ell lamilros, li rhB lack ol spnitual pGsssiois h6 pased rh. sp,insrims of lrh llts, forsauins his obliq ions 3s a Ch,hrian..... So did rhs &vil
l6ad
F

T :.rc/ ra

ne, ha woLld od olr rh. acr 30 oson al ro his salva oi nom ve o yoar... ..rln hh sick b6d) he wot suroundod

rh. Iat6, s,isvins lor w,ar rhoy had [d]led io obldlnJ Abour rhe mo,als aid mrins,! ol rh6 Pdrusueeo in lidG aevo.end Lons rcma,ks: r(rhay) haw been such a3 !o b ns rhs
Eurcpsan

charecrd

Accordris

to

Ralph Firch,

ofliojal. '3 Van Linschorsn, who dwalls

oi Pontsws

men and

(rhs Puiusws in Pono G,aids) irve r s

manner l]ko

wlld

. EYn. Podusallst dwell tmons $.m soma h'rc, som0 rsE (sarbEd ab,oad ), aid a,6 lot rho mos pa .uch a6 da,o nor dty ii lidia lor sona wlck. sdnss$ bY thsm con,mncd.4 Adulr€ry ss6ms to bs univ.rsl .hons th. Po'lus!64. Iha ravell& w ras ol ts porlisacy ot Lho eo usuose wom6rfol|
Iuruiious aid unch!$s, lor rh.,e dE vay lsw amons th6m, .lthoush rhey b. maiiiod bur rhsy

will, .nd ev y m:n k Lord (rnd ma$dl nalth& sdsmB thry .iyrhlie ol Junce, whorher ihs,a bs anv or non6.nd

3 4

Fosrer, Rorpi

rn.l, p. 25

r,*rd4,

r, ss; also

s* 3 P P, x(915), 81

342 |

A HEro'y or chi asons

aB n y me nrymBd bv LE miiy wdm6i o,oushr ro th6r.nd

have bBidesr thon call.d soldere wi$

'ien

lbasu.es .rhsc

PyGrd do Loval who ws!rChnLa0onsr 1607 A onorced

3nd liw Iko ndvas or Lhe co( ry; rhcy dursi noL rcium Lo tidu (PondsGso lid4 rhiy hov. tro cla,syamotrd rhemi'2 9."i"' ai"pa"g,nsty rem,*", Th6$ pspls were ch,niais only in nam:; ihe Ives ted by thoh rcra mosr dercnabl!, ma$:dns

Ehdtiiq .vsi rhen roo onan tro beirer
would

tk.

much sp,ca

nd nasly or rh6
rhsy (r.6 Po

a
s,

ir

lved wrlr such lawlesnc$ mar r Iatrsmpred ro rc.od r e I mtsde.ds.
ieed
ria

rrraL

buror mcn.,,4 Ha

i!

hor

s..'

,eichsd rhs very acm6 ol 6vil doing, lr any ona undoiook ro spoak ot rhese msn, or fisr vollnca aid of rhen bar, woutd riid sioush ro I ssv.,at bodks

rhin rho name. su.h was fien ctuslry rhat lhev dtd

btrr had ot ir no 00ro
nor

1

Po usu*6 aqviriG
Frysr,

ii Chnlsoiq

343

a travolh,

oi

rhe mo* cu6edlT

b*rdd

b:* b,ood lu,[hq ii p,
5

"Tie ErY otsar$l by oU.wed Fo'lugu€sa, or rll motnd rho slaids nl(]s mouth or rhe Ga.ss,
P6ach

s

I'trle sood

is said. Liko

b".H ,h.r ,ham-al!a" 2 whD says ihar rha Po.usuese prresc weE rrerenLnom ' I' le d rlremselles. '3 catr r naracs: -Ihe hny pL' Dqid n(o all ma E, or vice, and .ven rha .u'ates led a vsry dis:iracd I re, were.ovclotrs ald sens,tly ol rhe lansu'snoatrr

psoplo like

rem:in br,nd ro rho s@d qdirrres o!

$.

@1or eetudrcs
zeatousty

rhsm$lu8

rc a nrdv or rhs ndai l.&lastss. ro rhe devdopm. or B8noali lGEru,e isnororsm3ll quanriry. Thr Fo us8ess hieu.q*m oice rrr hadins Eu,opsan laiotrs5lpuarkcd sailo,s or the id s.lrelliis rotrrd Lh? Po luotriso hrouas6 ve:y popula, .mons Lhs iarives ol ch! qooir :!rr.DI reeroi 6 .rErl?s l..[yar who published his A,

m.v ruslr ho;i rh.y havs esrblish.d a kind of lhsua f6ncl m all th,r sea po s or Ldia, or .rcrt lvro uould fid ihlsrobewelrund $ood

344 | A Hidory

or cht
lron

aoons

,Alons rhs eacoa, ih6 ponusu. 8sa rr3yo l.fr a ya$ises ot fteir taieuaqa:houeh hu.h cdiiuprsd ycr tu s rhe laiquEs6 le.m tiGr ro quatiry rh6mselves lor sen*al tunvohe wirh the diifercnr inhabna s or wirhour iL.'1
Ham

wirs

Th. p d..f r& Poftuouese was ooi6 and wi$ n sono lhsn drcdm or slablshos a rsdiis €hpir6 iid of spmadins chturiaiiry amdis rh6 p.ool6 ot rhe slbconriieir. rh6 Ponuqu.sa licroriss, mllir y esrablchmenk, carh.drah arc ro rcmhd us or ften coldurul lrd bur $sn suruivins d.s.end.^b dill ,6nhd us ot ft6n adve uous deods. rh6 Fninsis whom rha pBopla w,oisly call lha Aislo sansalh a6aduatty rh6 d6E

did.nh ho ol
nill

fien B.s aid ot $sr ln.edore, Th.n

surn.

amss .re

Ponusussa, ru.h

Ds S'lv:, n€bsib, Ds ftuz, D. cosra. penh.rc. comB, coisrtvs, caLhol. church ro r4sdno 6dhflo, owes

rDF.ndix

I

Chkrasone

?rii

J J A camprs whlle payiis tibure or phhe ro tha cily or 'From rh8earlan rimesi chiiEsons was rha Bsnsal..aid oi: ol sll ciri6.-1 almo who m3k3 6fahn.a ro ih s .lq a,s eloquent ii rhsn iar roi ol rhwiiq tdde, 'a,bd-r la! Ir.!
prai$sorlhis

io ch

oni.kdolall rmes k loud in his iru{ Don orB6iq;l whila n,yiiq a olouiE tibu16

raoons, he ramous and wealrhy or Bens:I, oi a.counr ol irs pon, at whi.l EeeE thelralfc 6tall rhd arnql,edion ''2 s..no ths brishr prdspscr 6id voluh6

c.ll ir

Podo

comDaison wlh sdoaoi which rhsv.all Po o Peouem po . ln rhs medisval Dsiiod, t|)e potrofchiuaqois \ras an inGr

G6id6

or rh6 sr6ar

por itr orle$*

rhs Ean ro Po uqsl

so ro BeNar h.anr 'o

them ro

so o

Nor.ilv ir

rhe Po usuoso irino,aries, hhro,lesand ch,ori.las appEis:|, D I € Pd usuese lE,aLUrs rlso
was ona

chlrrsoig wiis hish iiclei or hs ass, hB comratiol camox3

o, the

sre&

(c. ls2ar5s0 A lho Po dsuase

a very sined pod Lndh as a cvll ssryrir

o)

346

lA

Hlaory ol chlnssoio
Europs

liE,ary ligu,as in ot ihs ciry in lha

i6.

duins hi. r m6,
m.,p

ol

Bsnsal mowd rho

s€o C.rhlsah, aEid rh6 hrshe$ hish rn Bsnsal provriEg, proud o! v hd srora Abundaoh, bur behold how placed rho posr shorut'ie rowads ftom 15s3 to 1570 A D. Duris rhi6 rim. hs mirhr h.v6 visirod chnLasons | \li.je En.yctopdtdc a uhtd. t9l3t Bu

I

ont

trandaron or ih6 fotlowiis vo@ qr, Cahpos,.D. dr.,

vs carhisao, cdad6 dae mthorct
Ds Bsnsala, prcvinca que ss p@6 olha qu6 6ra pona Pr,a O Aus'o d4ur vGda a .odo.

chi(.sonE drd th6 ciry ot Bons.l. or th.
liro6rur6, hl.rorical o rhe si!r6 h and wo*s, tra4llins ee3lially or lho Po usuae6, thd€ aG lrcqu. rcleGi@r ro a placo namd BensalB, 6rh& ciry ol Benqol., $s lo..rion ol which contues who lail ro rcach ad6niir€ mnclusion on iB lo.arioi Iho Bim or 1M lollow,ns d6

h .hould b. mad6 cls .r rhe cdmmsncemenr ol ondlEcussion thar whon &nsala h msanlobo r provinoso, 6rara, ihsn rhrG is no doubr rhar ir srands Ed a nrme lor the klisdom as a whole. Bur whsn s6nsala k hknded ro meri d padicular muDicip.l area and an €mpoium, rhsn it k lke\ to ha iddntiried Eomarima ns oudyins rownship or discuson b dnodod rowad .$abllrhins
lvlarco Polo rl3rh .o u ) is pobably rh. liBr Eu,op68n ro us lho wrd Bansala ro dsnoro a khsdom which hopl.6loinily wirh rha kinsdom of Misn (Euha) und$ rhs ddmharon ol rhs crcar Kh.i (Kubldi Kliar).1 tr h quirs idprcbrblB ftar rha Moisolrn sway sxroidod all over Boioal in lho td, qua ei or rho rhinsenrh enrury, Whar appoaB trom a .rudy ol polliel 0ondnion dl fto in quosrloi is rh rhs pmvjnca ol chl 'osiods ,aeons w.s uidei Pasm Glso Mhi) co @l wh6n ih. mtshr ol tha GE Khdn war lotovorrhsorsa, ThsEtorc, rho pbvtics ot chtusons tu cts'ty m6anrher.ro b6 Bgisata by rhs $avsU6r_

1 rht rturch rt

r.t.c

pdo. rh€ o,ion p@r, p. 204

3{3la il nory ol

ChlGsons (1512

a

D) wre ons or rh6 e li. Por or Belqila. Ha {' Io.

FuJre,

e iod - o'Bono_ltwhsrc ' as woll iihid tss Healh:n. lhosa ,,ho dwell inliid drc inddiu Ld6ir bu1 u',J, r[. d4rord5iip ort,r. kii3 N,idl'so'.
sesoons whsB

6r,

I:av

is

rhh

F var Gaises rnd rollowino rha coa

Th! Moo,s dlvell in rha
aid

s all

s liis or shiF borr sEar ro m:ny counnics, ro' rhis sa3 is a suI wh ch rwo lands aid qons well o ir rherc al th. ernh tL,cY ^1@(, t has s own iide.
bUilt;
as A<hs, P]^EE,

m?n

\{;n

'ltn.ar whkh rre rl zrc 44 qd ch dnaidel Mil:cci, crmhva and ceilai a.d dstt in ooods or
onf

o$er ,hae

tb!\. and ln,ttaas-, Att at , p6!s 8rd' $rps arrer rho
whi.h
rhsy

are f,om chitra

call

:hP' t

matry

so6 wilh

.orgus th.i.at

rh3 ciy or senlali mrtr oned in rtu hu p of rtu pGsasa or chirtsons, alrhousx ns,aes n elir d;bil b rhe nngdom or Ben@la r rh6

ve quorarioi will GVe.l

rhar

a

aEly rBwss io th. desnlplioi or B c,ry ol Eeisala as chlelly by rho Moorc." Babosa rishrly 'a !4 6r-hf
nor tar riom rhs

whols. chirEsons tlmo.r

$..

As rhs inhab,Ents ol

I ,-!,v

ll. 135 146

Llal

"6

m1,.,

Po rcuerE acrlviriss n ch raoois I iJ{o
rh€ ciry

cdi6irsd of
racss, 5o rh6 peopl.rhsoh w6re
rhoy Appeaod

liai miEd

ro lhe navslls,. e cr)trbsonq h. pon iowi and a buslnes convo, rh oro,oi ir oico a .acred ''eonse6 r6m mriy lends strch s rh6 Ambr Pedanr, abaxis (Habshis or Abysinai, ind ridi,i8 ro e abLhh soilgretrrrhs€,

of ,a [oplsrlon

la,oo

iunbil or thee

Deoolos

airh{ vi.xed

'o o, .r

'ssidsd

in

merclrins

built srL, rha

couitre,
rhs

tido

laEhion 6 qurre applhabio and polir.al Elarion

or

.nd

rhsy

Middlo E6G

travbllr

round

belw€n chn! and seisaldu is adablshed uidsi rhs llva! sh.hi nu hava cotrrinuei rll Balbosa's moacrh6 chjngse Junms'€nsassd in d ryhqon rEn w h

I'hly

Ba ross irhe6,y, wanb ro iden. rrry rhs ciryor Beisah w15 caud,3 rha rhei capikl or rha kins dom or Beiqar. ti roply .o hs algumonr ha rha ciLy or senqab, nrav bs olgEd6d rhar Barhosa .rccsdsd lrcm rha mouih oI rhs Grsss (Bhaqirarhior Hust) b rhe,ishr .ida bward cky ot Bensah rollowhs rho co..r ot *a n6r 'hs Badosa he ions rho nams of rhs ptacs as Bsisala aid w/i1es .iry or rho Moors whtch rhsy call Bort4 s ved excsll.nr 34 hrvan., h may bs potnred our rhar Gaud, shich lies emore rrcn

Mr M

L D.mes, edtro, ol

was

!va. a capirat ciry of B6nsal so rhe hhab:ra sol $s ciry could treva, b..Imerch6nB. ThsB sliould bB soldGrc aid sovs,omsir orricrah of variour Enki who mishr b6 osly rccosnizsd by rh6 uavsltcr. t! is rus rhar .ll rre crzens or a ridrns enre tko chirheons could nevar

ai 6xcells

35ir A fnory oi ch,aso'o
consist eroloslvely orh chs$s or paopls rcsidns in LrD ciry.

or consde,lbla sze oould hor ply
sithsr by rhe Padma chnsse t v6lle/s Eonsrl had ro an.hor ar lhs

upLo

Accodiiq ro

rhe

so no va*ol bound lor pD( or ch Lasons (Tsar-khis). hip ussd ,o bord smallt crerr ir lh.y wors ro so ro c.ud. rhserorc. I is h,shly imp'obabla arc or q'e sizs sid cary srcar caEos- could sail oi any on8 ol rho bFnch ivs6 olrh.

ssan ac vs trid6 Elarion coasr or rhe oc6an. Bul coasr, could hava no such dnecr rchrions ro rh66s phces 6nd rhss waE lirtls po$ihtky orcriis

ro

rhe se6po

s lyins alois rhr

cio i

tidi.i

Io.ds nom

$sr ror :b'oid. asoin, Barboss c[y ol Bonsata p L ot

6inot

in rho hrario,

bo vs €d a5 ido ]dat Lhai oo0 huid'ed m es

vad rhr cry ofEensala ali6r a coaslal vdyssa. so, oi rhlssrornd, sarsaoi canoor clojm to hs rh6 siro ol Bsisala. Mr Moretand hotds rhe opinioi thar sa6osa's oty ol Booqrla rslsG to sorarcaoi, a nobble voDo of mldi6vrl Esnsal.2 His view may also be 6!!ted by abov6
idnsrhecLy otsorssla aserly 4 1510 A o, rh6 ravellar spoaks ol Gklns hls +out roi, ds rha ciy ol Baiqala ... oio dt rhs be rhar {rhe rJvelre4 ud hiiho o sean -3 tt dflcuh ro 's h aiy pl6.g idonriry fta ciry or B,s.la .r % hrmat accou w h Banoal Mo* a,obihly v;4hem! nsvo' vh sd 10 aensdtand callE rhs whols L(iigdom otseisal by ihe mmo ciry or Bansala, hshould b: roftd rhr nrrher v rhema nor Bilbosa speciri.auy

rho cou ry and 'rda-haven. sdrbosaqrir6 rhar hs a

na

rary or

Du

e de

E.ibos

also

3 Ludovico

do

vo

hem. ol Eologna, Ir€

rUieo,, tans. J

W Jone!

Po

ueu*.

acLvires
or Benqll

ii

ch lasois l3sL

or sensaL

a

tr ,s kmodoD

rhk .:usDs pflphr ty ai,oie mocdi

scholaG.

(e
Ln

cdade

tha o,heis

rL.!.

Joao de Levm:.

']a

ch

r

isso ald cdad6 de Bansala) Po uqu*E noblemli, whila
in

rhsr rook pLcD

.f rhe ri,q hal, ru,y, M, Ccnesao ,i.r1ly rcmaks rhd .hl'asoie

w6

rhe ,oal

Ih-" subjad howave,, becomes dmplic ed wh8i
alons

fts lab

pla.es. 0e Lad (15e3 r64s a D) Mosof wrLes:,Tie clier lowr isci ed Beis3la, bo(h otes s rirely blilHnd

wlh chirrsons aid

3dm3 othd

lold by Mandersrd

,om rhe cly of Bsn€alr. ws have b$. 1,r33 a D).ft lcstrd. Hoodi [Dmm. Rar-:l

"\o B.!"io ,sF

nr ror,f

aid '8etrsaL are frirc .ries LchsLiqan k .tso ,3c. e 3ccoun6 0r oe Lad Mandelslo pon' oJ,:lha annsnca of rhs cjryolBeiorl'

d.iolh, c li$ or

Beisar

i.
2

R (Ja,

M,ch, 1s3a) o
,Tha ci(y of

2r

a co *io,

Bslerl: in 6rly rcpo s"

I

,4

s s,1!au5,

1 ae Lre\, rhe Eapne Dl i: cr Mos.l, rans. J sFoyland,pp71-7s a Arb da M,irsklo, ter v!/og{, uais, A Da whqutor, p.290

3521A Hisrory or chl asons
cha s or tha EuroFarn $o(ans aid rs rooBphds ol ft6 ${Ee h did seveiis6 h canru,ier rhar siva iro,mdion abour lhe facL
h

.,

n ca$6ldt maD (1561 A o), carisam (chinaqons) Eloca. ro rhs sotrLh'4sr or B*Eala, ridis O,ioiblis (lss7 A D) lrled

aid Benoola. tn 17rh c.nrury), Beioala is on rhe lerr 'he '5o0tr x naphul,), on whoso,rshr b.ik cha,oEafr (chirtscns is siLuded. Hondirs in hs m{ ol Ash (1612 a D) Iocaros b.rh ch isam :nd Eensala Bur li ,Dollrd map dhwn h nuch smillq s.ila, ho insens oily Bcnozla, jus no h or a,adm (Arakdi). Blaevt m.p pl.lv, re50 A D) phcsr cha €am or ,he nvd xamaphuli aid Bsisala oi fts 16 2 a D) d,ows $ulEm bmk or:rhe B'nsala wosi aid

(trs halt or

)

rm:inri lr 566 a D) ad Eenq.la \r.no)8, m a map

o, 16831A D, plac6 rio ci'y or BeisaL oi Lho soJ'tun bank or D rivd (oma2huu. Pia€ vandd 0727 A D) ci a shr banK of 6,vd. BurLo rholsh b.nk or ,hs ,lver Bensrll, s showi Gaud (G!ud) k al.o showi map ot Pso vsidor, borh chd6sam (chirrasois) aid Berqallo a shown on $a rishr ond rhe lsrr b:nk rcsce.rvelv ot a nvor, probablvrhrK iaohLli. wiu.m Ba rrr's lndolskn locara! Carsam h r delk ol Ie Cosmii r]! Eoiora hlboundad by tho iwd bdn.hor: 6r rhe ,ive. c6m n rlu ln Hanislls ma. (!779 A D,, sgisala cor .bdrw€ei rhe rwo,ivqs Kahaohol rid
evidetrdssl 6hd ro ' edablhh the hcr B6rqala sr.nds on rhe chflasons.o$r idiha'l rowi ir*ll. Thoy ilsd cle&ly Folnr otrr rhr sxh€i.e ol rh. cirv .all.d Esisala .s dd orhar cirlos or Lho prcvic8 of Bens:I.

Po tr.u.s? aclviiies rn CtriLcqon( 353

Iho subj.d
(1607

i!

rualEr ..mDlcakd by

Lhe

,"rdy

,.nqalF'

aiy ph.e as ssir.la. Fdh* crorei,o, who naiQr. rhe cvenLs rhar rook nlaca ii netrricn anypl..o i:med Bensala. All or hedion the pon &v/' or chrEooD! as rhe.hhf Porusudmrlaca or sc leme du,lns rhar iime

a ol,

[4anriquo 11030 A D] aid PyErd C! Lavai who icru3lly dayed i0 ch fiasdiq, do iot mc 6n

ddii Talsh,

\drDSr romd, callcd chnLa!ois e-Anerla cin b3 scen !o rhs Ponu0less setled

Mua ii

such as Abul FDl, Shihabu-

a..ouir

r.reigr navelere su.h as rcr.Gices ro chiLbsono 3rs
eur all of fiaD
rersr

d

or

lalsht i.c.!nr m:y

be ic.ntrred rvirh Dirng,

ri?

chilt

obrc 1o (hnk rLd o"nrelt'. -Je.-such a ph.s

if

Tha oerplrxins ralu,e of tha subjed Ieadr$mcmoden schrhe :lleoEd c Ly of e.rc,la ieve, liscd aid ir h3d ac'd:lty

eftr."
(?

cfss).

,ets bur no kacls ot ilrtrl n is ph.ed ie rh6 rhn irni,/ have b@n ca(ied

or

r

rn

/rmk,rterlommr(D4.

r372r

cjon cf rhis oowld .ny.l or H slo:jrmann w.irrs -Iharowi

a'd H;lph
oiiuion rogrdne BdiJ.la is a mqe
1

Fircb lvrro dei F,ouDk. -Ihs probabiliry, ri3rerore, h

lh*

ori

of

rhB

pla.e: "The nama

w0 call

a

,siisalow'

or

Blochmain

/,4

s D. xLrlr373), 233

354 I

A

HhloJ.,

ot chirksois

F.ve,iid Hosco, 1r6 c6lsbrakdauLhoriLyotr po !ou6sB hhrory, wahs schol:6 or rhs .orftict of ooj 'ra crll rhe flry o! Bensah a myderiors pla.D ll4 wiies:

hlnlt

.nd thkerhss ot ttt A:brr roddI,r de,sqr. Nsw ssies

Jahes rayror, A !r4c, 0[ d. ropac phy ind cdlcutra, re40, pD. 21, 92

st hu( atDka,

aorEtrt kitasz, p. 15

Pdr(usu48 acriyiiios

n

ch (aoonq 355

rh. ravell66 of a p icular pdiod

Th. d,rr'culLy ror u€ trdw s ro kiow

is no ,eason why wa shoutd g,r Eensala as a myrhical c Ly, or tancy rlrd irw6som?who,o

Lo whr p Licul,, c ry apptiedrho r6rm. Bur rlrh tmpario and speak ot

Lhen

places his

owi

Fonr

of vcw

as

uidorerand why Bersala shoutd havc b€sn placed ar chirhsohs Ponusuesa $nl6hm1 a D and iilr ths rim6 when rhey fruided Husrr 057sa D), 10 so 'o B€io.la mus havs noanL

rr E 6a!y ro

rr
rhouoh

rcpded

jof.

ha

Jr.1oE or HorF,.rors

,

dirforent way_ Thoy

w

ord s.m,to \ cw

re:

AEb cuqo6 ol sivins an tmpo .nr

roi€ron

cily or

$,

potr

Mr J J A campos discu*B rhs sbj6d wilh som6 etaboranon end rca.hed $s &ms 6ic,usion. rr may be ralely a$e(sd rhar oll svtdeice Foirb ro 16

,t a s a, N 5, rx(1913) 444

356

lA P no,l or

crltrasoig

c,y or

a c,ty pcrr

afLcr Lhs cor

nvy

n which

-r ..la r

0n aroLre, occs'on, Fevared
..d o,

los:i

ida^ines E c y

or

kamaphut ar

s moufi.2

D, H

c ribldrdd rully accods wfi or .ll rh|se I lcal nclBsnsal6,

ot rhs ciry of

n!ms,-3 Th6 s?mc vie!, h eJ€iesed by Lhc rcDUEd ioinr od106 o! Mririque! Travels. Acco:dis ro rhem "t,la,sawE rhe ris, Poiurtraso s4rl-nsnr on llre gulr or Beioal;heic., b4torc rhey sdrled ar s oaiw o, rlusli, 'ro so @ sensala meanr to
proposriorr c?n Lr: deduc?d. de BeL€li vTar rh. .hEr

ol Lh

,,/
or 3,,{,air, aic

.o

io

so crlrh-qon0 issuppBensala ot ths .rv 'ic so ro Gei0al p,acrrcally nrair ro ihem ro
1530 s,

e.rqJ ' .m.r.

'
1l': 1,1 - " 1

imro;rair;ir,), o, a oily Do .frcr,h6.otriry 10 Lvhich

"ns r'o s..! "lly

pEbably, borowed ih6

dado do B.is3la by rh3 carly po treu.se .hroniclsrc and carc

rlro.o da. .alco as c.

ir

helonsdd.

Bongrla in Jris i rarivns. a plqce ormnd ihpo,raica brfore the Ahkai:ss oc.upELion or Ch. !asoi9 i ea,ly 159o's. Bu1dtrrrn0 rrre Alaksi.se eqine (c 15sot. r.65 aD), hD pla.e imporrncs * rho mo

3 r HQ, xvtlrlao),331

332

,
ihpotra ol L[6 Po usue* $nlehenrs in tirh
iow iatrr:iidd hh
besan LD

c, traloio r l5/
as chi[a

[. cllhJ a] c(y ol Beisala
plaD.

$sncriB[ place ol nama (ia, rhsciryol Bsns3l.) l,om chtrbsors r.om rhe closig ye s
or only Beisali.

'us]oi. ssdsms , rhs Po us!6e
Tlrar

pd'od, lmdt silh6rBensala Tre tavelle.s who

r.r.r ro rhs

su\dn

e

ro

Disns

:lloscd

cly

to (onluson amotrg rhe sore ot whom veal rlre iane Botrsala as a ide i.al, so $B Eumpe.tr w plaE by 4iLher name. The mo on 'his .orld not.oma mLo dnoci LAlallon wnh lh6 of Bsrsala owng ro iha js:lrus, and hostrlLiy ol lor fto knowtedso obour rhe ,eoion, r lrre map ol van den Bbu.k (1660 A D), rhe

omiLs he oamc sjreala

alsr

in irs.oreor posilion. Thers1orc, rha @i. Podusrcss ory ol Bensra durhs ruached by such smlnBit aurhorns 6 col, r!h, Heveren.i Ho$.n, M' Lu d, [4, J J A C:mpos and Dr R C 6d sriouslv dspuGd, k rs norico.ble rhar oian! romcd oily a pa and Fa,hsr Fahan. fis Iercr wrtsn rmm oiais on Decemb6r22,

.llson mc, Drs ,A rho

x irm cr i!ii{,)

is99 A D larls DGnq a

rown (vill6) inrhe ponofchirkgois.r hls b66n rcftiiad ro i. rhs
k thai

Po usuaro sBrorie as ,Bsnsuel (Bensal/ nry concludr ou, ds.ussioD wirn rhis 77i al,o

'sm

ftepon roui

/ l s ,,

lxl1s13),

433

|,

36d

ta

Hr.rory

oi

ahhddd

d

La6rs, Mai&lslo's and.urchs,s accouib and ot$6 tab 6ii_ rasnrh aid rhe sevoicenrh ca ury mrps, .! Dianq.

CNAPTEN XIIT

Tqtr \IUCH.TI RIGIUE secri.n

1.

Mu0hEr conquoer

ol chi(.eons

Tha Musr.il coiquesi rha qlorDrs ev?iE ot rh3 re qn of Au,oszb. lr 9iv6 rho.vr deila or rhc Nlush3l ialsd ro, drarotosdphy and ri,a or war
'

6lruhed arc
and

,,e

trvo conEmpo,r,y ,hrori.al wo,k

ttonr

nlnah

aid rcushly

3..dnh

msmoBble !vsn.

The succ€*rdl r,4!!hal nvas,oo of chnaoois ii 1665 56 .oique or Bsnoat roa succ cstLn .oni:or. rhs capLurc ol najmahsl

svehl

anemps

wss

undsnakei Lo wkst sub'atrLial w0s6chi6ved by rha Muqhak. as b3ri9 dh.oirhu.!s

o

ri

,,c

^akinese rhc Muqhals resumod rhen A!6iqrb, low ds rhe €rsGm lrc ier aidr

ki,r! no1'o inEda rhe

b&/s

3i0

a

Hrol

nr Chrrlonq

b.ld ,nd srilrul {dr wirh lou r r errlea$s iFy woulc aft.k, aid seosElty rlo Mopol! ra'hrs,_r .rl dDcrs hsnned odar ,or amoiq
p,oblss

,ule, rhe po or ChitrBsdn! wx ruhPd in'o a s,onsholl or th. M:sh-F ri"si pir E ,r[spraks, wftc
e

r.'

.!ery Mughal

he Maer,Firhgl that ir s maiilv rhs Mushal vi.-,oy or reisll (r6e1 1677 1579 r6ae !) uid ^ to Arxkai mad. rhsempam, !o nu.) 5e 6lly q1i dned.d Mr Jlmh ro JelLo! r! ',ih.q Br: Lr Jumh'"hr o the proEosed .rrs cr uidadairro raml, by rhe arakan€ss s,.trJ,r iusei ha ,n.p,rL rr. Muoh3lr, vrirss e nier,
w

rf

ha last chrDlea

ir'

,imilr. iBtr-.zrbe or *os. lL$nous :ll
crcum*rnGs,

sulGi sulah ;,d his rD ,leD!. rhenudd

BlordF il m6li

or Bq,s3lr iiom

rho cruci

a l ii.Arao,

dev-

ihm6d ab obj4( or rh6 arp6ci'ion ooiGmrLr.c by chslr h6sKatr loon trr apio of Knsdon" (d)j.lso s;3

'hd

Chiuaqono und6: Lha Muqrral reqins

l36l

New'rholes, rh€ ctrlbiial Bnbirioi o, ihs Mush8ls was rha chlar morva rh srimulabd suc@so6 or the Arqhds,rh. Muohils ftouqhl, rhsy hld aialuEl .laim ovs, chitasong, Th3 exphris wiy ro bs included ln rha l4ushal 6dnisndivg rh{,1 prr ol B^!:l A-!102'6 irm.d' slr Jr6. hk d_-r'on, ,ssolv.d b d6al wi'h tho unlnisird p:ojed or his sEidrarhd,

'tuoriiq

chi(asong

lird .rd s6a ,ouEs ro ChirEsoiq wse h0zndotrs 10, m chEs ol nooDs. Th6 juiqlo from rhe sourhon bznk ot rFe Fonl to ni orjnr or crihqoro ' r w3s scdcely phdi.abla ro mrch an ny nom Ecisalg lnro
ih3nieb rh.i ifi.Bec! rh6 non(i.rc'1 a *r rcula iivasion also {rDUH rlvolvs qEar rhk. rhs iaJat ,;idercd n dill mro d'lriDulr io tr.nsDo ,r hvadns lorce by rh" p,"*is" or rh. Benoal rlorillr """.2 ., daqroddioi du,iiq ths rgslmr ol.dlhrqove 06 esieciall! or P,in@ shuF, rhar accoftlio! ro Talish, ,lr nam6 aloi6 .enEiied ,n Beiqal."3 x wa3 "rh! silo6 or rha E.nqrl rtorlh wrc

Thi ia.k bBro,a Shairia Khrn was lohld.ble nd do!br. Bolh $o

,shEd only lor ol rha l3r*, the s.isal crcw thouqhr s6Lvos lu.ky ir rh6y could srve ihen livee by lltqhi'd

d

bo s 6f

rh6

f.hq,
rhsm

Bur Shabla Khan'6 spnr and en6,sy Dmved ro be eq,al ro ihe snudion. Ha dnenBd all his si6rsy ro rhc rcbuildrtro of ,ho naval ror.s and lhrolsh rhs caasdlBs orer ons or $. Nawib,

3621A Hrflory ot Chrr.s.i0

ch{r,sois

undor rhe Mushal

hgims

363

O"q

o' a todee s.:!en by rh6 {d.ror dr tjgl ,o r.,6 S r,.

36,r I a H'srory ol crluaconc

rhs Enslsh

€v dmce

E supponed bv

Bd di's $'EmanN'

Acc'

Ths Nawab',t commu cdion w h rhs Durch Ls conrhed bv h6b ai l.lsi s evdonB. Tal sh sra!6 rh rho Nawllr calhd oi rho Duth caD m of Dhaki and odered him ro "co_oprcb wlh

rhem,

uit $ ihsy

obsved

rhar h6 was uoable

'spErn ro Dka anv inmdLars d6cslon wtrhour coi

him A'

6is rho Dur'h

rcplied

lurished.'Eas lndia companv's l6!d riom Husliro SuraL w FosG,, E t l, 1661 1554i p' r95

cr li
covor, ,or tho

!),J rid'; ,,] [luJirl

,sO

m] r 335

h

Gr3r.l -1 ro s &rbrrul vrx.rha, ,hJ Nj:vr6 ou( such a srep 's d ed ro srLavir. L is liGly Ih rtu DuEh
mnrer

Ihq Etlsi lacio,s of Benqat unds! stnd0s riE n6c:rsi1Y ol hsl)ir rhs Ndw3b with mei and
mrLdal,

in 5outhan Iidis srit ioidlm:tron thar .u.h asnaicd ro trr N vsb would $uch rufllrer rh8i n Ee,3rl.2 Eut rh6 Enal6h sdhoririss in soumnrry .sssraico ro rhs rrrar^ lnda, ar isL. Ihr srlh a.rido lfrsa o: fi: .o.npiy's
n ghr be iivolv.d

c.uld asri: Lr

lo r olrP .omo"n/ in p:y th:n dabls ro [. Eiq]ish 4 ctu::t b Ths ourbEiLt ot rhe Aislo-Durch w bw d rha middle of snuaron Bo$ ihe Eislsh aid da ourch becamr iow obviously in o:ds, b san his rro_r.

dr

{a.ro6 thar thev savs an ui& akins

h dly moro than a Yer, riance in Bengll re[ cmbmd*ed os ro tom vJhoh or lhs co end Ds pa iss he would sssk helD. Ir^.riwrrJr, ,lrs slluaLon tooka dn8reni tun aid rre Nawab io loise, felr ii iced of rhoir helpo Al.ro all Lh, cof,rmporary sotrrcs r isrr rofto Mus:l uonql",r o' rr L,,o s

5

EF

r, 166a 166z

p.

1{4

366 | a flidory

ot chirGsois

up ih:ir Elariois

hmsir if rhe ra(6r

dd ior

b,eak

(The Nawab) $rc eiBd ro oveNh.lmfie pndes ijremediabto ruin th8y d d oor rmm.diaely subml ro rhe Mosol.aurhoriry, ,aurcnszab3 isltied in rhe ,esoturon,, sa,l he lh6h, ,or

if

ii

chadhos rha kins olnakan, and a Durch rteel roo oowe ul is ar haid. tt

b

Manucci moE sp€eiricauy shcs l

Eside

'hrouqh or Hust,. .rh,s

m

rh6 h6o .t Anronio dd Foco a h chardew a brorhs i;6.d

?

chtbsons uid* rhe Mughal ,a6im, | 36?
sebasiao Gonsalves who was rha

Anbiio d6 Roqo, 3id held a tdig him. He requAsbd hmrs. ravou, io hdto of rhe royat .d06. He ptgdsed hh word o o .sr !1orid b" hish pay. Meaidhil!, hs paid h,m rwadvjtva rhDUsnd tupes
dellvercd io him.1

shai{a Khai

s tor

Trlish ofre6 his had beEl plrinino how

io prr

him, dawn

tho

Nawab

rep,kal da*tred rhcn nittudy s,vicc

und lhs

tuakan*s

iid

/nu..i t.

113 i Fo . I' ro d/ riai coiiaks, ruhr of slidwip (1602n5r3) G reldsd ro rh. sgbsLhi GoizlA of M.iuccr. accou . fi n h suppossd rhar dsnrc,l rhei rh6 probten Emaiis how

'rc..le.o! sald4

r'ourshed tr

iiry

.6r.t611 @io
as

s.erc,e
D.

lars.s 1665 66 A

8wd*, p, 13r.

.

aisa$jnotsd

ru u.ci wrr.s,.i'om!oT rh? Fahisis, . sEd p rcs ot ahk.i flr 1r3r

h.vug

363'A Nklor/ of
rh6 au

Chirhq.lo

lau.omnul.nil lon.^no. .,n
w,p, Iha
should

ho'oi tie Alar).nn .t .nlnL:,: som: o: rrtsr l-itrts (9 rrx tryrhe aw,b b $6e dory leiro tutlin! i rc rh3 hsnds ot K amwirha rlrt yJ:s i rio envoisolsaid. br
depo .d

r:r

f,]Llrhah aid iho Po uguesei

b rrl,;i.
ro

dreded rhe sovemo,

c sl,lly ro rh4 dsf.rc?of rhe c.!n y a1d fo , co cillara rhs F iic A,akai rhlir ,amilles aid .1r ld6n, rnd a hrs: ttsa .quippad ror h:trr! w:s 6.n:r r,r lysr
lodr
ror r,o lidrllrl oi r! F, familes ro Ara6n

ij j. rr

rerlly

ro Irre lhar Fene. hem$tvss ar
i?is r;d

shrkiibyrha jyrl
rhsr lamilies

i tr

em:rirl ler slDfrh6crpraridfTaTluor3 f 15. Mitrh c\?r, i[oy iled wiih y L,o jilbT tD F,nli,l K ian a( N.akhali ror
ol
Lhs

or rh6 hrendsd amkii,so refuh
ssruido lo

"F: 'tl ' 'l"a:.r
and

,0

oI thD Idor,

E:nsnwlh illlheil so

i

ed

ror

1665,

rfiy JJlbas of $o F,inqrs, full cr

o,rt

muskds and mun riois

chiLlaoois

Lidd fie Mushrl resime

1369

.id

all th6 Fnjnslramil* rcached Noakh'li,'1 Ths accouitorlav'r i'a ni.,.Lo cobli,ms rho PotrusuEa bdhvar. accodiiq to him, ile6r

rusue$ lrcm ,hs tuakli6so save Nawab, who had boen day and oisht thinkinq how ro rsalis6 rhh obiecl, reqad6d rhs .omins ov or rhB FnlnqG as Lho conmen The ordDosed oxPodir'onary commaid ol Brzurq Umod Khan, €ldesr soi ol rhe nawa6 "r h. shduld .onducl fis campaisn whila 'ho naw,b would look dfre, the work or ksepiiq Lhe mv supplied
aza, d osha or $3 a ilhrvi rhs Noakhsliourpdd, Janal khan D lzaql Mn Abdul Fsrh, a d'wanr Mulrammad Khalil w,iri or rho lorc:s. Besldes rh*e orric.B, senedls who a..onphied rhe 6xpsdiri.i v ,orceswae lrh sas Khan, saGndz Kh'D, oaGsw:l xhai Raj.subal shsh skodia, Kh ai (hazland orhorc Muham' mad Khalil -was od(edlo koep h n (iha Nawsb) darlv hrohed or

darcsha

or lhe nrw ahr Mir Mtr

o rcoo all ths da lY evens, srcar 3id av v advice harha small ro $e Nawab, and Ihs
imoeri.l llesr,

kum.ls7, bacha -2, s.lb 3, Flba-96, parcida 6, Ihi Hu$in w4 apporred t'e .h ol ol lhs naval

ior

sp6ciried_3'

370I

a

Hisrory ot' chitrasois

rM

nawda as

wjh 40 vossels, jo red rhs Mushat ilsa ro mak6 Bal\ a rohidbla na,ar o:pecnion. Tho problem ol p6$ase or rhe ny rhiousr ai iiho.pn.bis Iand and (he supply ol €Lom m I € 6dv:i iq amy d€m6rd.d spacial ah6 ioi.Itu Nawab h,d dr.adysancd some kiowledso
loEs aid mtrllnu would orler a haidi.ao d rfrcrl7 M I Munazr .otied.d a hroe nlm bd ol axes lor lrnq e cu [o0.2 ih! Niwdb 1,:s €qu:lly .or or. for fis rcoular rupply Lh-a armv. Tatsi imahs:
que,, Tho drisa

hG

aod orhe. zamndrE rt ilror,i .toie w h

solri5 (qrai 6, h.lr ol all rh, gra( qhl inlo D:cc: shoUld jdqr of ill prts of E.irrl !,q4
shorld bed4zarchld ro rre

wrror,

le6) brcu

rlpli oi 4

force .sd ei.slle rrom the lreshn ir rll

d a oir

I' ,r r. rh"

N,,ab anl l€rrnothnq ro chan.a

Li hstd
Iavoure

d,oka6r dplo.

ro rhe Mushah rnd of{erino con.,lLilo,y Gov.rnhenr, - The htrs

rupe4 and a mtr h, chier capbin (s{k , a\rfiEzih.

msnino ch€r mual orr.*,oid n.r otodri. p. 1s3nr.

i

|,

234)

ci,tasonB
or
(h

und fis

Mushsl,ooim6l37l

rh3

s .o esroideica Niw:'ot olrd was ior qiv6i

duo

hid was surr riodrly dri.d up o p,ovrdo fac'l rhd or Lhi ,orces 6pe.a ly cavalry. Txs sud.cs ol comD rvrly c6li
tla inromed

rcapho Nrod s!sqesred ai ca,ll, s. nawab rh 1h6 Amkliese

be .as'ly

Eirn i(

had h{h6no €slscred chdoaon atrd rhat Lhe Dlaca could ir mmsd'a16ty wrhotrr
Lhe iawab asreed

ro ths. a ioirr

ar{k or chtusois
15s5, ,br

by land

a monerrausprciousro' makiis a beo niins,' Blzu,o rrom Dhaka wrh hk sboe rhs Muqhal mv wrs d'vid!d, )r was rcsolved Lhr thc army und rhe di'ed comn'.
was Lo rollow rho varcuad ihal

,o movo uo wi$ aid r3nu zamndar wrh fie fl.d " l(am:13 a ei
who had ukAi shsls shah J:h]n, wis ,Iso Mn Nrunda, "wrh a band o, $. M.shs wro tivsd th h. wduld be
2

rhe

ronr

.ommand was d,sdod

lbn HuEin

ot

rh6

for

I

Dh.(a,

s",t*, ,t-o,g'ia r r,:as
N
apadsyi

in

1633

a

D.

372 I

A

Hisrory

ol

Chirasons

las' Mushrl ouQosI hh rollo_ ^tuar wsn c,o$!d rhs Fsni (Janu y 14) Thsy ft.n.i@rcd rhE Aruk wav..urclslY.2 BuuG um6d Khan, who wss leadns rh6 maln body or
on Jinu

y 121

iwo d.ys

ma'ch, Fafiad Khatr aid

Talkh w
rho sea,

rol.owhr 'P"

E rhaMlrLary
od-:

b:ss was osrablhhsd on

rh.

Fei,

tr was rs

,v
urder

d

h.t5, rB 'nFqal Jrmr's orsaqe."'. Mushals decidsd
the

ed

would pa$ uprhs

ra

ns h'r (o'si

ilbi Hsaii alwayr closa !o

rd$thd, (hB llael $iling ;imy husshs rho coa .

iavy warc al5o advsed

th

sisn or impendlnq dansd, ir shou13 immsd'aclv ro rhs oLhd. 'Itr mnch air lrah the )and and s3, lorcss w*a

'lon€lolndanv

eqlal rara vJ,L' rho

iol

s,r idL,

Lnqla

b*ouowatr ch

Husan anh hs floer lrlvsd ar much ahsad o, $€ amv. lh6 admnal dd He lindad a bodv o, rooDs who

,l*r lhn
sao_

ald

oohmd

,d,oh, on Janusry 12, Farhad (han

'dwrds

t5e

"ovai.ho

ReniEllt mao Jasdia is nsa

ed

on rhe mouft

Muefat Gs,i
rcached r pkcs nom whch charqaon

I

3i3

ws mly oid

day's pumay.r

The la er do*ed a pla@ which

to
It@r hrlred
aL

rhe /4jcmsri.noh, rh6'impd ar

Kumrrra3 v lkse, which uds 2o-kos ra, oti lDn Bu. u.s umsd Khatr3 en.ampmeiL lt appears rhar the ihpariaL a,hy in rhs earlie, $ss8s of i$ math

rhick sid parhl.s pace cutiis,hs juisle and lrneles and drly sd,anced d slow lsvellhs rhe ro.d,4 Fo,'y., rhe advaicsd land antr y 2r'5 Meaiwhle, Lhs m.n

brt nom naru,.

Thsy

(xum h). lr wx de.ded rhd
would lct

Lhs [lear

aid

rhe

ros3rhar'

svaniis ol .,6 drdm, |].4 -Ucd,. it' oi rhs rho admral .,lled upoi his hr senL a rew ships ro rhe horlh of $s c,Ek Lhs enemy rhel Ncx' day (Jaiuay 23), rie .icN srios, consned or

oi rh'

'h€

m$pelliq

or

Rum

a

{modsr (umm). E'Lh
conrGion

Don,r4n.F 9,k
rhs

/

'ha

or

sc ba (dal) and (k!r).

rr can bj

hed w our rmo, 'd. 'h Brrish Gcods w're rhs namo as cuflaliah-

nrss {:[aln chh.ra ol

rhe da,e 3r such. rhs daG as rhe 23d Janua,y,
Theearly

374 i

a HhLo ot

Ch traqonq

rtJ.d, o.o.p,t,

rdL.

Mor ard orhsr F rn.rG, no led rh4 vao, b:tdlv rha enemy ilrr a(d rbn Husai h,m$I 'nro wirh his rled was tolovJins Mlshil arack, fcved 5:c( rDm wanr:d b foildv/ raimd by rh6 Benqalee :a,toc.

Mish rler."2 ,rbi in h.d ro yiold." tre, )olv3vs, .dv:iEd a ti,rll ,ay rher6 rilr €wnhe,l prcbaLly ro keep

Hu:a

Bur k war soon discovered ftr a tdqrr Arok.nese ,l6d was sEyins a, +s Hrrla cr*k.3 ior bBva\ s.lod aoan+ smaller crdfr. The tuakaisse ilier c; e lna di o,. h '4 ,l ro mear rh3 siemys t,rser shios cathd khJrs aod dhrds,,nh
rh5 satbs wrri.h Eached

pray.r. -The rwo I n6s srood ldiiq lach crh{ ind rhre wrs oity a d a an lery duet, brr io closa, adlo.,

3

Ihe drr:m caitroL rhs ide

iried

5S

l.r. A .'g26.

rr, :37

chjksons u.ds rhe Mushat bsims l37S

gr'

es dins rhlssecoid iaval eiqzqamlnL Janu y 23),
o,]

rh6

rr.

drfere a

litrtr w

Lh Lhe

F,

soon afr*v^rds (ans it nGr n3v,l br 6i, rh3 larsnshtps ('dvJw a..buzurs) or rhe lFmy c.ms i sghr, tor a se.ond rim: huohL a tois aid seyqe ris l and suissr ll:d r6m rhs

oqi b.sor ships had him, re rrrorqhr ii iiadvisabte ro.dvancj rteer Lo I su abl6 ph.e and pased ih6 niohr n keopiis war.r 1

(anaDrul, aid hh

I

{

itr.h

rr

him$I

io'n rh6 n:wad 2

1,

co

shpi .nlrJ srb; ,h6, 3 n1., aid

sh!rub!

ii

tho middle.nd

lalbas rcliiquished Ihan Pre'rion bsok ,rom rhe rhrsaleiod oosnion Tlie lla6-

aid ko$s sido bv

Husair .voided rashness baweei lhe shnd .nd wiih Esat caG aid p,udeice lollowsd rha Ankan* 116(, Ths imoral llesr rcached rhe ,lvs, mourh and block.ded it so

Arakanasa tleer enrorod rhs mourh ol tho K ntsDhtrli ind ,ea.hed ao cknd in ths md$rcdm (prob8blv te shrps in lli6 or modeh Bakaliar ch

)

b

lerr bank or rhe nver, clos6 ro rhe villaro or Fi,iisiband4 (ora@\, rh6 aak.nese had erecred rhrc6 hamboo stockades, and "llkd rhsm w rh rillery, maiv Telinqas i1h6 tohrhs m€n ol A6kao aid rwo 6l6phanE, imDd al tleer enrsrcd rhe moufi ol tho riv and cams ns rorhe !.o'.ad.6 h. Ak.rios6 ri ls y r p4hl ll*L h ssoBs th rhe r lring could do lir e'dam.so ro ths mperial rlaer. he en€my by borh hnd and rv rhe ver and Iaidrd a body or r .ohr$ aftck slen.ad rher ouns Th8 Ara' s4 sinGon arr r $ubbo,i rloht ibaidoned rh8 srocrades bumt down bY $s Mrohrls3
The chi6l caPbin aid orhsr

Frisl

chiLroons uid€i ,h6 Mushat

res mo | 377

,pj'acs,

Muilww

"A srear liqhr wa. roushr Firo wae oD6i.d

lh6 Nawabs otl cs,s iamoty r,tuhammad Bao Abaralti and Khan zamtndar, -.sh. swirr! nom dtrgEir sid6s. i

(oi

rhD Mushatr)

by hm

h

rhis iaval enoaoohentT

373I

A

Hhrory or Ch asonc

On rhar day (Jaiu y 24), Fafiad Khai, who had ac.ehre.d hh march row d Chnralone arved rhs b3nk ot rhe (arnaphut,l

o/,le

ol^

It t,Jl

Borh rhe ,4hdErn!n.h and rhe Fdhla de rhar rhs appro.,h rh6 spniE ison. Accodins ro ths AlonE adah, "rhs snemy to{ h6 rar 3 T,l"h *,ir.s rhs rishr dr rha hlamic "'.y rhe to ntohrd rha app,oaoh ol lhe Mughrl ihy This nsws and rh. soac6.t6 o, rha vi.rory o, rha imp,ial rte4 s,rhon rnd sotdis's o, $6 cdufuy, rhar

ol ths Mushal my damDoied

tolq6 iumba

rhsy

eda

Iho

aurhor or rhd FdLhra

n

rat6s rhs

rollowinq rh' iaval bnde or.Jai ,reidiis ro rhs ron (or ch eaon) rwo rur_ rhe $ips, wror6 ro rh. qiladar,... ,why ehould you idedlssty de oy youbolt and your family ? Barorc seized aid Ecirced ro up your ro , ,nd sava your lrs aid piop6ny,, I'o qiladd. la' ,s ,.a,sl , .o..$ timo lor sscape, s back rh3 reply $at trs.horld ba srr 6d
w,i16s rhs aurh.r, r6spii6

lor fta nishr

he would

6dmn

,hem.s Thms €ve s or rha itshr havs alks4he been ,onorcd by lho aurhor or rh8 Ad,sti,nr'

1 ,rjd, p. 2osi Trlish is

sile

abolr hh a iv"] ar chirGqooo.i
com

2 ro0tyo, p. zoa. rn" ,t N i" sitenr abour lha m5.ch or jho mand.r.ii chlel oi January 24.

chirbqrns !ndo, rh. M!shat

rdsimd

t379

ro did

fb tisd his be ro
sor

zamind

atons

wh

hre @mpmiotr; sEEd rh6 adersd soon airsrwar&, ind but ii vain rh. fi. .pEad

as onois ar atoxander,s uiconquroblo fo' ft6 wom our, h. (tbn Husaii) rsa,o

hado rha dsr,toi

1

^ vaicis

N

O,dir, p,2osn He musr hav. b6oi p.so.d6d by rho adahy uidor Farh.d Khai,

3ao

lA

H'srorY or

chluaeoid

mrk4 lhe qrlad., or charsaoi cap(llaro ro Admnal LbnHdlain' th€ slvino rhs Nluqhal land rorcs lnrl6 6h a i rhs evs ' on
orh4h,n3, rhs

$o

ro $e wholo prov'ncs 1 onrn6 anlts,y aidnavY or rhs Plac6.
si, Jiduiarhsarkdrwho disc!$es
This dili culLy

alonsti.Drt lros thal 'Lho

mporial mvsaiiad ol orarsoon 'nd

h

rhe discrepan.v or accounb conclud€s w Lh rhis rsma*: avoldsd by ralsh's sr.Gmern thd rh6 cao
a,mv

rie rcsul or a ,osuh, ei6ge I rhiik nrar Lha Muqhal

on rha ?th wh3r phcri.allv all was ovor Lr isjud po$!bls rhd Buzurg umsd Khan hie .trval undff ib wall! wa a( rhs raU 6 dB lhe adual cutroid rmonioe or fta 26Ih) is rend ed improbrbls by rhs dEranc'.2

and decsi!. oival n.ohulion Jan 2a, idl6 and ha d red th' enoaqem.ii. F had r$.ult or rhs ro, rhoush TalGh nakes no rcl6reim !o ir AccoL diiq ro rhs Fdrr, Bozurq um6d Khrn h6a ns or th: naval

Sa als obsNdoi, howsvd, ieeds irnht. sc,rriiv, Ac'odiis F had (hai atrived ,t rfs b'nk ol rhsk*

w$ poslbla lff him ro reach Lhatotr ot cha! 4n6s saon na{ day (J u y 2s1 as lhs Ahng,rd,.h cl6 lv So rhr p ricipaLioi oT $o amy h fis a$atrh or ths ron c'n no' be d sm'sdjounish,.
rh6 ,eal drliculLv lies ln $e icoishkncy in delails. Talish knd .my ror $6n psrormance ii rh€ 'hs al th, AhnEtrdmt

b

116,

htsnsied 1o

I$

nelshbodfiood

Satkdt, AdlnEnb,

t,

245

ahirlaoois undo, tho Mushal rcsms l361 would ior
my

svo to ths irval loEer irs
ro s.v rhn lailish
sito

dua

cedir'

h!d.

oid rhsau,ho,

or rho

al'mgr&@l, hid

D ill-l..liis

But on sruds6 aqaind rhe

sqal.s

vl.M comP

iblo bY arqumsnr

:nd somo hyporhlses

b w!6 fts

.hy hlviis oily a scoid y Kahoohul de.ded

pl6Y, Th. batla ot rh' Th6 dola,t di3h6a,si6d doqrc' rhd rhev p!a' callv could orrs lnls rcssanoa b rh€ iiuadins Mushal amv Borh ths Fdi)o aid fia Ahng)Nnch eious laod ensasamg b.Lwian rhe Muqhal and ths Arakano.s rcla

mus! bo admrti.d rhor rh. 8i€as.nairs arakanssa aid rhe Mushdlt w.r. chieflv naval rh'

lr

b

m,.onod rhe ollad who $ lac.d dveEs alL r,onG Th6 advancod my udd.t F.ftad (han mshr riavs laksi pa4 ii ir' Tha Po udulta uoachsrY rnd lodl paasans dvolr mads rha rask ot lbi HuaiD !o oary 'hr ro, Lhs drivzl ol rh. commandsrin chi8f,
Tne on,y rhitrq wallr or rhe iort and rc demolish

rha(

uldd Muiaww

Khan 56t rh6

iL

wrt
'lho

16

lotr oi lro, pull down $€

m.ins

ol

evei rho Emp

$

rhir lon which, 6cco'dine ol aloxander.

The .us{ioi iow ,emalNi wlry rhs rkmsra,r,h asisiad rh6 achievem.nrol rhs .Epru is or rhe chars&on fotr ro ftaahv by dop vns ft6 iavy ol ir6 dus edh ln rcply, tr crn bo sd thd tho ,ecod kesp s ol rhe D6lhr sovohmdnrwerc no( ii dir6cr 6 '.r wirlr rhe evens ihai had bs6n raklns phce thouoaids or mllrs away iid rh. imp€rial clpibl. Thev larsslv dopoidsd on rh6 repons of Lhs ^rfce's of rh6 Niwrb shai.ra Khm who would dsrln chief 6r rho vicro,ioFamY ol rhe fotr ol chdsaon. To san . hioh-

etder son m'qhr
1

havo .aoiurcrr

hi.

lmasiidlon,l

rh: Nrwsbt mEitoi wm

ruI'lled

a.

his 3on siinod ulm6r

3dz

ta

Ht.rory or Chhhsorc

sir J6dui h

snk h-

daraored a

s

iour mhrekd

ii

raLsh,s

ve'sd. A mhkke work h qrire ndu l1

r

has beei dkco

ois or

pmbrbly

,s

havo r6aDhed rhs

svo,y

hns

!L

nn

daysi v'2.,

ts rirto,

my orf,csr coutd d6s rs ro a h,ohEikins m.nsab ai( rhe

ch rLa!ois uide, rhe Muohal

'eoima

1333

Eur. cr8lul eramid'otr

ious di.mny d6c 1s Lhs ,a,angtr,,n.r. 'n rhe hcr pEss or rhe forw d movecrn b! aftnqed .hroiotooically. Fonun ety sou.e books me oi d eswhtrh ,. exkomltv v,llabls fo, day rco d io th6 frarch of rh6 rhe ronowiio ,s

io s

cr

rhs

rooF wI

pa(y und4 F hid J3nu y 17. AcDording
mgrrdn.rr, F:,had Khan "da oio rriy.s totr 6y. and
rival

um€d Khri

s

.lanuary ?r. Ac.ordiio ro tho Hu.ain ieu r(um ia ( say 15 mibs nonr ch.rqeoi ), which dc.or
and

wh,e rtu

lunsla

ar a pla.aakos
Giched som:whe,o

oi

Farhad Xhan and Mn

ne

mods,n

Brd!

i,

abouL

(.n mils6 rrcm

t,.6
Tre Mushil

r+

\uha,,o

ll!d
srvr u2 j!irl3 curin? .trd
mad

mllss uplo Knhalis ald rc ACBIIhG hG

m.kiiq

i6d Ehdiy,llom
wh*8
ha qurchn8d

hr aosre*

334 |

a

HErory or chi(aeoic

rho ri,sr irval .d$s3menr. ro rhs ,{,aDsrdf,or, ,Fa,h3d Khln d rhs b3^k or rhs rlvor (xahrphrrr) obvoustv nom 'vcd Karh,lia ond mod p'obrbly shyBd somBwhm n6a, rha mourh o,
rha

'ivr

(p@bably

ri

Pabns,),
Lrmed xhan, hodns or rhs

r(.!

accordins ro

bn to.

\as{.d

rh! F,mro. Buzu4

rha kamaph!li
Th6 Muqhrls

i

rha alrundoh.

woi rh6 i.val

vicroy

siese or crrars.on td

.

rce days ro covo. s nkbrcs or onty 'o .Frs.or. rlc rollow rq
r

rLne3i

mil6, trom (um ir

h s ol raisled
b.cru@

Frcr, rhs whole

r,cr ol laid

wsdarlon, bur

'unolv, ,o br .ov.ed whh

i w6s

pathhs

becsusa

rhe hslp oa raruD bur ii was ior wh.lty fi6 A'ak€Ee Ld rh6ir o..€lional cids inro rho

was id doobr covned wirh rho noi alroodh ro jlow . s +sion sd as b rosisr ih,

ch

as6ns

uid,

rha Mushal

rcsm'

1335

sd6idly, $o 6xp6dirldi war uids rk6n n ihs diy sea$n 6r r\6 v6a.wlsn wiloEsr of r\o v.g.Grron wde eF.il/d!-iii'h3 rhs rh,ckigs or ths iunola orcduallv dsdeases ir rho p,oximrLy ro rh6 iown
Ihirdlv, rh6 sandv rouro alo.o rhe s.abaaoh could na! b6 cova,sd wirh junslo owiis 10 rha sxtuma saliniry or rh8 soil Th. expedirioi v lorcs., borh land aid navy, weddrccred'har rh6y shouldp,o.e.d.lde by sid6li such a m narrh oi. Ehould not lore sishr of rhr
orhar.

Lidly, rha dsr6t
nelevan.s oriothinq charcaon. Th 6ld4, orlha ahy. Ths,4ldhunusual in th6 iaiiarioi ol tho mov€menrs $eclli. aid chronoloqical th6n the dlh.r ln rclarioi 16 rhis sur such mno, laulb .s rhr omlsloi or dars (J.iuary 25, d6 .Gdir or Tilhh as rhes6..

Bicou,aq.d tha Muqhals

b

Sir Jadun h snk ihai cha,s6' rho oficrl hidory (ho nhmnrl.mdt) wirh rh6 reha* rh.rir"ioiores pa play.d by rh6 Firinsis ii rha campaisi."l I ie tuo lhd rho rrd,Srddhar,) trilik6 tha Forrr does ior slvr coBidd,abla h lhs dahp:ion, bul il will bo uijrv ro $y lhar ir comolaGly ovdlook. then valuoblo .eruicos. Tha /4kngkndnoh, ir IoBt in onopla6. acknowledqas "rho 6rclb s'vi.es' rcndsrcd by rha chief c.puii,whoacdmpanisd rhe mp*hl ro,.s ii rhhexp6drion."2 ft.anbsrc8onably suppB6d rhd rho oflicial hisrcriai dop6ided almost 6rcldiv6ly on rh. rcDo^s $nr by rh. Muqhal olfic.h d Dhaka. Th6 padpls 6s wsll as rhs sovskmsnr know 66ss psdplo, who lo,rhola$ r5O yea6 mEkiiq havoc o hs ruushal r.rirortgs I was hldly . lo iiqhr whai rh6 PoilusuosD pn roe coiduciod rhair uru.l rid! oi Bonsal vilhs6!. An inr6rya! or only . rEw w@kscould 1 Sa,t<t, tt,ang,to,1u, Ztz

336 I A Hkrory or chilacon!

ol theFeocla. ro. shoisb Khai $, hr h3tl oainrl rrE Forrl!.ss allni.e rsansr tho AmkBiise BuL Iuies pasr hoems a lri€rd ova'
,ole

co ma: old sBsii(r

o,4irp.n!,iai. rr !:s r dplomnc iE

.l Ih.

Po

trqucsa

qs\,

'o th6 Ponreresc alhi.e can $ (rc dnn.hlzal Mls il
Potuq,ess hrlr.

!hs pr'i.ipaLion

aoJ
was

s

lh: .o]r

ol

1ar'n

.,'ov 4.dl,r.

i,aty dro

l(all l:

rJ

v.q!'1.

d8red rhB

brav.t, i .. o!cr,i.i Lvirh rho po uodrcdrtie.l ro/al b trori a mu,I rard, 1r[ ror tho Muohah ro .r Drild tlBer or rrl iid ihs ponucuese,

rhs cioru,6 ol rho o, irs inmdi6. rha oos i.rL BpiF qiv.i,o ihe qil.d by
rhen elcapr.

^E!:r{!

tbn

air-

Ltr rill or rhe for,,...rdino

unde, w:s orhai rcl.riveg and ns-ly 350 !c wirss rhaqi,adar, w[o rr.d b! 'rral 16p,6sL.d LB Rzi'h of chdgson and rire qrbdn .f Lic c rhe rod

A acai

kiilt

ws

b fis rrd,srF

rhe son

.r

rho

oi

rhe orh4 6i.ro

ol ths rlei al;o nra

rc al ro rL€

,4

N (srldier, pP 2o3i 20si

Mushal tusimo I 337

rwo i l'ph6n' ald

bro.srr "m o'o' llia'n

AbouL Lhs spolls o,,hew rrr! rqo souc€ hooks slpplvsom6 mfo nd on. Accod ns 10 Lha Fd,,yd, i lleer v dorc Ths coN sr.d ol khalu.2, ohunb 9, jJod 67 ,S..' : o o 3 i' d, 63. b,.4m.22,:
rhese.

a lane

quaitir!

Gll in rre

haods

c.O much sroi 3id
elephi s, wore .rprurcd.'4 Accoditrs
pleces

ica "l os' 'd b'bdt m ssli and lhree

to

a eslimalo or Sr A

.f

cainoi, oos or rhom Jiiqals calryrs bnb nor Er6o-

!o.J.'sl"tr.

6

ot the conqued ofchitrasois rea.hed Dhak, onouoh, (h6nked

b
rwealh

bBvoid

Dlav.'7 Libsal Iaw ds horses and el6ph:i6" alms ro ths Poor"'8 ro lhs Firlioi DEr4 aid

3

3d3l

a

HbLory

ot chiuosoic

as boudy 1o hir owi orl'c.h aid rh6 crow contadcb Talhh! ol rha iawdah.'l rDon ol fi. Nawrh's oirrs and ,smtrnshrion io rhs Po uousse. ln ,osard ro rhs Po usuoE., Chah-h$ neas th8m, no! peL but cs .i.ly i6 rhey dderu6; hB considerc unnsc63tary ro fulrll a siiql6 p'omsa. He surlorc monrh arr6r monlh ro 6lapsa wnhoui siviiq rhem anv oavr d6.laiis rhar thay € toiors, ln whom n E loilv ro
who hava baselY belayed lha Prhcawhoss

sh $ey had sarsn
Howsver,

rh. obssNd'oid mad, by Maiucci3 aid ravemis, rully @nroh ro $ ol Talish. Tavomsarived
Nawabr paym.nr or ela,y b rhs Por "Hs (rhs Nawob) savs a lErss pay ro Po usal olfi.6,s, ond m rhe6old*s
ro th. ssn'm.

all $s

Th8 rea.rion ro rhc lsws of rh6 Mushrl v'dory over A,akan, impe,al cap al,s k recoddd in the Fdtyd
Emp oro d.rdroror3 _ur ro b€ played.6 Rs{a,ds w.,e€iven ro all mncem6d i ths con irh a cosly jawellod swnrd or EfDs,o. r^o elep'anc. wo hor"sw hsold_aopiios. 'ra , r@cial khilsi, aid an imp'ral i.mEi ol p is. Buzu's

r'.

and Giched tho imp.rial capital

accordhs tu iho
undouhredly

airh. snd olsh.ban (Fsb:uary,1665 A D). an acr quiro ooild,y ro rh. nalurc ol rhs puririn
N,

,

chiuasons unde, the Mushil,as mc:3sg

mmod Bes Abak

h ws€ promorad. l[n

Husain sor rhs

ri

a

Tn6 /V0d5n',Alo,str 3l$ s es rha svrnq ol rhs cwdd ro th6 qeiemls who we'e -'hoioured .nd sisddeDed wirh maiy lavou,s.r2

Iho Mlshrl conqure was rollowod by a larse scal6 i,tash Thh avenr s poputa,ly (iowi 3s ,Maoh dhadha i arc. Ths Mlshs escrp€d laavins thsn

n the llluro werc utrlsed by ,he,
the Mushals,
rcrend

uidarsrcuod, and c dod pla.esol hddetr rlasurcs whch o
descondais
@

ns

ro follow $atr vrcrory

ra hsrsourh,

' posble, ro qo ro the pla.s and besese n."3 Ar that i,he rhe €ovsro, ol namu w.s nawl, a louoq6i bDrher or rhs tu.raoese tias. Jhe Alansnrdhah
Tho Mn, alrn usveEiis d rricul, rclde dense luneles, aid ,eni61a ,iv*s, ar the eod or 12 davs atrived wirhin on6 kos oi F:mbu. N3{ dav, ai noh he sro'msd rhs lon, ThsAtr

1,

pPda'

-,, ].

iamed Rawl, who hsld rhesovehmsnr ol benq worekd, hg tha oh.e, v€d his rlsd wtrh rho sa Lsoi ro a iunsl€ clo$ ro a hill ioar rho fo . Mn Mu az6 qivnq chass slsw mtiv ol rham 3nd crFrubd

Buzus umed (hai hoaihs or

fte v.iory aid laamiis
a lorcs

iha! by land asdin{ 8am-

bu,
Forl'yo,

desparched

Maf,a Khan, Jam.l Klran Dilzaq, aid
'o
rD,4 N, lbnPusan Bceiv.d
rha

p 2r0 A.mdns
31

ol sciuaL 1947, p

J N Sarkar, Calcuk. Boyal r'iiaric sociary

M

'

Mu{aza. Ti,o lvln,

.kd

ir

om and r h:lr ros fom F6mbd, tas snomyt atrival force or rhe eiemy w h sEvan ahplra s suddDnly *!ad nom rha r!nsl., rolL
the riva,

p[nead

r wlh

on ,he (orhe, hnk,
hs comrad.s
an

boldly

aid orhd war m 8ur an ourpon lik 8r(u

rlqhr. lkd. Th. v crors )ureue.i, sisr dod Ihem, oid sqlzed erGtl

rhe causes or ot rh€ l,ansrnono, wnrcs As tha ep3ca bdw.8n ch.rq.on
c,oss,

pldrrs

3bou eshry mrlos rehro. whils ei from F?mu hs atrr or

rullol

h

llsaid juislar

lid

n.mhJ

a

's

vsry

h

d ro

rha wholo pdh k llooded, and $b y6 rhsrewas only a small doE or provhiois oid rhe Etnysason w.s nsai, ihercrora, Mushal .hy iiro Anac.n wa. pur olf.2 Under rh6se .ncumsran.ss, rho Muetrats ,houshr ft wDo ro siva Uned Khan "ve y w6oly ro ev3.u e Fambu ad lall back wirh rh8 rsasads or F.mbu. on Dakhm.kol. which E close ,6 crorsi.n "3 l E rha ordds or the comm.ide, n,chi8r, ior only evacuarod tumu bur also $s lvhols oi rhr tr:ci lyiio 50urh ot rhe ssikha.

l,r

/l (srudies),

op, 21 1.212

chrrh(oiq uid4 rhe Mushn psimq l3sl
AGri,nese

oois h:d vnL6lly rh. Mushils esablshed A kiilso ,ules rl.Dend.d .n :,.
.dm ni:x,lion rnd on

e EI

aurho!:v ovoich (a rhr;D d6c,&s b4ro,o

ti,r

o,ovncial
dersn.-" or

rhk

pa

N:waL Shatra Khan, Iha

orlicy or
rally,

,ulrss'dase(eB sipldis rhe w,ono ths A,rk?n4. es hlj.ws: "owis ro rher oids and
comsel!ore or Arakan havo nes16cred rha d.reicB ,on and mdqlv dspsid6d on 6 (ror thh

or ii. P

Lho kitrs and

o!.osq ).'L .rh6 cdllis. "Aiercised lirlle .ontrol In

ch

aqood,

Nl, Il S all qon such cuLlh,ods (h6 Po usuose s kar mosr ap'rv renark6: .suc

siF

coln, ,'had io hold n pn er. 3 Sn Jaduialh

acoiiliioi or wealth aid Ioive iheir narioiil dsrsr.e in rhs hands of aliers,"4
or rhei, oc.asiona, mids inro lr rhroushout rhB Mushit odiod
Vfirh tho dsdlr or ^?,111es.

hliirhy

thnirh!

dhamma rhe reGplsnden,

mrjsny of

rho

of rha artrkarch kiiqdom sG.drlY an.r r (!n a..*qon or said, lvErya lr7r0 A D), rlr{o w,e riqi3.veH

d".ln.r B.n!$fie,:ll o! c,iLhqoi! (1666An)

oily u,l. rwo drd ior icioi r0r no,c BdUr Ssnda \lizara: Nui a6rva(r7r2aDr $D av6no6 'so n;oru,e a prl'cy" i 0a v.w ol
2

l. E,r, E s. I sorh Ani

4 satk

,

Aua'gztb, t t, 2r2

392

tA Hdory or Chi(aoo.o

cnlis, .s ltle,emor6d nom an chv,'l By ai mEhl od$ chkraqciq w,! ,6iam6d kl6mabad2 or rM l:rd of ktrm aid ir was ptacsd lnder dmcr Mushat Adml
M, M s

rha Mrqhil coiqu6s o( chirragong w:s ior mq6ly 6 r6maL kibre milirdv v crory, wrhrheMuqhll hrqu.tr rhs ca uqold isolarioi or thadhLi.r ot polticallire or Io ai ,Aid. A lons ia,ly a ce ury mdde chiltaqdis a p r ra to,y rid ir wdlld havs ior 1ak.d Pla.s. As a .nd rha

lo* or

q was

asrin unlled wirh Eeiqal hrnrero^h, ai erclusl-

wirh rho miqtred of chirlarono by rh6 M qh.ls, rh6 dhricr th6 Muqha! rndis !! th rh6 Muqhal coiqus* r iew culru,a, a new dyla or a,chirc.ruhl chl laiEuaq6 we,o Besldes rh*4 ,h6 distict rucBivsd a new nama 0shFabad) Durins rho Muqhat ruta, Musl,n cultuB again becams predomrnoDr,

"Ihe mos sloious ,ssulr ol rho viorory_, ln rhs visw ot'sk J'dunalh S kr, "was the rehase .id ,onoErlon rd homB or rhooeids of Bonsal pss b who had hosn kdiapped by rhe pdres

iiqhl

wirh rha

'pDroach

ds or slavss becam:trcemoi ov of rh. v'crorious Mdqhih. Ecco'dns ro

rhe "mo$

or rho .laws, in qlo,io!; res!lf ol1h. Muqhal vlcr.4.

The

mo, qloious

I

8ur. A

!

(50rh

Aii.

Pubr.

ChirLasoig

udo,

rh6 Mushal rc€im! | 393

il se.urcd ror rhe dkricr rhs much dsi6d ,P6i Muorr.lla' lnd ,oiq Muqhal arms, Tho Mushal coiqu6* ol chnbsoig L,ouohr ths kn€es tsnd s6.rly dccrcaled thon pn i.,l acriv Lios. No, oily all orhar Etrrd)eii naLlois .eve, qaiied Eh*on ro do is rh.v
rcsull is rhar

lked. Nonhsi chirEqons asan
1n', g''

becams

i 4om sr"wl,

ri

poDuldGd Ar Nawab _.oly Io rho smosrcr's

{l.mar is the @mposure (iamsn) o, 'h. pnabs), ws Gan e6ilv mlndr or rhs [!uslim!

seciion

2 .hirlaqonq

Under

rh. irush.l aob.hd.E
qov.r

rJnd $.i soi or Naw.b Shakra ftrn:,d corqusororchnkqonq. w,s .ppo ed mlliBv ,dmin{rdor ol rho
co^q

as Pl.ced unds mllndy

shor by thc

'erad pe'icd

dcrlcr.2

rhoush his iame .id achi.veme htv€

dG(ict oilY

l.r

a r!

nsme

o, a nlaca rEuzurs Lro.dpu in Mn s.rai u.

z),

my otricq, wrs do0dred ro the no h of chilhsois/'ro,o ruE $rabl's5 s rltrnah."4 Tai Mlana 'wnh hic folowe,sand a huidrad muske@.6wr6 sppolnbd thanadar aid su ard ot rh! ro.d iio chnelDn ro rhs b.nk ol rha FBiirivar"5 Mod.ro romembhnco ol $6 arct rajpu in rlro Mre ? Muchrl firi.da n thr( Ieo'dn

394

lA

Nisrory

of

chiLracono

wi(h rhe rerum uf iomsL.y
ru16 over rho

dsrrr

cams ro

ii

r

Lr. pL,hlc

tr., rr

ht,:trry

:eh-ut-ttlukhoan, lslamabsd oi c r.Jois rdn iauldars or eeng:l ciany known as lariir otrder rhs .ub,h or E:;iall r:. h,sbry ot chirbsois dc,iis []o [4!ghal rule r.oJs uidaj rEfe]ttrwr!

€hr unde rhe .ivil

Ar.kane!o ihcursio,s inro cnirtnq.nq

loi
bilri.s. Ac6rd rs

ch

!^!ois ro

0E Mr.,als, h'y .ould erDtorc poss,

r*s ,n

sourhwrrd

dna c.

nass m.d6 a pldr famity hisro,y or ire hitl

t'ns hd 3r.,ped.q
The

AEkanse ,atd

ii

172a A

D wai

so inroisc

rra r,.

Mqrhft

corEspotrdsnce ot rJr: chist qr E P P, xxvt 1e24), r5 sa*ar atrtdnsztb, | 241
rlurch

ot chnbqois,

dL

Feb

ir

rodi, (rnrd8o,& rir,, Iiddr (Mss)

rh

tr.srr! rndfl

rhc Mrshal rcsms t395

admini5!aioi !,hs dskid lell in coirrseddso,saiizarion. A l6rE. tom Edua Rcynold, J!0d8 , supplios iha
30.000 Moqh sold -s o, AEk,i hod ,nade a dsscenr on chi. uaoono and pluid.red LD rown. Tha d'srulbaNe sD,oad ro arc5s so rhar ieynod was cohpolled ro leare Juodea anc eka sEl,{ rhe Eiglsr f.clo,yar Dlcca, 'n rolldw nc ye (1725 A D), th6 Mash. rhr cJms as n and beeri Dllndr'rs rhe Eiglish tod rifry peF .. of rrn soods ar lr m$lr m .hed aoaind

iDsc usuriy condlcLed rhs,

*hid QJ,' Khd,r,2 Th6 ahk+ arohh,p or Muhommad Baqr,,'3 -b'oken up_ by rheAnkaissa onais
caprivss

rhe rh:iah or hlam.bad

was

berles borc aid rlkcn away sone rhous:.ds or oeople.s FnFo, Lernory,"

Murch'd out ,4 airerhis rsm Eeisal, de.ded inmly b dnve alvay 16o Ankaiesa invaded who we'e dll rovre alons rh6 colsr ot ch rasons and hotdins irs people e o: und* $e command ot Mn
tuuhammad

!ac5

was

rhanahor chitusons,,,

iB€isal Publ c consulhr dns,, Nou.2s, 1125 andNov 28,1126, qr A Krim, Irmsrd Qtltt Khrh dnd Hb 1tn4, p. 58 wrhen by Azad ot Husaitri, k:is srkar, B-gd, Nod5J, p, 4
He hay be ide rkd trnr Mrza saqr,i6tbofchkksois,man. Loned if Himtdullar ftait lisr.

shd oul (hm rnrrz, p,274). 5 He may be idsnrted whh rhe naib (7131or tho .ame iamB in coroi's dtrd in Hamidu ah Kha s l4dth, ^l.nofoir?i

ol

was iMn:o Lurrulah. ile was a son inJaw shujauddn Muhahmad ftai 6nd roceived rho rirte of i0uE

3c6 LA

H

dory or chi[aqo&

Olhd orriceE wh6 acdmprniad hrm w.rc Mrhammad sadlq, M r Habihull'h, zuloada. (h'f,,] Muha mad Ntuhim, s,njuddr M!h.

lmao Behd
fid

iom.

Mr sd/lid d r.,.

(huisah) or

whi.h wrs ttu E, bis! rhanah ol chrlsaon. 'ai,p]|r .:y thar no on.

vasr mYass,mblsd

itr

rd

or hlm rem:ined

i

hld nq in

$sn

.wn l.nd, aid

Godt

E

Tho ,6laroi berween rh. Mrohl qo!*imat atrd the hlL by Lha subm s:lon ol rlro chofs or chuason0 lar., ro lh6 Mushal sore3,i,e . rn 1r'r a D Jn3l Klrsi, tho
Chakma .hler ohalned pe,msron

tuliie

(khii4l ln

corron

diiiss.3 The r:do asreaiE was I Khao, w5o in rdd ron ro th4 received t,on Faulda, zlkadr Khan, laid n rhe Fansun a vslllys lo, whlch scprrare Gvonue wds paid.4 Backed by rhc Mlsh,l aov me , shdmFr Kh.n in.r6as0d hk iilluen.e by d:qcesaid cams ro occrpy ths of rhe hill trrhs. shdm. Khan died h Jahbd Kh3n. his co0.ii €r.ceded him ro

rhs zamrddi

and

und€, rhe Mdqhal

sor imeit.
ippoht!d :s

I

H6

w*

p,obably

irb

n

chirh

2ors k,

s!,g,r Ni,orr, o

a

3 Htrrchhson, op

.ir,

p. 24

cl,rksonq un.4 rE
Lho plaioe

lvuot:l eeh!

.,1r1

wdo oftoi suuie.rc ro sllri ot rha slddei dracks ot rhe hill peoile. rhese aGcks 'n$ nade rrE lra qid a l'$or w rEn by Mr Jimo, rr vn. -ole, o'or cr..bq

i cil.unr

red rh3 villaor ol rhc plan.' Ths Ia(* ru,rher repons rhar "oics m 'h. Mtrshal sovsimanr, duriio rhe rcslduico rereof Mahasinqtr on6 huidred n2Lchloik men roltowed rhts Ktun's) s,andklhs riom ona eid ol rh! hlls ro lho orher and drcvo hlm b abscoid ro Atrscin.'1 Tie Muohrts, howv , ra[sd

(Decsmher, 1744 A o), ,apoft, thai (a tr bal le:der) ,mahDi)dd pa sot fte h'lL rnd loo.

rhs

(F,h "ilia5's !a,y 16,176r A o) qjras evlds.o or tha ,wanL ol dB probcr o),

of rhl

.'laroidl o. r oi3 .r '\. .ll trbsio
ii*crrc
cood I

or aid

Tho mcrBions

ol nE r

hssmen.onriiued down ro rhB carly p€riod

rvu:r,h sL!jr.rs
mLi.rkab]3 isarurss in lrro medievalhidory Dolcy or p mi(iis re ion Mssl'm rh!r own raiLhs _ x s rerlly amazins ro sed rhe tuling soflioi did ne he, dkqula! the miio ry cohmu

rh

Tb pol1.il st.rctrro or lh6 Mush.l govonme \ras orstr.h . ry@ (hir n dld iol qendallv mlkr d's,itrcrion bdws{ m.e3 1oPP
(J,n,Jun",

rs3o) D,a

M sdajud.iin iamss Shor JrLiba, Jai Bakh.h Khrn (J ,/l s P, xv

r$

iA

H dy

or ch

lacoill

3nd rol,qons, rh6

man&bd synem by Akb rha Grc
snsasiis a rir

th6h nevd,.

b b

p sor

ro a suriblg Dosrior

rhbrcr'otrr rhe Muohal

,,e. .o,to ir" tr o,o,d! -.J-.

of tho d'sricl

Thoush

,ho M!5lims, rhey wnh a brer numbei

rh: I

ndus wors nlmencoly

smrler rhai

.r o icars. ii

on y, vis

t713 A o, 116 chmr ais o, ch ksone warc p,ov ded wirh "complaG lbdryio celebfure rho r€ ,vals -r

no ch rasons

equal'ry, tusrce, sscuriry aid parce ro alt ihe

Lioo, which save

b

ro a common Bensali lansuase aid crlrurs. Lhe Muqhat resimq rlra ial{ion beNaon Ue
h

Il

diff66

.oDmun Li6s

a radius ofa m 16,n chawc coDmuial hamony dur nq ths Mushatp.riod.

rrr sihr wirhin

Chr6griq

undar

tht Mushal resimc

399

A sarhr:cro,y daa.bour rhe r.laLon barw€tr rhe M!9h:l sovo.

drrrulL ro rorm souce mareril res dne

L.i

e,idl. r,luch orrrio 'n p€seNed ii rlra lndi' strhrc i6 .n som6 orhs pliccs Eu,oPa, 'n
or

rh,lroE ro re rin

sources cirEd bY s.holi,s n rher works. u,ro uiarely, rFB F.e nublrcaionsbylhe sDhdli6 reqrdins e Euapeii tradi h Bcnsal

LD EdhDeans,,ch

Laldnq du,iiq rhe

p*iod

rhIrliron bi(.en ,,o lrs i nd son:c codial, orviiq chrctiy ro r,-A ot,he la tr, rher trsolence afd rer.ha,yiailei .rrendiq r.ri!iti.s t,rn De lccaL ,Ll s as a rsrh or wh'ch
Eu,opcan v6de .oulJ or L r/r!6al reom.. early

pft

r

8id ! half ['.y almiq
Ehosa orow no

ntlu.i

] wes

tclL Ldw

'h. fo olh rwo al na,ions,

d

rlosc

Eubpeii

people

re

tried 1o ssablsh

ii crirbgoi.
rielped Lho

cxp{liLdn c,a.1ly
a comh

Muohals

Bur lhc event i0qead

racliiier qu'ck8n,d rh.n dEcliie:s

la@ Pi .Eldl 6id rsnio al of,rro A'akaissa rule, $€ DD or orns washanded overrorha Pon!9uese, who kom rhisplaoe conducred Ihenpral'c.l acri.rri€s

ouiig 6a

io,w 8mqal. rh3 Mushal cotrqlo .id nnir:.rmalrlon ii rhe Mush.t occ!)ied
in

rha consoqdsni

rh.l, pndicaladivi1i.r ?h, dm n s$d n,en f,.do ri.l.omnsrce in ctr(cqons, Thhu ohoq ,!. Mtrqhal iul', rhoy were iorauowpd io 4joyitE $me

kh{rofprjvil.qed

onjoyii(rdu'iisrhop,svrous nocboorbb and we,e employ6es. Th6saiq.l
DI

dowi ro 1100.6r A

J.dunnh s kar, relyino on Enslsh evcoi.rs, remaks thar the rehior br!v,.i Nawab shaisra (hin itrdrrcEnllshraderc or Lhe hher by lh: viow ol s, l,ioLh,

rkr inilyzno rhF c.rlrroi th siii;r '!',rrd :ndispubble o,o-rh .! rhir limJd -3 so kr i;
rh€

rlre

rlaroo bdrJci rhr Muihal ruhhaid rhe Eislh' vrderc was atr r ma d, ol frd, rl.a [l!shil sovoomoir
mlJstres rmm rimo ro r mB:sain4 rhe Eoolhh or rhe laters rc$iriul :dn !ics. To ntrnkh $e

vidds beilso i\em' uJ:!h cxamo],s

o

olled by shatE KhT in rh6 impoLs) se,vic., as a comm.idBi or 3oo roorss shonly .rreNads, lre d€.e ed ths N vah's sid.

r

Abdur

M,F,r

l,*. "! "r,
/I i

p.

3

1 For

de

alld

desdlpLon

or PG s a.rviriss, scs Dr Mohm al .
pp.

5Err(r6osr6e) p i67

connburor, P, xi1e6s), 3 P i, yxx r os27),3rfr.

r10rr.:

Drs$(asdli's

ricle

chirbgoiq
5nd w

uid ft.

Mushal iss mo

r 401

h "rwo
som6

orrhre: Enolkhm.n.id ssv.mlt Po &uesc"6sc.

.isrq6d

0f ,h6 \.boba ve$4le

a

,rc ier ro( (niobrblr in 6ourh.h chirroono), ' (han which Sh:isia h.d prcvioudy rak.n 2 phr's pndr.il 'di. v'ies iafuGl]y t,iraled rho iawab who, ,ha mddli or odobor, u(sd rh6m ro rc@ll P.an, aid in case of ion com.lian.e, thr$rened ihem wirh rot.l bush'si wilhi th' pmvttr.a.3
ro'csB aid caplured

rib)B

rh6 htrer Th6 n;w.b, ,,arri sood le$on, Ho me2nwhl6, ,e.oned reruh ro ohakr wnh kins's hsad. This larcr srch a h.in* rhar ir foll iiLd rho lrsnd ofrhs

Pm wa: in

'o 6.1r a.r
emplry.6

nom bein6 held ru5pqts

or $o Muoial .overnmo so
adion aqatn* rh5

des.n

A,akaness

kiis.

Ths

kirs imnediar.ly prr P6r to &alh.4
6nd s..n orh.r huid.lF er.i, NaMb shoda xhai ,he Enql5h vrere iefts.d rrmssion ro ss,.hlish rade rc]dioi in clrLrssors durii3 h€ vicoroyrlly. Trre Eislsh, however drdidr abaidor rh6 plli or ai ?,med 6 ack oi . r Lrasois rn r636 a D, rh3 Eielhh orqition inlo chi aso,s ondro iisEllJob .r crr Fo, rowi and Tdriroryofchy-

red

d{.I.a!;e of

4 lrotuui

|,

toz1oa E F , (t66e.Ee), p.

167

402lA

Hisrory

or a,irlreoio

pl,i tell ,Lai s
o1h4 bold srop

Jo:iah chtd, qovahor ol

io

by

iod.

H3 sucesded

s\ould orrar.'' "rhs cou pooplusly annodeLemlne,i b hvy wari ior oilY oi rhB ssquel on rhe EmpeoI him$]r."2 Ntwab or Boiqal, blL n 'he Evenllally wilh d's kno, Josiah chlld "lrcd or rhe laGe$ am.menr Eielaid ro (h6 E.d. Adnnal Ni.holsor was se our wlrh 12

s .o,j, or !r".' " a-d by :or"rrr lo.al hidlords,lo move oi ro ohika, th. capiral orB8io.l AiE, ha wDlld hrv6 ovdlrhalmed tsE q*,ov war ro f.rcs
him

2oo .ddiri.nil sun:

,

,"re,o

ph.sd on bo.d,"4

'oArodino! pmy.

cede

iha

'h€admdal o, chirlasois ro

116 com

Lh: poiodld orremlvs

b4ai ii ocrob:rr63t
Mushal

was rhorcuohry ushid by rhs

Bg,s:15 Trr. Enolkh hoos o, en!blishins a ta, dehod ro pircos. The r,mi0don or Shaisk (hant subahdaGhin n 16FsAD gavo r5e Enqlhrr ?1 op:Donuoiry ol
oneciors dspar.hed caDrin

u,I.m

1e3,, x .omiEid or j fleer ,an idsrl phcc ror

c

R whoi, Edrl anats of th. Etsrsh h aaE4 t, eo Phil,p Andeisoi, The Engtkr in wsEm idia (13My, o ?37, qt Fam Gopal. rrok the arr\h aktpnd B sat, a.25

Htbtl .i ||rtu, ,211

s Ram Golal, ot. di., po 2s 26 6 Fo, rlrE adiviue6 of CapErn H6!rh .so

!

P P,

xxlx

(192s).

ch

tai

G

r.l*

fie Mlsh:l

rcs

no llor

$trlsma

.,r

Hedh

(o Eke ths po$oElion or

Tha oppo,runily

dr .Erial,n0 ol CapEin tiorlht

dxqns

dnioi rhd rha

nawab shDuld coir,m all rhe old prv lt-gas hal had be€i enioyis by the Enslish ir 9en9.l. oi Dec'mb* 23' havlnq alrcady seit rwo v*soh ro the coasr or Ahkrn :nd rwo $e hourhs or rh6 'chirrasoirJ Rivs' (Ihc K ' mor€ b

'rp1o,e

how6vei uas [eDr coicoa' anived ar chitrasons Hh rsal hrc 'on, public6y.. January 21, Hcdh c.lled his rhrd.ounol on lld lrom Gom whe$ rh6ywould advha hm ro arack ihs rowi. B{ L was lound rhst a cirv lke clirksone irsreided "rdksn b! I[5 coll ', nor could ir hava bao^ kopr un&r co rol, f rakeo Hearh Lhus rc ba a llend or had no o$er allehadvs rhe Mushals, Io miko $E I6nor bslisvs ln hs ldul plav. Ho, neqoriaiion. wtrh tho iaujd or cr'tasois oo rh6 eneuins Arekdi elpedirioi. All on a strddsn, H6arh wihdGw hb padiciparion .id s&il6d away ro orfer hls ssrvicas ro ths ruler oEveiI dis.losurc ofiho wholsmater, aid

allans @siry to rhs rad rhd pu,po$ ot rho Enslish tade6 with respect ro sdii ir by d6h0no moaus.

ledh

rho

104 |

A Hhrory or ch (asois wolld

nrlha,y rum ol lh6 Ponususrr co&6
a
basa or

us of r5e snnit anuiries lndenu lke essoies woutd n.tu. rally p@voke disple u,a ol ihe local sovehma , wh ctr p4ved dsvime^ral nol only b lha iiror€ oi rho Enslsh Lrn ro oh

rhoy

MlsLIs oi

o;cariois.

kr. r. t"it6d ro astblsh a 'J l8llure in enablsh is ladoras o' sddam. s i chiiasois ar.nor far b seEk. FGLi rs chir.srns !v:s a irwty cotrqtrered Lrov and a toiLier o!rpo$, rhe Mrshal sou nmenr uide' nicL suNsilhica As a m:ulr, rhe nov:m.ir: or rofu:,,Jr in lhs ph.o was look.d upoi wrh Poonla li d P!.r ro hr, wol d o l/
secoidly, ror sevBal dccrd.sot ['c eirlv pai ot rho Mushrl rcsims, th8 .oas6l pan of l5e wrose d6p,.drrors.tois

.1

lr 6rn

1s

B3n9, coasr hrohly
dscoumssd rhe Eiol6h aurhoriries froi, u a btishis a iadory i ch,(isoio. Th, Ackansss 6d oi tho Enqlish facrory d Jusroa as tire trs 1726 A o, p,ove. rhairhs .oan of sa,o 15r nav,sniol uit rho,.

c,mpfii0t ( seems, oir!irundo MuFhidoultxh,i 3nd AIjv diKhan, s wfa srmdhii. li[a ,be6 hives,, which could be.ru*!ad whli.vflequned Throusholl !h! psriod, ii 8'osrt p,osrd:d uids rha pror.d,Dn ol Mu6hid ouli(hao ani syn in 1713 A D by rhe Enslirh w.s a srao in sr.r'h1 rica raulibs i, Benoal. Thoy woG allowed €re ro oshblth f,clorlss wha,evrr rhey lkeJ. E,ei rhoi $syw{e ior able ro ediblsh a lasrory ii LhirEsorg I rough rhsy mllhl h:v6
ihproved 1o somo

chi asono lndor $s Mushat,6sima

4OE

a.r* ot l. r in chirroons.

h bacrmo

cl€

rhd nejrh alivardi

w'h r6

arakaiosa invad.6,

commercial loohold

oi

tha pon

lowi of chinasorc,

Th6 Frs,ch

6srablisihenL

ii

rhs Eislsh

wio

chiu.sois iisvirabty causd fonh uiEasinos ro rvord atso soticirhe rhs 3mo uad, t6ct,ni6! Aliv di

wss noi altou€d and hs succ.sor si,ajudd.ulah. The Eistishi in rE meairim4 joiiod rhs conspnaoy rsaii< Nawab Si,ajldcalhr on A2,il 2i), 1756 A O in his l.rar ro rr, wahh, M, sft,rron susqe ed, rm coss o! Jaid on rho p,ovii@olchiro satrls a lddorv,2 as ono ot rh€ condirioi.h,

(h.i

106 |

A Hisro,y,or chnrasons

would I'ke rhs p,op@ed nsw naw.b tin casa ol sBiuddauhht deposiroi) to dcogde. Tha conspnacv was succo$rullv oxsou_ rad io rh3 farsful liald of Pla$3y.
caonor bs p'6che1y known how allscGd a dhbnt sa,k Lka Chilhsoiq.

lr

rhs

le ol Plassv nora,onhY tho oie ol
ba

in rho so,my polirkal sceia of Beisal

E.

c.tslon ol Chitt.lons hv ths Mushal sov.rnn.nt ro th€ Ealt Indi6 conp.hv

Mi' zal& was s hroiad ln tha iawsbship ol €ansalbv tho Ersr tidia compaiy. The Comp y in room rccsivad a lump Bun l,om rho naw.b who pDmiled io plv an vadilv trlbuEdid $is ludarlv. $nlsFe wi,h rhd nawab lrarilidd a cohpanv lound rhd rho iawab lailed b meer his obli_
ro rho companv, rhesvanco ol wlrich knsw no 6ihauered €ichequar d'd nor p mlr Nawrb Mt zalar b Ear sly tho insaiiabl. qrcad ol rha Enslish Oi rho orhsfttid' iho mtruption orthe sdvaiB or rhs comprnvbrouqht ir und$ acuto lhtnohl c.i!h. So thay w.rc looklns for new 'vsiuss ol incomoro qrowltrs 6dhlv 'h6ir in council d Fon h'iuhfr b obrah lbm rhe nawab rha Gov6in4

tho

edsblishmsn(

i4 ,7J5.57,11, 349.i50
'DaEpalches

ro Esnsal, Msrch 3, 1753', ql A M S.Eiuddh ThE 8flou. tdf,irturdki of !h. E,{ Inttr Cahl.rv h ahk@Ear' p 13

chnbsono uidd rhd Mrshal res]fr.1407

6'dd r,on rha

iawaDl

sim!1| Middlalon ris bv rho cal.u a councl. Aqha N zam bs.:!se h s pE wlia l,om Mn zal das

3ddrussd ro M:ha sinsh

aid hls counril ar wrs rh,owirq evdy
ro ourchba .ldrh

aid.or ro

him.r rn Novenb , Ve,els!

mDed,msir

o.

aDs then

ly ,rar Ash.

Nizrm

ii

to Pdmit lha Enqlhh his cDuntry."3 RobtrTi.d Epeacdly bv rhs
(ln 1760 A D) v,Nirartalk

-a

lirrle srrd'hE

a/iv:l

itr Beisal

d

but Nawab Mr zatu, "pos rively rclu$d

Btrt M r zarr would Lo rh s p,oaosl whi.h would co rhe nrwrb otrs ol rhs mos lsourifrl q*25 or Eeigil srs.h. ,n hb hond, Mi' zar3' wtr bold €ndroh 10 tu down rE Enslish proposal h 6$ablish orploir ion The nEwab nor onlv crussd rh-A orln bdr also dech."d rhd ia solld nor allow fto compaiy ro hav6 aiy l.ad6 compaiy tha ialrddi or chirboois bor*
'Bons:l Publ c consulhions, l6rh ocr. Abdul Maied Khan, +, dt, p 3L

rid 27'h

Nov. 1753 qI

arion Lo Hariiqs, 23rd D0c. 1753' qr lr,d. H A Viis ua , ,4 N,iI,l,! ol. tl

s

L.d6B rc.civcd fiom Beisal, Ja

403 A

Hisrory

ol Chitaronq

iow oicloss you iwo hleD rrom perulal or which vou wrlt lind I hav6 ior beei srcc€ssful in any applicatiotr ro him for rh6 fotrrdeco or chirra. sono aid silh6!, H6 hm acquaiired m. juniow wir rhoresutr ol his .oisulrarion yeserday wirh h s mnk1e6, which h a dowi qhr Eru6a,, all.dsino rhar LEso rwo prov cas hs has .sstqned ro, $a n.inrenanc. or rwo or his sone md Monil.tt acb asfi6k Dewai."1 ri rcDly, MrSyk6 inro
rM Nrbob,

di

rhes

ptny r'

aiv los ro odld p:v rha same es the proseit posesor dds." Bu! ths n3wah ior only Gjecicd e ,aq!65i bur 6vei prr astdo rh6
,c.ephbla.2 bacon ns .le rhd $6 company could not ,aco,vsdl wharfi.y wa ed lrom thd ir a nsw nawab repLcid rhe p.csitrr ono rh?n i |r,gi rum

kar _should bo

( ws

!o br'lc a

racrory

colld

\.ift rrlr d. a,xrdrLBo.i.ao prv

ba siiiednom

.ec.ssrv ol d Lj
B, L

$o

icI

n

ii,s

could nor br saiied

ii

.o toni rhs nawrbsh p trrs

Tho ier choics or ,he Eislish w$ Mn o66im. Holwsll, rho succ€ssor ot clive sns,(.d himrelf ir sdsr aranoeme wirh M, Oasim aid phc.d rhs.ld demand or rhe compinv berora him. Mi omim reDlied rhal ,lsLrabad wrs nor in rhe eilL or the Diw ,- beiis a jagir or M. Falouri, Mir i6o.ria,on, Mi, o im w:s arsu,6d or Flolsh

l6

1730, qr,

VanrnE .p..il.. p. 3s

r.en{s re.aived lbm sensar, Jan. 16,1751, qLl

l

s p, xv /1970,,
rvlblld

H, is! ro Goveho" no dar., 1760 ql Abdul

(h:i,

ip.

chirhsons undn tha Mushal rcgm61409

suppo ii s.inlno rha &bahd6,!hip A s.cr6t troary wa..onclud8d b.Mson rhr Enslish ind Mn o.sim on seFromb* 27, 1760 a D. Ev rho rinh .nicls or rhe rrearv, il w.s o,ooded rhr "ror all chln and or tho said ahy, aid p,ovisiois lorlha riold,8.. rha Li.rs ol Budwan, Mdiapd aid chi isong, Ehall Euiiuds lor rhd purposa shall b6 w,ilten and sranEd. Tha Compaiy is E rrEnd ro rll loss8, and rccsivs .ll rha p,olir. or ih.s6 rtu66 counries.'1 In oclobar,176c, Mn zrl w.r d6pos6d and Mn oarlm wa6 odalled as n:ib bih.do wirh aU pow66 ol rh6 hzamd Th. prcviousse ertrea,y waspubllcly
By rhi' rrcary, chiikgons was vnrurlly d'smembe,ed f'om rho ju,i.dicrioi or rhe iaw.bshin .id it w.s acd.d 10 rh?t ot tho compsiy lhe Mush.l raujdar was ioplacod by . i4{ Englhh 1a60i r5s CoLIE I r ,o'r fiir"a- tsnpon. cd Haq veElsr 'chisf' ol chnraoonq with Thom.s Rmbold and RBndolph Marior ss mshb . or his councit, wans llitkiB as assisranr ro th6 lacro,y .nd Gokul chaid chosat Es dtwai. vorkt 6id hi3 council w s of,misso fis chalgo of tho di.ricr otr January 5. 176r, veieln racs,ved rohal .h*s. nom Muhsmmid Feza Khdi. rhs hs M!ehn truidar ol chitbqois, "Ths Fa..rul6ur rhs Compary's $rvanb sanal non rrie newly 6 hrdiad nawab or eeisal" nalked rhBeid ol rho Mushat iul€ .nd rha bssinnins or rhe Bnrish rule over

Soh. AEp6ct. 6f th. t ushar Adntnis-

Ihr

whols of chiLtasono a.

it

ands roday, was nevs.lully

Ahchkoii r@[.J, Ersrg!'46 ,rd

sliidr, vol

L Anicle

5, pp,

4lO

lA

Hhrory

or ch

aoono

.onqused by (he Mughal! Ar rha s ld a* or th6 ,ule, rhe saikha was rh6 Mushel occupr6d d*cr of chnksonE. Grad!.lly. rhs ;ourheh noi[er e eided du' ,q ns c63sion 1o rlre Ea{ lndia como:nv rho Msonal sarkar of crnGsons 6{ ds in l.t ro rhesourlrw d ol rhe capiral (rshEabad) 'ude lbod I hy miles b a iver calted cru:.ol\ ro r[a wedwed l,om ths 3rid .iv6,, sourh easr and ean, aid diuda rhs chiu4onq dGricr rho no h.,.ir h bouidBd by 'lom a river caltod rhB er,ih FBnny rBts Fe ), which smpries irslr Ths Musrals k or cha,odon, which ats6 tnduded a la,rs po! rion ol mod i chlaNns HlL Tracb coirainsd ai arDj, r.ushty
2,s37

!q

miles2

aL

.ts i's

cE ve'y .prly wriss rhar rhs dirtrrcr "becama ro sr sra,iors ror borh rhe mariis and sEndin€ milirarytorcgs or rh.soubah "3 ri u-s a Mushal pollcy ftar rhs whore or rhe con qu4od ro iro,y vns "a$isned, chiorly in Jsse6, ahsha or provhioi ror lh! Moobinah (muralenahr mil ri. or oa kotr roops, connan y
Amkai-s."4 Milia,y ourpons had ro be co.3trucrd on rh6 bank. ol rha srikha,5 n rhe sEk roo$itts and atone rhe coasr ro
"Lans kom varehL

co.quesr by rha Mushals was plrced uid lndopendeir fauid ry adfrrnh atoi, d,sd.r admiik(aror was oblio.d 1o rct .s chisr or dhy or occup ion, rtl resuhr

'nd

his

councrl (dr Fob.

1

Jamos Grant

,An.ly.h'. q

Fifrh

A+ot, t,

305

ChLibqans und$

r.

Mushar resime

tlri

disuld iom rho ncuGrons o, th' Affi(aies6 rh' hillrbe.aid rha pi,,ss ri 163s,whe0 Capkii He hl v'sn6d
prcte.r rhe
chirtasong,

h. rouid mo's rh:n rc !' li-e.dF.u. ois inr6 w't r5. dcd.ass or or q soi is noops was aho decre$sd cesion (r760), Lho iumher or mura'yenah soldieG wds only 3,532 m6i.2

llrr administrdior ol tha southdn nonrie, aid Lhe .o4uL mahdls war made dv6r ro rhs coarmandqi of va o$ hnks. rhey rrad ro ma nu n (oopr asrii{ rha pos'ble lyoads or rhs AEk4 cse and rh3 p d8s. L6id a*isnm€nb c, ,agis werc ora ed m rhem amons $e orl.aBof hoh runk s.rutrs bound y, rh6 haz 16 or Doharrr came
,r possibla ro 8tund ( souihward a, rhe cGr of rhs A,akanee hsld tsrio,y. This polcy provod succ€ssrut in rha tons tun aid wirhin ono huidrad y8rs, rhesourheh lmtr ot$e rvtuqhaloccu. pied E o'y exreided upro Khuruskul,3
Besidd rh. Muroy.iiah miriria, r ralisd a naw4.h or . lloot ot .h6d vsssls for rre prcledion or
Mrrehld Ouli Khan iiroduced somo

Thry wsG

rcquired

rims ot rha $ssioi, 14a pdsanasor varyiis rzs utrds, ch.kl.h,Frsl5mb3d. Socondl,

'mpo 'n $e Beiqal subah. Fn$, $B chaklahi bok rhe place or sa'kft lid rslaDobrd (chtraooiq) b.cdmo oia ol $. rhhr$n chaklahE lnro whch rh€ whol0 0r rho subah w6 d vid3d. The iunbd or p sanas or mahrl, ws

.ivil aid

rcvenuo

.nr rcfohs

rh6

41' lA

H

qory or ch

iaods

fouid ship was abolh'isd .nd i.bship w.s invodu.gd in rh placa, Aiorhar mpo ant chdiso thar rook placs uid, MuEhid oul Khan was lE apporhenl ol Hhdlt in incrcasins numbe, E lhs cv I .id rcvsue Posb

In rhs Mushal civil and land ruvsiue adminGkron lh6shall 8 ren o,"l.1. tr E.dlhd rrujr or v b!6. ! 1/ bdof m- Fs aid rtLs whols of rha disticrws known du,ns rha€ ly Mlshal rule a5'alk aid in IaB rlnos asch.klah. The chisf axe.trtve olr@r ot ih€ disnlcr was $6 louid , who was PoPUto,lY .ellsd iaw:b. Tho apparendy ii a riul saiso, rh6 acrual offics hsld bcis th'r ot riltd ."r Bh admniltdvs hoadqua^srs woE sntrlbd a' Ihc
Ho slpervised rhs.dmi' hLs spschl ,esponsibniry b Hs wss also rcspoisibls mainbin rh€ domo$ic lrom th. zamiidds and san durls Io' rh. .olle.ioi or land ru!enus oflB w.s known assrd and pPoplc. Hs

ander in

ch'sf

or

rh6 loh or.hhirta kha v.ns 'i maiyorh blared documo .aid r wsrcpreseru.d. ihe la!rdarJ otchirmqois eniovsd €naii 3xclu.i6 vad6 p,lviles$ w dh hh ru,isdicrion.4 h is noLics.bls rhar llrs raujda:s or L[s ea,ly Mughal admiihnariof, wsto holdeE ol hish to rh' sk asic impon€ni6 otrhs dr d aid soms millary iuid'ois rh.t ha was oblrssd to nom comp di,he lauld s wsrs
and

allporiblo nJonaroi

on

laid

'ppoinGd

17,

1770', qr

abdul M.jed

$ai,

oP.

ahiuasons undor rho r,lushal r.slm' 1413

v6ly low ruik, Th' frljdrrehlp, .bolish€d by Mu6hLd w!. Ginsracd ii 6ubsquonr rine

oull (han

naib

Iho ier! inpo(.nr orllcs, war ps,haps hi! dopuq or ihe Accordis ro rvlv thmidlllah Kh6n, ths pddol naibship

Hahamarullah Khai's 6scdnd rauddship(r700. 1706). Prcbably rha absanB huidaEhp o oolom $mo axocurivoluicrlons rrs [aujdar. rhs ah$ro or d0ine

Na*

rh

or rh6 disuicr. tt rpF.a6 ho was tha hish6{ olf'cs' in rh6 rcvenuo dspadma orrhg civl admiihraro( admhiwarive po$ wa. wrE rho '?aynfsro4 an ofhc* whosa spacial dury ir wrsahd ro k*p on accounr of all dEbut$m8nts coniocred
Orher inoo anr sovahmsnEl olriciole ws,6 tlre darosh0-i. th8 d o€ha or rh6 naw a or rh6 @mm dff All y thsm p.a'ved laid oll ol a illory, and orhd milii cffi. ol lh€n ss,vlss. or .'lr mahalr, who ir $6m bsloiqsd moErlv to (h. Po usuess aid rhs holf.cad. Eo,ooesos. a havildi, o, how.ldar 'it rhg ofi@r pladd by rha sovsmmsnr ro superlnisnd6nr a lmall vilbse"2 Ih. bahrdn wa! anorhd imrro anrofidr wh@ po{ *as almod

b

the

laujd

and

hii nrb,

rhs

or boab, .id llmil ro "a h 6DU, sv6i -. colleoror or pon dury."3 ln fis crry, aLtpolico dutiss, inclu-

H H Wilson, A clos y ,f luckil .id Ro.,u. Torhs,p,49 Rob€r om6, rid6'ci, p. ar EGo Hamsay Mun/ Ir. /'iak,g.f stnkh tn,1ir 11s23). F.28 P.iro0 (o/6p.4d!'a, l, GLoss,v, p. 470, Tho scribo ol a purhi {.rs thar $s lamily or rha own$ol rhs purhi i5 6undd.d o. bahd (r P, p- 177) A'ho/ or mork{ knowi os 'BahoF d hai ,i rhs srbulb ol rhe rdi ot chnllsons oomNmor

c@ oie su

bahda,,

ll,i

IA

i.li'o,y

or 6hx@dno

dins rh6 trrk ol hainh'nlno public order ind dccoicy were korwal Ho ere ad ulban lila ol rhs ciry ol lshmabrd (ch Lbsonr). vllaso porrce adminiltarion w$ o rued ro lho vilbso h6.dnen, warchhan d chowkidar, Pake Oommm) d pyad* (dkpalch bea,so as6 o,isinally sovemmen! orliciah. ln rhs ,at& Mushal and 'i rh. edrly s rish p€aodt rhsy b6camB rhrlools ol ths zamlndrs in oppbEslno th6 ryoE atrd iharcby Du nq ih6 early .rases ol ih€ Mush.l ruls, nod DI lhs h,oh orlio.ls wor. ouEide rhedhdcr Thehish drti.es 's.runedfrdm wda lillad trp by m.n l,om Dhdla o, MtrGh'dabad. Tlrs raui dao wdo froquduly ai6,orsd l,om ois placs ro aiorhd bur hu subodharor ahjoysd lons4 p iodo or rcveiuo olricials wd. rocruiEd lmm amois rha ialves of
'hs

civil rid .nmnal juscs was admmisiercd by rhe l3urd66 ii ths oa,ly pa od and rho nabs In rho larerp6 od m rhsad.t r ad rhs raujd i(coun) rcspocrivBly lyins in rhsn hsadqu,rsrc,
Judi.irl adminkta(lon wa enrudod ro Lhe qazi or judtchl ojUoor appojnled ro he{ aid ry cars in iia@un or ru$@. ln 1727, AI6iandor Hamithn &osot k.sps a cads or
iuds6 ii ir (chi'rasonq) ro admiihG, iunioe MohoD6bn i.hrbir.iErl A qdi, ii rhs 6rim
sxremoty vensrarod pah i,2 rha q,.i, l*iue", u"i"s fi,. juds. or oll cLimE of inhsftaico or suocs$ioi, perroh6d rh6 carcmo.ias or woddtiss, tunoEts sro. Th6 diwan was .upposed ro d6cido c.5ss ,elarins ro tandsd prop ry, rsvsnua colldctrois

ii.n

. ot omq wae

ft3n pBnioi in rhs diwaii hiedchy,lha aoltq shiqd s, rshsit d.B, GIukdaG aid $ilisos nduhly.iercssd aurhodry.vsall rcwruo.nd iih nando c!s6 Ev.ry mauz. and paEatra conhn€d sovsnm.nr oltiErs, who per,ohsd rhs6pocrv6 lun tonsrcs
1

kiowi a. diwrfl .datai. By vnru6

or

or campos, .r,, p. tou

chirrasoiq und* rh6 Mushal r.sim.l 415

rh6 z,mrdFi cdcsary (.acdE,i.o admiiisrercd . 6uqh rnd d:dy ryoe ot,u$lce mpdry crimh.l casar' Ihez:mnd could infl.r ss ences noDpins shon ot d6a6 ssieics ro, whichlha 6pp,oval or h qhs aurho ries wae iecssary. rho zamlnd*swarc ror maiirBian.a or @a@, aooErrBh iocriotr ol prcps y ro tha owie6 , b rclrrc,tul b o5vruo Lh du,ing rho daclininq pa,iod or rhe Muohal ,ule many or hs zimindr6 bs'im. sic.6dinsly ty6iilcal h6s 6re Lo ,o ure the,yors ror a drlino causs. rhh wm,.burouslr, rh. elrory sde of tho M!sh,ladmiisr,a

..$.
lo.3lry by me:r; collo valy or rd.vdrally. socrion

rhs psopl' sdrlsd

$

dirrar.nces

4

Admini.kafion ol

i

rhe prd Mush.l ps od e dirriculr rd sliaco ovor because or rhs lr.k orsourca m!re,i'l. A qlmpse or,ha p3rh0i reveiue$ulemen6 lo uircly cahe.row^ Io rs rhounh (ha ,4b-i.,{(tdri. Moddi hkro,iins think ir Toda, M,ll's a.couil or rhe ,evenuas ol srlka . chars.m wd obvlously

brs.d
prcp

oi rra

nr_Ayiols

iis hh

,e"t

riz,d by .,e Musbl oiitcers otc'ud, whotr Tod Matl was ,oll, chi[asons uas undoi rhe tula ol rh6
frlshL h:vs

P hii

doctrmnG

sh habuddin Talish w,iGs: "Whsn Bsng6l ainei6d ro Lhs Mushal Emprc -Charsaoi was 6n1ered in ,hs p2ods or B6iqal as one or tho dsldultios uiserl.d dis. 'mu6saddis' of Bsisat did not rcaly wish whos. ela,y wa3 duq rhByeivo him atr assisimsnr on rhe reveoue or Chaisoon tFehp, p. 1a4.

416lA Hidory oi
Ths di.tricr

Chnbsooe

uid.'
nom

chlrEsrno du iq th. Porhai ,ul€, 6luh3 , drms,s rsvsnu*ro rho provincial a/chsqusr ,hros heads 6 o, reiiiro,ial,sahwa aid hr rcm.injns knowi

6l

rh. amou ol rcvsiue rctlzabls

dirlsre mahh is a3

rollows:

sulejhanpur kommonly shaikhpu4

T.hqaon (or Malqaon)

sai, dues nom sah

prrs

_'

A dudy ot rtu cwira and land rsnu,6 sydem du is rha is sq!,Uy dir(hul, owiiq ro fts lack ol .ou,.B mare al. Th6 synem rcpl'Ed rhat ol
aurhor

ol

tha

a./'dri6r

es rhar rho pa,slne

or Nramp$ usd
elpecLally ra co. al tsd was delibe,.bly dspopuhr.d ond brr b b6 cov6,sd wrh w ld vaqdalion. so, Iifilo,wonu6 could b, cdllocltu rrcm .r $o pblinc. of chi( ch Msono mode,n osotro Hill Yiscb) was.*sned ^cludins ro 6oms chGrs. Accordiis ro Mr M s collh, rheEware asf,my as rwelva ruch chkfc. on rhc aurho',y ol Ma iquar h i. kiown 6nroyed a IaEs' or land srmrs in rtuprinphce. obviously in Iisu cpalry or chakdsala of ih6n setulces asainsr rho poslbls Mushal rhd fie Arkam:o admlnilr'arlon in chi(.dono

hir

opinion ihar

c

iuaqono wa.

A,zk{ or Moos'

"vo( i'nF-lac,ly conqrsred
(qt

undor

I

akbd lrom rh6 rbr€ ol

R ,{

chi(rgoig

ui&,

rho

Muqh, rcsidol417

wa

toa(!red by a mixru,o

nd6 or our kiowledsg, ir h noi Dosbte tor cisa a.sunr ol tho lId 6veu. syecm aid ilsoD io.

rhar rhs .h€rs o, ch ,assrvo rhe ArEkanelo suzs,ii wi,h men and m srirl 6ismv, Trr..onr,rmroBry BaisatiDUrhis ihe extsGn.s ot hnd hotdets, horr, Hidu iid Muslim The Musth rirle. such as chosrdhu,y, ma:lmdtr src., rhar wsF .u,e durlno ft.r rime, indicd. rh3 jntrodrdtoi of Mudim reveiua sy em inrorh6A

ienu6 aid Muelr.l ro.slqi v:v.lls6,

ot $a raits or Euoo*i feud,t taid

sois

hdd

ro

during

iorics ihar rh6 Mushals, su..4soB o,
,eoruiss

i, $en hid

a unirorm66urem6 or land aid rhe meof th6 Maohi Er ror ths skleme or rlm. m rh. revenus rccol& resrity brh6conrnuancs
querr rir!ehrl 6dmlirstr.rron. tr nay b6 noriced rh lh. Maohi kdni 3nd 116 Moqhi Er5 \,46 nor in voquo aiywheE ii Bsnqst arcepr

in chirbqoiq. Th. mixiis ot rho ackanssB 5id rha Mush:t rysrem grv. e lii pe.ultarnios ro rh. liid
,ev.iu6 admiihrarioi

ot

chnmsdis

qaiuosoship, aid a

on uhi.h rhs elahoGrs Muohal admnnrdtoi sFids ae unto unarolynor,roil '(veius able ro us rhes€ vasr mAs ot p wth chhnr, khdjyaB, k chas, F rar mu.h:tkls. s.nads, qabul yds, qabalas orc. h.v€ eirhor b.en delibr.rgty d.s,ovod .t rho rlms ol rhe c6.s:oi, or havo bosi pdishsd wirh rhshsavy mo!!oq, aid orh4 mkhaps, ., have i6r b6ei prsservsd ror whrch rh6so ffi p man6 ly lod ro us. Thsbtorc, w6 havo no .lEhdivs 6r@piinq to d€pend oi rho Eisthh so0rc6B for E rtudy ot rho

4r3

ta

Hhro,y

or criraona

Muqh.l rswnua system. rrese $ucssdaal'is criirly w h rh6 coopany'.6arly rcvsnus adnhcrGuoi €veonly t pssiiq rerereiF ro th8 6libo,ak Muehal sy"em or isvsnue N06dless ro say Lhd owino ro rhis acdr

ot r6voiua duiid
rhB 1wo Ha y VBielsL on Feb'ua'y 16 and Jure 5, 1761 "lonsiruro a iiiior chsrc io Lhs rev6ius hsrory or 86osal". Esids rhsse, Phllil FEi.h's Pd) of r|: rkir! a m$r, Jam6

$bl{t
b,

ocphs

ls\r 'h,ow

2e038,:nd smrar

of

chirusono dddiq

rhr rrrr R+q, wy hslpful Ar.nq ot ttt EIt hdl Conrory n chht.,\1. 176,.r7al br Dr A M s,.iudd i Ls i userul xo1 dli!ods1 n ilbmiidres [D d lre,ei,
chntosarE md

,.rtn! rt

arnlory', ar9t. ars

,116

as0ecll

ol lho

M,ohal

rh
didoly

rhs whole aea

a,r 4

iLs

conqres byrhe Mustuts. all l.nd $!s acidircd.

uer emdl,'no.r ,, smJll alloho s of hid ktrowi os rdhlha ahshsm. Ih! Emkha ah6hamor ldtrd as.isnnr.nr ln milir v prposs eslscisllv lor rh. mainrsnanB or soldis,e ii lrre dhricr was or rhred ryprsj n:m6ly, (a) risir huray.rah (b) iaormushrur raui or Drovhotr r.,

strehl5

tasn rhsh,ml

ri

iaon mw a d

urr ueD,o undd the Mushal De

mE

l41u

rhs soidiere ('i $6loh nE,iro c ablhhmdi,. of Mmkh. ahsham) n lieu or $ipends was re rres Tho .d

m'ihr

iv.erpsnr?swers nriiMi Tlrs co mu6d hold i9 ol $o !a,k , n spre or h.avy d'ahaq6 oi srchequer, Bi be jGrithd oi ths qrcuid rh il $rvod €s $e Muqhal EinPtro As rro Mushtls waa E ds, rhay would nor allowi h€ pnaLes asah ro moks chirhgois 'hin bass or pturd asa. or 1 er lllo n ch_ L6 Mqhak nom prLs or Benoal ro psoplo .l dirlereit fte maks sstlgm6iE n rho distiot. Ths securi,v sivsn bv i l.Qg rhs proeped ol a.qtr. body ot roops dd'onod nlno land in iho di*d tacLed a larso numbei or llhdu aid

Muslim serlerc t,om w:E known as khu.hhsr'2 strhh. lo €ncou,aos iha 'drled 6.{Lms , no Gv3iu63 w6r. colbcGd by th. rhs pgopLs lor many yaa,s,3 Thus alm. ih' whola ot rha con qu{ed ptdvlnco was sxsmpkd lrom ra,ariotr,
wriro. rha|I' lsrcvonB appedc ro colhcrsd bv Muhammrdai qovshms unrU 17r3 A D'c .1wa rn lhrc ve , Mu6hrd Ouli Khai was coihmsd in E.is.l. Ho ol Eeisal, and .Lo w3. mdo dopury subahd ol 'lrs ,lxed rhs,svsn@ s n 6urvoysd da land,

o'[i.ll6y D€cilc,lly

hav6 b.an

&rksd snd, ho ddopr.d c.

5s,4rr.l.7l pa I dsl rrma ot Chirrasoiq To
I'Vorcbae lo$r ro vaDiuan', qr,DLrkr

ovo rhs ain mea6ui.s Fn.i, hB iulltud all
ach

R(

dJ,

drnuF,g 17rO-

2 Thh h o P.6irn t6.m moaiins ,bsiis vosus 3ll ovi th8 submnliio duinq th. med aval p. od, 10 indicd6 a r6ia o, shle, inv rBd aid kvourablo rarms' ar a pla6 uidar Fifi, n€p.ic r, roducrioi,

r:0

A Hhrory or ch bqons

under hh power, and .ach admir od liabi.

ctutrasons

uLd

rM I,rtushat

rosrh, 42i

w ds,

D s rt.me ot t764,ba,omediiro oieiararund.r

!o.d :.d i1'o ora

J5.'r.i .\. d\c,arss
.old Ds
'ablY

pdhaps, rhar E "oi, ar3 slmo iiy

rro p,6ces so obrahod. x I to, ,hr. rh6 h,afrwhioh so by rhs namoorornuEos

rFar ihav.tsoi con-

A.

rhe sfrecrivsly admihrercd Mushat crirory d{oidedrou-

No racl5

d.

r'3

odlo

or Mugt,

loc4od in Teknat u(hio, Famu, Mah6shkhali, Kurub, u z ,q ..sv rsmih6d otmo wFolt/h€yold

d ror Oi.

no,i.6abtah

u

rharFr,k-

is .ovaEd wrh iai,m ro rx..r r,c
u. z.

and lunotss

aid

lhoGtors

rh.

u, z

)ir rA
srualsd

Hsiory

.r

chirhsonil

i r.

Jcnla Dlal(s

n lt r o.' sr rrd la,sr numbs or
olric,als.

in ftai

ol

lhs drsn aid rrrarelore, h6is pLco. Simila,ly, as rh, civil aid

,o

i6

compndrively smau sz.

Ihe colhd,oi ot' la0d ,evoiuo rcqunsd a lars6 numbe, ot urd Mutshid o{ti (han and h,e suc.oso6, B;igiti clenr and mNcry
rha Mrsl'ms

rdlon A.codno
lor rs.p rs
various

' u lDo{ "n

rFs

ad'i'+

"hold lhsorllco

cl.

and rhrefo,6,,he Nhdus we,o employ€d " ., oL' 0,614\ns rnr 4!6r.a +. o.dr c io pslo,m ns c6l duri.s curiousu onduoh, ,hesa Hrtrdu orriclais

districb of

Boisal Mriy or ths familv riilas $ill ii P.6hn An dcmpr msy bs m.de ro dscuss ot rh6 &rushal rcwru6 orlicrale brsod oD
Chowdhu,y.2

ii

chirhqdr3 rhai in rnaiy Niid! domrnared
bie,lysoma

w also cuiienr ln ftr pr6vious aDkaies. pe,ioc I h d 6d in a local purhi ih ons Jamrher chowdhury by r,6 sovamo, or Chak.*h in vlll.ss Kan.hana durhs tho Ahkiee dsims.3 Ths oaly racords of rhe csdid aid coiquered proviicBe show ih chowdhu,yr had ii soro cas6 sor up as rrlukdm Iolis
paqve
Tno word, Eccodino ro som: o, rh6

.i ,aLs'oi

thsy wss villass he.cmen whosa qablliyac iushka h6lFd colle.rion il !a, is or ps ph or !5e d*c' irer
'h6

holdrs or rho iirlo, c dsived rbm S:nsk r .haLdrdhtrrn ltr ,our dGdions. Accordjiq ro Morcland, hc 'cNft ed some son or Iocal ju,Cdidion,' \cchbtidP Hkkt.t ot tndh. v. 15t) 'vdyaruMd' by sabnd (h!i, qL 5 P LMon3o.n Numb ,1164 B s) p. €a. soma orher nedisv.l pu$is .id rhe E r9!at! fllD4t 0762) havs .l$ ,ererond* lorhn oo .

ch traoooq uids

rhe

Mugh, rosinE

423

rs sxaouriva ruiDri6ie.l
oncs held

.h s6 or rhe lEh6 ot rho seislt

fls€r !nds, oB

somoLhins

Ik" a viltroe

h.btrr. s6 $s luic(lof, or a d h!& was Leadmrn, a local pod ism.d Er m xa$nr

ir4 aid rh,iaicht Brish .uli. The Eo ,rqrqk. R+,r cipldrr \r/.
lndepardenr

Fo,,hhdii,4 ll s ilid ol 1f

]k
fi762)

mr

MrrhJ and. ty on a ,owhhd

.on6:c,o$ r,s o fold or fiis Doa

Srthidc.Trhs

or ,ie col4.r:otr oi
Mobhid

rcYlxuls, i,,

h rhslnAJ_ jJss. rho

slq

Alco,dis ro

h

A6bic. to.lorhs

!s.d

- he r,m roa h
wacr

apptrsd

totrbt
applied ro a

cr:tr y

)ri]od romthG di5i,

br

blshms.l ror waiohiio moily or butrion,,(r,d) / s r, xl(1343), 1c44 ^ Ih6 appo msnr

co3m.tr i.ire Fooi' lo, i,Udda, ksr, a cdsh kaeDar, or an orfi&r r Djbli. ssr..

rrc a rst* cr Mawl i Mlzal,
Ghiyasudd'n p2am shah

us

^

shams Botkhi ro sutran 5. xllt (1es6r 13.r5..

l2r I

r

Hiro'y or chnhsonq

6mployaa or rhs sov.rinsnrl Th3 t6c.l pod Erim Ks6n 6oiion! tik, Mus.mmad xa*un.s an influoiralpmon durins hi6rme!.z

orisin or rh6 leh is di iout ro ro@ rhe6 rhaorhs Esardi^s its orisin accordtn,J ro one rheory. h€.ssnser chdsed ro coivBy a ,rqu4r or ordsr Ac.odins ro orher, rh. orioti nom kshr, meonins .utrivdionj rharc_ rorc, a ka.hrsir mishr Dvr,iins ro as culruro all $r (raseirs of modsh trmas betofs

o'. roo

(hr on. Iho

(d
rcoion-4

or Keo

,

accordirs ro Morcland,

ir

was

ih.

populor

dBri t ty known rith or 116 kayerhs d khart ii rhe u.P aid rh6 punjab. Tho hotdoc of rhe lirto rhink rh lho wdrd ts conuor ro,m or sesr r Raji Mriumd , xr @ 6cr roh s mrimu"4. ti Bsie.ti .nd ii is proiouncgd is mijumd hoantis roklier. H0 wa3

ii th. lar6 hsdisval do.!mcnB Lali. Ihs dsivalon

or [rushal .dhinisuarioi.

"ppointod collaorors ii ea.h dhrhr ot a .u,e duriis rhe ur, a numbd o, '
o,

(vul muhunda, rron rhe a,rkaiss€

rha accouiror rhs Gvenua Muqhal subah Th. rc.r war ! is le,Jnr rroh a pu(ri chakaeta sdined the rills

thllt

chakasla5

lyldil k, F,obsbly rh6 Em is ro Arahic word malik '6lakd holdar or mulk or laid. Du'rnd th. Muoh'l and fisearlvsirsh a larsa iumbd ol Hindu and Muslin hallks ii

J,a r r, xvr 0ssr), 55 2saP,l36eBs,p.42
a

I

I ,r s., xv|

at trdb, (ls5t), 5i

t\,

a6l

' chir.loig

uider

116

Mush:t 6sino | 425

Munshr. rr i. 6n a w re,. Tho por r;m.iisd ii exhr€ic6 evai ii rtu B'irish and rh6 ploelo 'osms who rad some kiowleds6 of Pe'6iatr coutd obran rhis posr aid surr*qu6 ly urillzed pon as rdmity ratla.

o. cle* -2 the ntr8saddis an.l wsre a$ooiared noi n,sly wiLh Eveius cdlleciion b(r orhar brench* or ad r niskdrci as wall Ar p.ee sono sdddht$s or rhr dbricr b.e

ai
The

ofrrcial lvhosB
equi,€d

po h

b/ a diMn or

a coll5dor

torerchaDso:ble

w{h

peshda$.

oaiuoqo.3 A.codins ro phlip Fraicis, runmi and otur ordhances rehriis ro rhu poIicy ,id s)! nme or rhe cou ry-4 "ThBO. hso as rhsram€ mple6. w.s a walkiio didjon yor rh6pdvtrljioruks.ndpBc. 1i.6s (orun) :nd a

rr.eJ.ds, litur

his!o,y
avs

n Lhs ,cvsnussynem otchiuaqons p,evous ro rhe sr!sh ru16 /6 rrar rhs c\iet duLy or a qanunoo ot chilblois a. ro ksep a recod or colhddns,ro ch.ck rhe auuo-

occlDisd:n impo air p$irioi

"

wri$
bnd

holder),

aid senoally

io took

afi4

rh6

rhs roh

m:lr,k
mahl

omakr in

or hod

rorm ot mah{ltik which DrL
'6y8nua
rha

rh, rr, 50. an oicllls,r nudy ot LrE ad v ies ot h.s b.en mad6

qaiuisor

F6ic,, n
Salk,l

eiu5 or 8r!6r,

p

^1,sho,

/dnhnkdrci. p

3s
09

426 A Hdoq ol C[raoong
zamnd r or the introdudroi olrh3 Birkh roh,

rhe

colled'oq

olrcod An'

"ThE Oaounqot', w,tes rhe

colhc'i ol

ch (asohs m 1736 A D,

vilw or or A
Khai (1727

M ssaiuddiD, was €$ablshod

1736).3
rhsr cleits or

d

raujdd Fddia Punn
nD

$lary

rrom (ha

rlEy

or latrd as ,amune,a,ior why rh,, hnd hold no

rE dnricr

Dd,ins rhe subsequsn! Br rs, i!1,,
muNh honoured rrra Mushals

rhd q.nunoo as ins,itutioi ded. nE or b6d rhh irlo as a 's.kon

l,eld uid, ,hi, rereire collecron w$ hB GhEI r!nc! ri ol lha ,;cods in ,hs 'sienls dspi m6nr or rh6 sov.rimsiL 'si orhcar appoinrsd to colled Lho 'sveNF l/om a ce ain dvhdi Ghqr or I p sons who usuauy roo( rl's LLL slono Wad.dda, Morc conacrly uhd,r, ie,m hoais ai orlica. tiuiis !iLh$ a civ'l o, mlliLary appolnLm!

rh!

po{ whch

w:r also

,plied

b

rhc h,m8i o,

(,nnido,

/rid ltu nib

q3iunsos siihsr

tud ,o live F{rllally F

rhs

Lh

t,so,q unds

'ho

Mushil ns

mo ! as ch

c2i

,

Gvenue r

aho,o. sall coilactor '1 Li such a phco
sysEm

(+

rhs zamlndni

or laid rgnurr was intoducBd

more

rrr€ holdds or jaon lor mil( v puoosca (Fqr ahsham) duinq rh6 erly pan ot s Mushal rulower6 in a seis6zsmindd rhoush

liod hr ro

rhs

convsn6d inro zamhd i bv vrhlch rhe mvciuo rrrnets wsrc GqrEl r. pay landnax Io s sovsnmonr'

'Ihe Mushal zamird of chilEsons dev6loped $naii Do' 'ss cul' Es rLs rnsr B. tht! u0lika rha :.h ndariB ol oLhd diiuics,
rh6 zts

hda

bnd

linds ror mlln.ry pumo.es rhe se.onl pscllh,i,y ot thk syscm lles in 1 6 varloly aid or z'miidde. Ar rhe rima ot rha €id or rh. Nrushal rulo, rha wholo ol ths disnid wa. "pa irloisdamons aI leasr 14oo pdry hid holdod,"4 Tho iumemLsnss ol iho Chirrr ba accou 6d ro, rhe rh& lollowins r,crore. o, r o law ol rt tl(a lrs, . 6rak , ns subdlvisioi aid rrasm6irarcn amonqsr we,o .ond3 ly underso iumdous hei,s. ssEoidly, a hlg6 numbs ot suNsy and ssde_ meni olricsG obFiied Dieces of lrid in dlrlorsnt ph@E, erh.r Ew d hom ths sovohiEil or lDm bs our rhsrrobs lhndly, wrh moE and mod rcclo anol or ,h. dae.Lrds r.dlleo culriv oB, rrrs holdiiss also icre.sed in Ae a 16!lr,,hopiop,l6rors cum zomioda6w . ahoon lhs iicGas
1

P.,o" co.*p""d,*,,
sanetj.o,

r, 6lo.$,y.

p

as3
rhe

Erttt Adhtnhuddt. :v{rh al

EN

trdtd

6

Porl tr

4:d tA Hno,y ot ch [aooio
Th€ nomb& o, rhe zam nd 5

of or rhr e$ion

ch laqois

in d:ed so

trrsely

'h

sedaasmatry rs 1400hnd
rered

rhe $rd p6.ul in shall p:,c6lJ

iry 5

rhar

rher h.ld,res rrre r

L.rly, thore wdc no bs z: idaks brl i rrr2rr !dre. ot mod de s'ze. dbson.e of ta4az:n.dd ur by Mr Brdei PoulI w,s rs Iack o, idu?l opponui Lyr Tha Ioio hill GisE whrh cre6d rho disrciorrered hr,dr.nca b rhe qrowrh or hrss zzmmdx' er .3.
k,nds ot zamrndatus in chiuasons dtrrins Nlushal iuk. Fr*, rhas wsr. somj tand hoidoB rhd had ro tha Muohat cojquesr ii 1666 A D. The Mushah, ro ove h6rv rhe n:likona dn land so lons rh6 land holdsc .onriired 10 seid wera Lrs trbal .hctrans d, Hll chirheono. 'Ihur by Lh6lwo a!reemdnrq2 beLwccn rhe r\r!shals and rh. rrhol

$s hr6' phis of tho

chDls, lhe ldtrs held I!.d po$!sioi in tho Mugrt Le irorv lor which ,hey rye,e ,cqrn6d b pay hid rcvdnus r. Mrshils, 'h€ as o,isitral -mind s Eid ft6nhoidmqs, wrich could i6ver ba prop(ly surueyed, w a tarser rh:i ths oLh4 sacordly, M!h'1d

a mw

.h,r o, oflcials ot whos6 desdpnonsarc oiv,i nfo,e,
These

o,ficah ii

rho

rhem ro colled rcwnue kdm rlr€ peoDle. ro r^ay rhe, collecdois

uaually En

Ferchr. ln

Eoms

c*6s,

saden Powell, r.,d
Ses

rF€f, .f

3r

apd,

ch. xrLr,6ss.2, also Sarhh 6hosh,

ci,(h,

/4u, pp 64 it

Ch

(:dois

unds, rh, Mu0hat ,e!i-a r a2e

pradically lrsredary nghr and rhoy

rhs s€dual deey or rho Muqhat pow,, tudEdds (ri:6d4, tor a fned sum,

w edbtdbma(o rhoruwi

lriu'sos wero

also zaDriid s r

qd s n lisu ul carh poymenr, bdc

ai

rh,a s!;reso6or fie soldie6, who had beei 3*onedro

tjid

u:. trlr who.hd"d o u. "1d lotue "o ho.snro(rt-"btL.ro rhsv-qh,t so6n srcouho.d Erl.ms or rlro squarer i:miliss h wjre l.nd. Ths
z"a,, t,a
palch

ol laid

cls.red nom rhe wi$es

lind hs culriydsd. A rew ycaG lrleri rha land war asssBd ror rax!' on and holde, of D land bscame z.mind wi.rour obtisarion
rheL

holdn

by coi anr an

oachmenk on rho adFtnins wasks,

1 ,n6verua consulr rons, July 13, 1773'
2 ,rames

crrr qr Frtrh Fepo^, t, 4s4

'l3o

A

Hdor/ o, Chlr"sa,0
,hose sho her boctr s,anred

purch:sa. ThB

lan rive clascs ol zimind s in .ompt,ilon wirh rhs orsinal ooes oi
abour

could b6 saiied

rhazdiihd sl rh0mselves wrlndl b6 or ( or placs coNd,ns th6 irlusn.s Lhey brened oi lho .oirempora,y tid an analyrEl udr or LhB p,ln.ipal hid holdms i:mllrcs or rhr dhli.t dr ns rhs Md0halD odmay!r3
A
r6w

wods

h,ll tribes who sho,{ed alleskn.e (o rE Mushrl sovahmst o,oiirlzamidrs. ois such zamind was Sher M r (h:i r tbal chi€l who hdd a
Ths chi€rs or ths

$at Shs,n r

IaG6 6raro

h

rhs
Khan

pshisson t'om Fauid zulqrdr Ktrd ro $trt' wirh his d6pBidenb in rhe hlls ol Fansrnia.2 Dr A M saErtrddh siv6s rho followiis decls or rhh chief: shendr Khln re.sived . sEntor was€ hid in m:uza Xodal{h

Ei.s ot hi. rollowars

zamiid l in rhe suidso Boy, He was ako mdd6 rgspoi eible bv ai aqGsms wft rhe raurd ror piym6 ol rhB (rDas Mahal ,6vsiue or rhe hll peopls
ae a

,le.-o r o

hi\r"o

Mv Ham dull,h (han in

ram,l.s

ii

no hon chirEoonq. Ths

/ddJ

ot

chilLaednq aid rhs

Besdes, $s lo.0l puth's sivs ratBrences 1o rome zamind hm l@ rhar we,6 in sr denc6 drhs Musral aid sarly Er Lhh pdiodr. Prooasdinq. of th6 connirGc ol F€v6nue, Mav 6, 1734, qt s.Hjuddii, oP. rtu., p. re7

ol rhs E,irish ruI..

Chirksong under rhe Mushal Isormo 1431

hs iirLeiNo

ol
dtrdno hE

Lho

hill

aid tribis.

liierr.

As a rc.ull aner she

M*i Khai's aarh
a

! n
l1

elsr 6nd

hs couicl bv

proclamr'oi

r763 de.irdd Lhr

ldin rurkddoi
rh8 chai

apir s rh Ve,shr dilv conrmed rhs clam or h! ,n.en€r rr lo,rl luotd d:o s rhe amifdd or Raiqui'
ciah
sed

r'

uidq e rL/lueh3l oi or ,hr hndsd - rd.€cv ol lhe d strtr' rut! msirioi . iumb r or
Khai,

rh

i rypr

o,

wde Abdulhh (h:n

srcbh

Khan,

Mrltim l<hatr r,lla\

oinuiqo nrlbalhbs
O6iuiso, Ka kaDta$_d

o.n!(so Billibh Shank oaiuiso L,im Kstm aives a l$ of.omo bid landorncE or he own sslmab rlo(h\lnr n the Lrer Drr or d .., " " or al.o (ddJo.' r.7l 2,11 Rxrl n .idhhaiik who had a larss rbal noF Nalk chaid oi (.nchaioE Sh
ssnluddi, or .n. Dp
1e7-1eai

llso Hu.h is.x .p d., p.
B,
L

24

$

Mrseum Add Lioial Ms

No. 29033 qr seGruddii, of,

r ' nory ol ch (:ooiq ynrd or a.n l?) o) and Azim Muqim i At or rtnimpu,; xamal wirh A!hraIn no r (?) tsDd ramn m souLh o)i Hushm ali droi,is; Frsr6n Al, (!d ind orrE6
432

|

Po

li#rF\ rhf

, -.o-. qhEAnr
ron

v6lair deede oi hk

p

zrmid,r Batdy:n4h noy or vllaes

sx!6d ii rhe Dh*3 Hodn ttnBlr Kt i

.D

ains

of wo iiflu6nri:t

a poom .all6d

and rh6 drtrm h R.hm3i

A.oLr, Dlas

or

of m{chcs tud mlir4ry idylirres or iodhuo hdr whow.e

som€ chrGrian 2rhiidars Krsem

g,ss a

d*

hd

rls iimls 6
3
A

tsketr

iiofr

,BorisL Musum addl

P fros

I !,d l(1365

B

S

3052

chkkcono

liJr

rheMushal r'smo 1433

oualria! or rhis zamlnd ramllv. Ih6 Dod al.o qiv$ a q6io+ looioal hbla ol rhis ,amlly. F,om ihh ir is ktrowr th Aid Famad ( 7 And€4Andrcw Femiidsz I was rheladE, or (aloch F6had ( ? cirtos F66 dp ) who h his lum succo4ded byTir i,ii! (7 riranaiil ). husband of AoE de Btr,os, rhe la:diiq lady
populalion souls

aid r[o

area

or

h rie

6r hs z,midd',2s ibour12000

hnded p,ope y

rh. @d'e 6$lmdloi, ws tfe
zamiid

r,

hrse iiionl
th6

rha i;mllY w's ako

rado. ThE pool hiqhlv in rhis srtoqsi.

,rmiid otrhis p6,lod
(1762) rc!e,. ro rha damad-A or G

Tha

E- qkk.
or

Atport

sidowmonrs

.id

orher

clasls ol

zr iidrs

1 ors
vrho

wa'. ndror

'6lsio.s
smalL

.'y rh 5)l rhe z.hi.der w 6 pdly landholdore rhouqh a lub*.dlal Donion ol rhum plid lxrli trqs rhri . i.w hundred laid r6vanua. ThsE wsr6 llle rhose dr ihs KFansand the Siqhs or Dohtz i, ths zimnd iesol z3b d,d (h:i, AoE da BI,osaid rhole of olh s. Brr rhBsia o, th8 bq zmiid ies w!3 so 5m?ll rh theso canior b6 lavoo,ably
ro

oi sddwan,
olher

p rs ol Bsioal, ns ly 3000 zamltrda,iss .an b. cdmDftd Espocr or rhk rype of rrid holdnq. D, A M sd,juddo s opriion rhar ,rho iame of psrsanr
Sedoddn,

K,ishnaia!ar, Din:jour, Rajshahr,

of

+.

dr.,

p

200

4341AH..roryor

c

Jsols

prry bnd lDtdjs ,l
rh.m mu{ bo crled zrmidns h:cau!" Lhry

r,t.,,trh.tss dlL ot hj]] rjDr llods no

Mrq\at nrt!, a h1!o!.i:ous bodv ndepnd. crtt.rs ro D r. rcv:iu6 ornciats and patry bluqdaE hrs.n Lo be crl_"d zsnrdrr Apdii. lv,
Thus,

rolv

d rha closo of rhe

sohl.

rhoy w6r. rho mrddlemsD n Elarion ro rcvrnua. rorrd rh? ctoF or th6 zmrnddi hrcanr mor or l-i h.red rr !

rr Mlihil

ru].,
ue

ol

.r maii'eiai.s 6llomi.., aid i.iior .r
or raveirs. ro har.
Putryi, "Tho ftsL

inco e wa! r[o orvabl. ro .o1Tsn.7 T, 'hi p quhics ioowr

.mouiL or l]nd relq
allolvM.a,

khdrDosrr

,rrr ;. 0ro rol.rns seen lev Ec hy a s' 3jm id:r Ln his
ot
rho

]Jd

'Eroimoir

ai!rEl mir or

rcventrs

Eid (h ach Erpmsss or rhs Eid ie vat of a zrmhdar, shad Kh .cF o,\ra/j oi-. ! I t. "d,o ! , " .n aso .xpenses of ami.d or his cj lccn K.iya kh,.ch rh s ws llvcd on I e .rponsls or s rui 3l oi any orc or hh ieir rchr !fi saranrimi, a collsdioi

es ot colkcriis

odEr i.dr it

s:Dens*.r4

lJesr,xvogro,,zoo
2 Thi. was knowi a5 thd ded!fltoii or muscu,.r and cu om y mutuc I chaE(s or .ol:cLotrr
sebundy

L 1r

:,4ushaj

4

mo 1435

kr5tr h n. zrmiidrs lrlcs.
q!ittry rt.e, bs siz: rGhe,
erc.

pres-rnL

ol ,o.d

10 rho 2imtndr.

(hai. A co$ l,yisd bf
Pa 3nr.

of FUsoial

lE

ryotr or prlss w-6 Equred 1o sHVice ro rhe zrmiid s. rha zamiidd ro

^

su prrbl,

iL tx3 rhE oi

c

emoiis: aid ronivals

Rahd

i or iilaf,d
holdinqs,

Iaid L wr hel,l. Thu saiads trcm (ha€ov6h, pow o colled blk on edod! sold

vera also colhcr!d

sh ti

has or fstry

rolts

sema 6t his
rrEd orioiDalry

zlmird 4jorod a ftee haid in

rhB man+

baen

r€sprcrivs hold ,sr Tho ryo€ lvhs j6crd ro rh6 whios or the znnhdii who woutd r.ks awav rho l d Lom rhe pe a s ir rh!lfi,r sl€hrtydkplsa*d rhs torms. Mod of rh6 zrmlid s ospo.ially 03 lrse oias wtrhdrcw iion ths dnscr mrn!sBmenr ol rh6 asiculLuh, acrivtuks aid abandoisd oraLilii.Lion 6r seises rho hx burdeisd poor own h s Iand .nd whos6 sra6 or rho pro.

liushal rule,

a zrmmdai hecrfre va,y

ns ly iidsEidsor ii his i his zamrd i wam lub

rhs lar$ ohas,

of

rho

duriis rhe racr Muqhal rut4 rhe.amitrdars
Now:var,

siEll, could ior r.sJlr. ioricul,uhl acrlvirhs srcdly decln€d

all smller zmiid s rId ior eno!9h Jealouq aid rivalry amoig rho zamindarc rcsdsd rh.m

rrurhhss moi€yleidds " rha zamnda6 cortd ior

nom

,l3ti A HL,o,y or

o,irLaso

iJ

oprresiva Govohhs o,fhs,s

sraLiorcd

ii

FyoB or

culrir oF w.ro or

Khudkmhr

IoE wra r,os'

rwo lypes; khudkishtaid pa'kas{ who culLivaEd laid in rhB viLase mGiarory or nonro6ide

crlrlvaro6 wiro culrvared laids lor a nipulaLed re'm.
Tho relaroi belBeen (ha zam by ce,Ein ,6sul:ions andrheryorswrs co .ousd andqabuliy syrem. on wh ch land was tuld by Lhd Fasrr. a qabrl'yar B a doclmrnr or,ecepr ol bid nom rh6 zamiid, Thus Lhs ryors t)Ied rha lhd uide, rh. mediovrt ocdi ,L rha bid wh'ch he lllsd. Eur rhe sysrm or cuniv o, h.d some so

id

Tia rolal latrd or rle disf'd v€s ola$rrd o rwr rypss, abadi or hrila o, crlLlvabh lrnc, atrd khlah or wane land Ths [1,l,h nclrd8d all rypes or w*r. bnd i.ru,al aid mai m.de. rhe ialutsl wasrs laid consned 6r hills, irncles, m slres, cansls, salni .o ral l!fd, dried iva. beds s1c. Taiksor dlshc, vllise roan, bu,il srcunds ,or or rh3 Hindrs tohed mai mado khiah lanri. ft,e. Ths r.ch med naLural Tha khlhh laids lands we,e coin,iLly mssirs khil:, wnh rha adlohitrs abadi

rd'o on/

'o The ab,d lfd or ths d;:ri.r was chsri.d

be

undor rhrc6

A r,raLu.r laid or re-ntr.payhq Iaid. 3. Lakhhj or reiL rre lid c. NoaLrid o, ns-ly cultisared land. ot l:.d rh€ h[hnaj or rsnr n6s land p diodll,T almo* all rced: spBirl itrlDrlon,

ch'rason0 urds so i/uohrl
rhB land or

resiiE 43i
who

iastr sncouEss ssrlamenb ths Mughal sovehmrnr ofk6d o,firr of I.id Iiee ol r.v.^uo tiom .rh, dnrlcr. iypE or hnd mav ba c.llod l.khmi l?id. oulr odmiiEtrd. fold ngs wers assesed ror raxarioi aidwarc co-nland. A nsw ryps or lakh cj land cams iro oisenc: ltm or rhese landr o,o allowaioes lor pre' Prcpher (oadam R8s!l)

woB p,d, ior io c h bul r

riB disnici was qiven as

renr

te6 ro soldEE

o

hs pl:c: or dF4omii4toi

of

waql
man

o, 's,a

of land ,o, a rclqious

c ro

BGrrnris. as

bEhmotrar.
LdDls

3s dlvotra,,

rh6 suppo ol a tampls

E, To rvruslrm ,l! F. To

o,
ned

ii idol"l

"g{

ed ror

ol rha

im2r)arGhed old

lr ir.s i

rhe ro,m or madad.o

maash,

rhe ,,elistous pnsoos,, rcbtrves of Hndu amiidaG aid paopl€ or respecrlrls isnlee, who were ol tmired mEns rho d.usrrLsE o, ro or do{ry rhe wves or (,. Muslm

G.

senr rrce hnd

A njjor 3id khoroosh ror rho h:inctrEncs ior rhs hdmdsads or rh6 ryob; and B:nraitrnce or mluqdars

r

p. w t"on, "p .t, rtg 2 P rior carup,r,nnc,

. lassa,,

442

,l3d A

H,srory or

ah iqor(

zarion

.r.ls I

i dr.

rho Mu, rt,.. l

.ri p.,t { s" o. ,

(o,on,.

ssraiuddn, !0. d,., p.

io

5

,",."rd,,

lIt. i{ iir h.ii 1t.rii ml-i a nik tri qFE r j
lifisal Kotri

!:ri7r{ axn .,tii .i{ jtr.i.i
kthuc, p.1aa

p. 6"j ,l"o o(4.ltoy, oD rr.., p. is. The loDalpoer his v ues a! roltows:

or a

Bhatracharya,

e,,do

ch traloio

lndd r s Mushrt

res ms I

{30

*s:srho hiids hy rh. mautvir, rird ts u ds (03i.sy,icw, €rs), iihlowr s w.nkrsi snd.'rrc, s!d .creoDh.
v

b,ouorr

,/... 0

lj r 10 \.". 10ll 1, lT/. .,..r...d,v. hrt, ryre ..isr s i, h 1l'. jsioles. m sia, ind rhs s ie ros on lyir J.n! Ls sN? rha Mtrs\rt aod, he kct3ndion or 1vi ! ro cle qrd sefl!
or r, xr cbared r,onr noabid riJrq or liid c+o.iJ

rrir.ulLirr.i r.r rhe ourc.el

av, ir driol6i N,sialhds
or l.\yn{rEx
on rhem.

jor

.id nlairr:oi rr. lrqlrs.m:sher, co'!.r ra r,,r ct\art;ics. rc.lsih rrc Ms!5 h;t ro soi, i 'o conmd t' hol.li, th3 Irij rhacori.rwas
crhd a mu.ratra

rbiraron

l/e!,Iow:i.. .rhd i:tr:d or Lhrc ia's of hfd our of €ac) ,rfr wlio hs .d6 clt ,u,abla. rrir Ei;nE rc rra hndj hr urc hDh*r'dr .al !d doi or lard , y crt,
rd, .,,/d,rrdta6.:

rhe N\ohals

had a

rjn

-'oward rh, dose

arsl, rhe rollowno oxka chdqrs rcla1is

imponsw.,e Jevi.d B*idA u,c 10 mihl, ipre io

4401Ali3ro.y .hirrsois

A

Srhwa A

ooDd

ahor

was collsdsd

ws o,isin.lty apprcpnaEd by rha huzd ar a '.,vae onqtrkirs ror himsslt on iho lsids,' bu, 'l.rer oi .cded ro rha reir.rcll "1 rha n'm coll:ded uider {hs headdUiq\,)l Ese(hdn's admnku loi was 3157! 14.142 3.
,rru'ah

uidd thish8ad iom tha c.$lon or rho dktrlcl

(r

Thls is

i

sum ot moiey rouocEd

h

rho cur,

I
bo,

LrD

plrat

lr

wae ,eJlly

ii

mrosl, -levied rn seneml

\ r'o.e.J, i't I.ELI medlkq di rhe rcspecrivs
colled rh*e ndm
rheir

rom

ro
iiroo:ed upri

Lr.

tr

tspecris-i

rhr

or o.r*ioial cs, or tar specirt puFo.o or undq

.omr iicidsibl n.rer "1

ol rhe ,svoouo, oirh.,
€{oidcd .LnLilrroi or $s hpe or Bumorion or rtieided im.unr ol assonmsir, n a j:! r, was .omidered ro b. ths rishr ot,,s $-k..r" m Al .hr - odr'o,o.q."lor ishs rrom conceilmonr irs Galsalior univ6tsauy,
I om

..$ opri

uhich w:s rhcnrr aLo crlLed

r nrrs

assisi.d laids

ii

irs doad,

ssEjuddn of.

d',, p

17

Dnii4

R.rkd5, chnrsona. 1160

chidaoois und.r rh. Mughrl rcsth6 | a.1

F. (ir.yol Vvkor
ln

dotines

tr ar

,prorir or tncBis ih rh.

rha opiiion

ot Jam€s GcN,

rrrs

disrjcr "uido,wsnr th.

rh. hotdins! or rhs

c..

Ez.ra

hl.dr r.r I H !

is

, rn impnsad L.j6tv

up6tr

142 I A Hisbry or chntoons

10

chowkies on ac.oun' or ms,chaidhe, sEin aid

rh. day. or $e lndsp.idsnt srlGn s E. Fahdni An inland rcll coil..Ed
kd

all rhs

trece*o es

ol lls c red ro m

c.

san

h

A

natket

MushaL Pe od,

The ha(

or hcoms or ths h3:l wrs a rhd

ot duriar

Brlrhh do.umenb reld ror've p,iclp:l blshcd du,lno LhB M.sLral Dciod s:nD M rsanj, h', Frrhm,

charced

D. Gh .id rs v. 'Ihs lbrol me.ilns .l shd s a landiie ph@ oi ths baok ot a .!ial, river, aod .ea rl€Ghi cauv' ir 6 on rhs ri!sr b1i[ whto inland taisil / (i6r .r. Isvdd oi soods aid pasenssG "? Tha Fonishd on rho iv.r Fstri .nd ParLEEhna on Lh3 rvar ( naphuli w o rwo p ncipal ehak l,omwrro,s a coisidrEbls amou wa! colle&d Thera worc r la,oa iumb, ot sh s on ths naln $6 (*Mphrli axd tha sankhs and dn s6vo,al rihu iss shh 'r rh. H.ldc, tla lcha ati, rha shrimari,Iha ch.ndkhali. thero w a

il$ ,

iumbd of shns alorq rho ssaco.n,

such

as ohot anqar

E. Dhah. Dhah ps,iod, toU wd colledsd

Dtrifq fis

Mushal

nom rro lh,oush rho dhalas. The 6 lv Brirish do.ums . rerar ro some 'lhe&r a dh.la! which h"d ftrn origii ii rroMushal prlod' F tk.hhari. Aidh mank, Hamlchh i, Udalyd, (n al, Dolonii,

'sasors

cutohi B akumd

chhorkumila and Phoh?i6'

chi asois rida, rhe Mushal

roqtmo

t443

sr

,in

d1d dhdt,

wd.

,ro,poztsd

444 |

a

Hrstory

oi

chirL'so,iJ
viglded

lovi.d

on

rhos bnds whlDh

o,olil

.r

*

--ur u-

A(cord'nc to

66 rrn'

ro u.n ownoG a @itid 'ble onnliol F'D l sszt;am' 'aD

Hou$ or commons in 1773 A D, Mr Varsls! ssrss

1 or ssnruddln, .P. dr'. P. 13 2 Flfri R!P,., l, tntodudioi, P orrl

eh .asoiq undar fi6 Mushdl reslm6 |

4aE

whs rhar oi sv6ryBordor ot rh€ P,ovince ds${ed bv rho lnhabiranb

$sn

hid. Ih6

pr@edrgs

o, lh. chirbsons

councrL' debd

€sm3!oorvoGlsi, thsquaiIrv ol laid cull vaGd h sbour4'00,000

A htrEl ohm ol

A
1

Au6il Jumma Toomary P:dshahv irqssr, E o, A$igned l.nds-

or l72l

! r P, xxvtt (1924), t7
or e"a"n powat
"p.

3

ar,

r, sEen

446 I

A

Hsrory or Chhrasoio

Toht Aus) and Ezata Wuz. . €dud'oir
Io'al1er

(1763r

-

. jo-4 v-,j-$t ! rq- o, .o.le,.o,\
Fev.DUe orchlsari m rhe tool,dhmi a\\ pae o oooblq ot co! r . I _

HdyiUa Charsam Ju03dlah Duc6ncola

aus

r (sa. ns)
35,135

_ .

t4,825
4,050

3,491

44Ol

N

asiisabad, shanabad

6

c.-

Say* orcasrfam 7 Ch saD) _ _ 126 sm.ll p suinrhs Erd slrosdhd ,i rho Ausl 1a4 Pelgs-To€l or fteTain,ldeiy s, R, _ rowfo* on rho rr'l b4 .nd [,lar ic j:eeerc b rh. ye 1163 A 811756 A D)
Ker,ysr sub*qusnrly

ro rhe

aroremenuondd daro,

chnDsois undsr (he Muqhal reslms l{47

3

35,13t

Dedlcr hrlr sebundv .lMrses or LIE neab $ill aduallv in.u Ezatu 01 chilusotro ro 1167 r^ n A, i I

- 'h.,lms {5m 1PE*d ddfl

ioD'oi mar.lv roaerl accou ol rhseih-

rnslrsh

.,37,761 1 111

,,33,41I
760-7-r4E

'
verelsi

Toral.

4 43,91S_1s 14 ncludes manY

w oerh "sv6,Y ois

nr lh:se dillereor

fteds

rrrd, l, lntodtrcrioi, P cir i qr 'v3,oLfs lerq b Vaisra f

Dhra F*u?s' (Jrdogar''

1700

443 i A Si.rory ot ChltuCois

tard. rh. amtid,,, io. oitv o.mpcd f6m p.yhs riro out ,hs/ o,r"n aqoysd va our rvp., o, rarhi j ho;i;o,.

sd

nd,Iet ftlr N
rha

\ql otrti,k w.E

hEIl ot $6 Froduco o' riD

lpp.rdlr 1 A lllot. on th.
Th6

Hdz6r,s

cf

ChittaEono

Doh:z i P.rsaia ds v.s ir! ,ams iot trom rha hc( rhai zd acco'dis rr was rha jasn ot aiy manslbda, or rwo 'housid prevahd ro rh6 manshda,isy{em, wrh th6 o\cdDrior or Buzl4 Umd l(h:n, rhe ft ,aujd, or s k Ch oaon, all ohs' raujd s iiom Nutullah Khai ro s bulind (han 11694n7t0 A D) wr. holdds bdwsen r,rEen huid'd zar and :s tow aE niio hund'ad z . rh6rc was liulr m labdr ma'ely 6 r.o i.r hrid . or less, rh€se haz,i. ot dohrz T had iolhhs 16 do wlrh aiy mnkot im. pe,ial mtsisb. ln Hlxy, rhr nams Dohdari s d.,ivid ,rcm rhd plac. ol ldioiiins ,4ideicss or rho rwo so .nhd h,znir, oi. sid iio w Mushm uhamodKhli (now

Hindu

slishs crma non

$aU r Prad6!h (ii Iid.) .id

onr or

rhe ai.esrore ot rh. oll6md hit

ot rhs slnkha, Therehe acqut.d ta.s6 zamiidari and nlsndod ro s6rh rhoE. Thh ran ly hd rtoi wlt heb u, ii ass ahiil rha o oin or rhs ot H:zari. rhe Hindu B!iduqchh. s6nohllly kiowi as Baks 'j(t' iy0r d'Jric\ or B-a-. w ec ed 6irhs, in dsa.ior or ii .oo{s8y r. H6zrk. This was 662!d * ! ebud tamil, riLla by rh6n d6coidanrs lk6 osnuioo .id shiqd4 by Esnealt Hindu lamllra! wi6o loundob onc. ,/sro .svonua olliDials holdiis
suad
rha

oi

rohi

bank

lr i6 ior kiowi who .hois lho aic*roGot lhoprclenrstisht

450lA
Dame

B

roru or chirkoonr

ch (rodne wis :p2oiicd nodter w dei w th ai aEi 'id rd' subsdetrca, \ru,nd a Hhdd sei al oihrir or 3 la{o zlmttrjri nam.d Fill s,bn shoh sisodia (h6 p,amp s ie\ h:tonqed) in rh6 tra,t or rhe vrcLorious Mushrls 1 .n .-t7 'olac o. | . : ,sly mr ionif,q his nrie. aiorhs

b

Burhs b,t.nredsirh* Lo Lheskh .lN aid he wrs an ,m lrc,rbts si.i,7ol're h,aiis I is saidr]ar ha rerherotrdy ez.rd lirhr tu,bule so{allar ,.zris atrd ssirlhsm all prkoi 6 uidq !rnd ro Mutricabrd only td f.i! r,e laal sid. nrf.' mr r. hs
ya

chirrroono (17i3r753

AD)

sdLl.d rr a lrica kicwl

or rh3:i oron

rs

roi

conr,med

srae \rl,iL',i,o,+a,on

h:. bsoi supolnr by local a pu'h! n 1.o /o.^,, r", a.o d o-rl'.h 'ro

plLh:s ind

MtrFhr Ahc!l (arrm sahrya vshaiad rheyb_"loioed r. the MuqhJI p.pqs or ,ha .rly E'irsh tuls heiriotr the iams ol Lrcrrmin s ooh ar oni of th6 promii-A.! rnr id sofcr(3oois. n rha E (rqrk. R.p (1762], wc or rlni Sirh l,ino in oo1rr .4 T,s ,oveiui orp,s 6r lh, h,. eioh'€6 h c.n,ud or 1,o !,tr.ir;l,ri ar Lha rmo oi tho c€sson. As hr as 116r ci or lou, L,orsaid bu'q!ril!$es

Ot 0'fr:lley, oP. .,r., c, 35 PP,!p 172-!73. Th8y hav.sbcbestr minrionod by Hamidullah
./

r

r 0, x o3ir3,,

1015

Chirkso,s uidsi rh. Mughal resims t45j

Lhar rhe ancenor or

Nia6

Khan ioii€d rhs

lsEiuddio,

c, dr,

p. igoj

Dnftr R(ud,

n hGs
6

by Nourzsh xrran, ql p p. p, 3e9. Ttis purhi rho hnBticidl deeds .t rhs Khan fa6 y.

sBrclddin, aP dt-, p, 222

452 I A Hhrod ol chtruqonc

Mushal invadins lorcls uidd Buzu,s U 6d Khan as a mililoty io malo iEsue rid o(cs ii 1665- 66 A D 1 hh Nu, chlmnr P haii ln matrassio K am only daushE, savs Al Khai. Thoy $us aid rook Fad AIL Khtsi rta I ro'no z"a npsods Thatwo rzri dm du is rha Mush, aid rhe BrnEh poil atrd Sarkiia srbrrnLial on or modeh Pariy, ssrabs conq$d a p€opla qu ot chi' rel bul rhs hm lss h!:1 no qua4el rhs ae ro whoss kothi(lrouso) ro Esue nasoiq u$d ovar on6. o, rhs sinshs or or rh. Khans and blows 6s is rhrr natdra,

a

AE

disrii.r ndm 6e rwo Ho?ri hml'es ha faza hm'l€r or !.z ibh ol ch(3sons

ol

H.z, r, sdv
oif6,sd

b

is m

o naz (Ana a Sish ol ch Fqons lamity orxa o o, no o,dy &lons€d ro 'he
Ka

rowi. lr s

phce soo,elly undq
rh-

!r

.p

our ol cuiiosiry was olsmnios th s hindsdnads whsi l sud&ily busr aM k'llsd rhaL rercwiEd qeieGl de.idiiq ,hs rare or euma Ihi! fazai wa. s!.n erEnevo zam ndd n Crrirbsons whicL' hh hn'ly eijoyed undd B,rish ruls.

'lre Ba'd.liolB-,m1 o' c"i2lVr1' Ir6 sum a sBiorl irhamohrs

notr{ommi*on:d orlcer, ddcr on ol h s Brileh oltrc

Th. H:z C or Ch asois srew so much pow,lul drino ths lard pa or ,hs Mushal IUls rrrar they oFnlv d€l'ed $a crvll admiiistr ion lid besatr ro $trle arrlnsin lhen own&v ro puihh rhen (raclorna:s Fauid Mahasinsh rook rocoursa io iniisue. He inviLsd 'ha l*dirq hsz i Lo hi! cou( "id n.achdoudv capturod eiohl or rhem aid Mu6hc.bad.2Ihus he b,oko rh6 powsror rhs Haalis:nd.o aiily
CGH

de 4 ot chtbs

Allli,

F or relu, of
E, P-

,r stn.t dd ntkr.lL tt

rhe

a]

ahhr.oons undd rhs Moshalrcsims a53

!d

.smpl. b lh. likominded landoMsh Th. ..rly 8fihh Ewiuo p.pet aid a B.nqali puthi wilkn by Nawajkh Kh!n, a local po6l montion srll anoLh.i lirllenriol hauli, 7.m idd idmily ii chnaqo_s. TT ram6 o' I\e F.7ri d$ Mangar Fam. Aooodnslo lhs purhi, tdnsdFan wd81he owmr ol an .nsisivs rucr ol culLivabl. land and erabl'shed . v'lbs. named ahq him.1 rho naha or Mansd Bdm Haza
lr a. .tr

rind! n.dionsd ii rh. .arly e,irkh riisui.h.d H.2 i we. J.oar Haz i shos6 oams occurs in th6 ft Mans nam Hazri .arly stlnsh .svonu. .trd Jqslr na' i waG Elarcd ro oach orh . ris lra$ o bud nad and Tsj sinsh ol 1776177 mon,ionr r zamird r bsloiolno ro rh. 6amo p iod.3
1

qi {r.ll ai irt {ltfl htrs I I r'4 {r5iil 6& qn +ttrq rrr i1i lrr rlr i! {tn

.l.rFln clo Efiff s€rFr,

z

I ,r s r, xv(le7o), 206 3 s. luddii, oD. .r!., 222

Chkhsdno

uid$ rh. Muoh.l r6slm6

1455

3iIEhi
Nur'llrh

Barrdlr Khan, loio M E Muirnmad Iu54tr, Dswif, Muh]hmid (h.n

(iri

N.im, Dewri MuEmmad
105_6

Khan

M

E

Naim, D!mi-MJhamh6d

Khan

Nari, Ds,,ax
Fah3n.{!li h

(hr,

Mtrhammdd Khan

10:o M

E

Narh, Dew:n Muhammad Khii

Brhsnrrrhh

(hi

N;im. Dsw:i Mtrhsnnad Khan
ise.ond

Ahmed D.\{.n srnin

Nib alrr

Talqb, sakhrhr-Nurtrcdn Muhimn.d,

D,w1r Mr

Farh t(han. Bakhshi Nfudd o.rJl!haLnmrd,

Kr BakEh
Muhrmmad Y)sh,

urrddin, Dewai -Ma0iRam

wili

36q K\an

xnd

Erkhsh Mrni F,m I0s0 10e, M E/r141 B s
tlu33i M!hammd
Kh3n, Bhalra

r0e7

Ashwio

lo33 M E/1143

B

s

Maii Ram ,ror a brjef paiod bdween rho rsmindion or

Fusain

456 |

A Hi.ro,y o, ChiI.sors

Muhammrd Kha s lqv c. .id rh. ,po6lih. ol ZulcldtKiii) Ba{hshr unkiowi, Dewai_Mrh.kum siioh zulqrdr xhan, Krrik lcg3-Ashafi Iloo M E/ 4l B s B.khd'i uikiowo, D6wan Bo.s.li L.t Khan, Asha6 0o ch.h,, ir00 t E Bakhshi unkiowi, Dswan Ba.utr Dutu siajuddir Muhsmmd Kh3n, ltor-J.htho itos M E Brkhshi uiknown, oewai Lakrh N ayai

Dowatr Mahastnsh H,shan o!l' Khan, uhsdG 1105 r!04 M Bakhshi un(nown Dewln llrahNnsh

E

r15Mr/r1e03S

soi ol asha Baq..Kh!i. cnaird 1113

Ds{.o -Chai6i kn6htra Mah,s iqh l 115 Ashnh 1 120M E/] r6s B s (lou,
Aqa Muhsmmrd N hm
Dowan-

y.

E

rsi monrh.)

Bano.li L.l

Mn Muhamn.d nsza

(hr

Gecoid rimo) r,swatr Fam shgh 6nd F.d Shrok.r

wnh ,han riu,J of dflc6, Mn Hadr (ll 0 3 s) wrli Bd3 KEn. hB s!ccolsor 11I20 B6)

ro rom. ,.aib .uDlhe

(

34 B s/loeo_s6 ME)

Khan(1017s3ME) zllqrdr K\in (I43 45 B S) Mir ADal (1t43 5i B s) Aqr Brk ( 59-60 B S) MahN igh (t160 65 B s) Aqa N urn {1165 66 B S) (hrn, h{ nrihsub.h
chhbcrla, .76a a7, ep. 249,216

CEAPTER XIY
SOCIETY IN THN MEDILV.{L IERIOD

Medioval sociory wa6 basc on relision. nolisious bll Br. powe ul hclors ii dsre.mii nq rhs waY ol liro or ,hs m€digval psople, F,om ss ,slislous poiit ol vlow, llro m6d,avrl socaly is iishrly dividsd hro fon rcl,qious communllie€, s o, Muslm,,rsHindu, rho Buddhi3r and ft6 Ch,irri'i, 'hs whici each or vEs ol sub.dlvEiont, h wll ba 6,a conveiiBii ro na(s an ,ialydoal nudy ol rho medhval sociery uide, $h ch$ircarioi.

IhD Growrh ot rh. M!.|'m So.lety clrirtsois s now a Muslim maioriry ,8a.1 No on. dn*v whei chiiosois ha' b&n a Mudm mrjo,iry dErid. rn 1301 A D, r5srobl populalion of $s d,srcr ws s ima. souh in hs propo ioi ol rhcs MtrEIiNroNo is found ro ba a r\4urlim maioriry 6a du'lne ca6ar Fdddi.k's visrr ro rhar klaid itr 1s6s a D,3 fircushour
Accordmo io 1972 census, mora rhan popura,ioi profe$ ro ba Murlimt

.ishry parc.nt of ih.

Haminoi, oP. .n.,

p

119

'Purch4', ql J

l s s, xLn(373),

?30

453lA Hslory or ChiMsoio
rha slEhde e jod, rhor6 w.s onen a kip,rirs srruqql6 amoio rh6 Muslm sulEis or Beisal, HnCu najasof Tripm and Btrddln kinos ol Arakan ,or rhs po$6$ion of rhs d ,i.r The chrhrian Po u9!660 warc also adlva durhs rha$rEcirh snd sevr eeiLh or Mudim popul,rion chn dsors ii.pno ot such nolLi.dl rumoils E ssnr,c.nr. 'n
havs boen roduced inro chi(agoio by m .hairr and coloizss much €arriar rha! rhs rrr Muslim conques of rha disri.t. whelhor rtu A'.b trador showod rhE r rclietoi ]s d ,.utr b sev \rh h more probablo s rhar ihs rslamrzaroi or Lhe dstrr.r oso.i nom rh6 coiqud by Sulhn Fa[hiuddi Mub ik shah A..odno ro lbi B lub, Lh6 sll'an was a dovod Mustim tsnd oatroiz:d

lshm G srppossd

io

rh6 A,ab

a hqr nrmed shaydJ

oiw d, rh.

ftrtrdim popul oi iicre6*d ro so . h sh d.oree rhd rhs dhnhr b3o8me ulLimnely a fu:uslih mlorjLy dres.

a ,ibutsd ro ssvahl t:cro,s th6sa aro (a) a p roiase ot Ghm by rhs Mtrslim tulercr {b) rh. p,ololy zhs acriliries or ih. Mrslim s'inLs: rc) irE co rbulioi dl rh6 Muslim .d10)aE aid

srowrh of

rh.

Mlst,m socieLy

h

oln*ly

mars3l Foilownq
soclely durris tho msdi6val

p

or the srclyrh of Mustii
od

Throushour rhe rud eval psiod rho Muslim qov aid ^ots Efkiis orrrcss oava auriva hotp ro rha hhmizd,on o, rha d ,id. Fakhruddin Mub{rk siah, rhs Musln conqu or him ssll led lho way ro rhs p roiass ot Mudm socisry. Th6 sulbi

hish

S'ciely in rh6 medigval

psriod 1459
rh6

ot mosqurs aid tombs n rhe disrld
,uhs or which eiisred rlll lndepsidBnr srthoab,
TalGh

s rim6.l Durhs rho ru16 or

rha

the &nqale6 Mrslims ro a,abla lor pllsrlruse.? sullai Nushl sh;h f said ro havs Gk€n an acrivo iirsrcn ii sorcadho Muslim culu,s in rha dttrcr Tha ,al,sious buildiiss coi rucred by rhe |Jusllm ru1e,5 drhg rh€ sutranaLs psod erhihir ,6tisioE zeal or Muslim rulere. i rho Muohal pdtod rho Muchal orlco6 aid'ha zmind&s conrruckd a lalgr iumb ol rcliglous buildins$ rho q,.aLiumb- ot mosqu6s, shrh* and .omnsmocrive bdtd nss arc rha dne.r evideico of rh6 relsious aspirarions or

'hetulerc rhe people who u.sd tham rh6 lnsc,lprione. dnd adnrois relarris ro rhen .oi.tucrrdi ep:ak

rha Mu.lim

'uhrs

aid h,loe ial orrlceE

and

Th. .oriviri.r of th.
chants

lvsd in chi rsois

rhar so

s small

commuiilies ol Arab

os-

by sulLar

Fakhruddrn

much

du.

b $a

66 mddt6 ol fta rour_ rsl.m as a p,ose,yririig rorc. appsred oitv !.n',Y. tho qo*rh ol .sar:s'n rhs nan hbolB or th€ suripreachers. Then coitriburon @

rho 6p,6ad or Muslideocisry ismuch s,o errhan

chirhsons has kdirlonallv beetr rima 6s BaE Aulry4 Muuuk' o, iho ho\ abod6or rwrlvs aulivas, AuLya, accordins ro rho au$or of ths ,ahr A6ad, ,1s tho arab c pldral ot wal which ssniryns ,n.ahe$ by

.iy olh racror, kiown shc rhe medhval

whi.h h

proxmiry.,,s Ths srlivas were, rhus, rhe rvluslm mynics who by.x.eprto.al holnsswon . h'qh pbcs
inEnded spnirull

460lA
in

Hhrory or chttrreons

srrh. In chirL.gons, rh6 wods artiy. (pdsdi buzu,s ol sred* hd rnowldsa) a,o almon idonllcal ii sslso Ea.h or rh^D wods bocamo a riLlo ol honour aid ths ctrll or sa is bitns plblEly @labEkd on rcliqious occasloi. sohs Mu:lim s s .ho b'd .uch ho,o'c rirlEs asshahid aid qhrzt. Atl ,co m"ij k his ny iBq ded Ilraral n"r rs or . %o ' . Iils loio qilqsl6 asr i rho iifdeliry aDd lives a viiuors i fs. A .i.hl'J is ons who ror parisErca r hLri: l.irh. Ihs aul'yas or rhe pts hos,ly belonsld ro surismw,ich phy.d ai ihrcnanr ,oe in rho lorm on el Musl'n .o'eLy
pn,.id
h.av6n aid v.n6mrioi on

suli.m h rh6 disricr ssvxet ordds or 'r.riq.., oir. wayO. Pder Muhamtud Mlqim €'vos .vdri.s oriho widssprcEd iirl!once ol ch sh(ya b,anch.r sutem ii ctrtrcqons,l All n6j. 116ss-1730) A D), a Iocal poe' wrirs a pden nlmed lrso Qalardu on iho mysric aDods or Lhe oBtand jva, bnirh ol !ul'rm. Ths 3xin6n.o or rhs sh E,l bhr.h or sul'r n

nrlir,

ch ,0166 dBcrptaollain( nuknuddio
wh

wdk n.m.d or&z L or shah ch bullih, a

A liroo numb6r o, Mlslm sainiswsll kiowi or urknown ro fada sith, visiled ro o, s?trbd ln ch tr6sois durns rhe mldBvol p.riod. ThBs Muslim sa s bolonoed 1o rrE Trdtrlon ,slaGs rha( nany or rhsss sah$ .ama lrom hs m ddlo

r dl,'did orr e 15.6 nrr Er{F q:ilq fi fri3q i nL
fp, pp. 99-100. For Lhe o gin ot chsrnya oider, !e.,4,i, In, 397i 402. Fo, a d6cu$oi ol Ch shrya b6nch ot suhsm sss sayid A A atzvi, A Hhprt of s!tunh to,
Fo, a dhcussioi

o,oaland*lyr !6cr los Alzvi,

oD.

qn, pp,30l 321

sociery in rho m6di.v6t peiod i 461
,rwslva

ruliyis'

lir6 .1ory

n'eanins, k slll A'lwrlt.kncwi loBt ooet, iamod r\,1trhamri:d Khai wa5 rhs in ro neirlon rho 60.calted lwolve arliyrs'1 Th. occomDl;hm,ds ol (ad3r (han Ghall rhonamssor lris elevon compairctrs, lesl ir would brdotr h6book F.oo rre pedlsra. or rha poer ,\4!hasmad (han ws come ro rnow ih Pr sid,, KoJal Khan c[rzi ad hs dleven companons, Mlh hall bronsed Lo Lh6 m?perod, we m;y Plair rhen rm6 ol ILvme n tho r hal or Muqrn anoLher loEl podgiv* a l or some €ainrsr in hh w6rk

.f

by s6a. Ths myrh or rhs so.callsd orioinaies tuoh rhh advenr of Lhs sai6 Eutrh6 e:cr or rhe lwelvo aul,ya! hksi mro b numr.al

6u'.o,rowol
crirly

An

been bDushr

ro fis ode. ot suftsm hdr re. ro lqhi by th6 Dopan'n6 ar HGrory, u0i-

Tho callsd'rrv6 sains"

lwslv. aulyat aid orh cdesores Thess I$s of hdly p'Eotraqss a's iiv,luabre

,'$ o

aim
for

Fo, rh6 rake or ocivsii3trco, br us l6L oive lho b'os@phical ' 6korch or somo ot rhe Mudrm saha of chirhqois.

Ah,l sultan s.hisawar.

rrtrhhrwar or tvtahi AE,wd miy Engrish ar rider oi rh. lsh. His o'is isl nd"D

{Jr ir{r. Y.
{I.r

tlijrr <-r qrr rr. :n4r { I.i'i sr-rrFr ilir{ qrsi {rrr ql.i {r. 1i3 qri !r.r a]lr
,

f. 11 tht "iarlrr {.4I <i!r rui. f{E raiiil
qr1

Fi.{-{ il@1,

3 ldl6 ,a,ikd. 1s7{ s s, pp, I r2r,

4621A Hkrory or cnhr,soic
G nor kio,,n. Tradirion daes rh ho cam3 ro chirlasoio ridttrr on tho back o, 3 rish wh6n.o h6 cahad ,s namd Ma,i Sawar. rM la.r of rhe m rr is rhar ths shipo ot a lkh or which a po cir or n5h was dGwi. This h nol impdbabh as mBdrev.l s6ad3l' ws,6 builr afl, Lhs rashioi o, peacock ( cr, M.y! pdkh ), swe,

5hrk, lsh aid o,hs anim,ts. Tho MtrlrErw radnion is k6pr pEssn/ed in rho by pod (luhamd.d Khan, wrro .l:ms ro ba ,he des.eidaqr. Tho vadi. Thei my for6Grh4s, I bow ro
tho

Sddlqtrs,am y, He v€s vnruous liks Umai In modery I ks osmln shlmgherr i. wisdom tike Al; ln cMrly lks ljk6 Hamza; and rhs spnitual gud' Irke rha rce yieldmo all d6res Msb or all .,ns and ammunnioi hs was bdn in Lho 13id o, aEbh . Wh la in his plomurc rp all ov6r Lhe slobr wrh Fr Hali (ral'], he.rved and pur on I'on's ol allah, a lch sw,m upLo them atrd orf.,ed ,h8m rs b3ck io sir oi, Bslyino oi God rh€y rcds
siLuared on rha Kadal Khai Ghr, sho wrh hrs ahv.. ,oamins jcyrully in rho country ar rh6r rma, camo ro,wdd Bad Alam who u.sons lolt lr mselr of H,l Khalrlr all

lei

My an.ssor wis M.hl

MahiAsaw wh

laid saw a daushGr o, fan a. a iymDh b6w c[me ]i h smlB and hoviie 8,es lk3 r[6 pqals or Iorus. seeiis h& Mahi Asawe besqed or rhe
16 waide,ios rhar

o

Lhem

ot rhoi

hElp,

coor of rh3 Ach yJs
lho Ach ya on second thoughlolf,ad his datrshbr in ma hsa ro him Aller a happy matrted fis lor GoN rme, rho siinr wr

So.l6ry

ii rh:

mPdkral poidd 1463

his illudrrous wfe s:va binh

Alam iPk 8ad, wios. llm laint ot ci,iLkgoiq. lr Badl ALm, rhe coibmrod,y o, Mahi Arawar is ids.rted wirh pir Bad. o, chhors d sah or Bthar rhen Jir$ harf of tha riie6 h

ro a ch Id..1 poer sivas 3 b,iar ds$rptioi or rhe hdly Fa is cd ro bo a co emport,y or BEd,

a NiLies .r Kadal Khsi Ghazi aid hG com prlions n' chrtrasois h cin b. i^rored thd sllrai MshiAsaw , i, 8ic, and K,d,l tivLnq r rhe s:me prod ii ch troqois mishr io1 raks pla.e ai rho

rhs

6aii

I wihess,t

(h6

D, cohsl us opr Laid,

hsb cat psreoi hr becn Lrr uisotrod-3 Dr opr Laid rhxks ftoHindu myLholosr thaword Nrahi A{w ir his view,ervnoto, sically ,ctaGd ro rwo Hiodu i6m The ntrr oie is or Lod Siva aid s.ood 'hs ris in. narioi.,'4 Atrq aya uino Mahi Asawnt tadir oo h or laqons aid ehowrrerc, hs r6achsd rh, coi.tu. siox th4 the pereoiarry ol lh! sulbi h butr wirh ra3(urct
borow€d r,om rr:L ro bs . symbot o, khm, vhrorious evsn when n as mtrch 6 he symbotses rh6 hLhirc ion of rh6 reqron, h6 k also rhe impeGoiifcdioi or rh. pEopte who rh6 iow rclisioi adcepred by lhen ho b,

dolio.ly o, ''e wherh*h3 wis a ,ail
h

.arli
2
a

ro4o.pr

!rthl ,&ory, pp, ss s9 I ,r s r, tx {le6a , 37--as

464 I

A

Hbrory or chtitasois

whrh th.ir minds uER srill o.prtvacd by Hiidd rohhotosv aid rhouqhL-l Mv N:midull,r Khan wdr€s rhor rhada.c6ndantsdt rh' sant w,o sill lvii! in hh rine2
r{odol Kh6n cha2i

inrdhaioi abrur rhs
pos6d by rhe

po,

LVa

ior sainri!

rha

0ra bble ruis

..

r,Iu)ammad tottows

Xran Tho hdnion

06isrldsicrl kbta.ofr. as Blaledtn ch:zi, who wa!
rhousaids

a5d asah ro

K.dalftii

^r roq ,s.l n 'hd the ds3p sei 'n ebvri

wo,ld. ti lishrino wiLh him,

\{hil0 rh) iiriel! dowi rn,l all yJr! kLllld ortrishr. I Jso 6ow
conpan on5 le$ rr: accouiL 5e

atmo{ lifekss and hs brousht chaLgEm, under hk rul.,
down ro his

l'4rrir. ors
aic

116 tu

ir

rri6rC or his den,oyed rh6 corrrkd alt b htafr.3 w,r a co lmpoEry ot lhsn roti.

dsomn.roi or khm i,
min.nly ooi Mrsl,m

K?drl xhrn was a rva(io,
rhe Ha

ara.

srirl and d.voGd hrmett ro rho di*ici, which w,s rhan a p6do.

h

rlso msnroned

ii

rho

Arabic

modeh prichahGh odLst shar, whtcr may D3 rho dsspelhis of shah Kadal. Accordrs ro rjotoE.l tad ron, irc vill.s: or Kadslrur ln Brozri u. z commcnoEEs rha holysdurkso, rhs sin( Mtrhammad xhan 6 na(dionsuss6sG rh Krdrl Khan Ghjzio, shah Odhl phyad ai impo a rols h $o

ln

rho lo.aliry

rnowi

:! (irals:ij nc

Tnitx€d ltum lhs

pa$aq6 quoEd in 0 5 lir940),

p

626

socbry
Tha lesend

ii
rhh

rhe medhvit p6jidd 1466

.t

shh:budd;n Talish, rho emiaenr Muoh:l hisroran o! rh6 mtd, 6sven,eei,h ce uy, ch6 ro rh0 sspuhhhl holv sa nr on rh6 oD or a hL|, 5irrnL.d

P

Esda,; rh3

a€rdi

s

or

DAUId WAZ E:hNM rh6 rorl,

ot Pir Eidrr in oi. n,

hc

h hs comhendrbls

codribution in r €

ol nB 'al\, .,a.

l

n5

r(!so2r, t7H a, a P\a Y a|

p,

!

iirr- ri.i ni{i; iz
4ii;i1 1lF!>

qr4rr

rriftr

F?iil rii.i qleiqrdri, liEtt 1ri'.1s qt@ i6Eci

466 |

A Hisrory or

ch

:ooio
s loc?l
o

aid plac*
Muzammil

.no,h id.rl
his reacher,

i, n

rrlr s,nrior
lr

idrirnriwn6 rrd.,rrthh.
3

lrr s :hi Erda

rudditrl
Bor

tss

k ns iiihl,/ /m;,ro:ail. rh Pir Badr and sharE Badxuddtr uE haraks rhs hole sdivn€s oi s.i s aith::d:cri.li i nniv!ot
coisderiis rhe
tr,nD ,Jdor,

!r,rios:

Ghazii bur sdLl3d ar

DB n

Tha chl(hsois r:di:ioi or p I aid, 6as ar 8..,d ioLi:c ot soma nlneredh ccnrury Elro'rnsihr s6il or.nLiras Ac.or diiq rd Beate's or.,ur sksqrhkat D).rq y tt E.tt .

. Musul ,i
ir
evrdenrJy

sahr whosr ronb i6 ar c,h. m i B-iq]l air ol s!m1 on,iqriry. rr,B i. o srri: :,rp,C iilo
bea,

5l!o anorhei

io

an

le illssiblo. Th 6 rhi Lonb rtLr i 3tib ot sknne, b:drins an !hstrh nsnpLon, rrpap ly (rom rho KuEn. Ar a sh.i dhrane is rra m@ld of r.rulrrm rd Yasiu wirh an iisc'rpLion .oivoy ns (he y. ot rjr lj30
Accordirs (d John Bermes. ths ,utt f;m6 oi Lro .ainr w,s Bid uddrn or "lull mod. or Lho G Lh , r$ r.ioj,ild orcnctisr rk.roher tho caro or rho saiir a5 roliovJ;l

H. it aho caUed Bidii.l-Alam or flll irootr or rhs vrorld. Boh ai Maad 1rn rhe u p) he t:d rhe ua h,il lro ora r6qn a,d w6! p'obabtv arradid ro E.i.it Hs lved tor a lors rima ar charoanw whda a d E,h or aniie, h sirtoia ol $t ao, (oispcro-! ,rd \ero arod p.acs or r lq -,ro !. h d ro hne Iah chiroqoiq shotrlv

I
2
3

n ,ro med'evil pdlod
bcfo,o

1467
t1

hs ,ielh

and sarhd

ii

ELlrd

rhns hB died
in h,.

in A

lr :s

's

h

lrlf

llre sory ol rhe sr . prcbrble soms Bdd uddln or orh camo ro ir as is rlro hislrly probablo,

somo liyporhdical vi8ws

anomF

of rhe .h,xiqon!. Fiv.'. wh

s.

robrbh, h6 swa and waded rhe mdrals nec*sary lor buikiis up L€ whols fJh,h otlBgeid wh cr h:s srourn 6und hk iame,2 ot rhs .aEr or $6 n c rempG, ilkr

;li

s Frscisly thal whici s commoi all sr ris or suproaLural h.inss, beti?ved iiby rho ,ilk ires0ectira of rten p ri.ular foh of protessld boIor ...,!, 5 p:3 snhotrlly a Muh,mm:dan sahr, asoidariLy rh sanr b6sr kiowi 10 rho b!1[ df fi6 Muhimhadatr 14 r.rins po:ularloo,

rre c!l! .l Pi, B h h dn obi6 or much dsvorion .mono thB rural a d m lLhre folk of chturas.ns, who b'tavs rhar rha namo ar th. siiL is v. y auspi.io6 and d r Lheir wo,k, sooft and
ro

!rlo5, .n ' ror.o b1 .la udr. ss IoGr.d bo nsni:r'H. pa '!, or Fl o.o. 1\:n " rE" 01 . ounsv ov sea o, riv6r as lollovG ,tra 6 bd child;cn. r
sss Riv6r h on ou, head,

Ho

B

rlro

su3dan sainrol

o

tive

sh1s,

Ohr Bada Badd,

Bad ,"4

1 I a As, 1394, pp s4o-341

4 Ths

.

tha

Eiilsh ,cndeiiq by

Dr

A IG,im ol th. lollow

ns

463 | A Htsrory

or

chtlaoono

on alt srde.

r aid

hi! word0rut

hmp

near. Tha evt

or

rhe

ddrlcl (ch i{,€ma or ch jsaoi) war doiived rrcm

?.opl.) betevs

rh

Lhe

isho
rh,s

qFr qii! 7
'

i f"t 1 1.i n.. -::pi.
rP
Tho l.q.'ody supeiiaLu.l powqs tsid acriv Lhs ii rhe dlricr havo bsen n ,ared by a iumb ol wrno6 such as Mv Hamidulah Khan &P !r.), Jimes wisa (Nd4 m r/r ro45, .o .t and krdns

sofloy h i e
(chakaia u. z.) Dadmkra

mgdBvat pfl,odt46e

{coxr 6az oistrrcr) erc. owa lhen rha rad on ot ri6
ehommsdais by Lho rhnre€nrh cen.

srm ro Mot,ya w Lh rhe cullus wr ,h a 6ur th6 shries Trk,Badar [rokan, or,hs
0ra 29rh

b0no p,fomed in $€ dGtricL

oi

n;mzai

or 6voryyear3

AirsNdds, when
in a drcam, ro a vtLea iamed Bdhl happsi8d to be rcbu,ed rhere.

Lhs

s

ro

11 6at,(s owi w.h,evoahd

rhar rho rcot

h

DEdc

ot

rhrches

o

wd

s,a$

Ths k4on

o4the ot

R!th.!

HLbtr,

a

sa

M, Forciammer. lL 6 reproduced i fis /kFrD6uacoz4Gli Hanqoon, 1917. vot. t, p.40 Pi' 0ad. dld otr 27rh B:].b, 341 AN/22 Doc, l'14aAD

th6 ca€4 includiis

rhe

supdiail.it aclvir,ss or

!ho

sahr

har

4701A

H

nory or

ChtuGsono

bshind il ir sald rh ii mo al I to th6 si m l€d a vcry simpla ih and sxDrc$od rris mBnr should be ercd.d shjii. is rha rh,jrhrLchen.oor has stn'e sirty rim,r b$i resulary reDnred dnry by $clo.:t sav.i H idu rami l!s. Ir is srd rh rh6 saint t!t! m!.h disk.$!d aL r5cn.ots:ica

llahica

10

'epiir

rhe sh

ine. rr.r.,rrre, ha /rp': ed ii

a drsam srioutd be .drusrdd ro

llre Iocal Hmdu5 Hhdu fah,les have brcn p,lohinq rh5 iob reqularv.

rh.i or ihs si , ii vaul is rh or N rsh.n .r sLonol sirins on whh, h6camorloais D cn a.r.n! s eill Dre*rysd ln rhe shriia
shsikh Fand. The s nr or FoiJ s,aL;.e.
G roPularly

vaulrs sde by side, Lh, wensn vaul( is rhe middlr r

form or slekh Fa duddm cait i.Sh.kk:r. Accord nq ro 1re r'r.r Akr,n, hh birrh placo tus Lhs vill:le cr Khoovil ierr Mu En.2 alrrw ds, hs jouhey ro oelhi, $/rerc h6 sas "in",uc(aidah , s:srai, Frc' of blesrr0s Ho bado fatowilt ro rhis

.oiilor

lldor,q ao.lo

or r\. r r ol 1:. .ar

. .6rr Io1 %!../ Q!,rJ r
h llierh

1

r

s

,,nr

d /+, in br,rdlh md h or bhck ..m. h h.fo wri ,n in arbic burcah nor budeciphdBd olrns L6 ir. .crEcqr condiLion. prob.bl,

named N zatuddh

Khr.ja F

('64s ^ ..lls h msel a de6cip{e of who idlddin caij.i Shakr,.vida, A flahimi op dL, ti sb).

Arnrd

h 65

sdc

ety in tho m.deval

padod L{?1

Limo.r thc darllr orshBirih Jrialtrdd'n Tabizl ,o Dr Abdll Halin, rhg sanr tsed c5EhLiy. ordq .r strtkm.1 lr is lia\ rhd ilso visi:ed .h tra5ctro .id Fardpu' wiicrr 8'!l,idEd e;i .
Tl.e

s:irI k ,inllrrl,, .slle,l

'he

'Eaba FE,ld'.

f:er

Muh:miEd

resp4clrully i..lqcr hrs nsme h his li* or saiiB, loies or rbq dr,lcr r'ro rahr k mo ioied

li

rha tolk

/:- ..T' nts- r Ea.d ire f6,a' -6'i!
ciLy a,oa,

sheikh Farid or fte Jouniaii ol sh6ikh Fa,id)

b

iamod

b rhs /trr. j nl,dn, hi9 o qin'l ir is dcd rh "he nov woG eame s ol rioh !5 ur8 and hd h6ld aloof nommrn -. The lrrad i ords hkorheir o gh tom him Fi: rcs'iiq ola.e is in Makaipur."4
3as3n Bsisal. Accordiis
Much iilorm ,on

sh.h uacar.

Tha nime ol lha6ainr

k

oco

ollh.mod

wid4rv

reesdli! rha .a€6r rnd piors .crivir.3

Ri ld-i.Mntti

Atdddd, 6 sev! eei1h oenru'y riariss w,{en by Ahdul Frlim3n chhhi. or sy,ia (b. 715 A H)

2

{r Fninij- -i. .irr j-iir. qr r P. ii iirqj ,..ir -nr .,F.: ' 3 rrr {i<" qi!: li.ftr r..r "rd 1i{r {iii 4li ni:tr i,,:. llE{ rlno rF1 rr.i ii:. .i;i !3r P p 324- Fo, ths t.d lon ,aq.dirs rhD slpordural acdvnes s* E Naq ,{ Hbiory
po
239 243r Hizvi, oP.

dr., pp. 133150

472 | A Ni'rory

or chthqois

./rsP,xt
rrrd. p.

1e67,e6.es

93. rh6 carss or rh! d.Lar bY t\, M N€q, Fizvi (qp Hdq. Brrs. sutt hohhuo, p. 112 Dani tttr\ttn archkfture

oi, has bsan dkcGsod ii d., pp.3ls,3r9) ,nd orh s

Sociery

ln ihs

medlsval puLod | 473

in ir. coract lo'm shdrld ba srlci Barad dr ahcm sisbm was a lamols towr in m6disv,l reaia Jd $e saiir was born rhe'r Accordiis to rhe popuh, b.lsr, oe saht Js:rid ch traqons for d.vorloial erdcisrs. Mv Hamid!]hh Kh, rcrucs rhk v:dnton End opiiss rhar rh6 holy p €ci3.Ja o3fe, visired rhis nljdsl
2 The oa 6 or ,ha sal o.cu,s,n n E l* ol pod Muqim. ThE mrzar ol e enr h locared h rha Sarkaii. u z Am ker.athd Dan suppd.ed eirhd b haE be.r ro-ids loy rslq'o-sserviurs 'to or ihs $h1. M3ny piprbr bel.rs abour Lhs supdhunan pow.E or rha satnr o,s a sdion oI $e royal houss cf D6lh. h hk ld.r I ro he savs up aU wortdly eir6ym6 aid dovored him:etr jo dssp meditaiioi. AnoNads, h6 vkired ch roons ric rade ur hh m'id ro 6s 16

sh.h Pir or sh.h

Parr

mado or

oia shdh pn

Jahan buni a arsoterm saiir belonssd b rha shdnsri ordd p€opto mGspall hi, iamo d shah P . Ai o,r.sho@ istind namsd comnemo,aEs rha sa ed acririries

d{otro1n of rhc$lnr.

,

o.e(ie,

shah ch.ri6urr.h.3

the

rh s

hro,malion rc0.'diDq d,6 lr. rd .elsbn€d sainr ir prcssrued in a medi,

Fo, rhe nadnion
For
dera

r

Blarioi ro liis cneer ard supemduGt ac

-

\r-Rtcato2s\-)56

led id,irioi ol cares aid relstous adjvtuie. ot rh€ saiir se6 Dr Abdul xaim,s anicta in rt$ ./ A s p, xll1666), 73 30. Iha rclevr po{ron or dre is raislared and ^k,r,z quored by Dr Abddl K im

474 | A Ht.rory or cir kosoio

aval rclsi,us work eiriltad Mrl,. Rrk,i or d€courx dstve,ad Ahmrd s\a i, durinc rhs p?iiod ,rom i6s2 1705 A O, whhh wx. co@tdd by d,o or his dsc,ples. pr of najsr tn rhb book ir chdb....nB or rh6 dsciols or sh6ikh Huktrudd tr...lss brried baik ol rhe rjvn Phjn' (Fo )." In rhe ouu!, or hh ralk bsro!. h6 rollows,s otr rho 3cLvtLics o, hs disc,rt!. 'he (. noknuddnl hmslr sard lh,r ho (shah Gh rq w4 lhs mbrah rs€ids.n) of ouriz (han Hs ri rh. hesni ns or prto.e D a sh icr when lvas dsr€5cd. h6 Fuh Allaf) snd o ry su. siLs dma 6 Akh'abad (AsG worldly I'ts ind 6mb,aced som6 days ho roimed (? Palna) hs,levetoFd a, dd,n) Lill I rsscrEd

ll'ts.rmeir showi o rrf darsakd allah's miid rhd hd renoriced Lho th. wrnduins I're ot ai 6.eic. "For Echhs rhs pta.s

li ls valt
rohrsd all

s6rv c6s sid kd su.h a hunbta rhar 6v'i th! lo{liesr wo,k su.h as ctsailns larmssw.. ior Iookod upoi wnhh rcd by rha6riit, prch$iois or aly I dd hrd

lro

ro rM publi'

dhchna rorrhssrhr Shah Huknu b'tnr a d.ciple -lre vEs

ro

htm Duris. pdiod ot his w.nd hqs he

.otrld

cache,. The sahr
c!s wirh devoriotr ! lr€rh, dEvo:ionat dorcaron PGvailsd upoi hih our or rha place (wenr away lrom Lris ,lac.) Lka . mad ti

s,!

LB

dlapD"'(o lo-sd.6 r.'6

uould

ro .a

,..osris

d rs ,.

r:

Btnqalah. hur norhiis naws reacho,j rh rherc (ar ch raoon€) h, was kiowi asshsh , -w.srhisrirts sivon r,yyour aus. us sel7" (rha saiir rcpli.d) rha Peopls or ch ksons

6o.isry

h

rh3 medi€hr p,iod | 47s

a..o dinq ro o, Abdul Kdrm, thB dara or Rurr Athht kioun_ rhe w6rld and 6ccapriis an m6to I ra may bB prt i bewlsi o,as .airu,6 aid r''vat ar osthi, i6, rh borwesn 23rd Jutre and .haiq6 ol his nam6 r.om Ftrh AUah ro chnib All.h is prob.bly d!. ro hs l.:dinea Door dau$are lre and ro, rhd sEme rsasoi rha iamo cha blllih was s vei ro ie saitrr by tho paopls or chhrasone. Ih6 dais or sh'h ch3ibullah'6 ,ivol chr,gois hds nor bsei *kd ii rhs r'/orfuz. Accodiis adval oghr hava kksn ph.a loms rime ai(er rhc Mustul con in 1666 A D. Civi0o 16 dde or dsmiss or rhe sr Dr abdrl GhmbulLh is darsd lrrh ch ibultor, mrr have disd broE,hs dars bsoauso rha dkcouE re,ec b hk de h

chs

n tha fi,r[,, ir h srardd rh rhs sriir tes burhd ii chi of rho rlvd Feii. Btrr rh€ o'siial m ol us sa trr cannor ba (acad. P,ohably, rhe m5z rEr rhre ei6d ro be destroyed by rhs violenr flow or rhs rver sid rhe coflii reruBii toliowds ndh rhe orisiat siE ro a h'll.rop or oamp a n rho io hsh pa ot rho c ry,
ms ioiod sainrs, rhers w o a hrge nuhpeBoi,se. baroi holy who besi immodalizad oily by rhs ciraroi or iam6s n rho msdisv.l wolks. Theqenea. loqcal hble, doibiEd in [luhanmad Khii s wolk and rh6 I]er ot ssiirs co ansd n rh. AEbc mriurcripr
B6sid6s rho above
s'ared as an

podgrco,614

shill sharruddn. inlm e ot K.ddl Kh
73-so

b fia mi,acotou' acrivirn6 ot Shah Hij

Khilil,a

I J,4 r p

xl js66r

473lA

H

srory or ahioaoo'o

Maii sarv:; and Ead Atam
usdipr olso co a ns +Bdrdvo, and iho sund , BoLh rhs

Tho Arabic mtsn

air mrch lohr on srEr rhs c eff or rhe .criviss of rhh ojves oily brisr meiLoiof sainr shah Zlhid. the romb or Lhs sahr lies in Mreed u. z, Dr Eiamul Hrq pu. or rhrss saiE h rha rclisous reld bdr ir was d1l lrearer tn rhe socisl sphsis. saia kind.
some

pedisre6 and lho AGbi. iamed Shah p.Di, Bur rh$o

actrviriss rhar acclsrared rhe prcsiess or rslamiz.rron. rha hsrhods oJ ca yiis oi mh:iomry acriv iosby

Khai Ghzzl vrho orld ro humbls rho non-compliair hrrdels rhe Mahhawar hdirton, prcsdN6d slsewh,e n Eensal tso drows hm 10 bs 6 miliianr hisson y who Lvould hko rhld ir ne.sssly n ot druos oway rhc evU epnib Eynholizes his elfo E ro conv,1 d,k ):id ol irfidels inro rhe p*sudon ro applica laid ol skm 8ur w iiinq 0e poDDls o!e' io rhsn i: h
ILko Kadol

Tha saiirs cxo 3.i a qrcor iirileico upon rho Muslrmsocierg ol Fed,sval ch daqois. Ths places ot their Dutuk arc .ommsasana, romt da@ah, mdrardd by buildlns Iollowo's !nd oitur rclisious minded psoptg
b6 rouid sainG trslped orc5rty tn iho Bensrl lchrus ,s mon or $e Muslim pooE dsvslopmr or ol modiav.l ch bsons had iot oily rh.n epniru.l suides omons
ded

huildnss

cobd ,o the memo'y ot lhdse salnc

.ai

1 E Frq A HBbtl ol

sqt,i tn B?e.t. e. zr9

so.DLy in rhs medtsval perod 477

and holy acriv

ihe contribtrrloi or ih6 Muslih schoh;s aid wriLeB i dtsse mhdhg Mlslm l6mnq Ets.n is ro less imFo ai, ftai 'nd 0ie orhs r,clo6 qrcwrr of rMuslm so.ie1v. n h8disval Fsrod a sood nu,ber or i/uslm poes or chirGso u w,ok a laGe truhbslorr'c oi or rha tre
tres

3nd tradce or sl:hi. ,iru!ls. rhs pfipoio p8opl8 hhil wi'h rhs Lsl,mc nr.s rM!slms lha l{sois or rh.tr s tplurat inec. .d !, .ts,.i.s ', i-" popu,ariry amons rhe Mud i' .ommln ty o, rhs districr. lr is
hava been wr tren

all Lhc avaitabta ktlhc n nsdevil chnksoig. A
by rhe pods ot
Lhe

distrhr surrrc.s ro prove rhek 16m

wrh ol

Lho

rclo,ous

xs. rajb aid rrtushamr desl G iiq h 3]am. A

N.n,hor M!z.mm I discr:sssrhe r Lesaid d!ries hen aid iomei n ovuyday ln', ths rnuals ro be obatued ii conn8clioo wirh and rre buitdiiq of new hou$s ald wtun o,e eicoun€B rhe lame, and rhs specal vi,rues inhrenr ii ca rn days or rhe week and ce(ain mo hE sr.." lowf, or Alaol dBals wirh rhs jnponanca or rha rel e,outs

lte.

injurc oE

which 6 oblsarory ror 6c Nirsums i rhsk daly

or shakh Mublb oiviis c. nddiri ( ,b ol sheik, Molatjb prc. rbE rcloious duLies 3nd oslsdioxs (ddd? &ob or sh. kh Prhn slEs a des lp,ioi or lsrtm D injuoioh. Doirrt4, Boq&q or sayrd Nu,uddrn deals wi(h rhe slamc mtuncLiois which rh3 Mu*
r,&hs, plorimase, alms
Lms

Qfoyd,ll- r\o

h

md

obse v6

darl,

rho ussrolne$ or p,ayer. iha slbFd ol ors or Muhammad ali h a work on El€ otrs hsurcroisror Mustms knd a Rq,r u, Qm!6 or Sayid Nurudd,a, No,ioh ot rho $m.!lhor. ^l6io.

470 | A Hhbry dr ch daomd

ol

on tsLnrh ,ires 3nd bjo!,hplrical sk .h or rho poprer oft& ndrr ssyrc sulLai ,; a seni hi6rorcn ..cou ot rho dsdh ot prc

or ihe!6 purhis h.va

be6n

of the dkrtc( popuh,ny or rho slbFct r\dJ o, rhs mo iokble wo*s

pa s

on rh6

Rdglsjrnyofsabd(h5n 3nd noiur Bii,y oJ Jsiiuddii. The$ ao*s a,e embotdqad wlh ndrrour advan(r'.s and erploiG or rh6 prophBr or stam. Aiorhei rhh cdsoory s sioi-r ritr.j or sayid suttan. i his work sb,riEr Nasrullah xhai w trs

hh .dmmun y aqaiin ke a F-nbs or ,,1 l"

Law of

cdd.

Hs quo.

rions and prohibiLions or r5htr ad urqsd rho b?tev s,o abds by rhom. He also clrts upon hk .oiial,oioiisr3 ro ab tsh riom ionnsbmrc acrlyiri4s fiom rhe betidts .id cus_ tons or rh6 infdsls (Kifirsr He uroes rhe Mrdims ro observe rha Drincjpal End. of rhs hlamic rairh did encou,.s* them ro abidd by rhe s. ioiural hws a)oia rhssa schohrc aidwir.rs

ii observrnq sc ptuht sprcad;no a kidwlodeeor ol ranstalioG
siimularsd ao inrere{

.moiq the M'slims.

Th6y

aid

ponds'i.a or

ftarv

condhuGd r. rh! prc_ diski.r wa, rhE hrcs scat6 .tr-s -i, , "5 s .o r D,n,s 60..at oo!.on or rha backw d Hmdus ro tam and rhav 6hbrd od .h6 ndw -lrqo,
r\,tuslim ponuhriotr tn rh6

The Mash-Fnhqi tirsr hal ot rha $van_ r@ h .anrury huirod a Isrq6 iumb or M$tims ,rom rhc coashl a'aa3 or Bsis,l and foGd rho unlodtriars vicrths ro .atrts ii dill3Enl p rr ot rha kiisdom or tuakri. This zls ac@unr.d

ch beons uiJtr

'hs

Muqhal roo

ms

47s

Mtrsl,m pdpuhion o chircsotrs. t se ium54 of Murm.etrlersrrom Lr r,ituohat la alb hslped 16 briiq 3bour rha predorn oiica o, Mrslm populafon i Muslm hm lies lorL Noakhal aid comlla b selre in ths EBrwh ts dslapslarcd ,n.!s predomnaido

lo, rhe

ot

La ry, the comiio or a

'ies

rhoush Lhe Mld r as a homoseilors bodr, s,

ro orh'n

.ommun

rcit

Ly. a

composb c.nmui lv

Mrslims or rh6 dn,icr

ars

sri

aly su0posd

Mughils, e*reh idiai Muslims. Ahkaiess aod tu so callad Beigdl6e Musl'ms Ths s,vidsz ctsiir jhamselves as d:s.enda s

Mlsllm socie,y.

rhs

old, blL kchncilly Mustim law 3id rheolosy. rhcy 0 aho h.rd

peopk of rho holy laid ol A.bD the r,iLF.ns:rd []e Mushats oics form..r (he ,ul i9 .liss of rtre dstric" for which rEy s $ll held rn es@srn lr rhe so.ery. co nl

who a'a

acrually

e woioty iidcd!d uider rh€ Muohals lis n!,dy aid wn, t€

comp.srrs rlimenrs n prere
daY Muslimso.ieLy

se

Ab

!l

onoin as 30 ,Hunrer, op. Pa'hai6 (Htrnrer, ip. n,.,

or, o

ilhb
141)

of n.orl. or sryd 'hsm*lvcr

p r4t)

Mustms .a]l

iao rA H.rory 6l ch(csono
Musllms (locally call.d Gaudiai M6lm, ii rh6 dhrrcr is svidsnrrn rhadrahd.l ac.o'dnq to poe, chuha/, on6 or his aic6 oB alons wirh his rchrivB l6ir Gaud io serle in chltrasois.2 rhs ArrkanEss iso-Mudms such tu Roh:is M!.lms, ( iichis erc. li!6 mo$ly in ths south6n lionrist of (ha dkrlcr. Tha Kamanchisa6 supposed ro bo rhsde!*ndanB ol rh6 loll vr, or S :r 51'jr. Lid and se(hd ii anr.n aid A,akan-chltrasons bods aGa by wlmei. rhe$ 6rx clasBs or Mrslims wsrc crierly Iorerrnas and rhey Iosr dowd upoi rh' s3nsale6 (locally c.lled Erni3l) Murlms who io,m r[a seve h .hss of rhe Mslim socieLy or rhe dikicr rh' Bonsaloe Muslims coishrs or such E.i6l e,ouDs as rhs Khambha,sy., Kuh.ha Kanhar, Ha,al,ya, Fhioi, Krroua srioDal s6ups as rhe Jol., Klm . Kam , reli, Malsnsi. rur.n 6'c.3 Huidreds or rh3 ptrrrs nom Lown Beis.l.id aneM ds l.6sd bv rhe Mrqhil! conribuled drciLlv rd rhe lom rotr or rhh class. 6aiy Muslmsor hrocrcric losr rhan o,oiml $atus and sor lused rnro 1116 so called Banssho Murlim! Th6 Muslim comhon peoph who amiq,ared inro the disx'd rom ih. ioishbou,hq a,eas wda 6Ed

Ths

iirlur ol ean,o Lidisn

rho Mrdims

of

orqhalty

consisred ot

ot ,6loiols obsdaices Muslims rrom rher owr relsio6 poiir o .'rw ".a dllcou4 ",d b6.orq

f,i:i rrfdrr r

or 3 ,r ., 1367 B S, p. 46 or thes6 ,a.es se6 A H Chowdhury, er. d..,

Soclcty ln tho medlcval period | 853

of pilgrimago to Sitakunda. Barabkunda and orhor places relatcd to tho cults of Siva and Sakti. Tha Rot'omglo refcrl to a sacred cpot
named Falamatiswara which har bcen identified with Sitakunda.l The Buddhist shrines attracted many pilgrlms Devoted public ol all communitleo journeycd to the tombo of the Murlim saintl in rearch ol the dcceaged saints' lavour or in eearch ol patdon. Yo get a sight of iaol and to acek divine favour wero the chicl motivas ol Hindu pilgtims.

Belicf in the contlnued life ol thr dead ie evident in romc rites and practices of Hindur. Alter the death of a percon, th6 neal rehtiver of the deccased olfer watcr to the dead for somo succeosive days. Thle ritc is locally known lr 'Hainch panl'. A great mejority ol the Hindu-Buddhict community still perlorm a rite known as 'prcta annat (locally crlled 'paiccar bhat' or food oftered to the deceascd). On thle occasion, materiale ol food rnd drink as liked by the decemed in llle time ere placed at a auitable epot near the homectead ao thal tho deceased may take them They believe that thc deceased pcrson comes in the form ol an animal, pailicularly dog, iackal and crow. ll the otfered lood is not taken by any, thc noar rclativee think that somc favourite item or items to br oflcrcd have been omitted and theco muot bo cupplied. The beliet ln lile altei-dcath givcr rice to thc belief in ghost. Medieval people caw ghort ovorywhere. lts habitual plcccs of residence were tho cremation eround ol Hindus ard Buddhistc and the burial grounds ol Muslimr and Christians. Ghorts were be' lievcd to reside on bankr of latge dighls, on hill topc, in bamboo bushes, in branchos ol largc tlees. A pereon who commits cuicide, a murdered pstaon, a woman who diec in prognancy oI as a result of chlldbirth will becomc ghort at drath. With thc pro' gresc of modern 696 thc beliel in ghost hrc reoedcd, but the namet of variour ghostr and ghort atoties ctill survive among lhr rurtic folk.

1 lee ruprc, p.

161

554 I

n Hlsrory of

Chlrragong

'pari' (nymph). jin' (fairy) etc. had great inf tuence upon the medieval lrfe and imagination. The 'c!eos' lived everywhere, in the lonely places. in the deserred homesteads, in the forests, in srones. in trees in water, in rivers and springs. women atfectcd with hys. teria or other mental diseases wcre thought of possessed by ,dain. oi 'pari'. Persons of mental imbrlance wcrs supposed as possessed by 'jins' or some other kinds of spirirs. Some ritual acts were performed by the witch doctors to force the evil spirits to abancon the body of the percon who was thought to have been possessed by them. This act of domination by splrits was known n. ,rrrr..l Medieval prople strongly bel ieved in sorrery end witchcraft. Magic practices were emrloyed nct only f ,r thc beneficial purpose but also to injure other people. Btack rnag c, a form ol the in vocation of daemonic or malevolent forces was r;ractised by uritch cloctors. Such ceremonies a; mtrriage an,J Liirth were safeguarcled by magis3l pracrice.
'

Belief in supernatural beings was an important asp.ct of $ocie. religloue life of the medieval people such supernarural beings as 'deo'(spirirst,'dair'r ? dakini, a demi goddess of sinisrer forcesr.

of the common neople. the

Superstitions of va.ious kinds g2in-^6 a slronghcld on tho mlnds sneezing at the rime of deparluro was believ:d ominous. Dropping oi a ltzatd on different parrs of

the body was interpreted differently eirher auspicious or on,inous as tho case mry ba. Hooting of owis d,liirrg rhe night in the neighbourhood of a s!ckbcd w rs considered ominous for the Iifa of the pati6nt. Seeing a s€ rpent on the r;ght and a jackal on the left was considered auspiclous but in rhe opposite case it is considered 6qinous, certain plants and marerials were laid beside a women in childbed to ward olf evil fr<.rm her. Medieval people attached a great importance to dreams which were considered very meeningful. Some animals were thouglrt to have supernatural powcrs.

I

For itlustration of rhis fact Ge 'Nasihat Nrma' by l'lzal Ali, qr
BA

,,

pp. 35, 37, 38

Socieiy

in the mecjieval

period I 5b5

fhe curing of diseases played an important lole in medieval social lrfe. lts effect was believed to be the credit ol sorcerers, witch doctors and priests. The art of healing eonsisted in magical ceremonies, puritication, incantation of mystelious mantras and meditation. Epidemics lrke malaria cholera, emall'pox etc. w€re
lampant during medieval times Tney took heavy tolls of human livec GVery year. Village after viilage wele swept away by thece dlseasss in thoss days of ignorance in med:cal science and public hygiene.

Persons aftlrcted with small-pox and other contagious disaases were forbidden to make any connexion with others especially the strangers. The people thought that the deity of epidemics entered into the body of the sick men" Vlhen a dieease attacked the person, a worship of the deity was arranged. Meoieval people rhought that all ceses of sickness were either the works of an evil power or the anger of the deities and the pati€nt could be cured only it the deitios could be appeased. lt was a common practice that tho witch doctors (ojhas) should be invited to pacify

the angry deities and to ward off the cvil spirits. The priests also took part in those rites. Pt ISonB af f icted with such incurable disseses as skin disea:es, asthma, canccr, Ieprosy etc' were con' sidered as ,accursed' who could be cured only by the gtace of deiti€s. Sometimes, the causes of illness was assigned to a relative or a neighbour and the sorcerers were employed to identily the harmlul person Death by lightning also was considered as a curse ol god infllcted upon the victim for some sins commilted by the pelson.
Medieval people believed in prophetic utlerances, foretelling of luture events and fortune telling. They believed that the wholo course of life is ptcdetermined at birth. The Ganakas or professional astrologers werc invited to cast a horoscope at the birlh of children cspecially the male oner. Peoplo cspecially Hindus would consult the horoscope and the almanac on the major occasions

of their Iives.
Belief in the oracles has given rise to a peculiar religiouo ceremony known as 'gacha'. The villagcrs of Chittagong havo

56 | A Hisrovy

ot

C6l116goit6

since mediaval pariod been performing this cetcmony with tho objcct ol finding out ths particular w;shss ol tha deities especially Ma Magadheswari Il can be perlorrned rt any time ol the year. For the performlnca of this coremcny the service ol hcalthy males is requisitioned. The viliagers assomble in the 'eebakhola' (a plot of land at the ourskirr of the village reserued for the worship of the doity). The selected man tnen bows over and over again in quick tuccetsion to the daity, sometimes dances to the accompaniment of c drum beaten by hie companions and behaves as rf hs were porsecsed by the apirits. While thus alfected he rolls on ths ground and occasionslly uttsrs oraciee, Various questions are put to him by the asrembled people and thesa are replied often in ambiguous languaga. A eimilar ritual was noticed by Manrique duting his sojourn at tho Arakenese caPital.

v
Medieval peopls were not wholly steeped in illiteracy and ig' norance. Though ths vast mass ol the scciety were ignorant ol three R's, yet they had grrat regard for eclucation and learning. The diccovery of a large number ol puthis in all parts of the district indicatee how greatly the society including all sections of people valued education in their culturEd IIfe. Most of the puthi writele had a marked degree of learnedness and the roaders of theee works requtrtd to be at least literate if not learned' Palm leaves lTalpata), prcssed cotton formed into flat piece of thin material (Tulat krgaz) etc. w6re used as writrng malerials manufactured by a epecial class ol arl3sans. Peacock feather, pointed at the hollow part was a popular writing instrument. [-iquid substance extracted from black malerials (e g, chhua or trlack pcwdery sub' sltnco deposited on the ceiling near a furnace) was used as ink for writing with pen. The puthis weire used to ba read amidst every emlnent, househo!d' listenels in ,almost
Fostivals wors en inseparable part of the socio'rellgious life ol the mrdieval people. Madieval festivals were chielly religious. Thsy gcve tho peoplo an occtsion of public rejorcings. ln the

rural area$ the leotivals waro organized by zamindete. EId al Fitr was undoubtedly the greatect Muolim lestival which was observed with pomp and oplendour. Othei Muslim religlour fes'lvrls were Eid al Azha, Ashurc, Muhcrram, Prophet'o annivertarios, Shab c Miraj, Shab e Barat etc. Some eecular legtivalo liko Hijri Ncw year'a Day, Nauroj or Persirn New year'6 Day etc. must have found their placec in the liet ol MuElim tectivals. Though Chittagong Muslinns bslong chiefly to Eunni secr, tome of thc principally rhia lectivals. such as, Ashura, Akheri Chahar Shu.nba Fateha e Eaz Daham gained popularity during tho later Mughal rule. The celebration of Aorrura was characterized by making images ol Hasan and Husain.l Th" celsbration, accompanied with playing on muslcal band, lasted for ren days.2 Shab c Barat gained special featuro in the socio religious lile of medieval Muelims. Shia festivals gained footing ovcr thc disrrict during the later Mughal period Besides these, the Urr in the memory of eome deceased pirs were also clebrated.
Pyrard de Laval notices ,,as great a diversity of ceromonies', among "the gantilee or pagans"3 in Chittagong. The greatect Hindu religious festival during Manrique'c times was Durga puja, which gavo them an occasion for display of all lhe pomp and magnificence that was possible. The preparations for the Dulgr Puja in a rich family wcro on a giand scale. Father Manrique dercribes the celebration ol this festival at Diang ac followe: I have noted before thar all the Heathen of those parrs werc wont to hold a great fostival at thc new Moon of the month of June, each year, in which they caried an ldol in procession. To thir ldol thoy give the figure of a woman and il wa. called Druga (goddase Durga). At thie festival tho Hsrthon living near Diange and othcr Christian settloments woro accustomed te borrow from the Ghristians silk cloths, rugs, iewellcry

I Shoriyot Nomo, il.1373.1376 2 'Nosiyot Nomo', qtBAP,1375BS,p.64 3 Lovol, l, 333

558 | A History of Chtrtagong
and the like for the adornment housos.l

of their

ldois and al:^o

of

rheir

The Durga Puja leetival lasts foi four days and ends by orqan,z:ng a plocession during tho immorsion ceremony. Community feasr
and animal sacrifice characterized some religious festivals of medieval Hindus. Festivals provided women wirh oppcrtunity of Ieaving their houses. On these occasions they were allo'ared to share the rejoicings with the orhers in visiting the adorned idols in rhe decorated templei. Other festivals in which the cornmon oeople were allowed to participate were the Rathayatra (Car festival), Janmashtami iBirth ol Lord Krishna), Dolyatra or Holi. Rasa, Kojagari Purnima, Shivaratri, etc Unlike our timos, Hindu religious festivals wore organized by rich individuals.

The grearest religious festival

of the

Buddhists is Baishakhi

Purnima on which day the birth, enlightonment and great demise of Lord Buddha took place. tt is difficult to state how this sacred

occasion was celebrated in medioval times. lt is equally difficult to describs such Buddhist festivals as Madhu Purnima, Ashwini Purnima, Kathin Chivar Dan etc. owing to tho absence ol details'2 Christians of medioval Chittagong celebrated a number of their religrous festivals irr a befitting manner. The writings of the European missionaries refor to such religious festivals as Lent, Easter, Corlrus Chrlsti and Christmas, A report of Fatlrer Barbier, a missionary visiting Chittagong in 1713 A O, is of great value rbgarding the celebration of Christian festivais during his time.
Monrlque,

Mrnrique here commits an errcr in computing time. The Durga Puja festival is celebrated in September.October, and not in June as our traveller states.

l, 292.

For the discussion of the celebration of the Buddhist festivalE in Chittagong see Dr Sudhangshu Bimal Berua's articles ln the /I'losik Eosumoti, Poush, 1370 B S and /Il R, March, 1966; Dr Sukomal Chowdhury, op. cit., pp. 63-83. P R Barua, 'The Buddhist festivals in Chittagong', t A S B D, XXI (1976), 188 200,

Soclety

ln thc medlcval perlod

I SEg

Accordlng to him, rho Chrirtians of Chittagong celebrated the religious fesiivals "with the same order and solemnity as in Eu,opr' 1 He narrates the celebration of some religious festivals of

the Chrisrians of Chittagong as follows: I was charme.. to see them perfolming the ceremonies of Holy Week, tho Reposirory, ir.i which tho Blessed Sacrament was placed, occupierl the whole height of ttre church in the form
of a throne with several riers. There, without silvering or gilding, slreets of iia rrewly melted, and shaved in flowers and fos. toons, and ar;plied against pieces of decoratl,rns of a red hue, prorluced a very beautiful effect. There is another ceremony which is invariably observed among thr: l'o'tu{lucsg. They sel,:ct a Sunday in Lent, which they call Donringo di: Gruz. They reprosent, in a procegsion, Our Saviour b:aring His Cross. This ceremony was carried our with admirable order. Ih: starue of Cur Saviour was made Iife.like, althouglr of m rrs than humlrr size lt was placed oir a i,iler. and ti'e Saviour was relrresented on His knees and bearing His uross. Iwenty.four men carried the litter, and the F.rther in a cope, holding a veiled Crucifix under a violet canopy, ended llre Procession. t he stations made from time to tim-., added to the mournf ul penitential chanl, filled us with devotion. Ttre Procession made the tour of the place by four rcads laid out by rulo and line.

But what edrficed m) the most was tlre grave and modest way in which a ntFretinj wJs made wrth anorher statuo repte_ senling the Bless:ti Vrrgin and a third representing St Veronica wth trer veil irnprinted with rhe holy face of our saviour. These represontations have somethiog of the majestic and pathetic; they rnake an extraordi4ary impression on these peoptres, and I myseif could not refrain from bursting into tears.
The Festival of rhe Blessed Sacramenr wrs conducted with equal magnificence, and as yet nothing like to ir had been

1B

P P,

V[ (1910),

203f.

t60 I A Hlrtory ol

Chttragong

seen in this country. The Prelatc thotrght proper to divide the coremony. ln the morning, each in his own church heard
Masr and made his dovotions. M the Bishop celebrated pontitica. Ily in the one where he residcd and gave rhe communion. About three O'clock, Veepers woro sung, during which the Chric.

their Shrines, and lhe habit ol their Confraterniries (th6so arc a kind ol surpiice): thon the procession went forth. It was aetonithing to behold wirh what care thece good folks had decorated the rttectr; archce of triumph, festoons, Btleamers, rows of treer planted expresrly oupplied the place ol tapo3tly, swivel, guns, mortarg, musquetry f requently re6. ounded; and when the procession returned at thc beginning ol the night and when each Chiristian wac rscn holding a lighteo taper, without counting the torchcs which waro numberless, thie illumination alone, accompanied by fireworkr, would have deserved the attention ol psrtone posscrsed ol the bsst trste.l Thc celebration ol ruch festivak cs Naba baishr, Nauioj, Hijri New yerr werc connectcd with rcasonal renewal. Two of the molt notcworthy ceculat leotivrlr were'Bihu' and 'Nabanna'. The obrcrvtnces of the ceremonies of Bisava Sankrantr hae been mentioned in thc Rolomolo.2 Bihu ( > Bichuvr, 8 year cnding lertival; ir thc principal fegtlval ol the Accamece. The festival was colo. brated by rural lolk of rll rellgiouc aftiliations with eeremonlal house cleaning, tlking bettcr food, feaoting and amutcmentr.3 Thc 'Jek'or bush buining oer"rnony,4 pcrformcd during Birhu fertival may havc relation lo 'yom' (hillo) burning of the tribecmen ol Chlttagong Hill Tracr. On the prcviouc day ol the occarion, rho peoplo pedorm cutaln rites related to tho paering ol tho

tianr of the other two churches arived with th€ir

Cros6es,

I
2

3 Siorlyor Nomo, Il. l,OlO 1025

!t

tbtc.
s B,

xtx

(t Bso), b3B

I

tDtd,,

t. tor!

Soclety

in the rnedieval

period | 561

yeaf. The housegatewav or 6ntranc6 is oftr,;'r huog w'th wreathg mads of flower and loaves. They hanq tryreath of llowers on overything of the hnusehold objects and c'ecorate their dornestic animals wiih wreaths.l On the day of tho occasicn. the peorJlo rub oil mixed with 'oarbaushadi' (a kind of seed) on their brdies and then taka bath. The most alluring leatuta of the festival is the eating of several kinds crf sweetmeats and enterta!ning the guoals with the sarne This !qihu festival of lha Clrittagonians and tho Assamese agrses with ths Sangroin rSamkranti rathor Chaitra Sarnkranti) Kyadah or the New year festival of the tribesmen of Chittagong Hill Tracte.2 'Nabanna' or takirig of food prepared
recently reeped crops was another notablB festival of the HinduBuddhist community. PIouqhinE, first f nrit {nabanna', harvest, wera some of the occasions that have relatrons to rhe egricultural rites and fostivals.

of

To attend the fair lmela) was a part of lhe socio.religious life of tlie metjieval peoplo. Most of rhe madieval fairs wero
arranged on prTi6dis2l religious occasions, around, in most cases the

vicinity of religious buildrngs and placer of warship. Two of the notabls Hindu fairs wero sirakunda ard Ariinalh falrs on the day of siva chaturdashi. Muslim faire took place near rhe shrines ol Bayezid Bostami, Maijbhandrr and othar d*rqahs ar.d maz;rs. Tho Buddhist fairs of Mahamuni, Thegarpuni, Foracl-iin erc. cjate back to the late Mughal period. ln the lt/lahamuni fair 1li6 plains peo. plo and the hill people met together ro s:rchange or to rrade on goods' People from ail corners of the d,strict anri of all wa ks of life gothered in rheoe fairs to sell and purchasa cornmodi,les and to onjoy ehows and entertainments.

vtI
There were various types of popular recreations which supplemented the pleasures of the rich and relieved the poor from rhe darly drudgeries of livel hood Cock.fighrirrg (Irrlurgibaji) wi.,s one

ttrd., t. 1or1 2 1 s s o, tv (tags), a4

I

562 | A Hisrory ol Chtrraoons

the popular entenainments whrch had equal appeal either ln fauidar's court or in th,) c:urtyards of the village peasants. The tame of fighter cccks of Chittagong reached the durbar of the Nawab of Murshidabad where such species were highly prized.l Another popular game was wrestling maiches which wero patronized by all seclions of rhe society. A local po-^t named Uzir AIi Munshi writes that his ancestor pahlowan Abid was granted the title'Mallo' and with it a lend assignment of moderate size by the 'nawab' (fauzdar) of chittagong in recognirion of his ckill.2 Drumming and other mrrsical exercises and fireworks were some other prevailing iterns of enjoyments. Medioval ,sipanthis, (a round shaped envelope conlaining a Iamp rrir!-rin) msy have relation to 'fanooo' (a curved envelore inllated with gas produced by the flames of a light and rising skyivards) cf ilur times.
household ganr;s ,pashakhela. (dice), which dates back to the Vedic period, was tlr; most popular. playing with dolls, making rnud idols, running. swimming erc. wcra some ol rhe mosr Among

of

the

popular games among young peopl'. Two

'Ghazlr poetical capabilities either of the single person or of rhe c(,ntending i:arties. 'Ghazir Larhai' means the explcits of rhe Muslim Ghazis na'rared in the form of srories ln pcpular gathering on ceremonial occasions 'Ghazir Pala'was reclted b1 a singlo man with his party. It was unlike 'Kabir Pala' which was actually ,Kabir Larhai'. Two kabis tpoets) one againsi the other gave a demonstration of their knowledge of shastras and ingenious twists in interpretations, lts enjoyable feature to the vulgar was personal attack.

of the popular entertainments werc ,Ghezir l_arhai, and Pala' These woro really poeticll contests, the exercise of

L

2 ? P, p. lso

Rtyoz,

p. 4t

6ection

6 tnteraction among the different commumities

is the ho*" of diverse religious communities. each of which has irs own distinctive traits. So far as the polrtical history of Chittagong is concerned, each one of the four communities co:':frcnted with th6 orher for the domination over ihe district. But thg social hisiory pr€sants a diflerent picture. Social histoiy is largelrT I hislory of actions and iflt€ractions amoirg people of drfferent cornmunities. lncliviciually or collectively. people of onc community wili tend lo react on lhB people of other conrrnunities. In the lield of economics, this interaction among different commuC.lrittagong nilies is more c)bvious The producers, buyers sellers and consumers had no religious distinctions. Everybody could engsge himself in various occupational activities and everybody could enjoy the fruits of the occupational activities of other people. This inlercommunication among the people ol different communitres is one ol the most ramarkable features of the social life of the medioval
people.

The intoractions among the dirferent communities reveal itself in ths socio religious beliofs of the psople and in the observances of rites and ceremonies. llindus and Buddhisto have been living side by sido since very early times, Many features of the social life of the one were so inextricably mixed with those of the othor that one couid not recognize a differenco batween the two societies. Surrounded by the larger Hindu society, tsuddhists, especially the Plains Buddhists were becoming closely related to Hindus. Borh the communilies were idol worshippers and a large number of Hindu deities (soma of them wero originaliy Mahayanic deities) found an easy access into the Buddhist pantheon. The inlluence of Mahayan Buddhism on Hindu religion is conspicuoue even to this day. Goddess Magadheswari. originally a Mahayanic deity has been given place in the Hindu pantheon. Buddhist doctrine ot the eanctity of animal life. the cult of Dharma. the Buddhist

55{

.

,4.

l-lloror.v

ot (:r:ttflgor\ti

Tantricisrn ahd mil*y oti/Er Buddhist concepts have profoundly influenced ilirrd.: r*Ligious conoopts. Ths intermingling of the two colrlrn rnitiur lio13 so far that lho two arrpaared to a loreigner as bsings of ihi,, lam r llind.

What str;kes uE i'nost is the imprseslys interaction between lolam ar-,d Hin,;juisnr, tli{, tv.to diarnetrically dilferent relgions. A long stay of the two communities in rha sanie place ]ed to rhe growth of mutual undersi,lrrrling ard apoieciation of each other's culture. Musiirns were iargely rl..c clescendanis of Hindu converlo. Thersfore, it was eurltl n619,al tl'rat J:rre-'slanii<: b*liefs, customs and habits parsister! in ttre tr4uslim EGcieirr. the i-lindr_r zuddhist doctrine of rtr-birtn and 'kanna was lo,as.:iy adopted by rhrr Muo lim common peoplo Many of thoir practicrs ancl observances were in common with thoser of the Hindr.rs 1 Muslims were accustomed to study the zodiac circlss. fflovetrfli-r? of planets cnd stars, and occult influence of stars upon hurnan acrirrities,il thcugh ,ilnru nujum, or astrology and forotelling of fururo evonre are p"ohibired in lslern. Poet Alaol diocusses tho iufluence of zo,iiac circles in his work Towfo lnflu:nce of i-lindu religiru: baiiefs on ths rural Muslirn society was Go extensive that liluslims of Iate medieval period used to pay hornage to Guch Hindu ,Jeities as Mahalakshmi. Chandi rather lvl,an ral fhandi), Megadhesw;ri e!c. wiih slaughter of enimal as oiforing to the deiiy.3 on tha iluthority nf soyid sul. tan wo have been inft:rrned that rl're Muslims were accustomed to read and hear the Pdrqgoti Mohabhorarr.4 This rranslatory work Was cornp,ssod by ordero of a Muslim ruler who hed great inter_ ost in Hindu epics Not enly tire eSiics but tho Hindu nrythological stori,;s ancl folktores gained par:urariry arnong medieval fu''luslims Many Mualim writ*rs frequerrtly refer to l-lindu deiries and tsuddhist saints in their works. lriluslirn Foets, for exampls,

1 'horiyot

2lRBS,pp

Nomo,

possinr

3 Shqrtyot Nomo. il 889 g92, 921-g2g, 4 Sayia Sulran, Ofot e Rosul, prelace

105-tog

g39 g43, 961.S64

Society

in the modieval period i 865

Sayid Sultrn, Shaikh Faizullah, AIi Raja wiore on the physlcal aspoctr of the yoga docrrines. Muslim poers such as Alaol and Daulat oazi were w*ll versed in sanskrit and wroto highflow,r Sanskritic Bengrli. Poet Chuhar srates thar one of his forefathers Iearnt sanskrit with the help of a pundit.l Muslim poers even theorize the common origin of ts15n, and Hirrduisrn.2

During the Muslim ruie, the !slarnic culture gained predo. minancs over other cultures, poliricalty and economically, ths Muslrms occupied a superior position. By virtue of their belng as ruling class, ivluslims exeraed a great influence on rhs social life, dress, manners' language of the non Musrims. persian was sfate Ianguago and lingua franca of a]l rndian furus]irns 1'rre peopre inespective of religious creeds hecJ ro learn persian to eain job a under ths goveroment. l.rindus of Bengat almost e.quailed if not excelled Muslims in their knowledgo of persian. Frorn ftur_ra Go_ swaml down to our great grand dabir khas parents ieernl persian from Maulvis. official decorum and eregant rnanners required thc people to learn Muslim etiqu'tte and to wear Muslim clress. Hindus were prudont onough to acconrodate readily to the situation. The Muslim holy places were held in reveronr,e by tho Ftindus ae well as the Buddhiats. The majar sharif of $hah Mohsen Autiya is still under Hindu supervision. According to Talish, Buddhists during tho Arakanese period used to pay homege to the sepurchral monumont o! Pir Badr.3 The cutt of trir exert.d such a great influonce upon medievel Hindu belief that sorne of tha Hindu deities wele imagined also to be pirs. A numbcr of poems based on

1 g e P, 1367 B s, No. 3. p. EZ 2 tq-r; ql( rrrqarl{ q6t tor-un

cs{ {(f,
i<etnm

qlm.t

rq;d (s{

,r?,e

r

{cer q?q
rATI;I
I

r

r

qr* lc?Tt<"6 ,eet EqTSrr otr trr* 'iTq f,rT
3
lV, No. 2, p. 94 Fstnyo, p. 181

;rtE:Irq I

r

-P

B G, part

506

1

n

Bistory

st Gtrittagorld

tho .ctivitiee of Setyapit, Trallokyapir eic, corflpo$ed by Hatirant Das, Dwiia Ramganga and otherc have been dtscovered in Chirtagong.l ln Chittagong, Hindus especially Namashudra section belevo in 'manrs' or oath to a patticular dt ity in their relatives' acute illness. lf the eick person is cured, the 'manas' is redemped by rhe sacrifrce of animal. 161" lslrgious concept seems to be correlated with Muslim religious custom of Ourban or sacrilice to God.
The long association of diffeient religious creeds led to intercommunity harmony. Political power, religious beliefs and racial prejudices could not put a barrier on the intercommunicaiion among the people of various communities Common environment. common economic activities and the government's enlightened altituds towards the subject people providrd stimulation to ths intelcommunity relation.

1 g p P v,

l-i, rbo; i ii a4. 94.9s

r

t
I

---.__.--_.,*S

CHAPTER XV
LITERARY ACTIVITIES

the

Pala periods With the exception of the turbulent pathan period, the tradition of Iiterary activities was maintained throughout tho medieval periorl.

Chittagong has a reputation of being a centre of iearning since days of the Buddnist Tantrik wrirors of the pala and the ost-

Se-tion 1. Patronsge of Bengali &iterature bv the Husain Shahi Fauidars of Chittagong
The enlightened and liberai atmo.:phsrc of the Husain ehahi rule produced an age of brilliant llterary acrivities in Benoal. The Porogoll Mohobhorota srates that during hrs tenure of office aa a 'nayak' (comrnander or vicsroy), prince lrlusrat Khan gaye instrucfions to Kavincra Paranieswar to composrl a narrative poem based on tha stories of the greet epic Moho.bhorotc.l

The name of lashkar Paragal Khan, rhe Husain Shahi ollicer of northern Chittagong has baen immortalized in the history ol Bengali literature for his liberal patronage to the vernacular literature. He gave orders to Kavindra Parameswal to proceed with his work of transtating the original Mohabhoroto into Bengali. Tle grarified poet explains at the beginning of his work, the circumslancee

I ulqe

drils ffi

GT

{rfirs

rtrq

I

ilETtm aTdrql

!T

1ttil Eru,U

568 |

A Hirtory ol

Chlttagong

lcading to its composition and the 1sl31ive briefnees of his work.l Dr Diaesh Clrandra Sen holds that Kavindra Plrameswar transIatsd the Jl4shrbliorato down to tho Stripatva containing a total ol 17,000 sloka; (varses).2 The name of the work Btioy Pondov) and that ol the patron (Paragal Khan' have been known llom a Sanskrit work written in l6t0 Saka (c. 1688 A D).3 Surprisingly, in some places of ttris translatory work tho authorehip has been ascribed o the patron himself,4 However, I very valuablc evidence of the authorshlp (Kavindra) title ol the work (Bhorot Kothol. palronage r Lashkar Peragal Khan ), and its popularity among tho people irrespacitvo of religious creede is supplied by poet Scyld Sultan in his work Ofot e.Rosul.5

1

q"ot Rg1flrr qtd ri;ils slt{.qJ

t

S<1"E n<{ qrg qtuteil <fuirr t! -Ot t S , (1940), pp. 258-259 2 Hlstory of Bcngoll Longuoge end Literoture, (1954), pp. 189 190 3 gl{818.9', ?qniq', ryqi t<qil1l6u4{a l efrg< etr{'{(El t4girs 5r(Is1ts' oKif,lsq- t t Ul"r*ta6' {r{q.i E{{;il{ r6ri<{Is I -otIs '(1940), cErtv-iEr cTtli<iRl cslEslq'si{ls at{ltt p. 263

1q{T;E riT.g(rl {Krte- <Iq'<I{s} } I <4<I(q qtt,:;t<: EI?{ <q{il I [T4'{Cs oo' <i:q. <c4{ t{r-q< I I <scc{s qrTEe6Ts q'5'ls (rits t Co{5ICE' slu qc< Ttq sc;qts t .stq c< Tefl <iq qrcTt'i{t ?rcqro rr;facs qttr q'rutql atugt t t stqm qtcq{ Eliqt qs(s Et<n t
t r

4

qlr.t {cq [flf<ar E{6t rr;tarc {r:r t<1;} V<{ l-l' Probably it ic a mistake committed by the oqibe. 5 oTrf* rr{rtlq qt{ tqcg q'< t "{IT v<1.8 s rs <sEl tiqat t<ofr t I tlt g gfi!{rd ylg wr qE "lWJ -Profrec "rrur,t
I

qiFEIGr

Litoiary activitloc I 569

Thc authenticitv

rl

Kavindra peramgswar,s auihorshio

tinath Shastri, who bends to think that Kavindra ol Mot,obtorote was no other than Kavindra Patra, a minister cum oene!.al of the king of Kuchbehar. The critic exoresses the ooinion that the
victorious campaign eoainst Kuchbehar was comqlandFd bv para'al Khan, a general of Sultan Husain Shah. Paraqal Khan took the vanquished king along with his minister {Kavindra Paira) as priooner ol the Gaur Sultan. th6 yisr6rious oeneral, knowinq rhe poetieal qualities of the vaneuished sehol6'. qave orders to the latter that the translation of lhe ltfofiobhoraro sheuld ha d^ne within a short tirne t But iurfqed by ci'cumslances \4r Shastri's oninion ig unaccepteble The historineitv of the aJI, cpr"t inrrae'on in Kuch behar by Paragal Khan is qtrestion+ble. rhere i.-q no errr'dcnce ,o provc that Kavindra Patra anrl Kevindra Fgrevvr,.g,syaT rryare tho samg petson. lt rS eqr"11, inc'ediblra that Paraqrl Kharr srrrjrf;,rly hpeame eu'ious about the livas of the haroes of the oiFa? er:i. vvhile rhe viol*nc+ of war was srill raping. Mor+j$ver thc pont nowf,ere in the work mentions his connexion with Kurlibahar and the inv.'sion of Paragal Khan in it. Tho orioinal namc ol the work ic not kncwn lr has been varirusly written such as Bijoy Pandab Bharat Katfia etc. by other writers. It io, however, widely known as iho Paragall
Mahabharata.

translated Mohobhoroto has been called in?o question bv

rr,

of

rhe

e4u

The Porogoll Mohobhoroto was a very poDUIa' wo'k 8s menuscripts of this work have been discovered frorn all p,rts of the FreFartitioned Eengal, Kavindra Pararneswat wes a profound scholar in Sanskrit, the translation of somc origina! slokas in 'he work testifies to this. lt is generally b*l.ieved rhat his work is the oldest translation ol the great epic into the vernacular l6nguagos.
Paragal Khan'c patronizarion

by his worthy eon and aucce$or Chhote Khan or Ct,huti
1 Gaurinarh Shsstri,

of Bengali literature

was maintained
Khan

Kavtndru Ytrachits U,at,abl,crcta. lntreeuelion.

U70

|A

Hierr-,ry

of

Chltragong

with an equal zeal. Ir was at his command that poet Srikar Nandi translcted the Aswamedhr pa^,a frorn original sanskrit into Bengati. At the beginnirg of his work, the poet nairatos the circumstances
that led to the cc'mposilion of this work.l The book is a scho. Iarlv translatlon ontJ c valuable addition to the Bengati translatory works. The work is popularly known as tha Chhuti Khoni Mohobhoroto. A number ol factors contributed to the development of Bengali
language. the fsr6rn6st om6pg which is rhe influentiel encouragement given by the Muslinr rulers ancl high ranking Muslim officers to cultivate vernacrrlar Ianguages. lt is exnlicitly stated in both rhe Porogotl and chhut, Khant Mahobhnro:os that the patrons in order to have a tasie of tha immorral stories of the greot epic, commanded the ooets to tr.rnsl.jio tha Mohobhoroto into Bengali. they had no knowledgo 6f Sanstlrit and the native schollrs were ignorant of the mother tongue of the Mr.:slim rulers and rheir officers. Meanwhile. centuries of habitation in Bengel made the Muslims familiar with the local longue. Consequently. they could tasre and appreciate tha litera'v beasry of the storics of the epics in Deshi bhasha' fnative tonque'! witho,;i much effort. Dr D C Sen aptly saVs in thls connexion rhai, "this olevation of Bengali to a literary status was brought abr:ui l;y several influences of which the Muhammedan conquest wa.s ,..rnrtoubtedly one of tho foremost."2

I

qF-sus :ttr,gt a e-r <r;r :,r{l:tti: q<s?ad <?qc;";.t ?irs< q-iqilc I
r

r

T;dg

g'r-<E E a.:i

Erq'q;?q

fs':ri{ qqr{{ sql 5;;i{ EIE

srfs "i;{I sq,t +?qq s.qfqq ti
QIT
I

r

fls1{r-u w'q'fq4
cq'rt sTrEr

qrdlrils +ffg. cql-ir q.rtq qirT{ I sltl4 vIICq{ ilaf' qgrT dTfl I glsa a.?'1({ $eq eiTstqrt <tE{l 2 O O Seh, Seatolt

qfq oefl atuE rrglf,

ctT{ qqIxIEt I l,
I I

Longaoge ond Ltteroture,

p. l0

l"ltqary actlvltiet I 671
opposed the translation of Srnskrit works into regional languages. Almost ali rhe aurhoro of the translatory works during rhis period belonged to tho castos other than the Brahmanas.

it is noticiable that ths Erahmanrs

Maulvi Abdul Karim Sahitya Visharad discovered a derached piece of a work entitled VidtosunCdr written by poet Srldhar, a native of Chittagong. ln tlris work the poot cornmends rhe merlrs ol his patron, Sultan Firuj Sirah, son of Sultan Naeir iNuerat) Snah. tr Tnis proves that the Husain Snahi tradition of rhc parronrzation 6t Bengali literaturo and Bengalr poots waa kept alavo by tho Iater ruJers. The most notewotthy feature ol the cuftivation ol Bengali literature rn Chittagong is that the Hindu writers occupied o predominant position in lterary rctivities ol the cixteenth cenlury, but during the two succeeding centuries the Muslim poets not only came to tho forefronr but outnumbeled the Hindu posts in lrerary productions. The encouragement given by the zealous parrons inspired thsir Muslim subjecrs to cultivate Bengali language in an increasing degree wnich promoted the growth of Eengali lterature in the subsequent Arakanese and Mughal periodo.

Soction 2, Arakaness patronago of Bengati Llte"
raturo
The tradition of li:erary activlties

Arakanese regime the cuhivation of Bengali literarureattained lurther development.. po}rically, chitta. gong was subjugated by Arakan, bur culturally it was Arakrn
1'

that 6rr1nn

,n" subsquent

in Chittagong was so powerful

{rtr<'{T{l s{$ q;aqs {<'sil-{tE.ql csrrrls rqsr I I {ffii u1 c"rcTrq rrRt t{r{rr T;qt{ fqq' tetrvr et< Trsl 'rrrir t l
a;"ihr1

1

Ot E S

I

11940,1,

pp. 78.79

572 | A Hlci$ry of ehltragong

which was g'ea,ly intluanood by a stronger cultute and a more powerful lang raOr. tr oumbar of comprtent Bengalees w6ls appoin ted ro hign gov:r,lrn.i,n:al posts People of all ranks enjoyed the Irterlry bB4uty of S:rngali works. One ol the foremost lactors for rhs phenomenal growih of Bengali influence, in the view of Dl Enamul Flaq, was 'the sup6llsrity of rhe Bengali lrnguage over the Arakanu*u".l $r Sukumar Scn rightly says: "From this time Bengali was accepied at the Araki:n cour! as the chiot cultural languagnr, mainty b:cdusa rnany of the high officials of Arakan cim& frotn -h!ttagong and tiis other ooiglibouring terntorias whose flto,hrr rongus w;s ,3,:n;al '.2 ihus the glorioue Husain $hahi tradrrot of rne uulrrvailon of Bcngali lterature was not only kept alive bur w,r$ given dfl 6Rcouraging support by the enlightened Arakanese ruiers and tlreir rrrfluential courtrels. The A.rakanese kings Of ti'ru $uvefttirentir cBnlu y war6 enthusiastic patlOnS Of lndian lreraiure csi:vci rlly Prakrrt, Sanskrit, nindusthani and BengaI. 'fhsrr .nrhusiasrn insplrcd rhs same feeling in his Bengali couitrrrrs und;t whose cars and guidance, some gifted Muslim poers wrote many of their masterpreces.

'[he first noteworthy Bengalee poet writing under tho aegis ol the Arakanese rulers was Daulat Oazi. Dr Sukumar Sen, in appreciation of his posttcal merits, wrires that the poet not only held the foremost position among the Muslim Bengalee poets but wes ono of the rn-ost gifted pooro of medieval Bengali literature.3
Hts poetic qualities attrsctod the attention of Ashraf Khan, commander cum mrnistor (laskar wazin of tho king's army. lheofficer, being desirous of hearing tl':e rornantic tales of Lorh Chondroni, roquested the poet to writB a poem on the theme, The tale, was current in northern lndia in different languages and dialects. At the request of the laskar tuazir to popuiarize the famous romantic tale among the Bengalees. Daulat Oazi decided to compose a

1 e H.q Musltm Bengolt 2 S Srn, lslomt Bongolo 3 tw.

LitercturG,
Sohltyo,

p. 144

p, 15

[.itarary activitier | 573 'parrchsii' (narafiva poem) on this sr.lbject fho oureome ol thir effert uJas the joint tales of Sotl l{lalno ond Lorh Chondront hie outstanding poetic achievement But decth carried the poet away bsforo thc worl( was finished.

of But iittle is kncwn about tho poer'E career from his work.

Another gifred but cornpsratively little known poet of the court Rria Thir: Thudhamrna W:s Mardan, author of Noslro Nomo,

8y far the rnost wideiy known poet among tha Arakanesc court-froeis was A!aol. ln his early !ife, his poetical potenriality
attracted tho notice of Sulairnan, an Arakanoso courtier who requested tho poot to complete the wolk on Lorh Chandrani, which hact been lelt unf in ished by his illustrrous predecessor, Daulat Oazi. With Lho cornptotion of this work his poetic fame spread all over tha kingdom" Magan Th.rkur, an inflrronrial. \rakanese courtrer of lrterary r':erit, requested Alaol to translate the well known Persian romantic poem on Soiful ltlulk bodiuzzomol rnto Bengali. Unfortunately for the poet, the patron did not live long to sse the work finished. The untimety death of Magan Thakur so much overpowered tha poet u,rith grief that h6 practically gavo up writing any more, Luckily for the poet, Muhammad Musa, commander of the royal army, appeared as rescuol who saved the poet lrom grief and distress. He assured the poet of gonerous help and requeeted him to get through hie work, lt was accordingly done, Under tho care of the same patron, the poet translatoo poet Nizami's Hofto Poyokor into Bengali. After suffering a great deal at ths lrand of lhe Arakanese in connexion with his alleged coilaboration with Prince Shuja'o rsvolt against the Arakanese ruler, tho poet again took his pen under the protection of Majlis Navraj, and translated poet Nizami's Peisirn work named lskondor Nama into Bengali as Sikondor Noma,

It is an admilted fact that claol is the gteateot figure among the ssventeenth century Bengali writers" A rnany sided genius ac hs waS, he showsd high powers of irnagination, mastery of versification, profound learning in both lslamic and Hindu rcripturec and skill in a numbot of languager, He was proficient in writing

BTq t

n

History

oi chitragonf

puthi and padavali to an equal degree, A Hindu poet who was not connected with the Arakanese court but belonged to the Arakanese period was Gavinda Das (living in 1595 A D). According to his own pedigree, he was born at Devagram (Dieng). Govinda tras wrote a narrttive po6m on the romantic story of vidyo sundor, a favourire tale of his time. while estimating the poetical merits of his works, Dr D c sen writes: ,,Govinda Das's poem was frce from those vulgarities which are now associated with tho story, owing to ths way in which Bharat chandra deolt with it.''l Tne manner of writing of his anorher work namecr Koliko Mongol is marked by grandeur both in rhe use of drction and in rhymtng. Referring to the characteristics of writing of this work, the same critic writes that ,,its merits lie wholly in its literary art." The florid rtyle and tho use of sanskrit zed Bengali madc him close to rhe Araksnese court poets. ln fact, ths poetg of chittagong and Arakan lollowsd an unvarying literary style for which rhey should be grouped in one school. An interesting feature of tho history of Bengali literature is that in the sixreenth century, the Hindu poels took a leading parr in the cultivation or Bengali Iiterature under the patronization ol the Muslim rulers, but in fhe eucceeding century the Muslim poets cam' to the forefront in the curtivarion of Bengari lrterature under the patronization ol the non-Mustim rulers in an alien count'y' lt is equally amusing to note that the greatest poet of the laventeenth century was a Musllm (Alaol) who wrote highly Sanskritized Bengali whereas rhe greatest poet of the eightee*n t.n,rry was a Hindu Bharat Chandra) whose langurge is marked by a profuse use of persian diction. Section

3,

Growth of Bengrti Literature Ghittagong

in

Uedieuat

The cultivation

of Bengali

literature, started from the Husain
Literoture,

1 O G Sen, Eengoll Longuoge ond

p,

SSI

Literary activitios I s75

Shahi period, reach,:d its culmination in tho I'Iushel period' , The exuberant growtlr ol literary 66livities in medieval Chittagong shot up the district to the most remarkable position in the litera'y world of Bengal. tn fact. no other district ol medieval Bengal can be com' pared with Chittagong regarding its contribution to the growth of

ngali litoiature. The greatest liter4ry activity during the medieval period is to be found in rvriting the puthi. The Bengali word puthi is derived from Sanskrit pustaka '> potha > puthi) meaninr a book. A nuthi may be defined as a rhyrned comoosltion narrating in most cases the ponular stolios ol both indigeneouc and foieion. Purhis form a special class of msdieval Banoali literature rnd the poets of medieval Chittasong show special skill in writing lhe pulhi. Hundreds of fiuthis have besn discovered from the remote parts of the Cistrict anri many others aro lost with thei, authors. Many of the restored lluthis are found in an incomolete and mutilated 66ndirion and many ol them are without colonhones which offer a handicap to tlre knowledge of their author's lives' lt was tha lifelonq eflorts of ltiunshi Abdul Kaiim Sahitya Visharad that hel. ped the reetoralion of manuscript puthis from different parts of tha district. His enthusiasm in this field was shared lallr on by Dr Enamul Haq ancl other scholars. The Sahitya Visharad and Dr Enemul Haq brought some posts of medievrl Chittagong to limeIight in their farnous joint work Arakon Roisobho't Bongto Sohttyo. Later on, Dr Enamul Haq in his worke, Musltm Bcngolt Literoture and Muslim Bonglo "ohityo discusses the career and poetical qualities of som6 prets believed to be born in Ghittegong. Dr Ahmed Sharif's scholarly discussions on medieval puthi liteiature are indispensable for any study on this theme. Contributions of D3 Dinesh Chandra Sen, Dr Sukumat Sen Dr Ashutosh Bhattacharya, Shri Ashutosh Chanda. Mr Abdus Sattar and other eminent scholars are also worthmentioning A brief study of the principal characteristics of the puthi literature may be attempted here. iTledieval Bengali puthic tangc ovcr variouc cubjecte, which may be grouped undet following headr. A. Workt ;6l3ting to lslamic religion lnd Gthior, The eub.
Br

576 | A llhrory ol Chtrrasons

llah Khan, Shab e-M,roJ of Sayid Sultan etfoyetul Musolltn of Sharkh Mutalib Koidont Kttob ol Shaikh Muralib and Shaikh paran,l Daqoequl Hoooe! of sayid Nuruddin. ltamoj i|ohotryo ot Muhammad Jan. Nastyor Nomo and Rohotul qutub ol Sayid tturuddin are some of the well known purhie of rhis rype.

of lslam, tslemic injuncrions and practice of tslamic riruals Altband of Naiib and Musharaf, Soot N mo ol Muzammil, Towfa of Alaol, Shortyot Namo and Hedoyet ul lslom of Khondkar Nasru.
fication

ject matter of this klnd of works ig based

prlmarilv on the glorl

ol Shah Muhamrnad Soohir is th6 firet romantic Doe6 in Bengali llteruture. Latly Majnu of Dauiat tA,azir Bahram Khan is another popular lovo story. Satt [r/tatna and [o.h Chandrant ol Daulat Oazl ere porhaps the besr works ol thie class. padmavatl and salful Mulk Eadruzzan',al ol ilaoi ere trrc illusrrious pergali vcrsions ol the two lamouc Peraian romantic tales. Mtsrr lamal of Muhammad Raza deals wirh rhe lovo of prineess [ilisri Jarnal, ciaughter of Abdul Karim, Iord of Kurbar. sablricr Kr^an wTora a Doem on Vldya Sundar, a favourite thome of the romantic sTritere of medieval Bengal. His anorher romrntic work is Hantfa o Karra parr. ln all these works, courago, lovq fidelity and orher worthy qualities of
Zolaikha

B. Biographical works. This class of nurhis wcre wriilen on the careor and eyploitc of the prophet of lslsp anrt his companions Rosul Btioy of Jainuddjn, Rasul Btjay ol Sab! id Kr.an. Ofcre Rasul of Sayid Sultan are based on the perf, r62psos end teachings of the Prophet. A puthi named Amir Hamza wrirten by Abdun Nabi2 ic based on tho nrllitary oxploits and miracuroue aetit,lries of ths uncle ol Prorlhot, !n mosr cases. materials of rhese works ate freely invented end scenes and convelsations are lrnagined c. Romanric works. Fomanticism in Bengali lirerarurr is firet humanised by rhe Muslim poets" Some of tha innmorta! Iove stories of the Orier,tal worlcl hava been rerst6 6, these poets . Vu,uf

sh"ir.tt Mutalib wrr rhc ron of shaikh paran. They wcro nativer ol SitakundE. P l, p. 7l 2 Thc poet war a narivo ol villsgc silimrur. yhe dare of rhe comporitlon of thc work ir 10gG A D 1tGg4 A D), p p, p. l

I

Liteiary activities | 577
heroes and heroines have been exalted. Exuberanl use of imagination and fantasticlsm characteriz6 this type of works.

Ballad or short narrative poem. One of its most popular kinds was the sahela (colloquial hahala). Faqirullah (d. 1684 A D), a famous musician of medieval lndia, refers to sahela in hls famous book on music. ln medieval Chlttagong, the singing ol sehela songs wae a traditional way of invoking good fortune on marriage coremony. !t is almost similar to the Epithalamium or nuptial song or poem ol ancient Greece. Most of the sahela poems are anonymous in orlgin. A sahela is orally transmitted and sung to some melodv. lt is eharacletized by simplicity in structu?o, eentimental in composition and incremental repetition. Two of the well known extant sahela poems are 'Shuja Tanayar Bilrp' and 'Pari Banur Hahala' which narrate the tragic events relating to tho flight end fatal end of Prince Shuja.
Jangnama or wer floems. "The oldest Jangnama poem in Ben<rali is Mnktul Husatn by Muhammad Khan ol Chittagong."l' Within the framework of the story of Karbala, this volumincus book gives an account of rhe history of the world from Prophet Muhrmmad to Doomsday' The book is divided into eleven ctntos, some of which are circulated as independcnt books. ,,Among the other writers ol Jangnama pooms from Chittagong meotion may be made of Nas'ullah Khan who wrote his poem toward tho beginning of lhe elghteenth century,"2 and Hazrat Ali.

D.

E.

F. Hindu. hageological worke Most of the poetical works ol the Hindu poets had a religious tone, formed by Shakta and Vaisna. va cults. A large number of Mangal Kavyas compoaed by various poets during tho late medieval period have been discovoled in Chirtagong. Among these works following pooms aro notowoithy. Saroda Mangal of poet Muktaram Sen is a vety fine wotk dealing with the divine activities ol goddess Chandi. Mrlgolubdho of Ratidov3
S Srn, Hlstory of Bcngatt Llteruturc, pp. 156"157 2 ma. 3 ln tho beginning of thE work rhe poet wrirco the noiy of

I

hio swn

578 I

A Hirtory ol

Chirtagong

glorilies tho diving deeds of Mahadev. lt is a small wcrk containing only 900 slokas The poet is a devotee and his sryls is marked

Chittagoog.

G.

xicon) dealing with the meaning of words especially sanskrit and words origi16166 from sanrkrit. one of the disringuished Iexicographers of medieval Bengal was Jatadhar Acharya His word book entitled Abhidhana?antram is srated to have boen preserv.d in Calcutta and in the lndia Office Librar\ in London. ln the colophon of his work the writer intrqduss5 himself as son ol Raghuoati and Mandodari. He belonged to rhe Dindiya gorra of rhe Brahmana caste, His native village fevakod srood on the barrk cf iho river Feni near chandrasekhar hills 4 His lexicon has been utilrz,ld in ths Sabdakalpadrumat a celebrated Sanskrit tlictionary ccmpil";d by Sri life as follows : f"tsr rflq1;Ilar <.tr{ $sl <x;Ts1l q?qqtil a;q-E's1 Eorflql {ilfs r I -oras,(t940), pp. 646 647. The pocm accozdinq to its own eoloohon waa written in 1595 :aka or 167q A D. Ha was rhc son of Go-

Borkc classed as 'abhldhana, dictionary', and ,pairjai, (le-

pinath and Easumati. Hrs nativo village Summadandi or Sucha., kradandi belonged at that timo ro Chap1anr1r. ' The poet introduces himself as follows : qle (tflE' ?I{ Tq q?{ rflT ultl?q .T tEE$Iar t{{c frqrz -orB s, (]940), p.395 - He *as ! nativd 2 of Chakrasala. He belonged to tha Atreya gorra rnd one of his forefathers lived at Devagram (Diang). lt seems that hie anceators had retalions to that of Govlnda Das.

3 editea by chandra Kanta chakravorty 1190s);

SeeBSI

(1940),p.893

4 srqlnqli sar{nlt stvucl,r( illmrhvl"rtV f"rgrat F q'l I

alao sudhi Bhushan Bhattacharya, Mangal Chandl Geet, Calcutta University. igb2

Litarary activiries
{?adhakanta

i b7s

Dev Bahadur. orher worrh mentioning lexicographeis were Nuruddin and Sadat Ali.

of

aspects of Yoga docrrine. other worke dealing wnh rhis branch of philosophy are srtnama ol shaikh Mrnsur and chari M.kamer Bhed ol an anonymous writet.

ll. Works based on mysticism and €sot€rio philosoOhV. Agam AIi Raja,l Jnoo Pradip of sayid sulran dicculr rhe various

Books written on the scicnec of music. Some poets wrote treatises on classical music and syetem of notarion. ln theil works, the poers drscuss ditferent ragas with exprenstory notes upon these. Among this class of poets Fazil Naeir Muhammad, Muhammad paran,

l.

t<alov's q qBr{r<{(Tt qlErqf .qgq' r,e<iq't.s{l({E;-e{' I uluurcq<a tfl < av<it'u urtBsr(T Til'its siriql ta+ciq:nqtr{"r
Tq'.u1*

Es{te

Qta< el1qu ssTtsflcq,..

flr[{te:ts.c- <xr

t"iggtr<tu af{6s

I

]

p. 14; also H H Wilson, V, London, 186r. p. 2J3; R L Mitro, Norlces of Sanskrit MSS, ll, No 592 His native village Devakod cannot be rraced. Either rhe namc Devakod has been changed in later timea, or it has been washed away by rhe desrructive flow of the river Fent. This Devakod can be identified with Devikot of Buddhagupra,a itineraries (16th century) which etater that Devikot or Kasaranya ( 7 modern Krsalong in nolthcrn Chittagong Hill Tracts) where the eaint traveller made temporary stay in a temple built by Mahasiddha Kriehnacharya, was oiruared in rhe highland of Tripura. 1G Tucci, ,Thc ser and Land Travels of a Buddhist Ssdhu in rhe sixteenth conrury', I H e,Vll (lg3l),
ChittagongCollege Magaztne, 1g29.
?f/orks,
697^ 698.

Ot

The poet's native village was Oshkhain in Anwara u. z. Ho wrote a num[s1 of troalises on Sufl and yoge doctlines. His pseudonym was Kanu Faqir. He died in 1790 A D. I ?, 9,12

Liierary actlvities | 581 "included some Hindu gods ancl Avatars amoog the prophers."l 'K,ishna, the greatest Avatar of tho Hindus, was spocially ireated by $ayid Sultan as an ancient prophet of the religion of tire world."2 it{ost of the Musiim poets were the disCIiples of sufi saints who exerciseid great influence on their disciple poets, ths sufi saints irrlused divine and liberal rhoughts into their disciple poets who wouid pay tlreir revererrce most humbly to their teacners in various placcs of their r.,vorks. The sufi ieaclrers advised rheir pupil posls to c,rllcct materials from tho sc:iptules of oiher faiths, They also instructed thB poets to wiite In a silnple and lucid manner so thrt tha subject maiter of thair works might be reaciily understandrbla to tho cornmon poople irrespective of retigious creeds. The luprl po.iis obediently follcwed their F,receplors' directions and dedicated rheir works to rheir respective teachers.

fillny of tho Muslim poets wero deeply inlluenced

by Vaisnava

ideas and padavali style of writing. Dunng the f ifteenth and srxteenth centuries tho whole of rhe distrrct was flooded by the Vaisnava ideas, B.rslcllly Sulism and Vaisnavism have mlny common features. Both

ttiess doctrines profess love of GoC and I-iis Creation and through love and devotion, eccording to theso doctrines, ono can be nearer to Him, This yearning for personal communion wirh God inspired the sufi po6ts to write padavalis, There is nothing wrong or noD lelamic in taking the Radha Krishna cult to indicate indi, viduality and Supreme Bein1; respectivoly" The cult of Radha Krishna is only a metaphorical expression. Besides this, the poets were attracted to write padavalis out of thoir regard and aptiruda for this class of literature. The s\r/eetness of expression, melodious note, deligntfui style and rhe overwhelming populariry of padavali inspired ths Muslim poets to comilose padas. Though the Muslim poets composed padavalis following the manner of earlier Hindu poets yet unliko them the Muslim poets did not induigo
in the indocont description of feminine physique and carefully avoided

of

I S Sen, History

of

Bengali Llterature,

p.

156

2 The lslamic Review, Februaty, 1960,

p.

11

BBz

i a History of

ehiuagong

vulqalities in their writings. lt seems that 'separation' (viraha) appealed them more than oiher themss and a large number of padas were composed on this subject. Among many poets Alaol, Sayid Sultan, Ali Raza. Kanrr Ah ccr.lld wiire excellont pieces of padas which may be favourably compared with those ol Vidyapati, Chandidae, and other Valsnava posts.

Of the learning of the poets, doubt about irs kind or species should not arise. Most of theso poets were multiling rists and they show profound knowledge in Sanskrit, Persian, Arabio, Hindustani etc. About the manner of wriring cf poet dleol, who used to write high flcw,'r S:nskritic Bongali, a crlric writes : For a Muslim writer to have the credit of impcrting largest numbar of sanskritic words into Bengali poem and thus hora. lding an age of classical revival is no smafl achievpment ancr wa are bound to admit that nono of tho Hindu poets of the ago in which he lived was in this raspect, a-match fol him.l The influence of sanskrrt on the writings of orher poots is also' evident. poul Sayid Sultan wrote the Nabi Vamsa, af ter the manner ol the Harivamsa, his anothor wark langnama is wrirten following the stylo of the Mahabhoroto. Tutinama of paet Muhammad Naqi was a Bengali version of a Persion romanco of rhe same titlo. Alaol translated a number ol Persian works. Daulat Oazi trans. lated a Hindustani romanca. Books written on biography, history,
philocophy, aotronomy, medicins and other subjects give evidence of their range of loarning.

The Muslim poets took the humanistic appioach in literature. far, so most of the Hindu poets exalted and glorified the deeds of various deiries in their works; tho human being is given a secondary role. The methods takon by the Muslim writers was thus a clear departure from tho tradition of Hindu Mangal Kavyas.

'[he poets did not confino themselves to one lorm of writing. Panchali (narrative poem) was the most popular method of com,l

'

D C Scn, History

of

Bcngoli Longuoge ond Literoture,

g, d2g

Llterary actlvltles 583 position

in which a large number of

Hindu hageological works

were wrltten. Thus Dwija Ramananda Dwija Raghunalh, Dwija Bamkrishna, Dwija Dinaram, Fakirchand al! of ChirtagonE composed puthis in pancheli style about Satyanarsyan, a Hindu deity.l Baramasi (calendar poem) wns anorher popular typa of writing in which the sorrows ancl sufferings of the chief woman in the poem in all ths twelve months of rhe year are retated iust before the fulfrlment of her hope. Rite r Sorornos of Kamar Ati and Rodhor Boromos of an anonymous wriier i!lustrate this tyrJe of works. Another favourire merhod is 'chautisha' in rarhich every line or couplet be.oins with Bengeli alphabat serially. As rhe whole poem gonerallv does not exceecl thirry four lines or couplets, 'it is J.tt.a 'chautisha'. -Amono thiq kind of compositlons rhe Jnon Choutisho of Sayid $ultan and Sokrnor Choutlsho of lVluhamrnid Khan are
noteworthy.

Again, versitication is not uniform in all puthis though ,payat' (couplet) and'tripadi'rtriplet) havo the greater prominence. ln payar the lines are rhymed. !n rripadi a line is splitted into three sections of which the f irgt t'ND ate Iinked by rhym*.. The third secfion is rhymed with the cnrres6rondinr section of the next line but not further, thus making tho whols body a couplet. usually. tripadi helps to break ttre monotorry of payar. ,Lachari, (atmoct similar to payar) rs another imporrant ?orm of 'versif ication. iadavali or devotional songs in rhynred stanzas were familiar. short natrative poem mesnt to be sung; esOecially by on ceremonial oocasicns was anolhor rropular fo,m of- c Puthis were used to be read wirh tuneful voice, sometimea
accompanied by musical inorrumenrs such as mridangam ra musical instrument rnade of eaithen barrel and sounded by striking by Oalm) dhol f drum), kansa (a bocly of round shapecl cast metal, thinlv widened t'c emit musical sound when struck), karatal cvmbalsi etc. Often sonre selected hearers took part in rhe chant. But the latter's job was_ only ro rapeat a F,articular couplet (carred dhua and

ghosha) regularly aftor a definite interval during the perfornrance. Generally, puthis were read in an open space Gspecially in the Iawn of a house whers the village rs could assemblo in la,ge number.

I

Bs

l (24o),

p. g4B

CHAPTER XVI
ARCHITEGTUFAL ACTIVITIES

The district of Chiltagong contains the remains of a number of mediaval buildinge of somo architectural character. Most of these construcrions are in delapidated contJirion. For this the naturo of rhe soil and the climate are mainly reeponsible: both con ditions encourage the rapid growth of jungle vegetetion and accelerate decay. The earthquaka also susiains damage to the buildings. At the eame time many monuments euffered severely during wars and invasions. ln spite of the great amount of destruction brought about by man and naturor a few buildiogs still remain as relics

il

i

of

medieval period.

Medieval architecture of Chittagong failed to atrracr norico of the experte till our time. Recently, such reputed scholars as Dr A H Dani and Dr Abdul Karim made somo commendable attompts in this direction. Their valuable observations have been utilized in rhis briel study of medieval architectule. The pres€nr attompt is neither critical nor exhaustiva because the writcr ie not an expert in architscture.

Medieval buildings in Chittagong can be grouped into rwo classes namely, domestic buildings and religious buildingr.

Architecrural acrivitiee I EgS

buildings exist. The dweiling of commonalty followed a merhod, characterized by certain indigeneous techniqueo. Father Manrique'e (r630) accounr gives relerence to the dwarting of the common peopre. tt was made chiefly of , bambus called Bansa by the inhabitants and thatched with straw.,,2 Mrny of the features of tho medieval hut correspond to those of our period. Following brief dessrjpl;g. would convoy a general idea of this type of structure.

Domestic buirdings. These chiefry consisted of house. hold buildings which may be classified into two subclasses g, e dwallings of the rich and dwellings of the cornmonahy. Tho woalthy people lived in tuxurious residenca often surrounded by gardens, moat etc, the Earrhquake Report (rrU, O ;it: refers to the brick built residence of zamindais and other wealrhy people in the town and in their headguarters. At present no such

ln the first place, earth lor a groundwork froor is raised according to the local environment frqrn two to lhree feet above lhe surrounding level. After that, straight poies of rough wood or bamboo are planted at the four corners with higher others under a ridge pole along the centrar line. Then a line of posts at the four sides is erected to support the roof. Each of the sloping beamo and transverse bars is fastened in lrs proper place with split cane used as rope. The roof either slopea from the four sides of the houso to a common vertex (chauchala), or from rwo sides only which m.er at a long ricge pore (dochala). The roof is thatched with long jungle grass (chhan) placed over a fran.lework of poles. The framawork of the outer wails and inner partitions 6re goneraily made of bamboo mats fabricated in suitabre designs. tne lanice work in the upper portion of wail serve as ventirator. somerimes, the hut is encircled by fences. The main doorway which facec towards the courtyaid is a littre bigger rhan any ono of other doorways. wails are sometimes plastered with semi liquid mixturo

I / I s B, xtr (1849), 1o44.loso 2 lrlonilgue, l, z7g

586 |

A Hietory ol

Chltragong

consisting of water, clay and cowdung. The extension of hut contains kitciren and log housg. Cowshed and poultry farm are gonerally situated in the carnpus. ln most cases members ol tho fan'lily unit built thelr own huts.

Religious buildings. Religious buildings are lhe

most

expressive, and the most permanent of all types of medieval architecture, ln fact, medieval architecture of Chittagong is concerned more with religious buildings than with any other type. Most of the religious structures wero built by governors, high ranking oflicors. influential zamindars and wealthy individuals. The chief aichitectural charecteristics of tho surviving medieval

religious edifices are as follows: Makina a plan of the environment was th6 first stage ol construction. Many of the religious buildings were built on hilltops, slopas and olevated lands many othars on raised ground. Most of tho Musl'm religious edifiees were br.rilt in the thickly popu, lated rural area and in the erowded part of the eity.

Tho principal materials which werg usecl for the existing constructions were stone, brick, wood etc. Stone is available in the :iitakunda Banges and therefore it is employed in northern Chitta' gong. The most important stons structuro is the Chhuti Khani Mosque at Paragelput. Monolithic pillars can be seen in Jolapara iI?tosque. Slono is also used in the Hathazari Mosque, Generally, the pieces of stone of various shapes were bounded in mortar. Howevgr, the uso of stono i9 far from common.
l3rick was by far the most popular building materlal in our period. t h6 deposits of clay suitable for the manufacture ol brick helped the briok work everywhere in the distlict. lt appoars that kiln bakod brlcks were most common in making a building. The eize ol bricks was generally thin and tectangular. Buildings welo constructed by putring differenl types of bricks rightly togolher. Bricks were boundeC with surki or "pounded brick used to mix with lime to form a hydraulic mottai."l'

lt

H

!,p.

8s4

Arclritectural activities | 587

ln Chittagong, especially in its southern part masonry construction is rrvaliod by wcoden construction which hao certain advantages. Tha transport cost of wood is less than that of other building matetials. A good supply of timber and bamboo was procurablo in nearby foiests, lts chief disadvantages are susceptibtlity to fupgi, file and wood boring insects which prevent its durability. Wood construction can be traced in the Arakanese period (1580.1666 A D,,. $ince that timo wood has continued to bo used in the Buddhist temples of southern Chittagong.
The designs and methods of conttructions wero detormined

roof. Medieval buildings contain thick walls which provided strong foundation ol the building. The wall supports the weight of roofs, vaults, arches, turreis, etc. which require heavy wall. That is why tho wall of medieval builCings b se thick. Besides rhis, the thickness of wall kept the room cool evon during the hot months of the year, As tho windows and doorr,vays weaken tl.,o wall ao the doorways and windows of tho medieval buil<Jings are smlller in size. The smallness of size, and in number of cloors and windows account for the insufticiency of lrghting within tho hall. There was practically no specific arrangement for ventilation. At dark hours, tho interior was illuminated by oil lamp. Nona of the religious odifices contain porticos.
claeses. The first

by the pe ople who built them. Flat roofed building can hardly be seen in Chittagong. The dome in a mosque, tho Bikhara in a temple and the coverod trusses in a kiyang selved the purpose of

Medieval reiigious architecture can be divic'eri into three separate is ths Hindu archit€ciure mainly confined in northern

Chittagong; the second is tho lslamic architecture mainly confined in northsrn and central Chirtagong; ths Buddhist architecture mainly confrned in southern Chittagong, ln the medieval period Chittagong wae ruled by the fripuras, the Bongalees, and the Arakaneee by turns; each period loaves its architectural legacy in the dietrict. Ths Hindu Buddhist temples served ae placos of worship and shelters for the imagos, relics, scriptures and holy arcas of tho cult. The masiids wero chiefly mesnt for coogrcgational prayor. Following ie a briet etudy of a few specimen of differont classes of religious architecturo.

588 I

A llistory of

Chittagonf

A [Suslim Architecture
Ths conquest of Chittagong by Sultan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah rnarks the baginning of the conslruction of Muslim religious buildings in Chittagong. Historian Shihabuddin Talish writes: "Tha mosques and tombs which are situated in Chatgaon were built in Fakhruddin's timo. The iexisting) ruins prove it."l From that time down to the end of the Muslim rule in Chittagong the Muslim rulers and zamindars patronized the lslamic architectural activities in the disrrict. Duiing the ltJlughal period, the lslamic etyle of arohitectura obtained firm hold over the district and Muslim monuments of a period lator than 1666 A D are abandantly available.
Medieval Muslim buildings may be divided into two classes, namely, masjid and shrine.

Masiid or place of prayer. From the architectural point of view medieval masjids in Chittagong range from single domed to six domed struoture. Most of the masjids do not havo open courts,
aolution ponds and minars. The tank Iying near the masjid served the purposo of ablution pond, The corner towors aro a neceseary leoturs in a medieval masjid. Some of the masjids have more than one mihrab. ShrEne and memorial. This type of ediflce consecrats a holy place for its association mainly with the life and activitieo of the saints. The major shrines and memcria are the astana ot pil Badr, Shrine of tsayezid Bostami, Oadam Mubarak' dargah of Shsh Mohsen Auliya etc. Tha tomb or astana of Pir Badr is eituated on ihe top of a small hillock known as Badar Patti at rho BakhsSir Hat area in Chittagong city. The oldeet reference to the 'tomb' is oxplored in tho Fothyd'i'ihbrlyo.2 The site of the structure etatod in this source roughly correspond to the p'esent site. Thomas William Beale gives a short description of this tomb.3 The shrine ol Shah Bayezid Bostami is situated at Nasirabad,

1 Fathya, p, 182 2 toit., p. 181
3

t

W tseate. Orlentol Elogrophlcol Dlctionory, p. 216

Architectural activities | 569

a suburb

mausoleum is a simple squtra contains many bricke ol old. urhich structure standing on a mound Thc dargah of Shah Mohsen /iuliyal is situated at tho viliage of Battali inl Anwara u. z. Tlre dargah is a tude construction and roofed over by grass thatch.

of Chittagong city, '[he

Muslirn a'chllecture generaily falls into phases, pre'fultighal end Mughal.

two

chronological

I

Fre-E-u.iughel

Chittagong is not so ticlt in the remains of tha pre Mughai Musiim'buildings. This is cJue to the political turmoils thet greatly impeded tho buildiftg activities in that period. Most ol the piolVlughal structrrres were dastroyed by foreign invaders as woll as rhe ciesiroying agencies of nature. As a result, many of of these buildings 6ro completely Iost to us. Some othere were left deso. late duririg tire subseqLrent Arakanese rule. The want of propet care and r*pairing helpscj to bring abs!.rt tlrs ruin of many buildings. Mv Hamidirllah Klran refers to th-. fata of ona such religious struc ture built by Sultan Nusrat $itah, tha remains of which existed till his times, At presont only a few dilapidstod pre-ty'lughal structurss reinain nnd thoy aro chiefly confined to notthern Chittagong. Among these buildinge tho following aro noieworthy.

Fatehpur. This is tlie oldest extant reglon' lt is situa'ted at a village i u. z. From an inscriptisn2 engranamed Fatehpur in the ved on the w*stern well it is known that ths masjid was built by Masnad i Ala Rasti Khan in tho ysar 1160 A D during tho

fiasti Khan's fJtasiid masjid in tho Trans-

aE

reign

of Sultan

fiuknudciin Barbak Shah,

Recont rencvations have rr:bbed
character.

it of much of its original

1

Sohityo, 1313 B 5, pp. 686-089 2 Shamsuddin Arrmed, op. clt., p. 9l

59U ; A Hlstory

of Chitragong

Yusuf shahi Masjid at Hathazari. Ttris mrsjid of remarka. ble architectural character is eituated near the Hathazari u, z. head quarreri, about twelve miles north of chittagong city. According to the inscriptionl alfixec to tho masjid. the srructuie was built during the reign of Sultan Shamsuddin yusuf Shah (1474-14g1 A D), son of Eulran Ruknuddin Barbak shah. The masjid is rectangular in plan with four circurar corner tovilers. Above rhe parapGt ths corner towors are octagonal and crowned with cupolas. The masjid is roofed over by six domes of equal size. There are three cusped doorways in the oast, the central doolway, which is larger than the sicre ones, is lranked by round fluterj minarets. The interior of tho hall is divided inro rwo aisles and three bays by two stono pillars. Thero are rhree mihrabs on the west the central mihrab with ite frams built of a solid stone, is bigger than the other two. The building is in a good state of preservation.

chhuti Khani Masjid at Faraga!pur. Tne masjid is sirua. ted at Paragalpur in the Mirsarai u. z. lt was built by chhuti Khan or chhote Khan. tho grandson of Rasri Khan. chhuti Khan was ihe Husain shahi offrcar commandirrg the frontier garrison in northern chittagong. Par'agalpur was probabiy his headquarters. This large masjid v'rhich is built of slones is now in comprete ruins, except part of its western wall. The blocks of stone, that lie scatter€d around the masjid, cantain inscriptions, probably quotations from lhe Holy Ouran.
Mahmud Shahi l\Iasjid at Masjidda. The masjid is situated about thirteon nriles north of Chittagong City by the Chittagong-Dhaka Trunk Roed. The writing of the maejid inacriptlon has bsen obliterated to such an extent that very littlo can be known from it. Dr nbdul Karim after a good deal of trouble succeeds in deciphoring tho name of tho reigning king as Sultan Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah (1S33-tS3B A D).2

in the village of l./lasjidda,

r!AsP, xu (1967), 324-325
2 lud,, p.
327

l.rchilectural actlvities | 591

The masjid is an one donred square slructuro with four circular corner towers, crowned with eupolas, The dome is crowned with a lotus finial. Besldes the four corner towers, thero is also a mihlab tower. There are thlee low doorways in the east; the central one is a little biggei than tho cide ones, There aro three mihtabs on the west, llre central one being bigger than the side ones. The ccntrai rnlhrab is made ol one solid stone frame. The masjid ie surrounded by boundary walls and entered through a low dochala type gateway,

&ziz l{hans's Pdasiid st Hulain. The masjid is situated at the village of Hulain in the Patiya u. z. The masiid is one of the well-preserved pre-Mughal masjids in the district. The inscription wtitten in Arabic and engraved on ths facade of the masjid states that the founclalion of the masjid was laid by Aziz Khan, son of Sher Mast Kt,an Alamu.rali in the year 1066 A I'l (1658 A D) in the month of Shaban. The construction of the masjid was com' pleted by Musa Khan, one of the brothers of Aziz l(han, The
inscription is engraved by Musa Khan. The outet structure of the masjid now lies in ruins, but the main bcdy is kept in good con-

dition by constant

repair.

The masjid is a single domed simple structure with four colnor towers, Tho two front coiner towors have disappealed. The rear corner towers and the large dome speak more of gravity than gr6ndeur. The principal doorway is low and speaks of its pre'Mughal Muslim architectural design. The wall is so thick that one can feel cooler inside the building even in the hot days ol summer, The front pottion of the masjid. shaded by c i sheets is recently built to contain the capacity crowd during mass prayer.

Accolding to thB local tradition, Aziz Khan was a roaza or headman- l,le tool< an activo part in a plot, organized chiefly by the Muslims of central Chittagong ( ? Chakrasala ) to overthrow the Alakaness government. At this time, he resolved to build a masjid and even otarted its construclicn. He felt no neoeesity of taking pormieslon from the Arakanese govetomenl to ersct the masjid. The plot leakcd out and Aziz Khan was thrown into piieon. Tho

592

J

A History of

C6111rronn

incompleta building was finished by his younger brother Musa Khan. But the latter did neither inscribe the name of the Arakanese so. veroign nor the Arakanese Era probably due to his strong aversion to tho inlidel rulers.

It

Mughal

The, 66nou.sr of Chittagong by Nawab Shaista Khan in 1666 A D is a turning point in the history of chittagong. The districr came under continuous Muslim occupatron for about a ccntury. It is for this reason that Muslim monuments of a period later than 1666 A D ars abandantly available. A brief architectural description of some of the principal Mughal masjido is attempted here. Jame $angin Htasjid. This is rhe principal masjid of Chittagong city. lts situation on the top of a hillock in the heait of the city glves an impressive viaw. From the two inscriptions engravod on the wall, it is learnt that tho construction of the masjid was slailed according to the direotion of Amii ul umarah (Nawab
Shaista Khan) and was completed in rhe yoai IOTg AH(1669

A D).1

for many years owing to the divine vengeance inflicted upon it for the proud title of second Kaaba given to it. ln reaiity, it was neglssls6 by the subsequent Mughal adminisriatore, probably to dlvert the public to the masjids at other places of the city. Whcn the administration of rhe district was transferied to the East lndia Company, lhe Jaiter convertsd tha masjid into a magezine for storage of arms and amunition. For many yeare the mlsjid remained in a neglected state, tn the middle of the nineteenrh century, at the demand of rhe leading residents of the ciry, the British government agreed to iectoie it to the Muslim
community. lt was then reconvefted into masjid. The front portion

According to Mv Hamidu[ah Khan the Masjid was laid dcsolate

1

Shamsuddin Ahmed, op. ctt., vol.

ieading,

A

lV, pp, 286.87. Foi mofe coriect Karim's aiticle in ltlhos Somitt Patriko,ll (1973), 104

Aichlrectuial activiriee I 893
has reeently besn remodelled and given a new look. Thaso changes hava altered many of its original architectural features.

The masjid is a massive brick buik structure. lt was built after thg three-bay Mughal mesjid of tha Shaista Khani style prevalent in Bengal in the later part ol the seventeenrh century. Tho two corner pillars at tha rear of the main body appear ro be original, The circular pressed basement of the dornes, the clecorated archs, thg crenelled parapet, the typical Mughal lrays, and the petalled cupola indicare the common l\fiughal archiiecrural design found in many parts of Bengal. Oadam Mubarak

of a hill near Rahmatganj in the city. Accorrling to irs owrr inscription, rhe masiid was built by Muhammad yasin during the reign of [\4uhamnrad Shah, the Mughal Emperor (1719-1749 A D). According to Dr A H Dani, it is rhe linest specimen of all the Mughal structures in the city.1 16r masjid is built on o raised platform and is rectangular in plan with towers at ths four corners. Tho towers
side ones. All the domes are crowned with petalled finials The eastern sido has three doorways. The central doorway is given prorninence by greater size and multifoiled arch. lt ie tlanked by two rninarets shooting above the paroper. The tnreo doorways lead to anothEr three pointed arch openings of almost equal in size. The interioi of the masjid is divided into three portions by two glgantic transverso archs; each portion being covered by a ciome. The archs are pointed ones. The baltlaments are gently curved around lhs exterior base of the domes and at the top of tho corner to'flers. The engraved multifoiled archs, nichs and battloments giva livelv graco to the interior of the building. The facade is decorated with panels, nictrs and other artistic compositions, Tho mesiid has a room on eirher of its sides. The roorns ato rocfed over by quadrangular domes crowned by p=telled finials. The doorways and windows make the hall sufficiently lighted.
are decorated with ralsed bands and cupolas, The masjid is of threedomed rypo, the cenlral doma being exceptionally bi.qger than the

Masiid. Tho masjid is situated on a slope

1 e U Dani, rVusl m lrchitetrute in

Eengol, pp. 244-245

594 | A History of Chittagong

The northern roorn contains the holy footprint of the prophet from which the masjid gained its neme. On tho whole, this is one of the best preserved Muglral monuments ol th$ city.

An old nameless religEous btl;lding near the Oadam Mubarak. This is situatod a few yards apart to the south of the
Oadam Mubarak Mas!id. lt is mueh ruined, onlv thrte side walls remain stending. The south wall has rro trace. The corner pillars crowned with cupolas ara not high but appear -stout. The crowns of the pillars and tho roof have fallon down. The hall is entered by a vety low single doorr,vay which is sided by tr'vo areh openings, apparently windows. To the local peolle. it is knorr'rn as daroah becausathere is an old qrats on the southern eide of the hall The building bears no i6136ription and the date of irs erection is not known from any source. The architectural feafures such as low doofways. short but massive cotn€r towers with their decorated crowns and the design of cupolas ouqqest that it is a pre-Mughal structure probably built during the Afghan poriod

t{amza Khan's Masiid The' masjid is ciluattd in the outlying afea ol the city, in an open space called Eagh.i-Harnza, lt was built by one SrTerJ Shamsher in 1093 A H (1682 A D).1 The masiid has recentlv besn repaired. Thick plastering and reno. vations have robbecl it of many original features.

Muhammad Kh;ni l\{asiid at Jorapara. Tho masjid is at Jolapara in Pahartali on the Chit?sgong Dhaka Trunk Foad. [t is a characteristic threo-dorned Mughal rnasjid, the central dome is biggei than tha eide ones. ,AII thg four co'lner pillars including the masjid itself aie well preserved. lt has two insc'iptions, one fixed on the mihrab and the other is fixerl outsido on the chief arch, Ths mihrab]inscription is written in Arabic but cennot bo deciphered correctly lrowingBto its fworn out condition. The inscription on the outsida wall is written in Porsian. Tha last line ol this inscription is plastered during tho repair ol the rnasjid.
situated

[

,tifios Samttt Potrtko, ll ([g73),

10g

Architectural activitlcs I 5s5

Mv Hamidullah Khan,l tho masiid was built by Ds' wrn Muhamrnad Khan. Tho excavation of a very big tank adjacent to the masjid is also ascribed to him. The bottom of the tank has lost its depth in natural courso and much of it has been turned into agricultural iend.
According

to

The rnasjid stands on a raised platform at the back and ths front portion so;ves as an open terracs. An interesting feature ol this masjid is that two hexagonal cut monolith towers wlthout capitals are fixed <ln the platform in the rear cornore. ll soems that the inner inscription and the monolithic pillars belong to tho earlier Muslim period. on which ths lat6r Mughal edif ice wgs constructed by ono Mughal officer.

at the viliaga of lisha in

The masjid is situated Banskhaii u. z. The inscription affixed to tho outer wall srares thrt tho masjid was buiit during the rule of Sultan al Muazzam Sulaiman in rhe ye ar g7S A H 11568 A D). According to Dr Abdul l(arim, who gives an elaborats architoc;ural description of the masjid. rhe attached inscription is not originally belonged to the rnasjid.2

Eakhshi Harnid's N{aslid at

llsha.

This typical Mughal masjid is recrangular in plan with four corner towers. The masjid has thres domes covering the roof. The central dome is larger than the side ones. The domes are crownod wirh lotus and l<alasa finial. The masjid has three door. ways; the contral doorwey is ernphasised by irs size and it is flanked by rounded turro'rs shooting above the parapet. All the three doorways have multifoilod archs and the spandrels are lavishly embellished with orn:mental works.

of thc

tho most crowded area of the city. lt stande on a raised earthon platform' The masjid ia a eix-comed eructure with octagonal

wali Khan'e Masjid. rt is anothei well preserved epecimen Mughal religious architecture. lt is situated at Chawkbazar,

2leserx(1964),30

1 S.e Tarlkh

596 I A History

of

Chittagong

cornel towiirs shooting abovo tho paiapet. Each of the towets is divided into several parts bv raisod bands. All the six domes are uniform in size and crowned with petalled finials. The rnihrab is flanked by turrets on either side. On the frame above the mihrab Ouranic versos aro inscribed. The interior of the hall is rectangular in plan and is covored with intorsecting vaulted roof. The windows rnake tho hall sufficiently lighted' Probably tlreie was a flight of steps in front of the building but this has been covered up by recent extension work. The verandah in lront of the masjid is recently buiit to suit mass prayer.

B, ltindu

Architecture

The generic name for a Hindu temple is mot, mandir, thakur' bari etc. Except a few buildings, the architectural character of medieval Hindu buildings is not of a particularly high order. The architectural character of the Hindu tomplee of nolthern Chitta' gong shows its lelationship to that of the Tripura'Gomilla region. The intercommunication betweon northern Chittagong and TripuraComilla region lod to irnitations and bottowings. The Hindu temples consist of several component parts, such as garbhagriha or celia (sanctum sanctorum), manCapa or pavilion, pradakshina patha or circumambulatery psssage etc. A cella ie a lepository tor an image, a mandapa is meant for the performonce of religious rites, and a pradakshioa patha is meant for walking round the temple, which is a part of HinCu religious rites. Ail tho ternples cf Chittagong, however, do not contain these parts within their plecincts,

Most of tho Hindu temples havo pointed roof called shikhara, polygonal shap=d frame diminishing gradually towards the crown. a The shikhara is crowned differontly by kalasa (pitcher), trisula (trident), battlemented crest etc. The local Hlndu creftsmen made considerable use of this design in their temples, This design was ultimately conventionalizsd.

Atchitoctuial activitiec i 597

The lslamic styio of atchltocture also influenced the dcsign of rhe Hindu tempies. Th+r Bhairab templs at Sitakunda is a synthesis of tho two di{ferent siyles of architeclure.
almost all the tlindu ternples are of brick. Stone is rarely tised in ttie Hindu temples. Plaster was widely used to maks a building resistant of climate.
Hinclu tempies as

a tule

have no

pillars. This

meanE that the

walls are load bearing. The thickness of the walls and lhe doplh of the fcundaticn woulri thus depend upon tho load they would have tr: bear"

Most of tho Hindu temples are sither ruined or in a very pool srate of preservation. The dil:pidated condition of the buildings was partly duo to the heavy monsoonal shower, earthquake, mis. deeds oi tire miscreants, negligence of the people, Iack ol repairing and dosertion. ln course ol time many of the buildings became empty ruins.

Sitakuarda Temp!es

Tile Sitakunda group of templesl pies€nta a very interesting subject of study. This group comprises a number ol temples, widely distributecl and extending over a long time. Of the ancient roligious temples no trace remains. The oldest existing temple is not older than the seventeenth century. Many of the buildings owo theii consiruction to the Mughal period especially during the adminis. tration oi Faujdar (or naib) Mahasingh who made the place his
headquarters.

There ars a number of interesting legendary as well as Paura. nic accounts concerning Sitakunda and its shrines. From tho historiaal point of view, Sitakunda witnesses various religious movements

1 For the description of rhe Sitakunda temples, See fftc

Sfrines

of

Sitokundo,

i;sa ; n History

of

chirtagorig

that lelt their traces in archirecrural activiries. 6riginally a Buddhist place of worship, it was transformad inta a centre of tha Natha cult which is evidant in its attachment to sorne famous Natha gurus and in the name of such deities as chandranath, shambhunath etc, Nathism was succeeded by ths siva and sakti culte and sitakunda ultimately becamo one of the renowned centres of saktiem in the subcontinent. The Ramayat sect also dominated for some time. tt has left its legacy in the name Sitakunda and in some ruined temples. Now it is a farncus seat of saivism and saktism.

Diffelent groups

o g. the Saiva temples, the Sakti temples. the Vaisnava temples, residential quartors for the priests and wendering sannyasis, rest houses

of ternclee can he roc,:gnized in Sitakunda,

for the pilgrims and so on. The

numbar of the buildings indicate

that this place was a populous centre of religious life. The rernplee attracted not only the local people but rhe devot€es from distant places. Tlie remples gave rise ro the building of residential quarters of priests, sannyasis and pilgrims around which has gradually grown up fairs and mail(ets to supply provision to the
inhabitants.

The rnost remarkable ol tha Sitakunda group cf temples is the Chandranath temple situated on rhe peak (about 1100 tf.)
The original temple, according to the Rojomo/d, was built by Govinda Manikya, king of Trlpura in the midclle of the seventeenth century.l The present rernple .,is of cma.

called after tho nanns of the

doity.

llar dimensions" and was eiected in the middie of the nlneteenth century.2 The tomple is dedicared to Chandranath, another name of Siva, whose lingam is placed in the centre of the cella. The old lingam, broken by miscreanls is also preserved. The tempte is visited by priests and pilglrims only on occasions. At other time the temple is entirely deserted.
The

old Birupaksha tomple

situated on another peak, named

I

Rolomolo,

2 Th,

lll, ZBz Shrlnes of Sitokundo

Archilectural activities I 599

after th6 deity stands facing ths south. Ttris simple structure was constructod on a terr0ce made of soild brick. The temple is accessible through a small flight of steps. lnside is a lingam.

The Shayambhunath ter,eople srands facing the south. Tne cella is square in shape. The lingam is placed on a raised platform. A mandapa is added to make it suitable for the porformance of rites. The temple is in go,;d state of pres*rvation. The Bamasita temple stands facing the south. The building is enriched with ornamental and terracotta reiief works. ln fact, no other edifice among tha sitakunda group of temples shows such a high level of workmanship as this templo. The jumping movement of Hanumana engraved on the facade suggests that th6 temple was dedicated to Rama. tho templo fell ruin when saivism beceme prominent in ihar holy place. There is no image inside and no religious rites are baing performed.
trabeated two storied building in front of this temple. The upper story is otill used by the visitors. But no stair caso communicates with the upperstors),.
There

is a

The Bhairab temple stands facing the east. lnstead of raised platform it has a groundwork a Iitrlo beneath the surrounding surface' The temple is rooc.ed over by o large ciroular dome whiih gives evidence of the inflirence of lslamic style of architecture on ths templo. The temple is given a plain treatrnent. The doorway is very low. Thcro is no window. The interior is dark even in broad daylishr. rn the interior of the wail of rhe sanctuary, figuras of Tantrik deitias aro currreri. The t,lrnplo is dedicated to Bhairab, the destiuctive representation 6f Siva. The nearby natmandii is of later construction. Tlro temple is one of the oldeel structures among ths sitakunda group of templas. contiguous to thia tomple rhere is a tank wirh a flight of steps.

Temples in the city
Badhamadhab ?empto at chawkbazar. This iemarkable Vaisnava

600 ! A t{lstory ol ehlttagong temple

is situatsd in the locality of chawkbazar. !t i: a massive

brickbuilt production having no less than seventy feet lriq'rr. The temple consists of cella, shikhara, attached mandapa an{ lcng gateway. The cella is a square building and has o very thiti< walls surmounted by a large shikhara. ln front of the cella is a hall or mandapa lor the assembly of thoso paying their devotions to tho divine symbol in the colla. The originsi inn:go has been destroysd by miscreants. The entrance dootway leads to the rnandapa' The temple faces open courts. The shikhaia is polygonal in ths exteriot but circular in the interlor. The dome has octagonal base. Both the interior and exterior parts aro plastered' The exterior plsster is evidently to withstand climatic influences and the interior plestei is meant for architectural activities. The intetior sutface of the dome is richly decorated with floral and ornamental vrlotks' Painting was applied on tho decorations. As the plastor has been peeled off, the marks of the ornamental work also disappeared. The device on the finial of the Shikhara distinguishes the temple. The crest hag some unidentified sculptureo. As the rrvsils have to support such a gigantlc dome so the ioad-bearing waile arg voly thick. The recess of the rear wall probably served the purposa of hiding va'uables from the miscreants. This system is also ft'lund in some of the Orissa and southern lndian ternples. Th+ niches weie usecl for artificial lighting at night, The two sidewindovvs help the liehting ol tha cella. The tempie oncs had a long gateway tho trace of which can still be seen, but the sirnhadwara has been dicappeared Ruins ot lhe boundary walls can still bo traced. This splendid building is in a very poor state of presslvation.

siva Tempte on Lalchand Road. This is another remarkable cpecimen of Hindu architecture in the city area, The building is located in the Chawkbazar arca. The temple conslste of cella and fdur ailached constructions on four sides of the main hall. The cella is an octasonal hall having no windowo; light boing aCmittod through lhe doorways. The polygonal cella becomes circular abovs
the parapet. The wallg are thick because they have to bEar the loed ef a gigantic shikhcra. tt has murel decorations. The baso of

Architectural activitles t €01

the sh;khara ls ca'v.,d by brlrl .rn-nre. r ll th.r .,v !s ol the celll are prnellad Trre €fllr?nc.r oi ,, F rs"l-",fl -ail s , n! rrth :nd Wost. A large e zo I rrg rir ii p]ar tin tl e fi;,r j ;,i,rr..rrn At the ",<J COntfe Of tne hall M.rCh Of t, i, Ennr.j.r6 COirslrrlci.(.:rr.i iltyn b..en crumbled dw*y; oirly onc room $till stinds. I\,'ia$onrv in rhia buiiding is of high order.
.t

C.

Buddhist Architccturs

The earliest reference to the Buddhist archirecrure in chittagong is found in the Tibetan sourc€s. The Tibetan cr,ronicrss refer to a gre.t Buddhist monasrery named par,drt vihar. whrch flourished during the tenth through rhe rwelfrh cenruries of the christian Era' B'Jt the stlucturar remains of this great monasrery has not yot beon traced The construction of exrant Buddhist religious edifiees doss not go beyond the Arakanese period.

ln 1541 A D the Arakaneso governor of chi*aoong buirt a a relic chamb+:r. ,,lt is the general practice in Arakan and Burma to deposit images in relic chamber.,, Tho ruins ol this pagoda have completely bern lost. It seems that wooden buildin-q and pagoda tyoe or brick architecture were favoured by the Arakanese. The bell shaped religious buildings which are profusery seen in southern chitragong may have thoir origin in the Arakaness period.
pagoda which oontained

Most of the Buddhist templos of medleval Chirtagong muet have been buih of wood or gome orhcr perreh ble materials becauso no trace of euch buildings have hithorto baen found.

Thc Buddhist architcoural expreseion is best illustrated in the etupa and the kyangs. One such stupa is phorachin ol Haidgaon which is balieved to date from rhe Arakanese period The foundation of tho stupa is rectangular brrt qssumes a conical shape upward. Tho stupa ie either a shrino or a reriquary Since very early timec the edrfice has beon an object of worship by tho
Buddhisrgr

602 I A Hlatory

ol

Chlttagong

the Sikh

Temple

Thc edifice is known as ehawkbazar Gurudwara' The Sikhs believe that Guru Narrak (1494 -1 539) soiourned at Chittagong before his sailing by sea to Port Jeddah for his visit to the holy city of Mecca.l The edifice was built in the eighteenth century to commemorate the holy saint's sojourn at Chittagong' The building is loctangular in size. lt is very sirnple and dovoid ol architectural beauty. The roof is of the chauchala type' 't The ceiling is lested on lhree bays' he lone dome is crowned with a finial. - Th" curved ceiling is hardly rnore than seven feet high from the grounC level. The interior is ouite plain' The building is entered by three small doorways of equal in size. The €ntrance doors and arches are so low that a man of average height cannot move standing. The central room is surrounded by vaulted passags on three sidas. The passage is both entered and lighted by a door on cach side. 'ltro interior of ihe buildlng ie relatively dark even in broad daY light' The cdilice has a long gateway' lt is entered by means of a flight ol just three steps Originally thero was no portico in front of the building but I roofed verandah of excellent architectural works haa been added recently to give the structure a good look.

1'

fh, 6tkh Revlew, August XXIV, No 272 (1976)'

47

CHAPTER. XVII
ECONOMIC CONDITION

So far ao tho economic condition of Chittagong during tho medieval period is concernod, wa havo few data and scanty information aild these are supplied largoly by the foreign travellerc, tho early official papers of the Englioh Eaet lndia Company and ths contomporaly Bengali works. The following ie a brief accouni

of rhe economic condition

of Chittagong during the medievol poriod.

Medieval villago was the tyPical form of rural settlemcnt. Villages or gaons (Sano. grama) were mostly situated in the fertilo plains and river valloys wherc agricultural facilitios were eaey to bc obtainod. Modieval villagee norrnaliy concisled of dwellingc, agticultural fields, fruit gardens, pasturagee and fallow land. Villageo in the hiily region lvore primarily baeed on chifting cultivation. A tribal village which was merely c cluster of hutc otood on the banks of streams and at a mourrtain-elopo. In most caceo a villago was known as 'para' and oach village had its name. ln the latc Mughal revenuo records a villago was called e mluza.

The most important elernent in tho economic life of medieval Chittagong was agriculture which was tho basic occupation ol the people. Two eystems of land cultivation prevailed; ehifting culti.i vation in the hilly region and settled cultivation in tho plaino and rivel valloys. The former typa, known as 'Jom'l has boen

1 Th" term io most equivalont to ,yoma', an Arakanme.Burrnln term meaning hill; e g, Arakan yoma meaning Arakan hillel

604 I A History of Chittagong

the dominant aqricultural system in the hilly region of Chittagong since profrisloriG times. lt is characterized by the torm'slash and burn'. Ths method is ae follows. At first a parch of forest or junglo is cieared oy fel ing process and burning. The ashec of burnt sirrubs servo as narural menuro, The sower then doposlts seeds ioto a small hole rn th+ ground which he makes with an lndrgeneous implement. The cultrvator giows various typeo of plants such as yams, tubers, ci;reals, sugar cane, colton, beans, lice etc. After two or throe leare 6t most, the cuhivator movoc on to another area leaving the former area to be covered by jungles The Iand remains as such till it ragains fsrtitity and then it is brought undor cultivation again. As a result of this melhod, the fertrlity of the soil ir maintained. Shifting cuitivators do not require cattle, 6nd plant their lrelds with the dibble and digging stiek ln a vcry oarly lime, the hill people developod the technique of artrficial irrigation by constructing small darns up tho hill-streams tlocally oalled 'godha' . Srifting cultivatlon helps growing a crop onco only annually. This practice of shifting cultivalion mainly confined among the hill peo le, However, nnosi of tho hilly lands were covcred w h thlck f,rr+st and were left to thre wild beasls such as tig+r. k:ep:r'd w;ld cat, elephant, wild bcar, gayal etc. who were ;aal inmales of the doep jungles. Peor;le Iivir=q cfriefly in the pl.;ins .lnd in rivor valleys adopted of s-r,l d culrrv ition. I'ho so I . consists ol e fertilo cou:se ihe mixture or s'-.,rd e"rJ clar;. il is type of soil in every way adap tod to llaa ':gltiv rt sR W,rh iir+r hl,lp of uloughs drawn chiefly
by oxen aiid b.r{f rl<.le'r tho n.?asants gro\^/ m \re than one crop on the

period, more and more fallow land was baing colstnntly reclaimr:d and brought under cultrvation by such proc$s$es as clr,ar'ng aw'ry dense trooical shrub, draining owamcs and terracir.q hill sidee lhe land ihus reclaimed known as nolbart plots existed everywhere in the district. The peaeants of the pl2ins usually raise dry and wet rice known respectively

aoil. i hroughout the

l*"4u(thal

and 'yama' a Japanece tofm

meaning the sarne, o g, Fuzi Yama (Fuji mountain)r the highosi mountain in Japan.

Economic condition I 605 as aman or shali and aush ot boro. Various types ol paddyl wcro cultrvatect in Chittagong. Tho f inect typo of paddy was for zamindar's consumption and the coorse type was for the culxivatol's home consumption. The agricultural plots were kept fertile by means of manure from cattle, together with household refuse and ashes. The most productive land was known as'powndee'which produced three crops annually e g, wrn'.er rice (aman), autumn rice (aus) end winter crops (rabi). Ths ordinary cultivable land was known as 'nel' and tho fallow land as 'khilah'. The hlgh lands of the plains are ussd for eugarcane production. Vegctab'

Ios of such kinds as pumpkins, arum. chillis otc., fruits and orher crops were glown by hand tillase on a mora or loas per' mane nt basis. ^mong tho gsrdcn clope pumpkin, gouid, melon, arum, c$conut, banana, nratpha (a kind cf sltott cucumber), tama' rind, hog plum (arnra), 6enkey jack rbarta). rose apple (iam), citron of various species. papaya, mango jackfruit etc. wsre impor' tant. Bean barberi (etring bean\. radish, areca palm r'supari), betel leavo (pan\, tobacco, cotton, ind'fio mustard secd, turmaric, chllli, pulse anC various herbs were produced by planters for homc conoumption as well as earning money.
Medieval peaoants hcd to devcte alrnoat all his time to such tasks as clearing and tilling the eoil. smoothing the field, pra' paring the hot bed, protocting tho seedling, resisting the growth of weed damn'ing the streamlets for irrigation, protecting tho ctops from tho birds and wild animais. harvosting the cropc and etoring tho agricultural products. The womenfolk also performed some lighter jobs in egr;cultural activities. Somotimes, the whole family took part in euch activities. The most deadlv enemies of the crops wore wild birds, deer, mLinkeys, wild pig and elephants. Agriculture sullered much f ronr draught, heavy rainfall, f lood, cyclono, opidemics and oppression. The uncontrolled floods of the rivate and h ll strs-2ms as a result ol excessive rainfall madc consldorable damage to oops. The occasional raide of the ttiberr
1' A H chowdhury, oP. clt., Pp. 369,370

606 t

n

History

of

Chittagonj

men into the villages increased the digtress. It was a common sight that tho fields had gono to weeds $ue to the desertion by the culrivators.
Besides the agriculturistg, there were hunters and fooC gathe; rers who collected their subsictencs ovor a large tract of virgin country espocially in the hilly region. Hills and jungles offered many opp)rtunities for hunting wild animals such as deer, wild boar, gayal, fowl etc., which were abundant in the hrlly region. Bow and arrow, sp6ar, net, pitfall etc. were necossary and farniliar equipment. Thg hunling and gathering tradition of tho hill people conlinues down to our pcriod alinost unchanged. Because of the naturs of their way of life, they do not livo continually in the same placo. Fishing wae commonly distributed throughout chittagong and fishing peoplo lived on the banks of rivers, rivulets and on 6aa coasts. The chiof localities of inland fisheries were the rivero Karnaphuli, Halda ond the mouths of the Feni, g6n([2, and Matamuhuri. There was a wido variety of fishing net, fishing hook, and fishlng trap usod lor carching lish in shallow water. Tho forest and sea provide an inexhaustibla supply of food.

The econclmic conditlon of medieval chittagong eeems to be in other parts of Bengal. Forests provided good supply of animal food. Riyers, marshes ('baelr') and tanks were swarmed with fishes and the inexhaustible sen fiehes wsre free to everybody. Hilis and junglos provided such building materials a, wood, bamboo and cans. Foreign travellers unanimously speak of tho abundance of provisions and low prices of articles in this region. Dom ..!oao Leyma (tSlB A D) writes: ,,Tho counuy is very rich, ten fardos of rice sell for a parado of 320 reic thero boing three alqueires in each fardo...twenty heno and as many aa
better than

sixty ducks eell for a tanga and three cows per pardao,,.l Caesar Frederick was suiprised to see the incredible cheapnsss of commoditios in Sandwip. He writes:

They sold

it so good cheape that wo weie amazed at the

1 C R, Jan..March, 193g, p. 2l

Economic condition I 607
cheapnesse

thereof. I bought many salted kine thete, for the provision of the ship for half a larine a piece, which larine may be twelve shillings sixe pence, being very good and fatte; and foure wild hogges ready dressed for a larine a great fat henne lor a bizze a piece which is at the most a pennie; and the people told us that we were deceived the halfe of our money, because we bought things so derie; also a sacke ol fine rice for a thing ol nothing. and consequently all other things for humane sustenance were thete in such abundance, that it io a thing incredible but to them that have seene it.l'

Pyrard de Laval, who visited Chittagong in 1607 A D, says in the samg voice. Ha saw no country in the East so abundantly suppliod with all things needlul for food, with tho richee of nature and art, and were not the navigation co dangeroua, it would be
the fairest, most pleasant, fertile and profitable in the whole world.2 Ot the varied agricultural resources, Pyrard mentlons the following
crops.

(Beeides rice, the chief crop) there are many good fruits, not however cocos or bananas;3 plonty of citroue, lirnes, oranges, pomgranates, cajus. "pineapples etc., jinger, Iong peppets of which, in the gresn state they rnake a great variely of preserves es also lemons and oranges. The country abounds with sugarcane, which they eat green; oi else make into excellent sugar, for a cargo ro their ships. ...Cotton is (also) plentiful.4 Ol the animal stock and animal 16sd, Pyrard writes: "The country is well supplied with animrls, such as oxen, cows and sheep; flesh is accordingly very chaap, let alone mllkfoods and buttet, whereol

1

?urchos,

x,

137

2 Lovot, l, g27 3 It surprises us that Lavat trkes

no notics of banana. Countty banEna grow abundanrly in Chittagong but not of Mattaban or Brazilian type with which Laval might have been well-acquain' ted. That is why the traveller omits this fruit from hic list.

4

Lovol,

l,928

608 | A Hlrrory ol Ghttragong

they have euch an abundanco that they supply the reot of lndia.,'l Catile war6 the chial copita' of medieval peaaant They provtded him mrlk, mutton money and helped him rn various agricuitural actlvltiss. Ot rhs forest regourcee especiallv conor ond bamboor Pyrard gives an elaborate account wlth wondr,rfut accu,acy.2 It should be noted that the disrrrct is well known regard ng thcso two forest products both in variety and in quantit! ln the beginning ol the eight.enth cenrury, a repo'ter who had cpent I wintor in chittagong, informed captain A Hamilron that ,,hc bought 5g0 pound weight of rice for a rupee or half a crown eight geeee for the same money and sixly good tame ooult.y for the same and cloth is also incredibty cheap lt is bur thinlv inhabited.,.3 Fr Bar_ bier whilo visiting Chittagong in r713 A D romarks: The provisions there are admirabte, the crimate sarubrious rnd lhe water excellent. ... I have more than once regretted that the Europeans, when they wanted to establish themselvea in Bengal have not selected Chatigam in preference to Ougli (Hughlir, considering the sarery of the harbourage the facirity of landing, the abundance of food and a rhousand othei advantages which eeemsd to invite them hither.4

as carpontcrs, spinners and waavers, pott€re, metal workers, oil dri. llers etc. who both tived and caniect on their tradc in that particu-

Medieval villages were rargery ecrf-sufficicnt. The viilagco had eeparate areas meant for different spccialized artisans such

pr€pared and eold at the doors ol home cum shop of rhe craftsmen. Local transactions generally took place in matket places locally known as aurang, hat, b626;, ganj and mela. At these placas buyere and sellers mct at eet timee to do businees ln difforent kinde of commoditiec. Dukan or shaded structure for rerail aale of necessary commodity could be found at every vilrage. Generalty, bszarc were held daily

lar locality. Much of rhe handlcralt was

1 wa. 2 ma., p. 329 3 ot crmpos, op. crr., p. I l g 4 B P F,, vt (19101., zog"zto

Economic condition | 60U

hats twice a wook, ganjr were fot whola sales and melae or fairs on religioue ocoaciona. H818, bazars and fairr were held in open plainr. A producer of ecatcnal commoditiea would undettake long comnroditieo iourney to t rcmoto lair, bur the products ol necessaly buyere' ready find would go to ncatby mrrketr whcre they would tn thc markets, the farmcrs eold their egriculturrl produG!s directly to the consumere. The lcrmors alco sold egge and milk from door to door or at markst6. Fishcrmen would sell their daily catches at markets. Ac thc water tran3port wa3 more easy and economic in those days of poot countly loade. ao market placee wore g€nerally establishcd on thc bankr of thc rivers and canals. Saudagars or merchanrc engaged in both inlend and ovorseas trade to earn their livelihood ae well ae to makc prolit. Aa the cirGUIation of metallic coinr wag .cant in the medieval times, Bo lhe people had to dcpend on bartcr .ye'om.
existcnco of mountains and innumerable hill etreams, road communication in the mcdreval timas was very dilfrcult. An ldea of inland road communication in the district may bc fornrcd relying chiefly on the contemporary sourcee. The Na rirabad plate of Damodara Dcvrl giveo evidencc of a rajpath (royal road which mry be identified with Rangamati Foad) and a gopsth (cattlo road) in north Chittagong. According to ShihabuCdin Talieh, -sultan Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah burlr I great al (embankmont) to 66nnect hle capital city (Sonargaon) with tha chlef see port (Chittagong).2 Throughout the mcdicval period, thio road served as a main line of comrnunication betwecn chittcgong and sonargaon. The Arakaneso rulers developed land communication eopo' cially in southern Chittagong. Thc noed lor long-distance land comnrunication helped the building ol r good highway in aouthern Chitragong. Fr A Farinha, a Portuguerc traveller (1639'40), gives a gr:phlc description ol road iournoy ovel thc hlghway which connectsd Diang with Arakan" He wrinc:

Owing

to tho

t , r s B, xlut (1874), 321
2
Furhyo,

g.

182

610

lA lllrrory ot

Chiuagong

noricing. 1 tAhile narraring rhe Mughar invasion in chrttagong in r6r6 A thc Soho'rston relara ro a ,,iiig )way.. in north if,iriugon, Z
The communication

The road from Diange to Atokan is a royal road. ot ,ather it looks like a streer of Coimbra, oo great is rhc muhitude ol peoole going ro and fro. It is a most delightlul rcad to rra_ vel by; landm=rks indicate tho distancoj so numerous are rhese that ecarcely hae one been lost oight of, when the next appearo. I do not think thero is any road more pleasant and agreeable, consldering lhe great veriety of streame and riverg lhar cross it, eo to 8ay at every sr6p. Some of these rivers you must pass o't rafts; otheis owlmming. rll are of lresh crystalline water and swarm with fieh which th6 treveller cotches at pleasure. . . . AithouEh the road ifaverses an uninh:bited coun_ try yet in cer!arn places test houses have bterr builr by order king; 1o rhese a fixed revenue is alrached rraveilors 9f rh" lind rh ra shelrer and tooo l,"u-ot woultl be below the krng'e dignity to ask for "h;,S;;-i;;"it money. ,Along rhe way there are sevarar objects of great intorest and wail wolth
D,

torr€nts coming dowrr frr:nr the neighb ur,ng hil!s. So the upkeep of good roads was a v6ry d tricult job. By orrJ rs ol I awab Shaista Knan. all rhere str(arns were bridge d3 immediatery after thc conquest. lt seems that the uunk road. originally built by Sul'an Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah t<, connect his capital wirh the port town of chittagong a d rying in ruins duri ng the -oubsequent Arakaoese regime was reconstructed and improved Besideg this highway. a road was built p6r6llgt 16 th's roacl f gther eact running threug6 modern Farikchhari, Raozan and Ronguni, ,, , .". It joins the bank of the river Karnaphuli and Juge ccrla (Juskholg ln Fatikchhari u. z\. A th td road waE conslruclcd ln rho farther

thr Mughal rule. Norlhrrn Chirt rgong was devoid of good roads, clnce lhe whole srea is in,ersecred by the mull,ludc of srreams and

of

tho dis rict marked!y developed during

1

I

I
I )

1 Ot Monrtque. l, 172-17g 2 Eohortswn. f, 406 3 Fothyo p. IBO

Economlo condltlon | 6ll,

interior, para!lal ro rhe hill rengsg from tha river brnk to a place named Milock from which point o minor road linked the third with the second,l There wero probabty tho royal roade for the usc ol foot passenters as w rlI as riders ard varricies espu6rs]ly bullock carts. Besides, rh r!'s w.re irinunrerable country roacls some of syhich are sritl known as 'Jangals'.2 lhe rou.qh t ack running ingide the hilly region is knowrr as dh rls'. The early B'rri h documlnrt givc evidence of a nurnbrr qf 'dhalas' boing in exist.nce rn d,fferent parts of tile d:srrict.

Fivor Karnaphuli along wirh irs tributary Halda wag the chiel artory of tho d srrict, The sxisrence of innumcrable canah and creeks in cantraI Chrttagong cro,rided oxc.,llant inland navigation. Tha link canaI excavat€d by Faujdar Zulqrdar Khan grearly imrrovod
the water c)mmJnication

u ..3 since early times. chittagong har been a renowned in ernational emporium because of its excoilent haibour and porr 13611111*r. As early as the ninrh century A D. Chittagong was known ro the Arab merchants and traders.4 Th" great Portuguese historian De Barroa writee in 1532 4 D that "clrittagong rs the most famous and wcalthy city of tho kingdom of Bengal, on account of irs port et which moets the tralfic of all that €astern region.5 lt was a very busy port during caosar Fredericke's rime as the traveller found uguose ships anchored in Chittagong.6 Gaud and ths eetabl,shment ol rhe lacrory
modern Banskhali-Anw.,,

in

t' se" Rennell's map 2 Jangal ia probably rhe joint word of jang and al ( ) meaning milir6Ty road, i. e, road buiit for militat !n Chittagong dialect, iang means big and al ( cl Bang+al= Bangal in the Atn ) meanc raised bounda'y of agricultural land. So jangal may also mean big boundary load. 3 o'lvtrll"y, op. ctt., p. 3s 4 Se" supro, ch. iv
5

6 Purcfias. X.

ot

ca npos, op cir 135

, p.

113

612 I A Hlstory ol ehiftr$otg

at $atgaon by tho Pottuguose, Chiuagong monopolized tho trade o{ Bengel. According to Campot, "when the Portuguece came to Bengal, Cnittagong was irs chiof pott, and the main gateway to ihe royal capital Gaud"'l That is why the Fortuguese called Chirtaoong, 'Porto Grande de Bengala'or ths glaat porl of Bengal in coniraat with Satgoon, the 'Porto Pequeno' ot small pott, the second Portuguese sstablishment in Bengal. While narrating the formor cominercial prosperity of Chittagong, the author of the Riyoz us Sqlotln writes: "ln ancient times it wa! a largo port' The
tredsrs of every country especially the ships of the Christians ttstd to lrequent it. . . . lt is said that ships which in other parts of thc ssa reapJear in lront ol Chatgaon."2 lt wat only in the early part of the eighreenth century that it yielOed preccdencc to Caicutta.3

Throughout the medieval period, Chittagong was hummed with busy tradors ol numerous countries. Long bafore tho coming of tlro Portuguess tho Muslm me;chants ol the orient monopolized the foreign trade in Chittagong. When de Silveira visited Chittagong in l5l8 A D, he lound tho port thronged ol Murlim merchantc and therr trading vesscls.4 Joao Cootho, the leader of the lirst Portuguesa trade mission to Bangal arrived at Chittagong boarding a ship that belonged to onc Groma)le (Ghulam Ali) who was eaid to be a relativo of the govornor ol Chittagong.S Anothur rich Pet sian merchant who lived in Chittagong was Khwaja Shihabuddin rvhosu ship war trken prizc by a Portuguese pirate'6 Joao de Balros refers to the settlement of an Arab merchrnt who had come to Chittiigong about a century before tho llrst Portugueso landing at Shittagong.T According to Mv Hamidullah Khan, "one Alfa

2
3
4

1 curpos, op, cit., p' 2l Rtyoz, p. 41
wa.
Ses suPro, ch x

5 Soo suPto, p.21,,3 6 s"" supro, p. 217
7
Eee supro, p.
1

13

Econqmlc condirlon | 6i 3 Husaini of Baghdad, descendant of Fatimah, a groat melchent who possessed much wealth and many glrves and ownod four:oen shipg had repoatedly been to Chatgaon."l A Chinese snvoy belonging to tho early fiftoenth c6ntury states: "Tsa ti Kirng (Chatigaon or Chittagong) is at tha mouth of the sea. Marchants from foroign countri+-'s conno lrorn outsidB and anchor thero. They assemb:e and divirle the E:rofits of theil merchandise at this place."2 According lo a Portugurs,r corrospondent, there were a number of 'Guzarat boate' at the port of Chittagong in 1517-18 A D.3 With tha coming of tho Portggus5e, chief livals ol Muslims. the Arab sailg began to disappeor fast and the brisk trecle wrth the Arabian porte declined. Thc Portuguesa took the place ol the Arabs. "lt became en esrabl:shed custom from the time of S,lveira's visit to Bengal i 1 51 8 A D) to cend annually to Bengal a Portuguese ship wlth msrchandisa."4 1r 1531 A D, "rhero were thcn sevente€n Portugueso vesselg in Chittagong."5 ln 1538 A D Sultan Mahmud Shah gave the Portuguesa a number of territorial and commerciel concessions in the port of Chittugong,6 But all these coiicessions ware withdrown later on by tha subsequsnt govGrnments who kepl the Portuguere away from tho port. The '-ortugueso, however, regained their hold during the Arakanese rulc. ln I596 A D, lt is reported to tho king of Portugal ,'that rhe commorce of porto Grande of Bengala is flourishing."T Thie indicates the upward trend of the Portugueso trade and commerco in Chittagong. During the later part of the Arakanose rule, Chittagong became a etronghold of the Magh-Firingi pirates. The incidenral remarks by rhe Durch melchantr while on a visit to Chittagong, "ohow that piracy rather

2vaA,t(r94s),12g
3 c R, 1938, p. 2r 4 carpos, op. cit., p. 3 tbd., p. l6o 6 S"" supro, p. 223
3o

I s." ,rpro,g. 114

7H!,p728

Cr4lA

Hierofy

ol Chirtagond

than commerco was the chiet occuparion of the inhabirants, whilo tho lists of the cargoes which they obtainect indicate no signs ol commercial progress."l During rhs Mughal regime tho private trade ol the Mughal officers were carried on through the port. According to the Rlyoz, "all ths goods which arrived on board the mercantile shipo at the porr of Cr,atgaon, were bought up on behall of the Prince iAzim us Shan) 2 On account of tho existenco of a good port and harbour, chittagong l:ad an active and considerable foreign t,ede with d,fferent countries of both the East and the west. A lrvely tradc was carried on barween Chittagong and ths pereian Gult ports, between Chi tagong and the poris of the western coast of the subcootinsnt during ths early sultanate 1:eriod.3 During tho mcdieval period, chirtagong became one of tha chief centris of lmport and expott trado. Tlre suitans and the local govenors grvg .trong becking to tho foreign merchants engaged in trade with the merchants of Chittagong. Unfortunately, no precise idea of the pattern. of foreign trada in chittagong during the sultrnate period came dov'ln to us. since chittagong was a mint town and I cornIllo. rcial area, it had a great demand of bullion which was imported from other courrtries. We iearn from Joao do Leyma,s letter llslg A O) tnat "Srlver, coral and copper are highly prized there.,'4 Caesar Fredoricke writes of the bullion trade as follows:,,Bolween which two places lPegu and clrittagong) thero were much commerce in silver."5 Of the piincipal items of export from Chittagong Caesar Fredericke writes rhat from this port rhs traders carried to the lndies groat store of rice, very groat quanrities of bombast cloth of every sort, sugar, corn and moncy with other mcrchandiso..'6 The export of monoy must have caused scarc;ty of bullion in this
region,

1 Moreland, From Akbor to Aurongzeb, p. 2 Rtyor, p. 247 3 S"" supro, ch vii 4 C n, Jan.-March, 1g38, p. 2l 5 Purchos, X, 1 36 6 oampoe, op, ctt, p. I r 3

4?

Economlc condltion I 615

Ae regardc the import and export trade ol Chittagong during the Arakanese period, information io most authorirativeJy suppried by the Doghregister and the account of pyrard de Lavat. Fdam van der Mand€re, tho Dutch resident factor at Mrohaung (1634 A D), who had personally been upto Chittagong gives an idea of the main articleo of export and prices of those commodities in Chittagong. According to his otatement, almoct all the avaitable commodities could be purchaeed in Chittagong at a much cheaper Iate thrn in Arakan proper. lndlgo cost 1+ rangas per maund at Chltragong wheraae in Mrohaung it cosr ei rang.s.l The trade in Iac was stats monopoly. Prince of this commodily tended to rise during the ofl oearon. The time to buy tac was not until May or Juns. Hs had found it cheaper in Chirtagong rhan in Arakan. ',Early on rhe Dutch bought it at 3f, tangai rhe maund. ln 1641 _A D the prico had rises to 8!. tangas and at later to 1l tangas."2 There was r gr6at demand for lhis commodity among the European purchasers to manufacturo cealing wax.
Cotton cloths othor than finer varietics were of several rypes. Of thera lhe cutch resident mentions three types, black, blackcoarse and ' dungerry, ' rho last variety was chiefly manuhclured by rhe hill peopie Plenty of black cloth was obtainabls in Chitragong. lt appears lrom the report of the Dutch resident that the prices ol these three typer were more or less uniform. At Chittagong, black cloth sold at lt tangas_per piece whereas the rame piece would cost 2 tangas ln- A7sgBn.3 According to Pyrard de Laval, "cotton is ao plentiful that after providing for tho usee and clothing of the natives and besides expolting the raw material, they make euch a quantity of cotton cloths and so excellenrly woven that these articlos are e.xpoited and thence only to all lndies, but chially

lo rhe parts
1-

about

Sunda

4

Regarding rhe trada in

Pyrard writes that

"

eilk products,

thcy rnake many stulle

of

divors colours. and

2 hH. E tti,t.

1tul

R 5, Soth ann. publ. No

2, 1960; pp. 7l

and F2

4 bvol,l,

328

616 | A H!.tory ol Chlttagong

parts.l Othcl articlct of cxpott menrlonod pottcry, sugar, and scented oil, "got lrom a cer by Pyrard are tain grain and divors flowers. "2 Rlce, thc etaple food of the people wao a royal monopoly un dcr the Arakaneso rule. The price ol it wes generally fixed by

cxport thcm

to rlt

the king's ministers named Losolosii3 ;n 16s Doghretlster. Fixation of prica was generally based on two eonsiderations, the amount of outplus available lor export and the demand of the European merch' 6nl3 The exportable quantlty was fixed by thc royal orders. The Ara' kanese govoinment ''permittcd the export of lice, under the control of an officer who tegulated it sc as to prevent a shorlage. ''4 'l ho European mstchanto would not slip an opportunity, whonever possi' ble of smuggling rlce out of the kingdom by ovading the official lupervision. in 1636 A D, when there wal a good surplus in Chittagong, the Dutch lactor came to Chittsgong in person rnd advanced money to privato brokers lo supply his neods at 2+ to three tangas the cerla of 420 lbs.. but the king's cgent intstvened and mado this transaction inoperative. He bought up all tha rice at ?il taogat and re{used to let the Dutchmen hava it at less than 4 to af tangrr.S The export trado in rice is aico referred to by Pyrard de Lavcl.6 Elephanl waa consldered a profitable articl€ of export to thc Coromandal coail.T Pyrard writos that. "thir country abouds with elaphantc, which aro exportod hence to all parts of lndia.''8 Catching of elephante9 and !heir exports had been a flourishing

1

4

lbtd,, pp. 328-329 2 ttrd. 3 1 lur. R S (50th ann. publ.

no.2, tg60) p.8l

tila.
327

3 tbtit. 6 Lovot, l.

7 1 Dur. n S (50th ann. pubt. no 2, 1960) p. 82 I Lovol, [, 431 I A vt ld dercription of the khoda or olophant oatching h givon

Economic condition I 617
businesa since very early times. Verelst, chief of Chittagong found "recently caplured herd ol forty elephanls'' at Chittagong. "Thcse ele.phants had probably been caught fcr desparch as tribute to the Emperor at Delhi".l Felying on the accounls of the foreign trav6llers, Mnreland writes that the prineipai articles of export from Chittagong at lha beginning of ths seventecnth century, wero provi-

sions (rice and sugar) and muslin, the destination being Tennaserim, Malacca, Achin etc.2

Pegu,

Throuohout the medieval perlod, especially during the Arakanese

period, Chittagong was the chief centre of trading in slaves and eunuchs in eastern lndia. Joao de Leyma, a Portugueso correspondent (1518 t\ D) reports rhar, ,,(in Chittagong) a elave ie worth six tangas and a young lady double that sum "3 Ths Arakanese period was the heyday of tho Portuguese piratical activities. The Portuguese engaged themselves in slave trade, which fcrmed an important iiem of the Fortugueee trade and ccmmerce. According to Pyrard, "one of rha greatest trades in Bengal is in slaves. ... [\4ost of the slaves in lndia are got from here. Many ol the merchan:s c:s'rale lh.lrn, cutting them when thsy are young. .. This is in order to put them in charga of rhs women and of the keys of the houee."l Beferring to th6 Portuguese slave ttaders in the kingdom of Arakan, Bernier w,ites: '.They sold to rhc Portuguese of Goa, Ceylan. St Thomas, and otlrer places."s Talish says that "oniy ttre Firingi pirates sold rheir prironero.'6 H, f urther writea lhat the slaves "were sold to rhe Dutch, English and French merchants at lhe ports ol the Deccan."7 B.lying on rhe Dutch sour-

I

in the
B P P.

4 Lqvol, I. 332 5 Bernler, p. 176 6 Fothyo, p. 184 7 rbid,, p. Ig3

2 Morsland, From 3 c R, 1938, p. 2tr

Aln I Akbari, Soe Ain, l, xx'dil ( rg24), 20

?84

Akbor

ro

Aurongztb,

p.

5?

618 I

A

Hietory

of

Chirtagong

ce. Moreland writes: ,,Thesa commodities (rice rnd slaves) wsrs obtained to a great exteni from Chirtagong,.l The Durch required a large number of slaves in connexion w.rh the plantalion in fhe East lndies. The price of slaves varied eccordrng to rhe supply ava lrblr and the age and ab,liry of the ind,vidual slrve. According 16 their own repoi.t, ths Dutch aqenrs in rhs kingdom of Arakan were not allowed to expot t skill,d slaves who wero required by the Arakanese king in rhe capital.
The coast ol Chittagong and Sandwip has sincs msdieval Fetiod became the chief selt-producing area in this region. The isl rnd of Sandwip ,'where two hundred ships were annui lly laden with salt" and which. eccordrng to Fr Du Jarric, .,as berng ablr to supplr tha whola of Bengal with salr,'2 *r, the leading salt Droducrng area during the timo of the traveller. The gtatcment ol Teixeira rhat ',tho island of Sundiva alone produces salt in Bengal "3 poinrs out the pre.eminenoe of Sandrryip as a salt proclucing area ln Bengi,t. The portugu6se w6re commorrly angaged in tha trade in s.tr.4 which wag used ro be shipoed from;hittagong by the Portuguese merchants in their own cargoGs ro Dhaka wl-ere rheir agento received it and ihen re c.xported it to olherr parts of Bengal. A number of nimack mahals that have been mentionecl by ii;e AinI Akboil and the ea,ly British reccrds concernrng ravenue, indicato the thriving salt industry in the district. Flevenue from salt pits of Chittagong_ towards the close of the Mughel period aniounted to Re 23,587.5 During the rimo of the cession. there wero six nimuckurry or salt mahals such aa Narasinghabad, Shanabad etc , along the coalt of Chittagong.6 Th" Earthquake Repcrt of 1762

5 Bengal Boord of Reyenue (Mlscelloneous) proceedtngs, Nov. 6 'Anolysis', qt Fifth Report, l, 495

tian Gonzales in his earty lile was a ealt trader at Diang (see Danvers. op. ctt,, p, 142),
21,1792

Economio condition | 619

salt

of two badly affected saltworke at Bansbaria and Aklpurah.l talt was rnanufaciured by evaporation of brine and
gives information
producers

w're known as malangis. During the Mughat period, daroghas were appointed to supervise the manufactuling ol and trrrcfs in salt.
Being one of the chiet ports of Eastern lndia, Chirragong was ccmmercially connected w;th the dista'1t regions of Europe, Middla East and Far iast, The urusl 6ea toute lrom Chjna to Bengal vla the East Indies and the Bay islands menrioned by the chinese omissaries visiting Bengal during the frrst tralf ol rhe fifreenth century was as fclllws: By oeean going vessels they (the vtsitrrs) arriveC at Chirtagong via Siumalra the Andamans and the Nicobars; then they disembdrked at rhe port of chittagong lrom where they went upto sonargaon on liver creft. Next they forced their way to Pandua.2 The distance betwo€n chittagong and sonargaon ia given in one sourc@ as 500 li and in another as sixteen stages.3 lbn Battutc used rhe river route along rhe Meghna in his journoy lrom Sadkawan lCnrnagong) to Kamrup. We hear of regular pilgrimage sailing service from chrrtagong ro Mecca during the rule of the llyas Shahi suitans. $everal ocean going vessers were employed in this
service.4 The Porruguass source refers to tha busy trads route betwe€n C,rittagong and tha Persian Gulf ports round the Deccan coast during the Husain Snahi period. Sidl Ali, the Turkrsh navigaror descri. bes the goa roure f lom Diu ro chrttagong via ceylon and Rakanj.S caesar Fredericke mentions lrade roures betwoen chrtragong and Cochin, Chittagong and portugrl and Clritragong and

pegu.6

Tne

2vge,
9 bru.

11Aso, xil
l,

(1843). t049 (1945), 123
13-15

a1aRs, XLll, pt 2(195(i),

5ynsa.
6
Purcios,

V 11836), 466t.

x r35

620 | A History

ol

Chitragong

establishment of the Portuguese settlen'lent in Chittagong commefcially connecled the port town with the Portuguese colonies in both the hemispheres. The thr€e mighry nvers Pacjma, M, ghna, and Brahmaput.rd provide an excellent water communrca'ion by which Chittagorrg was coDn€cted wtth ths reer of Benga!. Ctritra gong has in a very real sensi been called "the gelew.y of Bengal." During the Mughal peried, the prosperity t,f tho pott greatly declrned owing to the rapid rise of Caicutta. Hooghli and the inland river ports. The insecurity due to plunderirg ra'Cs of tfie Arakanese pirates also contributed to its gradual deteriiiratiorr. Abbe Rsynal, writing in 1777, says that Chirtagong had sunk inro obscurity till the Engli6tr arrived and sgttlecl thare.l The Riyoz also subscribes to this view.2

Different kinds of coinaga were in use in different periods of history of the district. Cowri or shell of small gastropod was rhe chief medium of exchange in Chittagong as in the regr of Bengal from tims immemorial down to the early parr of the eighleenrh contury. According to the Arab travellers, ,'trade ls carrieci on by means of kaurig which are the current money of rhe countr)."3 Ma Huan, a Chinese official accompanying with the Chinese amba. ssador in Bengal writes in 1406 A D: ,,Ihe currency of the coiJntry is a sllver coin called Tang ka...is one inch and two renths in diameter and is engraved on either side. All large business transactions are carried on wilh this coin, ,'but for small purchases, they use a sea shell called by tre foreigners kaoli (cowri;..'4 Thus during the rule of tho llyas Shahi dynesty both tanka and cowri wsre media of exchange. Joeo de Leyma, a portugucse repoiter (1517-18 A D) found in Chirtagong ilrat shells ars the ccins in this country for none but the king can own gald or silver."5 Tanga5 as medium of exchange has also been mentioned by the trave-

ot o'M, )ley, op. cit., p. 4o 2 Riyoz, p. 41,
3ED,t,E
4 Bhattarali,

1

5 C n r Jan.-Marchr

op.

clt, g. 770
lg3g

),

p.2l

Economic Condition

| 621

ller. )uring the Pathan regime, dam and tanka were in use as currency. Accordrng to Vac den Mendere, the Dutch factor in Arakan, prices in Aral,iarr and Chittagong W:rs always given in tangas, the ofticial Mughal currency before tha introduction of rupee and were worth two shillings each. 1 Und"r the later Mughals, sicca rupee was in circulation b.rsides other units ef coinage.
Itloney was useC to be coined in Chitragong from tho very early poriod o! tha InCependent Sultanate, As the transport of n:oncy from the capital city to a distant piace like chiiragong was risky, so the ruiers c:itebllshed a mint at Chirtagong. Chittagong appeared as a nrint town under tho rulo of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah.2 coins of tha two Hindu Kings named Danujamardana ['eva and Mehsndia Deva, minted at Chittagong are of standard quality and are still in good condition.3 As many as fifty four coins of Sultan Jrlaluddin Muhrmmrd shah, minted ar chittEgong have so far b:en discovered from the distlict 4 coins were struck at chitt.gong hy such Tripura kings as Dhanyamanikya,S Deva.nanikya, Bijoymanikya and others as a mark of their paramountcy over the district. Under the Alsftsnese regime Chittagong was the second irnportant mint town in the wtrole of the Arakanese kingdom. Coins of 1450 A D ''now exist wirh legends in the"Bengalee and Persian charactor, as well as Burrness, some oeing struck by the viceroys in Chittagong." 6 Talish writes:" (tho governor of Chittagons) issues gold coins stampad wirh his own nams at this Plrca."7 The coioage of Chittagong illustrates the importance I
2 3
4

J Bur. R S ( 50th ann. putrl. Bhattasali. op. clt., p. 78 lbid., p. 1lg
lbid. pp.. 124-1ZS

no

2,

t,9C0

), p.

80

5

; Corpus, pp. Z6f. One ol his coins is now belng preserved in the Chinagong
museum.

6

IASB, x ( l84l ),688
p.
182

7 Fathyo,

6zz I

a Hisrbry of Chillrronn
as a contr,a

of trade and commerca, Knowledge abou: w:ights and measures can bs garhored from the account: of thr fsroigners. Maund: and saers wrre ths two units to rveigh tha co;.nmodities. lr{unes ( ISSl A D I writas that "(in tha P1r:s G,-1rlr) rhe mrunC rnr)l b/ w,1tch thsy w:rgh all lains i911y s9s;g iceros), eech seer 1B$ ounces,,,l Rice ,e:l b/ thc ,last' orcarra'and scmgtimes Oy both during tha rul., 2 Ari as me3sure of capacity fcr grains and csreals dates back to the Mughal period 3 Bamboo re eds were used to measure thl quantitv of liquid sub-3(ances during the medieval period. Pyrard wriros: "of these (the bamboosr roo. are made their m3lsures for measuring all their goods, such as rice, grain. oil. butter and the Iike. Moasrrres of alr sizes aro made of th.*.,i4 Land measurements such as nal.5 ganda, kara, kani6 and drona 7 which date back ro tho medieval period, are still current in district' The uso of nara and drona as units or measuromentthe of
I

of Chittago0g

2

Ot H l, p. 728 J Bur. R S 150rh an,r. pub!. no 2.l gS0) p. a unit of c:pacity for the msasurements

gl. Thc carta

as

cropr is now an obsolete thing but perlraps its deforrned namo 'cargya' as a conrainer of paddy or coreal crops is stirl current. A cargys is made of thin pieces of bamboo or cano. The 'carra' may have a relaiion to ,ari. a unit of measuremsnt of sixteen sesrs capacity. 3 Serajuddin, op. cit., p. I54 4 Loval, 1,330 5 The msa.suring instrumenr ceiled nal is a bamboo pol=, eight or usuaily 12fi leet cubits in lengrh. "Tha mgasuremsnt of the kani I conny ) is twelve nulls, oach null eight cubits (covids)", ,A letror from Verelst and his Council, dt Feb. 16, 1761 , qt Fifth Reporr, l, lntroducfion, p, cxx. A maghi kani is oquivalent to four Engllsh acres. 7 one drona ie equal to G.4 acres. According to tho Eorthquoke Reporr (1762), ons shahi drona is rg20 cubirs long and r600 cubirs broad. I A S B, Xl! (1943), 1050n)

of rice and cereal

Economlc condition I 623

ground has been in existence einca the days of Damoderadeva's coppe'plate oi €ven earlier.l Kani and drona are related by the equation of 1 : 16. Thr system of quantitative rneasuremenl of comrnodities in masha, ratti, ganda, burhi, pana, kahana etc has been referred to in the early Brirish revenuo documents end nrcdieval Bengali works. Wood balances with marks of measurement on them have been in use in the district sincg tho medieval Lreriod
lndustry and bandicrafts roceived estimation of the lcreigners. Handicrafts included such activities as embroidery, weaving, matting. basketry, pottsry, metal working, rvoodworking otc. Baskets of

various kinds plryed an irnportant part as storags containers of personal possessions and as granaries. Pyratd gives an account of the industrial activities of the people as follows:
Tha inhabitents, both men and women were wonderorrsly adroit

t.

in ell manufactures, such as of cotton cloth and siiks and in needlework such as embroideries which are worked so skillfully, down to th€ smallest stitches rha: nothing pretrisr is 10 be seen anywhere. Some of these cottons ano' silks are so fine that it is diffrculr to sty whether a person so artired be clothed or nude. Man;, 616.r kinds of work euch as fur.niture and vessels ar6 construct6d wilh oxtraordinaly clelicacy, wirich. if, brought here would bo said !o conrs trom Chrna. ln this country is made a large quantity of small black anC red potrery. Like the finest and most delicate terre sigillae; in rhis they do a gr6at trade; chiefly, in gargeulsttes and drinking vessels and other utensils.2 We harre little knowledge of ths co;ditlon of weaving industry during thg medieval period. Towcrd rhs end of tho Mughal pariod, "thc purchasing trado iin Chittagong) seems to have been chiefly in textlle."3 The consignment of cotton products sent by Verelst to
1

! e S 8, XLtl! (1874), 320, The word nala occurs in the Naihari
grrnt of Ballala Sena. ( E ,, XIV (1917-18), 156-103)
20

Lovol, l, 32g 3 g p P, xxvil (1924),

2

624 | A Hielory

ol

Ghirtagong

Calcutta, a few months aftcr thc cession, "was vely favourably teported on." Referring to this conslgnment, a lotter ol the East lndia Company from Galcutta dated September 28, 1761 A D, written to the chief of Chittagong reporta: "We with pleasure observe by the gcod q'.ratities of the cloth you havo sent 8s tho ca'ie you

have taken in the improveme,,t of our manufactures."l Cotton paid as a tribute to the Mughal government was used as law 6slsrial ol the weaving industry Pottery was one of the most lloulishing industries in medieval Chittagong. Chittagong was rich in canes and cane furniture could be seen in every arislocratic household. Barnboo grows in abundance everywhere lnd lhe people especi"lly the hillmen turn it into ell kinds of conceivable household obiects of daily use witn astonlshing skill. Paper was menufactured by local craf(6mEn to supr,ly it to the government olfices, puthl writ6rs and copyisls.

the poits of Chittagong to sutiport the oxtensive maritime trade. The nearby hilly forests provided ample sr.rpply of wood for this industry. Tha people of Chittagong earned reputation ae gocd ship buiiders and excellent crew. Ship building material was so cheap in Sandwip that according to ths report of Caesar Fredericke the suhan of Constantinople had found it cheaper to have hls ships builr rhere rlther than at Alexandria."2
industry developed in

A flourishi.rg ship buildirg

3
4

tbia.

or

campos, op. cit., p. 11g

ieppendix

1. A lllota on the Hlstorical places of
ffiedieval Chittagong

STTAKUNDA. The pl;ce is siluated about twenly rniles north ol Chitiagong city. Fuins and logends relatad to this place indi' cale tfiat the plrce is of considerabla antlquity. The presenl name Sitakunda appears irr Ilenneli's map and in the early British docttfnents. This leads us to think that the name Sltakunda w.rs also current during the Mughal period. Hindu Puronos and Tantrik works nnentiDn Chandrasekhar, no: Sitakunda. The nlme Chandrasekhar also occurs in the Chhutikhont Mohobhsroto and the Roiomolo. This indicates that the name SitakunCa is preceded by that of Chandrasekhar to dEnote thrr pl rce in the trf teenth centuty. The chief temple, CeCicaterj to ths worship of Chandraoath, is situated on a p:ak narned alter the deity. The name Chandranath is associated with Natha culr whrch onco swerrt the district. Buddhists of Chittagoilg regard Ghandranath as a sacred place. Ruinc of Buddhist Mahayanic deities havo been unearthed near the pres€nt templo of Chandranath. With the decline of Buddhism in the sub-ontinsnt the reputation of tha place as a sscred Buddhist spot also declined. Tfie place became a stronghold of tlarha cult along wirh such other placs ae Adinath When Nathism bugan to show inclinaiion toward Saivism the place also bagan to lose its preeminent position as a stronghold of Nathism and the place became one ot tfie reputed pithas o-f Saiva and Sakta cults. The placo begarr to be ramed Ghandrasekhar which stands as a name for Siva. The sacred plico of Falamatiowar, a joutney to which place was an act of religious dovotion during the days of king Dhanyamanikya, har baen iden. tified with SitEkunda.t During rhe Mughal period the placo was usurped by the sannyasis belonging tD Ramayat sect" Sinca that time the placa haa been known es Sitakunda, obviously named attcr Rama's consort Si!a. The Bama.Sita temple and the well

1 See supro, p.

161

626 I A Hisrory

ot

Chirtagong

(kunda) of Sita commemoratc thls event. The usurpatlon of rhe Ramayats, however, failed to produce any permanent result in a place already saturated with Tantric cult. Saivism was resrored to its former posltion during the post Mughal period. The images of Rama-Sita temple wore destroyed and the temote was teft desoIate and it gradually lell in ruins. The name Sitakunda. however remain in cxistence to remind us ol its colourful histo'y. tt is said lhat Naib Mahasingh, tha Mughal adminietrator ol the district mede the place hic offrcial headquarters. The famrug hot spring ol Barabkunda is situated only 6 few mlJes apa,t.

EANDWIP. The lsland ls formed bv rich alluvium carried by the iolnl flow of the Padma and ths Meghna Jamas Wise most appropriately writes: "(The island) is probably the oldest and most pormanent of ihe grouo which the mighty river is foi ever building and deetroying."l The name Sandwip is supoosed lo harre foeen detived lrom liwarnadwipa or Suvarnadwipa which is connotatively related to 'Chryse'2 or gol'len len.l of the classical wrlters ol tho West. The name of the igland appears on the pag6s ol the accountt of the foreign travellers in different forms. Da Barros in his map (Dercripcao de relno de Eengalla) shows Sundivia lanher south west than ils actual position. ln this maD, the oast-wost cxtcnsion of the island ie shown gir'6t61 than its prosent shape. Thc location of the island in the map ol Van den Broucke is approximately correct though rhe same map glvec the island almost a lound thape. According to Farya y Souza. Sandwin ir seventy Ieagues in lcngrh.3 Caerar Frerlericke (l569 A D) mistakenly men, tiono the axtcnt of spacc between Sandwlp anC Chittagong as 120 miles.4
Euiopean travallers of the medieval perlod piaise rhr island for thc fertillty of soil, cheapness of provisions, and laeilitiee of building ol ships. In the 'ojudgemant" of Caerrr Fredericke, ,.it ls the

1JrsB,xvut
4
Purchos,

2 S"" supro, p. 47 3 campor, op. clt., p. 67n

(1922),44

x,

1gl

.--

Historlcal Olaces | 627

fertilest island in all the world."l ln the sixteenth and eeventeenth centuries the island was a paradise of Fitingi plratcs. The history ol the irland is closely rolated to that of Chittagong. CHAKRABALA. The Iitaral meaning of Chrkrasala is rhe "abode of the holy chakra." Accordrng to the local Buddhist tradition, the place is attached to the Dharma Chakra of Buddhism. The nama is written as Sacossala, Saccasala rnd Saquecala by Manrique and Bocarro respectively.2 ln Rennell's map it is spelled
Chanskhola.

The existence ol Chakrasala ac early as ths fifteenth contury has been referred to in the vaisnava Iiterature. The place ic acsociated with many distinguished vai3p6y6 saints during the fifteenth and sixteenth centurieB. Pundarik Vidyanidhi, the grsat vaisnava eainr and a numbei of his lollowers hailed from chakrasala. From tha Portuguese cource of the early sixteenth contury wo come to know that ihe Tantrik Brahmanas of chakrasala sacrificed a youro P6rruguese captlve boy ?o rhelr deity These evidenccs sugsest rhat the place was a contrs of both Vaisnavism and Saktiem in tho fifroenth and slxteenth centuries. ln thc latci pan ol the rule ol the Husain shahi dyncety, chakrasala became incorporared wirh the 'ftingdom' of Khuda Bakhsh Khan.

A nrrmber ol the Portuguele hrstorlana reler to this place ln their works. De Barros, caetanhoda, Bocarro and othcrs narrato oventr that took place in rhe territory of chakrasala during the lirst half of tha sixteenth century. Under the Arakanese rule, Chakrasala formad ona of the admlnlstrative unirc. Accoiding lo Fr Manrigue, 'vilatas' or Iande in the torritory ol Chakraeah were
granted to the Portuguese sea captalnc in exchange vices ol guaiding tha trontier of the kingdom.3

ol thoir cer.

Whilc delining thc geographroal boundary of Chakiaoala, the jolnt editors ol Mrnrique's Travols writE: "lt stiotchos north.east

1 bra. 2 l{lonrlquc, l, 3 lud.

8g

628 | A History of Ch'ttagongr

to

Comilla, south to Halabun near Cox's Bazar and to the east of Chiilagong "l Th" jolnt editors thus gives Chakrasala an arco too Iarge for its actual size. lr is beyond doubr that the place was much bigger than tha pie;ent villaga of the Bama name. The editors of Manriquo's Travels include Sacannya lSatkanya) in tha Magh kingdom of Chakrasala. \rVe are inctrined to think rhat the principality of Chakrasala during the !rakanese rule comprised the entire area between tlre Karnaphuli and the lVlatamuhuri and bordeied on tho principaliry of Chakaria. Durlng the subsequent Mughal period, tho Arakanese principali'y of Chakrasala was broken down into a numbsr of units lcalled thanas). lt has now bsen reduced to a villago

DIANG lt is one ol the most nridely known places of medioval Chittagong. The townsl'rip of Dirng is cituated beiwr:en rhe hills and the sea shore on tho ]eft b-.nk of the Karnaphuli. 'lho name Diang or D,anta or Deang. accorCinq to Dr Blochmann, is derived fro:n e,ither Dakhindanga (soiithern bank of the Karnaphu)i) or Erahrnandanga.2 The namo Dieng is undoubtedly of non-aryan and rnosl probably sf l\il6rrgoiian origin lts Bengali forpl Deanq and Sanskritized form Dtvag16ml are m€t with in the medieval Bengali works and its Petsianistd form Deogaon is seEn in the A,nJ-Akbori. Under the Afghan rule Deogaon formed one ol rhe frve territoriai mahals lt has also been known as Bandar sinco medieval period.
The
eeventee

nlh century historian Shihabuddin

"i)n the ( farther ) side of tho l(arrraphuli, near the moulh and closo to the village called Firinqi.bandar, whcre tha Firingi piratel had thair houces."3 tn oersian, bandar means "e landing place, or quay; a soaporl; a harbour; and somglimes a]so a 'Io the Portuguess and olher Europeeng the place custom house." was also known as Bendel rvhich is tho European corruption of arabic term bandar. ln Rennell's map, Bandar Is located in
Ha. 2 1 A s B, xLil ( 1873 1, 233 3 Fothyo, p. 206

Talish writes:

I

Historical places

|

629

tho sarne pogition where rrtodern Diang stands Tha Bengal Survey [.r1ap, slrsct no 409 shows Bandar on the left benk ot the Karnaphuli almrst on its mourh. All thesa evidences point out lhat tre lEro places, Diang and Bandar are identical. The adjoining h ll is known as Diang Pahar. During ths Arakanese poriod tha namg Diang or Diangs was commonly used but Bandar was never forgotten to namo the place.

inde h.,,ven van Chatigam " All these descriptions are indicative o! Diang al foriniiig a suburro of Cnirtagong iown during the Arakanesa perioC. ln Van den Brouck's map, tho place is correctly ghown on the ieft ban!< of the Krrnaoh,-ril near its mouth. ,.Robert'g maD oit rled 'Les lnd s orientales. 1751' in the Bibliotheque Natlonale in Paris si'r<t..nss Diang in tho south of Chittagoog on a differ. ent mouiii oI a rivrr 1? the Sankha ). C' Anville's map (!751) at Boctiein Llbrary, Oxford aleo ohows it but in the north of Chittagong. Robert in hjs Crrte du Royaum de Siam, 175f in. serts Dianga. Hermaon Moll's map in the Bodlein shows Dianga in the eame position practically as Robert does; Nicholas Vischer, in his map 'lndae Orientalie' shows Dianga in the south of Chirtagong. Finally, in the British Mueeum 'General Maps 52450/ 1830 s 116' by J R Burton Bennstt, Deputy Post Master General, Bengal, we get Dianga shown on a separate mouth of the Karna. phuli, which proves that it was still known."2 The place is also mentioned by Fr Guerreiro, Fr Manrique and other European writers. During the Mughal period tho place with its adioining aloa was known as Pargana-e-Diang.

Fr Fernandez, a Portuguese missionary visiting Diang in 1599 A D, mentions the place, as "a town in the pott of Chittugong."l Referring to the placa Fr Du Jarric writes that it is "Una Ville sise en ce part do Chatigam." 1 a village near the port of Chittagong ). Van der Haiden deseribes it as "eeno stadt

3 g p P, xtv (igl7), 148f. 2 l{ionrique, l, 82n

630 I A Hlrtory ol Chlttagong

medicval Ramu was chlefly an Arakanese town, Diang may ba called in the same oenso a Porlugucs town. During the Arakaneoe poriod it gtsvv to be the principal Portugueoe cettlemenl in Bengal. The Portuguese called it 'Bcngala' and 'Cidade de Dianga.' From this time the place began to be known ar Firingi Bandar, or the poit of the Firingis. lt became the chlel centro ol the Porluguese piratical aclivities. The lisc and fall of the Portuguese townshlp of Diang is closely related to the rise and lall of the Poituguese power in this region. At present few Chris' tians live thele. But thore is evidence that the Christlan lottlemonl pcrsisted in that locality rs lalo a! the early pan of the nlneleenth "rntrry.1

ll

CHIKARIA. lccording to the local Buddhist tradition, the place is associated with Chakra or mcre precieely Buddhist Dhar-

machakra and as such became a csntre of Buddhist religion and culture during the medieval period. In rhr Rojomalo, the place ls mentioned as Chhakarua, De Barros mentions "thg city of Chacoiia" a6 ono of the "populatcd ateas" along the coast ol the kingdom ol Arakan and places it under the iurisdiction ol the 'Eotado de Codavascam' (ll^o kingdom ol Khuda Bakhsh Khan). Tho narrativea of De Barros give an indication thrt Chakaria wac one of tho potts in the klngdom of Khuda Bakhsh Khan.

The name ol the place in various folms has been inserted on scveral medieval maps. !n the maps ol Sir Thomas Roe and ol Phllippi Chetwind, Cheria and Chaiia are respectively shown on tho coast of Chittagong. ln the map of De Berroe, Chacoria is conectly Iocated.ln hls mrp, Pierre Vander (1727 A D) insens a place named Chera where modern Chakaria standc. but he does not dot it. ln Rennell's map tho name of tho place ie written ae Chuckerya.
During the Arakanose rule, Chakatia was made an adminirtrativc unit under thc name of the 'kingdom of Chakarir'. lt waa bounded by the 'kingdom of Chakrasala'to the noilh and the'king dom ol Ramu' to the south. lt was conguored by the Mughab la

I a r P, vt (1910),21g.zzo

Hlstorical places I 631

1666 A D, but was abandoned soon aft6r. lt was linally subjugatad by ths Mughars in the baginning of the sevontoenth century.

same in the medieval rrariorJ. The name has been inserted in some of the old maps ( oresorved in the Dhaka Museum ). What is insert€d as 'Golfo de Rama' (ot tha gull of Ramu) in Pierrs Vander's map is ieally tha Bak khali Bive' on which thq town etands Var den Brcuck's mac corrctlv locates the city. 'Asiae Descriptio lr[6yx l6pensis' f 1666 A D ] insarts Rama to the north of Arakan Other mros on whlch Ramu is mrrked as a place of imoortance arc d' Anvilr's map, Paris, 1751; Nicholas Vischera's mao 'lndae Orientalis; Bodlein Librarv maps; and the mep by the DeDuty Postmaster General of Bangal, 1852.

RAMU. The precant sm ll township ol Rrmu noted for its Arakanese architecture and sculpture is romantlcally situated amid mountain Bcon6rv" The pressnt site rougrrly corresoords to

the

Verious sourc6s exDrose differant viawe regarding the orig!n narne Ramu, Aecording to Buddhlst sourcos the name Rrmu is the surviving trtca of .Ramma', ,Ramyaka. o, Ramyabhumi' meaning 'the land ol picturesque scenery,'t by which thc whole of the aiea was once known in lhc past. Dr R B Barua want to indantify Remu with Ramma or Rammanadega ot Pali eciiptures. 2 According to the joint editore of Manrique,s Truvels, Ramu ls a corrupt form of 'Raja myo, meaning the kino,o town. 3 The Soktl Songom Tontto refers to a place Ramakshetra by namc as a centrs ol Sakrism.4 This p16"" may be idenr'fied with modern Ramkot situatod amid tha picturesque grouping ol hills on th6 left bank ol thc Bak khali Rivor. The prosent sitc of Ramkot contains heaor of ancient brlckbats and terracotta plaquas which give indications of the antiquiry of the si!e. A

of ihe

1

3 Manlque, l, 4 Roiqmolo, l,

21Asao, xvl (1971), 256
94n. The word myo moanr lown, lDId., p. 9ln.
85

s",

,uDro,

p.

16

632 I A History

ol

Chittagong

large numbor of broken pioces of sculJtures and other relics lio scattered in and around the hillock oa whiclr a Buddhist templa of later times stands. Theos surviving tracss place Rrmkct in tha ancient nrap of tho country. ln tho madieval works such as tno Rojomolo, Alamgirnomo arrd Bengali pulhis Ramu is written as Ranibu.
Medieval Ramu was petf,tctly an Arakanese town- lt gained sirategic and arlministrativs impcrtance under the A.rakanese regime. Tha position of the city on the high road between Chittagong and Arakan prop€r fitted it to bo the most stiategic placc not only in the provinca of Chitlagong but in the kingdom of 'trakan as a whole. The place was so important that the wholo of the A'reka' nese kingdom wos caliod t;y Ralph Fitch (1583 9t A D) as th,r kingdom of Ramu and Recon.l The town was known lo lhe Arakanese as Panwa and the governc-rr ol thei town was ca]led as 2 Mantiqus Pomaja ( < Panwa sa, the eatpr or collector of Panwa) describes Ramu as "166 shief town in this district (Chittagong) and the usual seat of the viceroy in-charge."3 Tracec of Arakanese burial place are observable near the Bamkot templss.

.

The Alakanese culture was predominant in Bamu-Coo's Bazar area and a large number of Buddhist temples, called kiyangs wsre €rectod during the Arakanese period and after. The architectural style of thess buildings are essontially Burman and most of the statues installed in these ternplee w€re cast in Burma.

i

I

1 Foster, Rolph Fttch, 2 Monrlque, l, 94n 3 wa. p. 276

p. 26

*Fpendix 1. A Note on the H!storieal places sf ffiedieval Chittagong
STTAKUNEA. The place is situated about twenty rniles north ol Chitiagong city. Ruins and logends relatad to this placa indicaie tiiat the pllce is of considerabla antlquity, The presenl narne Sitakunda appears in tlennel,l's map and in the early British doeu' rnents. This leads us to think that the name Sltakunda was also culrerrt during tho Mughal period. Hirldrr Puronos and Tantrik works mention Chandrasekhar, not S:takunda. The nrme Chandrasekhar also occurs in ths Chhutikhanl Mohsbhoroto and the RoJomolo. Tltis indicatss that the name SitokunCa is preceded by that of Chandrasekhar to denoto tire pl rce in the f if teenth csntury. The chief temple, CeCicatecj lo tho worship of Chandraqath, is situated on a p:ak narned after the deity. The name Chandranath is associated with Natha culr whrch onco sweFt the district. Buddhists of Chittagoilg regard Chandranath as a sacred place. Ruinc of Buddhist
Mahayanic deities havo been unearthed n€ar tho present temple of Chandranath. With the decline of Buddhism in the sub-ontinent ths reputation of ?hs place as a secred Buddhist spot also declined. The place became 6 sllsnghold ol l,larhe cult along with such olher placo ae Adinath When Nathism bagan to ehow inclinarion toward Saivism the place also b:gan to lose its preeminent position as a stronghold of Nathism and the place became one ol rtre reputed pithas of Saiva and Sakta cults. The place begart to be ramed Ghandrasekhafwhich etands as a name lor Siva. The sacred plrco of Falamatiowor, a journey to which place was an act of religious dsvotion during ths days of king Dhanyamanikya, har baen iden.

tified wirh Sitskunda.l During rhe Mughal period ths placo was ueurped by the sannyasis belonging to Ramayat sect" Sinca that time the place hac been known as Silakuoda, obviously named attcr Rama's coflsort Sita. The Rama.Sita temple and lhe well

1 See supro, p. 1 6l

626 I A Hisrory

ot

Chirtagong

(kunda) of Sita commemoratc thls event. The usurpatton ol the Ramayats, howevsr, failed to produce any permanent result in a place already eaturated with Tantric cult. Saivism was resrored to its former posltion during the post Mughal period. The images of Rama-Sita temple wore destroyed and the temole was left desoIate and it gradually fell in ruins. The name Sitakunda. however remain in existence to remind us ol its colourful histo'y. It is saiC that Naib Mahasingh, lha MughaI administrator ol the district made the place hlc off'cial headquarters. The fam:us hot spring ol Barabkunda is situated only 3 few mlles apa't.

EANDWIP. The lsland ls formed bv rich alluvium carried by the jolnt flow of the Padma and the Mcghna Jamas Wise most
appropriately writes: "(The island) is probably the oldest and most pormaneni 6f the grouo which rhe mightv river is foi ever building and deetroying."l The namo Sandwip is supposed to ha\'F bcen detived from liwarnadwipa or Suvarnadwipa which ie connotatively rela?ed to 'Chrysa'2 or gol{+n lan.l of the classical writers 6l the West. The name ol the ialand appesre on the paqes ol lho sccounts of ihe foreign travellers in different forms. Da Ba'rns in his map (Dercripoao de relno de Bengrlla) shows Sundivia larther south west than its actual position. ln this mao, the cast-w€st cxtcnsion of the island ie shown gic6tsl than its prosenl shaDe. Thc localion of the islend in the map of Van den Broucke is approximately correct though the same map glves the island almost e lound ahape. According to Farya y Souza. Sandwin ir seventy leagues in lcqgth.3 Caecar Frerlericke (1569 A D) mistakenly mentione the extcnt of epacc between Sandwlp enC Chittagong as 120 miles.4 Euiopean travellere of the madieval perlod piaise thr island for thc lertillty of soil, cheapness of provisions, and lacilities of buildins ol ships. In the 'ojudgement" of Caesar Fredericke, "it Ia the

2 S." supro, p. 47 3 campoa, op, clt., p. 67n 4 Purchas, X, 137

1 1 A s B, xvnt (1922), 44

Historlcal olaces | 627

lertilest island in all the world."l ln rhe sixteenth and aeventeenth centuries the island was a paradise ol Fitingi p!rates. The history oi rhe itland is closely rclated to that of Chittagong.

CHAKRASALA. The literal meaning of Chrkrasala is the "abode of the holy chakra." Accordtng to the local Buddhist tradition, the place is attached to tho Dharma Chakra ol Buddhism. The name is written as Sacossala, Saccasala rnd Saquecala by ;gl667iquo and Bocarro rospectivoty.2 tn Rennell's map it is apelled
Chanskhola.

The existence of Chakrasala ac early as tha fifteenth century has been referred to in the vaisnava literature. The place ir aosociated with many distinguished vai3nsy6 saints during the fifteenth and eixteenth centurio3. Pundarik Vidyenidhi, the great vaisnava eaint and a nurnber of hir lollowers hailed from Chakrarala. From th6 Porruguese cource of the early sixteenlh contuiy wo come to know that tho Tantrik Brahmanas of chakrasala sacrificed a yourq Portugucse captlve boy to lheir deiry These evidencos sugqest rhat the place was a contie ol both Vaisnrvism and Saktism in ths fifreenth and slxteenth centuries. ln thc latc; part ol rhe rule of the Husain Shahi dynasty, Chakrasala became incorporalcd with the 'kingdom' of Khuda Bakheh Khan.

A number of the Poiluguero historlane refer to this place [n their works. De Barros, Caetanheda, Bocarro and othcrs narratc aventr that took placc in the territory ol Chakrasala during the lirst half of the sixteenth century. Undcr the Arakanese rule, Chakrasala formod one ol the adminlstrative unirc. Accoiding to Fr Manrique, 'vllalas' or Iande in the torritory ol Chakraeah weie granted to the Porluguese sea captalnc in exchange ol thsir servicec of guaiding tho frontler of the kingdom.3
Whilc delining thc geograph:oal boundary of Chakiacala, the jolnt editors ol Mrnrique's Travels write: "lt otietches north-east

1 wa.

2

3 tou.

Monrtque,

l,

89

628 | A History of Ch'ttagong

to

Comilla, south to Halabun near Cox's Bazar and to lhe east of Chinagong "l Tn" joint editors thus gives Chakrasala en ar€a too large lor its actual size. lt is beyond doubt that the place was much bigget than tho pie.;ent villaga of the oamo name. The editors ol Manrique's Travels include Sacannya (Satkanya) in tha Magh kingdom of Chakrasala. \Aie are inclined to think lhat the principality of Chakrasala during the !rakanese tulc comprised tho entirc area between llre Karnaphuli and the lVlalamuhuri and bordered on the principality of Chakaria. During lhe subrequent Mughal period, lhe Arakanese principali y of Chakrasala was broken down into a numbsr of units lcalled thanas). lt has now bsen reduced to a villago
places of meDisng situated of is township betwe en the Chirtagong. The dioval hills and the sea shors on '.h€ left b-.nk of the Karnaphuli. 'lhe name Diang or D,anta or Deang. accorCinq to Dr Blochmann, is derived fro:n either DakhindangB (southern bank of tho Karnaphuli) or Brahmaridanga.2 The namo Dieng is undoubtedly of non-nryan and most probably sf fu'lsrrgolan oiigin lts Beng;li form Deans and Sanskritized folm Devegr;J6it aro met with in the medieval Bengali works and its Persianistd fotm Deogaon is sern in the AtnJ.Akbori. Under the Afghan rule Deogaon formed ona of the frve territoriai mahals It has also been known as Bandar sinco medieval Period.
seventee nth centuly historian Shihabuddin Talish writes: ( fartner ) eide of tha l(arnaphuli, near the mouth and the "i]n closo to the village called Firingi. bandar, whero tha Firingi pirater had their houces."3 ln oersian, bandar means "a landing p'lace, or quay; a saaporl; a harbour; and somglimes also a custom house." lo the Portuguese and olher Europeens the place r,vas also known as Bendel rryhich is tho Europoan corruption of Arabic term bandar. ln Rennell's map, Bandar is located in

DIANG lt is ona ol the most widely known

Tho

I

21ASB,xLil(1873),232 3 Fothyo, p, 206

Ma.

Historical places

I

629

lhe sarns position where tnodern Diang stands The Bengal Survey ['lap, sirect no 409 shows Bandar on the left bank oll the Karnaphuli almrst on its mourh. All these evidences point out that trs turo places, Diang and Bandar are identical. The adjoining h ll is known as Diang pahar. During ths Arakanesg period tha namg Diang or Diangs was commonly used bul Bandar was never forgotten to namo the place.
Fetnandez, a Portuguese missionary visiting Diang in 1599 A D, mentions the place, as "a town in thc port of

Ft

Chittagong.''l Refering to the placa Fr Du Jarric writes that it is "Une Ville sise en co port do Chatigam." 1 a village near tha port of Chittagong ). Van der Haiden describes it as "eene stadt inde hrivan t,an Chatigam " All these descriptions are indicative o! Dianq al forining a subur'o of Cnirtagong iown during the Arakanosa period. ln Ven den Brouck's map, tho place is correctly ehown on tha ieft ban!< of the K:rn,:oh,-ril near its mouth. ,.Robert,g map st rled 'Les lnd s ori,entales. l75l' in tho Bibliotheque Nationale in Pa;is sho...cs Di;rng in the south of Chittagong on a differ. ent mouih of a rivcr 1 ? the Sankha ). C' Anville's map (!751) at Boc,lein Llbra,y, O>:ford also shows it but in ths north of Chittagong. Robert in his C:rte du Royaum de Siam, 17bl' in. oerts Dianga. Hermaon Moll's map in the Bodlein shows Dianga in the same positaon practically as Robart does; Nicholas Vischer, in his map 'lndao Orientalis' shows Dianga in the south of Chi. rtagong. Finally. in the British Muoeum 'General Maps 52450/ 1830 s 116' by J R Burton Bennett, Deputy Post Master General, Bengal, we get Dianga shown on a separate mouth of the Karn6phuli, which proves that it v./as still known."2 The place is also mentioned by Fr Guerreiro, Fr Manrique and other European writers. During the Mughal period tho place with its adjoining arca was known as Pargana-e-Diang.

3 a p P, xtv (rgl7l, 148f.

2

Monrique,

l,

82n

630 | A Hlrtoly ol Chlttagong

msdicval Ramu was chlefly an Atakaneso town, Diang rnay bc called in the same 8en6o a Portugucw town. During the Arakaneoe poriod it grew to be the principal Portuguese eettlemenl in Bengal. The Portuguese called it 'Bengala' and 'Cidade dE Dianga.' From this time the place began to be known ar Firingi Bandar, or the port of the Firingis. lt became the chlel cento ol the Portuguese piratical aclivities. The risc and fall of the Portugu€se townshlp of Diang is closely related to the rise and lall of the Poituguese power in this region. At pteaent few Christians live there. But thore is evidence that tho Christlan rcttlemont pcrsisted in that locality as late a. the early patt of the nineteenlh "rntury.l

ll

CHAKARIA. lccording to the local Buddhist tradltion, the place is associated with Chakra or mcra precieely Buddhist Dharmachakra and as such becarne a centre of Buddhist religion and culture during the medieval period. In rhr Rojomolo, the place ls mentioned as Chhakarua. De Barros mentions ,,the city of Chocoria" a6 one of the "populatcd areas" along the coasl ol the kingdom ol Arakan and places it under tho iurisdiction of the 'Ectado de Codavascam' 1tl'e kingdom ol Khuda Bakhsh Khan). Thc narrativeo of De Barroe give an indication thlt Chakaria was one of tho polts in the klngdom of Khuda Bakhsh Khan.
The name ol the place in varioug folms has been inserted on scveral medieval maps. ln the marrs of Sir Thomas Roe and ot Phllippi Chetwind, Cheria and Chaiia 6re respectively shown on tho coast ol Chittagong. ln the map of De Barros, Chacoria is conectly loceted.ln his mep, Pierre Vander (1727 A D) inserts a place named Chera where modern Chakaria standr, but he does not dot it. ln Rsnnell's map tho name of tho place ie wtitten ae Chuckerya.
During the Alakanese rulo, Chakatia was made an adminir. trativc unit under ths name ol the 'kingdom of Chakarie'. lt wal bounded by the 'kingdom of Chakrasala' to the noilh and the'king dom ol Ramu' lo the south. lt war conquered by the Mughab ln

I'a I

P,

v!

(1910), 21g.zzo

Hlstorical places t 631

1666 A D, but was abandoned soon after. tt was finally sub. jugated by the Mughars in the beginning of the ssvonrsenrh cenrury.

mountain Bceneiy" The presont sire roug\ly corresDoqds to lhe same in the medieval rrrriod. The name has been insarted in soms of the old maps ( oreservsd in the Dhaka Museum ). What is lnserted as 'Golfo cle Rama, (or the gulf of Ramu,t ln Pierre Vander's mao ie ieaily tha Bak khali Biver on which thq town stande Var den Brcuck's meo corrctlv locatss the city. 'Asiae Descriptio Nova lmpsnsis' r1666 A D 'l insarts Rama ro the north of Arekan Other maos on whlch Ramu is mtrked as a place of imoortance arrl d' Anvilo's map, Paris, 17Bl; Nicholas Vischera's mao 'lndaq Orientalls; Bodlein Librarv mcps; and the mtp by the Deputy Postmaster General of Bangal, 1852.
Various sourcos 6xpross different viawr regarding the orig!n na'.ne Ramu, Aecording to Buddhlst sources the name Ramu is the surviving trtco of ,Ramma,, ,gamyaka. o, Ramyabhumi' meaning 'the land of picturesque scenery,,l by which thc whole of ths area was oncs known in lhc past. Dr R B Barua want to indentify Remu with Ramma or Rammanadega ot Pali eciipturas. 2 According to the joint editoro of Manrique,s Travels, Rrmu ls a corrupt form of ,Raja myo, meaning the kin',o town. 3 The soktl songom Tontto refers to a prace Ramakshetra by namc as a conlro ol Sakrism. This place may be idenr.fied with modern Ramkot gituated amid tho picturesque grouping ol hills on the left bank of thc Bak.khali Rivar. The presenr sitc of Ramkot contains heaos of ancient brlckbats and terracotta plaques which give indications of the antiquiry of the site. A

RAMU. The prosant sm ll township ol Rrmu noted for irs Aiakanese architecture and scurpture is romantrcaily situat.d amid

of the

2!nsBD,xvt

1 See

suDro,

p.

I6

3 Monrlque, 1.94n. The word myo msan, lown, lbtd., gln. F. 4 Rojqmolo, l, 85

(1971),2s6

632 I A History

ot

Chittagong

.

Iarge number of brol<en pioces of scul,rtures and other relics lis scattered in and around the hillock on which a Buddhist 1s6,ple of later tirnes slands. Theoe surviving tracss place R:mkct in tha ancient map of the country. ln tho madroval works such as rno Rojomalo, Alomgirnomo arrd Bengali puthis Ramu is wriuen as Ranrbu,
Medieval Ramu was perfoctly an Arakanese town. lt gained sirategic and administfative impcrtance under the A.rakanese regime. The position of the city on the high road between Chittagong and Arakan proper fitted it to be the mosl strategic place not only in the province of Chittagong but in thc kingdom of trakan as a whole. The place was so important that the whols of the A'raka' nese kingdom was calisd by Ralph Fitch (1583 9l A D) as th.' kingdom of Ramu and Reoon.l The town was known lo the Arakaness as Panwa anrl the governor ol thei town was called as Pomaja ( < Panwa sa, the eater or collector of Panwa) 2 Manriqus describas Ramu as "the chief town in this district (Chittagong) and the usual seat of the viceroy in-charge."3 Tracec of Arakanese burial place are observable n6ar the Bamkot templss.

.

The Alakanese culture was predominant in Bamu-Co.'s Bazar area and a large number of Buddhist lemples, called kiyangs wore erected during the Arakanese period and after. The architectural style of these buildings are esscntlally Burmsn and most of the statuos installed in these templee were cast in Burma.

1 Foster, Rolph Fltch, p. 26 2 Monrlque, l, 94n 3 wa. p. 276

Appendix

2. Medieual City ot

Chittegong

The port town of Ghittagong, rhe commercial capital of BangIadesh, like all orher cities ond towns on earth gains or looses fortune with the change ol political circumstances. The origin of the city of Chittagong mems rooted in the ancient period. From Taranath's account it is known rhat ,,Chatigrama was an important city of Bengal in that early period lrhe pala period).,,l Under rhe lndepsndent sultanare of Bengal it was nor only the gre.t€st port of Bengal but one of the prrncipal seaporto of the subconrinent. Its importance in the trade and commsrce ol Bengrl during thst time can be ascertained from the accounts of the Portuguese chroniclers. Dom Joao dc Leyffi. d portuguese siyilg6rvant (1b18 A D), men. tions Chittagong cs ,,a big and a populous city.,,2 ln the estimation of De Barros, ,,Chittagong is the most famous and wealthy city ol the kingdom ol Bengal, on account of its port, at which meets the traffic of all that eastern regi6p.,,3 Referrrng to ths por_ tuguese authoritles, campos writes rhat ,'when the portuquose came to Bengal, Chittagong was its chief port, and rhe main gareway to the royal capital Gaud.,.{ Under the Arakaneso rggims, ,,ths city of Chatigan," according to Fr Manrique. was . a place of the first importancc and the masrer key ro rhe wholo Magh Empire..,5 some information about tho slzo and extenr of the town harre been btought to our knowledge by the foreign rravellers and native historians. According to thc author of rhe Ain-l Akbori, Chittagong was "a large city...and an excellent po,t.,,6 Caeear Fredericke c6g 1l A D) doacribos Chittagong as .,a groat herbour or port.,,7 A Chri-

6 iln, lr, rg7 7 Purchos, x, 1 35

634 I A Hlrtory

ol

Chlttagong

etian micsionary while visiting':'g6ittagong in 1598 A D relers to it as "the great harbour and town."l De Laet (1593-1649 A D) praicer Chittegong cs "a fine town" ol Bengal Accolding to Lln' echoten, it was "the chiefe towno of Bengala."2 Fr Feinao Guerreiro (1602 A D) makes a rcmark that Chitlagong is "one ol the principal eities and portc of Bengal...a very rich and busy city."3 A Dutch factor whilc visiting Arakan rpeaks of Chittagong as the hoofstadt or chiel town.4 Nasrullah Khan, a poet of tha Mughal period, writer that the town was of great eize previous to his age's According to tho Rlyoz us Solotln, "lslamabad, alias Chatgaon, ltom tncicnl times has been a targe town."6 All these remarks and obtervrtions ouggest that the town was of conslderable size and lmportance during the Arakanese period. The townehip of Chittagong scems to possess great vitality. lt was ravaged and destroyed by thc invaders and pirates for several times but each time it emetged lrom the otate of destructjon with former grandeur. lts commerclal importance, however, began to decline during the Mughal period becaure of its insecurc position noar the Arakanese frontici, its distance from rhe provincial capital, rapid rise of Calcutta port and the decline of mercantilo activitios of the Euiopean {rlderr. The geographical posltion of the medieval township ol Chi. tttgong can be determined from some sixteenth lnd rovontecnth centuries maps and charts, preserved in tho Dhaka grr6um and elsewhere. The maps ol De Barros (1540 A D), Blaev, Vln den Brouck (1660 A D) place Chatigan or Xatlgan on rhe northern bank of tho Karnaphuli almost at its mouth. ln GastalCi'r map

a p P,2, xtv(1917), l4g 2 or,H l. p 204 3 Guerreiro, pp. 185, 238

t

4 Moreland, From Akbor to 5 q;oq'+11q rrI rlET

Aurongzlb, p. 46n.

tEq

cqrccqcl

ctc. ql

6 Riyoz, p. 41

Sohltyo Pgrlshod ?otrlko, extra number, 1309 B

$, p.

39

Medieval City ol Chitrcgong | 638

(1561 { D), Cattigrn (Chittagong) ie shown ro the cast of tho eastero branch of an unidentilied rlver. The lndia orientalis (lsg7 A D) locues Catigan ( Chitragong ). De Laet ( tS93-t6C9 A D ) correctly locates chittagong ,'230o north of tho Equator.,,l Van Linss6sl.r ! I598 A D) gtares the posirion of the town as follows: "FIom this river ( ? rhe Karnaphuli) €asrward lilty mileo lyerh rho towno of chatigam."2 Needloss to say thar rhe informarion supplied by our traveller abour the location of the town tacks confirmation' Rejecting the evidence ol tinschoten, rhe authore of rhe Hobsonlobson writes that there is "no roason to supposo rhat Linschoton had himsell been to Chitragong.',3 !n 1727 A D Alexander Hamil, ton correctlv places Chittagong ,,about fifty leaguas below Dacca.',4

liko chitragong, !n establishment of come kind of delensive workr was felt necossary by the rulcre of thc country. The existence of a fort in chirtagong datos brck ro rhe days of the tndependcnr Sultanate of Bengal. According to tho Rojamalo, the pathan fon in Chittagong was oo strongly built that on one occacion thc invading Tripura army lalled in c.ptuling lt svcn alter r Gonlinued geizure

To defend a srrategically and a commercially important place

of

tong eight monthc.6

Ihe Arakanese fort togelher with ito militaty onclosuiec wal "in strength", in lhe opinion ol Talirh, ,'llvals thc rampan of Alexander."6 Nothing remains of this masoive rtructurc becaurc of iro burning and pulling down by the invading Mughal amy in 1666 A D. Ihe "large, wide and decp tank"7 on thc nonh .ido ot rhe fort may be identified wirh modem Laldighi but rhe wido
1 D" Le.t, op. ctt,, p. 2 ot, H l, p. 204 3 Ma.
7a

4

tua.
supro,

5 See

6

p. 194

Fothyo,

7 tou.

p, l8t

636 | A History of Chittagong

channel inside the fon has now been rcduced to a nartow water passage to carry olf liquid discharges and supellluous wat6r ot the nearby hills. The ruins of the foil cannot be recognised at present owing ro th6 drastic alterations that took place during

the

subsequent petiod.

The outer enclosure of the foil, according to Talish's naration, connecled atl the hills, high or low encircling the Laldighi tank. Talirh writes that, ' tho lower hills have been heaped over with earth, and raised to the level of the higher on"s."1 H" further etates : "All these hills have been scarped cylindrically, fortilied, and named tho fort (of Chatoaon)."2 tt appeats from the narra. tion ol Talrsh that the outer wall, which was probably bullt by piling of earth, joined rhe modern Kotwali Hill, Badarpatti Hill, Jamal Khan Hill, Rangmahal Hilt, Paradise Hill, Tempest Hill. Fa ry Hrll aod olowly descended in rhe plains near the river bank. Modern Bandcl Road plobably aerved as a passage that connecred the rivel baok with the main ontranco into the fort. The residence ol th€ Arakanese viceroy of Chittagong was siruated within the forl. The principal Buddhisr temple was situared on tho Rangmatral Hill lrom whcre a large image of Lord Buddha has recenrly been dug out. The Mughal piovince of Chittagong was exposed to rhe danger of attacks by the Arakaneso artd European piratoi To defend the port town from the anack of the enemy, the Mughals elthel erected a new fort near the otder Arakanesc fort or rebuilt rhe demolished Arakanese fort. The existence ol the Mughal forr in the town as late as thr time of the cession is conlirmed by rhe Earthquake Report in 1i62 A D.3 At present no tiaco of the tort is found except the name of Andarkilla ( < andar i qillah or in, torior Part of the fort).

1 tbtd., p. 2 tbrd.
3

lBo

/r

s

B,

xrt (t843), rg45

Medieval City

ol Chltugong 1637

Many ol the place namor of the ptosent day town lncluding its cuburben aroas date back to thc Mughal period. The place namos such as Jamal Khan, Ghat Farhad Beg, Rahmalganj, FidaiKhan Bag ouggost that tha placos weie either settlcd by or narned alter soms Mughal olficers. These oponymous places not only lurnish a rough idea of the town planning of the Mughal town; ship of Chittagong but also indicate the extenl ol the town during

that

period.

may be suggested that the Mughal township ol Ghittagong (nijshahr) comprised roughly the mahallat now under the iurisdic' rion of Kotwali. Korwal 1lir. the lord of a kot or fort) wae rhe chiel vigilance olficer in the Mughal urban administration; therefore, the area undcr the Kotwali must havg formed the substantial portron of the Mughal city ol Chittagong
The traces of residential quatters ol the faujdal and othet grandees for example diwans, bakhshls, naibs, deroghao and tho peo' ple ol rank and lile cannot be satisfactorily located. Most probably, their quarters were localed within the fort and its adioining area. It was a practico al that timo that tho qanungog either lived perronally in the town or stationed their agents ln lhe court of rhe hujdar in connexion with the revenue Itansactions.l As Chirta' gong was a strategrc lrontier town of the Mughal Empire, a largr number of soldiers had to be garrisoned in the town alea. Business magnares 3no polly traders lived in the lown ln connexion with their commercial purposes. Sio the inhabltants of the town con' sisted of heterogcneouc classes aod interestr.

tt

The chief re:ldential areas in the town duling the Mughol period wore as followr: Pathantooly sugg€3ls the area inhabitad by the Pathana, Mughalpura was named atter the residential area ol some Mughal olfrcers. The Portuguece and tho nativc Chrirtians have since thc Arakanese period been living ncar the marginal area of the river. fhe Fothyo-l-lbbrlya gives evidence of the existence of the Poltugugse sottlemonl in tho area complicing modern

I

Hunter, op cit., p. 112

638 |

A

Hietory

of

Chittagong

Pdrharghata and Firingibazar Mahallas.t The place is still th6 principal residential area of the native Christians. Holisahar is Bengali corruption ol Persian haveli-i-sahar or disrrict headquarters. Hazaritola has bssn named after a hazari mrnsabdar whose residential quarter was 6ituated there.

of rhe city at that time. Mosr of rhese buiidings

Medieval religious edilces throw light on the

se

ttled

area

are lound

within a radius ol one and half miles from Andarkilla. The existence of a large number of tne Mughal religious structures in Chiwkbazar area tostifies to the lact fhat the area grew to be one of the most crowded residen'iel areas ol the city during the late Mugnal period.
The prlncipal mosquer in the town during rhe Mughal period wele Jarne Sangin mzsqJs, Oadam Mubara'< mosque, \Aiali Khan's mosque and Han,zr Khan's mosque. The E dgah or tne place of olfering Eid prayer in the town was situatad at Agrabad, rho foundation of which is ascribed to Nawab Hasan Ouli Khan.2 The chiet l-llndu ternples anC a Sikh Gurudwara are situated jn Chawl.-

bazt,
Ths chief business contre of the ciry wai whar hao since historian Bacarro's time (l7th century) baen named Bandel,3 toca. led between thc fort and the river. Modern Bandel area has baen the chiel seet of trade in the city since medierral period. lt may be imagined that merchants of distant places anchored their ehipe in the river alld galhored in this placa for purchase of and sale of commodities. Native retailers erected stalls in thie place and exposcd their merchandise for sale'
Market places lor the daily necessaties can be recognlzed by the places surnamgd as grnj, bazar, hat ctc. The lollowlng market plac)s owo thsir origin to tlre Mughal period. Chawksu1ro, g. 335 2 Tortkh, p. 88 3 Bo"aro mantions the Bendal

1 See

(9

Pe.eian bandar

or mart)

de

Chatigao, vlde, H.

/,

p. 58

Medieval City

of Chirtagong |

639

baz:r (principal market ol the town), Dewanbazar, Dewanhar (named after one or more dewans), Rahamatgani (either named alter or establighed by Faujdar Rahamatul'ah Khan), Bakhshirhat (either named after or established by an anonymous bakhshi), Firingibazar (Christian market), Agtriganj,l Kasimbazar,2 Nanakganl.3
The chief stroets ol the city were Dewan Bazar Chandanpura str€et eonnecting Andarkilla and Chawkbrzrr and Bandel-Firingi Bazar
street connocting Andarkilla and the rivor bank. Tho exisience of some ghats or naval stopping places on lhe river bank oates back te the Mughal period. Ghat Farhad Beg commemorates the services ol Farhad Eeg as a faujdar ol Chitlagong. This ghat in true sense of the lorm has now been extinct cwing to tho shrinking back of lhe liver. The existence of Chaktai ghat, situated near the confluence of thc Chaktai Khal and the Karnaphuli dates back to tho Mughal period Saor Ghat lprincipal ghat) gained importance with tho decadence of other rwo ghats aso result of the change of river courEo. Patharghata has come
into exisrence since ths Mughal period.4

i

i
I
I

{

t

t I
i
I

.j
I

(

l

The city had aome dlghio or ressrvoirs ol still water. Some o{ them wero of natutal formation, others were artificiarly fo'rned by embanking ono or two sides. The excavalion of oorns dighis especially thoee adjoining to medieval masjidr and olhcr typas of religior.rs odifices owe to the pe rsons desirous of pet'

I
2

fhe Eorthquoke Report'
place.

(l

AS

8, Xll

(1S43), 1045) rnentions thie

S P ?, Extra Number, 1309 B S, p. 39, The place cannot be preci

sely

located.

3 s.d"n Survey Map 4 Th" nams Pathatghata occurs in the 'Earthquake Report, 1762,' (J AS B, Xll (1843), 1044) and in the Early Blitish Records.

640 I A Hletory

ol

Chlttagong

forming chaiitable works. Such dighis as Laldighi,l Ashkrr Khan's dighi, Kamaldaha (vulgarly callod Kaldah near Wali Khan's marjid and Radhamadhab temple) etc. provided the city dwellere with watcr for drinking and bathing.

Two of the most notoworthy spots of the town were Jahan Numa2 and Bag Moniiam. Thc formar spot has besn referred to in thc tongnamo of poet Narrullah Khan. ll saemr that this was the Mughal namc ol modern Fairy Hill. The poet states thrt a cot wts erecred by lhe governor of Chitta3ong oil ths top ol the hill from where unobrtructed space of great cxtent could be scen by bare eye. Bag Monirrm wa6 a garden or pleasure rcsoit built by Dewan lVloniram adjacent to his residence. The gentle flowing rlver, the rushing streemlets, the emarald groen hills and man made gardens and reservoirs must have lent beauty and enchantment to this easternmost Mughal city.

1 Tnir Is probably tho British name of the celebrated Mughal
dishi.

)
I

2 cct T{rtortil Bs1 ,so {r{RiI "rr tqtq'rqo u0src'rts,l
...

I

et tflts qa;"fr{

qpt

;rrTl QGi.d ;{rc

qafl <tc ffi'c{ <{; [rrt I qt S P P, Extia Number, 1309 B S, p. 39,

BIBLIOGRAPHY
only those works which have been most helpful in wriring the book are listod. Orher sources
bibliograohy

ln the selected

are cited in the

footnores.

Original Sources- Arabic and persian
Abul Fazl, Allami. Ain-i Akbori.3 vols. Vol. i, rrans. H Btrochmann. Calcutta: Bi'dliotheca lndica. 187? and 1877 Vols. 2 and 3 trans. H S Jarrott, Calcutta 1891. Jarrett,s translarion of vols 2 and 3 has been rovised and further annot^tecr by J N sarkar. Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Society. 1g49 and 1948. R+o,inted by Oriental Books Reprinr Corporarion, New Delhi, l97g This valuable book may rightly be called an encyclopaedia of medi_

eval
Colendor

lndia.

of

Perslqn Correspondence,

8 vols.

Government

of

lndia

Hlstory of lndio os told by its own Historions, ed. H M Elliot and J Dowson. 8 vols. London, 1867 1877. This wo'k is one of the most imporrant collection of source books translated from Arabic and Persian originals.

lbn Battuta, Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Abu Allah al Lawati at Tanji. Rohelo or frovels in Asio ond Afrtco tranr H A R Gibb. London: The Broaclway Travellers, Rourlege I Kegan Paul ttd, 1953. Ibn Battuta, the calebrated Moroccan lrave. ller entered rhe kint dom of Sonargaon thlough the port town
of Sadkawan which is generally idenrilied with Ch,tragong The traveller has left an interesring account about the polirical

642 | A Htstory ol Chltragong

and economic condition included Chittagong.

ol

the kingdom of Sonargaon, which

lslamabrdi, Maulvi Hamidullah Khan Bahadur. Ahodtth ol Khwontn or Tarlkh.i-Chotgom. Calcuttae Mazharul Ajaeb, 197t. Mv Hamidultrah Khan, a scholar, poat and sincere invostigator was tho tirs? Chittagonian lo write a history of the disrricr. Al though his work lacks methodical ireatment of historical deta. ils, it ia valuable for more than one reason. First, he faithfullv collected the available traditions and hearsay evidences relating ro tho histo:y of Chittagong Secondly. he describes the ruined sitcs, but lor which they would have been forgotten. Thirdly, the table which contains the names of the Mughal faujdars and other officers with thoir periods of services is valuable for us in reconstructing the history ol Chittagong under Mughal rule. Lastly, the book contains an 8ccount of some Muslim and Hindu arisrocraric fanilies ln short, the book supplies a Iot of informarion regarding rhe history of lChittagong.
Kozirn, Muhammad. ,Qiomglrnomoh. This useful book records the Mughal conquest of Chittagong in detail. When Fothyo-l-tbbriyo, our chief source regerding the Mughal conquest of Chittagong abruotly atopo iust after the cepture of Chatgaon fort, Atomglrnomah appears as the principal source of infolmation about the €vents that followed. The porrion necessary for us has been translated by J i,l Sarkar in the (tudles in Aurangzib,s Reign and A Salam in his edite d work on the Rlyoz-us.Solottn.
Khan,

Saqi M'rstad. Moothlr-i-AlamEiil, ltan,s. J N Sarkar Calcutta Asiatic Society of Bengal, t 947
MI

:

Nathan,

Government of Assam, 1936. !t is a very useful work regarding the political events in the first quarter of the soventoenth cantury. lt records somg of the contemporary events, lor example, the lnvasions ol the Mughalc Borah. Gauhati

Mirza. lShitab Khan).

Bohorlston i-Ghoibi,

:

2

vols.

trans.

Bibliography ! 643

and the
account

of the

Arakanese in each other's teruitory. The faithful events undoubteoly deserve admiration,

Salim, Ghulam Husain. Rtyoz us Sqlotin, trans Maulvi Abdus Salam. Delhi : ldarah-i- ddabiyat.i-Delli, 197S. 't his original work contains the narrative of tho political events interrelared with social condition of medieval Bengal.

Talish, Shihabuddin Ahmad. Fathyo-i lhhriyo Supplemenrary texr in Bodlein Library, Oxford. The portion necessary for us has been translated by J N Sarkar in the Studies in Aurangzio.s Reign. It is an extremely valuable book as a contemporary record of the Mughal conquest of Chittagong. There were very few medieval lndian historians who had such keen insight and wonderful geographical knowledge of the countries about which they were writing. The book throws light on muslim conquest of Chitlagsng. Arakanese administration in Cnittagong and finally, the Mughal conquest sf Chittagong. Besides, the book sheds light upcn the Portuguese aotivities and their mannero and rnorals in Arakan-Chittagong region.

rrcoties, Engogements ond sonods, vol. i, ed. Aitchison, lt contains the agreement between Nawab Mir oesim and the East India Company by which Ghittagong was ceded to the latter.

Original Sources_ Bengali
Bonglo Frochin

Visherad. Celcutta : Bangiya Sahitya Parishadr number of puthis written by the local poets.

Puthir viboron, ed. Munshi Abdul Karim sahitya

tt

contains

a

Brindavan Dag. Choitonyo Bhogovoto, The book is of special importance with rospect to our own study as it throws light on the biography of some vaisnava eaints of mediaval Chittagong, who played a very remarkable role in the Sri Chai

tanya

movement.

644 i A History of Chirtagong
Kasem,

Etim. "Aora De Barros prasasti," Bongta Acodemy pouiko, 1365 B S. This oulogisric puthi, edited and annorared by Ahmad Snar,f, prrmarrly deals wrrh a Portuguese tamily Iiving at Fatrkchhari u. z during the later part of tho eightoenth ceniury lr also mentrons sorne Mughal administrative posts and a number of zamindar families belonging to the period.

Kaviraj. Krishnadas. Chgttonyo Choritomrito Khan, Daular Wazir Bahram. Loili Mojnu, ed. Ahmad Sharit. Dacca: Bengali Academy, 1957
Khan, Muhammad. Moqtul Husoin. Fragments of this work are quoted in Banglo Prochtn Puthir Viboran, paft I and Bongiyo Sohltyo

.

Parishot Potrrko addl. no, 1310 B S. The work contains two genealogical tables, the one relating to poer's ancestor and the otner relating to a lineage of pirs. These two genealogical tables which refer to some historical persons have been dis. cussed by a hmad Sharif in th€ Soh,ryo potriko, 1369 B S, Abdul Karim in the Sohiryo Potriks, 1371 B 6, and Sukumar Sen in Bonglo Sohtyer ltihos.

Khondakar,

ed. Abdui Karim, ,pandulipi,, Bangia Sahitya Samiti, University of Chirtagong, part !x, 139t B S. The author. a native of Chittagong while urging rhe Muslims to abide by the prescriptions and prohibitions, g!ves a vivrd description of the condrtion of the contemporary society and addiction of his correligionists to non-lslamic practices. The book ls of immense value regarding the study of the mideighteenth century social lrfe of the common people ol Chitta

Nasrullah. Shoriyot

Nomo,

gong'

Long, Reverend James. "Analysis of the Bengali poam Rajamala or chroniclos of Tripura,' I A S B, vol, 19, 1BS0 Nandi, Srikar Mohobkoroto-Aswomedhoporvo, popularly called Chhuti Khooi Mohobhorotd.eds. D C Sen and B B Kavyatirtha. Calcutta: Bangiya Sahitya Parishad, 1312 B S. Fragments of it are quotod by D C Sen in Eongobhosho O Sahityo and S Sen in Eangla

Bibliography I 645
Sahityer /tihas. This ftanslatory work, composed under the patro-

nage of Cl'rhtrti Khan, the Husain Shahi governor and tha grandson of Majlis-i ala Rasti Khan, gives reference to the accomplishnrents of the patron.
Farameswar. Kavindra. Mahabharata, popularly called Paragsli y6. ha>harata, ed. Gaurinath Shastri, Dhubri, Assam. Fragments of this rrvo k can be read in Bangabhasha O Sahitya by D C Sun and Benglo Suhityer ltihas by S sen. This earliest translation of ff,e lvlahabharata gives reference to the accomlishmenls

of

Paragal Khan, a governor of northern Chirtagong.

Purba Bongo Gitika, ed. D C

Sen. This famous collection ol East Bengal baliac;s conrains two local posms namely Shuja Tanayar Bilap aod Part Banur Hanhala which give teference to tne sojourn of Piince Shuja in Chiilagong and his subsequent Iand journey to Araksn. Alexander Dow, while referring to the authenticity of these ballads, writes : "Piara Banu, the f avourite, the on11, wifo of Suja, was so famed for her wit and beauty, that many songs in her praise are still sung

in Eengzl," (iii, 33t)

Puthi Parichiti,

ed. Ahmad sharif. Dacca: Dacca University, !959. contains fragmentary portions of puthis, collected by Mv Abdui Karim sahitya visharad. The book ie a srore of information regarding the sociar and crrrtural condition of the district during the Iote medieval period.

It

-- Aoirr
---- -a::r--a,::.:- - -__----_-

";i:;;,-m;" z7/.za-)?.742-tzz'.z.zza-72./-z?.zzzrzzzaz?z-zr4

-r,;;-;-

:;
";;;

;ia'i,"

..iii': oT,.?i.*r

Sc( P.ajasra(a sr ths Trilsra Chssnit(t, \ahrrts i to i\i, Ed. K p Sen. Agartaia: Government of Tripura, 1336-37 Tripura Era. Tlris book rhough deals chiefly with the dynastic history of the 'tripura kin2s is of immeasurablo help in reconstructing tho histury of the disrrict especially during the sixteenth century A D. On occasions, it becomes the primary cource of

Blbliography t 648
Sahityer /tihas. This translatory work, composed under the patro-

nage of Cl'rhuti Khan, the Husain Shahi governor and rha grandson crf Majlis-i rrla Rasti Khan, gives reference to the
accomplishnTentB

of the patron.

Farameswar, Kavindra. [L4ahabharata, popularly cal]ed Parag2li yshe>harata, ed. Gaurinarh Shastri, Dhubri, Assam. Fragments of

thio

rrvo

k

can

be

read

in

of ffe ldahabharata gives reference to the accomlishmenls of Paragal Khan, a governor of northern Chittagong. Purba Bongo Gitika, ed. D C Sen. This lamous collection of East

Sun and Bcnglo Suhityer ltihas by S

Bangabhasha O Sahitya by D C sen. This earliest translation

Bengal baliacs conrains two local poams namely Shuja Tanayar Bilap and Part Banur Hanhala which give reference to tne sojourn of Piince shuja in chittagong and his subsequent land journey to Araksn. Alexander Dow, while refening to the authenticity of these ballads, writes: "piara Banu, the f avourite, the only wife of Suja, was so famed for her wit and beauty, that many songs in her praise are stil sung in Bengal," (iii, 331) Purhi parichiti, ed. Ahmad Sharif. Dacca: Dacca University, !9bg. It contains fragmentary portions of puthis, collected by Mv Abdui Karim sahitya visharad. The book ie a srore of information regarding the social and crrltural condition of tho district c!uring the Iote medieval period.
tJpadan, Biman Bihari [traju'ndar. calculta: calcurta University. 1959. The book gives reference to the Iives and activities of some vaisnava sainrs of medieval Chittagong and thus it has informative value.

sri chaitanyo chariter

Sri Rajamala or the Tripura Chronicle, Iaharas i to iii, ed. K p Sen. Agartaia: Government of Tripura, 1336-37 Trlpura Era. This book rhough deals chiefly wirh the dynastic history of the 'tripura kin2s is of immeasurablo help in reconstructing :rhe histury of the disrrict especially during the oixteenth century A D. On ocoasions, it becomes the primary sourcs of

6co t R Hisrory

oi

chittagong

knowledgo of the contemporary history of rhe distract, The book throwe light on thc rivalry between the Tripura kings, tho Gaud sultans and the Arakaneso lings for holAing rhe possession of chittagong. rhe information contained in the book is generally reliable.

Original Source-.portuguese, gpanish
Barbosa, Duarte. The Book of Barbosa, vol. London: Hakluyt Sociery, 1gZ1

ii,

trans. M L Dames.

Bocarro, Antonio. Decada da Historia da lndta, Lisboa, lg76 Cortea, Gaspar. Lendas da lndta, Lisboa, 18bB

De Barros, Joao. Decade da Asia, Lisboa, 1771. De Barros (c. 1496-1570) is calted ,'the Livy ot portugal,'. His voluminous history contains invaluable accounts ol evenrs in Chittagong during Husaln Shahi and Afghan periode. Decade iv conrains a chaprer especially devoted to rhe history of rha kingdom of Bengal during the sixtoenth century. He never visited lndia, but had speeial facilrties for his study as an olficial in the lndia Office at Lisbon, He might also have collectod materials for his history from his son who had joined the Portuguese army in lndia and died in an ongagement. De Barros served from 1525 to 1532 as a treasuror, from 1532 to 1567 as a crown agent in the lndia House, Lisbon. ln that cepacity hs must have collected much of the valuable material for his book. His personal remarka on the events may somotimes seem biased but the events related ln his book aro extremely valuable in reconstrucling tho contemporary history of this part of the country. His account has been used by Iater Portuguese historians. The map atfixed to Cep. i ol Dec. iv, Liv. ix is a valuable source of inrormation regarding the narural and political divisions, location of places etc. The secondary sources such as Danvers' The pottuguese In lndla, Campos's .History of the fortuguese in Bengal lost upon

Bibliography | 6+7

the accounts supplied
historians.

by

De Berros and other Portuguese

De Castanheda, Farnao

i

t

I

Lopez. Histo."ia do Descobrimento e Conquisto da lndra pelos Portugueses, Lisboa. This famous historicar work throws ample light on the political condition of Chittagong under the later Husain Shahi rulers. ,,The historian came to lndia in i1528. He is said to havo travelled all cver porruguese lndia with the laudable desire of testing and correcling his history" (l A S B, v. 42 (1873), t95)

Da Couto,

Da

Asia. Lisboa, 1777

Guerreiro, Father Fernao. Tfie Relations. Fragmentary rians. C H Payne, Jahangir and the Jesuits London: George Rourlege g lions, Lrd., 1930. The book illuminates rhe political events in the beginning of the seventeenth century.

Hosten, Father H. , Mjssionaiy Ietters and AIIied papers on Bengal, Arakan and Burma (lsgg-l609)", The cathoric Herard of tndia, calcutta, August. I g30

"A list of Portuguese Jesuit missionaries Burma (1576-1742)", J A S B, Vtt, 1911

in Bengal and -

- - - - -."Jesuit Lstters from Bengal, Arakan arrd Burma l Egg-1660),,, B P P. XXX, 1925 Manrique, Fray Sebastian. The frayels of Fray Sebastian lllawique, 2 vols., trans. C F Luard and H Hosten. L,ondon: Hakluyr, Socic,ty, 1926-27. This celebrated portuguese missionary traveller stayed in Chittagong from 1629 to l63l for rho purpose of missionary activities. His irinerary sl-recls Iight profusely uDon the political and social condition. This travel book, excellently edited by two reputed scholars may be called a mine of information.
Souza, Falia e. History of the Portugurse congu€sts in .Asia, 3 vols. trans. Captain John Stephens. London: C Burome. 169/:95. A good source of information about tho Portuguese activities in Ch:ttagong.Arakan region in the sixteenih and seve nteenth
centuriee.

648 I A Hlstory

ot

Chirtagong

Teixeira. Padro. Trovels
MDCCCCil

of

Podrc Teixeiro, London: Hakluyt society.

Original

Sources -European

other than Portuguese,

Spanish and English
Bernier, Francois. Trovels in the Mogul Empirc, 1656.1668 ed. Archi bald Gonstable. New Delhi: S Chand I Co (pvr) Ltd. 1972. The book throws ample light on the political events during the middle part of the seventeenth century. lt also refers to the aontemporary Portuguese Society in Arallan-Chitragong
region. Doghregister

(The\. lts full title is the Doghregister Gehouden in.o Cgsreel Botovio or the Daily Register kept in the Casrle of Batavia being the official records of ths Dutch East lndia
Company. This compilation work contains a gre,qt rnass of paoers

which profusely shed lrght on the Durch activiries in South East Asia. The Daghregister, being a coi-ltemBorary factual account. is vary valuable source of inforrnation about the economic condition of rhe kingdom of Arakan to which Chi. ttagong was a subject province. As it is not possible for the present cuthor to go lhrough the original work. he has to deoend upon secondary sources such as artic]as published in
ditferent journals,

Ds Laet. John. Empire of the Greot M.agol, lrans. J S Hoyland De Laval, Francois Pyrard. The Voyage of Froncois Pyrord of Lovol, trans Albert Gray London :! Hakluyt Society, MDCCCLXXXVl l. Pyrard was a native of Franco. During his sojourn in the Maldives. the Alsksn6se pirates plundered rhe group of islands. They took the traveller to be a portuquese, their enemy. Pyrard was brought caprive to Clrittagong, but when it was disclosed that ho was a Frgnchman he was immediately set free and given a warm reception The lrav eller stayed in Chirtagong for abcut one month (1607,,,a

Bibliography I 649

about rhe potitical condirion, agrrculrural and industrial products, overseas trade anr, porrugu"r" men and n orals. Fitch, Ralph, His travel book has boen translared inro English by J H Ryley, London, 1g9g and Foster in Eorly Trovels tn indio, Monucci, Niccolao. Stotia do Mogor, truns \Ailliam lrvine. London : John Murray, l goe_1 g0g Mans6sl, s56 nored Vene_ tian rraveller ataleC in tndia from l653 ro 1703. Vol. j rh'ows Iight on rhe ,rrght of shah shuja and the portuguese society in Chittagong. Vol. ii gives the traveller,s own version of the Mughal conquest of Cnittagong. Periplus of the Erythraean sea lThe). rrans. wilfred H schoff. New York: Longmans, Green and Co. t9l2 Tavernier, John Baptists. Travels in lndia. Calcurta: Bangabasi
Press, 1905

lor a subject province ol the kingdom misrook Chittagong of Bengal. Ihe confusion goes ro such an oxtent that he makes ,the king of Arakan,, a 'tributary, to thc lvlrrghal Emporor. This was the reason why celtain anomalies cropped up in his narrative. Nevertheless, his itinerary is a priceress source of informatron

monrh's sojourn!,). By rhis rime pyra,'d

Van tinschoten, John Huyghen. The Voyage of John Huyghen Van Linschoten to the East lnAies. Vol. i ,r"n"- er.n-;ll and vol.ii trans. pieter Anton Tiele, 1gg4 Linschoren,s observation on lhe contempotaty portugucsa sociery nf is immense velue. Purchas,s fragmentary rranslation in his ptlgrims, vol. x roughly satisties our need.

Original Sources_English
A Bengal Atlos (17g3), sketched by Jamos Rennell, 1910. The volume of maps drawn by rhe frrst surveyorCalculra, general ol lndia is much hetpful to us for the knowledge of rnellacename8 and their geographieal position at the timc of tho rer-

6Ej0 I

A Hlcrory ot

Chitragone

ctill

mination of the Mughel ruls. Many of rhe placenamcs are bejng marked on the modern maps whlle others have lost their exisrence stnce thr..n.

Songlodesh District Records, Chittagong vol. i. t76O-t7g7,
Dacca: Univelslly

of

Dacca, lgTg

Bengol District Records, Chittogong, vcl. 192?

i,

1760.1775. Calcurra,

Bengal Public Consultotions

Earty Trovets in tndio, 15g3-1619, ed, William Foster. Iondon: Humphrey Millord, Oxford Universiry precs. 1g21. Tha book containr the travalling accounts of Ralptl Fitch, Vr,illiam Frnch hnd othore.
English Factories in lndio (The), ed. William Fortor, t6l8_t6h9, Oxford: Clarendon prees, 1906-1g27, 13 vob.

English Factories in tndio (The), 1670-1684 ed. Chartes Faw. cett, Oxford: Clarendon press, 1936_lg5S 4 vole.
Fifth Report from the Select Committre of the House of Com mons on the Affairs of the Eost lndia Compony (1g12), 3 vola., ed. W K Firminger. Calcutrr: R Canbrary g Co., 191i. The. reporr being a stand:rd authority on tand tenures te of great value regarding not only the ,evenue administrarion but also the general administratioi of the district under Iater lllughal iule. vol. r contains two lettere of vererst which throw light on the revenueo of chitragong at the time of the cession. Fourth Report from the Committee of Surrey oppointed to enquire into the stote of the East lndio Compa.ny, 171J
Francio, Phillp. Rtvenues

lt

-

of

Bengot

Grant, JGmes. Aaolytis o.f the Finonces of Bengol published ' a! appendix 4 in tho Filth Report. lt is a very valuable dccumont concerning the revenue history of Chittagong. The ruthoi'o trcatment is precise and hie statements arc genrrally

Bibliography | 65t

of

correct. These quarities make the trsatise a dependable source
information.

Hedgee,

William.

The

don,1887-lgg9

Diary of Wittiom Hedges. ed. H yule, Lon-

lndian Records Serres (The), Bengol l756-57, vot. i, London: The Government of India l gO5 old
maps preserved

ed. S C Hill.

in the Dhaka Museum. otd maps are imporranr eource of inlormation about the district,s geographical position and the location of some now lorgotten places.

Orme, Robert. lndostan. Lucknow: pustak Kendra, ig74 Purchas, Samuel. Purchos His ?ilgrips. Glasgow: James Macle_ hose and Sons. 1905

Vonaittart, Henry. A Narrative of the Tronsoctions in Eengal, 1760-1764, eds. A C Banerji anrt B K Ghosh. Calcutta: K p Bagchi & Gompany, 1976
Wilson, H H. A Glossory of Judiciat end Revenue Terms. Delhi: Munehiram Monoharlat, l96g

Original Sources-Asiatic oth€, than Arabic, persian and Bengali
chwong, Yuon (on), trans. Thomas watterr, 2 vols., London: Royal Asiatic Sociery, I g04
Glass Palace Chronicle of the kings ol Burma (The), trane. pe Maung Tin and C H Luce. London: Humohrey Milford, 1g13. The chronicle supplements and corroboratea the evidences of the Rodzawong or lho Arokopese Chronicle.

652 I A Hirtory

ot Chtrtagong l-tsing, l-tsing's Records of the Western World, eC. and trans.

J

Takakusu. Delhi: Munshiram Monoharlal, lg66

Ma huan. 'Kingdom of Bengala, trans Georgo philrp, J R A S, 18c5. Fragmentary Dortions of the accounts ol Ma huan and other Chiness travellers havs been translcted by p C Bagchi in rhe Visva Bhoroti Annols, vol i, l94S
Rndztwrng or tho Arakanese Chronicle. The book is indispensable . for thc trrs1p1, of the d,sr,cr. A , phayre,s translation in the J A S B ivolumes citeo in ,ootnotes) and in lhe History of Burma sorvos out purposS.

Ali Crelebi. Muhit. The book ie a m!ns of naurical information. The portion neceosary for us has boen translated by Von purgstall in the / A s a, v (1816), 4ga-g7. This has further been annorated by Abdul Karim in rho A g / s D, xvi, 233-24t. Taranarh. Lama. History of Buddhism in lndia.trans. Lama Chimpa and Alaka Chartspsflhyaya, ed. Devi prasad Chattopadhyaya. Simla: lndian lnstitute of Advanced Srudy, lg7O. Taranath,e real name was Kun-Snjins. He was born in 157d and com_ pleted his history in 160g A D. The book has been franslated into a numbel of Eulopean language... Fragmenrary pa9s8ge9 relating to the ancient hist.rry of Chittagong have been fans. Iated inro English by Ray S C Das Bahadur in rhe I A S A, 1898. Tnis worth collection of material ie undoubtediy-a greaf gift to ths readers. Fragmentary porrion of Germcn tr.rrl.tion has been rendcred into English by N n Bay in sonskrit Buddhism in Eurma. Though Taranath,s workr supply . to, ot information about the political and religisut condittn oJ Cf,l_ ttagong. lhey are not wholly correct and reliable. This is, pcrhaps,
Sidi due to the remotenees of timo and region and tho oxclu_ oive reliance on traditions. Therefore, his nairation shourd be judged in rhe light ol olher sources such as inscriptionr, *orn, of the roreign traveuerc, the chronicres of the two neighbouring kingdoms, Arakan and Tripura. Thanks fo Taranath because he is thc firsr historian to bring ancient chittagong

I

I

.I

to

limelighr.

Bibliography | 653

Secondary Sources- Bengali
Alam, Mahbub. Chottagromer ltihas, 3 parts. Chittagong I Jamana Publishers, 1965.67
Banerji, Bakhal Das. Bangror rtthas, bharat Publ'shere, 1971

2 vore. calcurta: Naba:

Batta, Beni Madhab. Bouddha Poilnoy Poddhott Bhattacharya, Ashutosh. Banglo Mongol kovyer ltthas. Galcutta :A Mukherji, 1964 and 1979
chowdhury, Abdul Hoquo. chattogromer ltihos 1982
prosonga.

chitrgong,

--

F

- -.

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(ad.) History of Bengol, vol. i1, Dacca: Dacca Univeroity, 1948 Mughol Administration. Calcutta: M C Sarkat I Sons -. :.Sfudres in Aurongzib's Reign. Calcutta:'[l C Sarkar
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Sen, Adharlal. Tfie Shrines of Sitakunda, 1884 Scn, Dinesh Chandra. History of Bengali Longuoge ond Literoture.. Calcutta: Calcutta Univereity, l9ll Sen, Sukumar. History of Bengali Literoture. New Dclhi: Sahitya. Akademi, 1971 Gerajuddin, Alamgir Muhammad. The Revenue Administrotion of the Eost lndia Compony in Chittagong, 176l-1785, Chitta. gong University, t97l Siddiqi, Noman Ahmed. Lond Revenue Administration under the Mughols r1700-1750) Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, 197o Stewart, Charles, The History of Bengol. London: Black, Parry & Co. I8l3

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lournals of Mojor James Rennell (The), Calcutta. l910 Thomas, Edward. Reyenue Sources of the Mughol Emptrc tn lndto from 1593-1702, London, 1871 Yule, Henry. Cathay ond the Woy Thlther, vot. i, london, lg66

Journals and periodicals
( Volumes have baen spacified Archoeologtcal Survcy of tndta Asiatlc Researchers

in footnotes )

Banglyo Sahitya ?artshod Patriko, Calcutta
Bengol Post ond Present, Calcutta

Bongla Academy Potriko, Dhrka
Bengali Literory Revlew, Kalachi
Bhorotborsha, Calcu$r

Colcutta Review, The, Calcutta Epigraphia tndlco, Ootacamund

lndlun Antiquory, The, Bombry lndion Culture lndlan Historlcal Quorterly, The, Calcutta Itihos Pat,iko, Qlill6nopn

of the Asiottc Socitry of Bongladesh, Dhaka lourna! of the Aslottc So.ciety.of Bengal, Calcutta lournal of the Astotic Soclcty of pakiston, Dhaka Journol of the Bihor Rescarcfi Society, parna
Journal

660 I A Hlstory ot Chltmgong

tournal

of the Elhor and

Orissa Reseorch

Soclety

tournal of the Buddhist Text ond Reseorch Soctety, Calcutta lournol of the Burmo Rcseorch Soclety, Rangoon

of the Pokiston Htsaoilcal Soctety, Karachi Journal of the Royol Asrotic Society, London Jownal of the Royol Asiottc Societ,, of Dengol
lournol
l{iodern Revlew, Ths, Calcu tta

t; II

rl

j

'i
:,1 +.r

Prcvail, Calcutta
Proceedlngs

of the Pakiston

,* flHistoricol Conference, Karachi Hi

t,i

Sohltyo, Galculta Sohltyo Potrtko, Dhaka
Sclence

onil Culture, Calcutta

Vlsva Bhorotl Annols, Vicva Bharati

lfitoEx
Adam Shah (Av6g4nese governol of Ramu and Chakaria), 234, 238
.Adinath. 5, 26, 92-94,
561

t0l.

102,

Anawrahta, 69, 112 Anik Faranp, 247 Anwara (u. z.), 87, 118, 305. 459

2lI,

.Agha Baqer or Aqa Baker (Mughal faujdarr, 456
"Agha Nizam or Aqa Nizam f Mughal faujda). 4A7, 441. 456 .$Uamanja (Arakane

sa

gtlvernot

Aqidat Khan, 455 Askar Khan, 454, A4O Badar Shah, See Pir Badar Baharistan-i-Ghaibi (alao Mirza Nathan), 256, 258, 260,
261, 2.63n.,
27

of Chlttcgon g),247, 25O,251,, 278 ,Alaung phyu, 73 .Al ldrtsi,

0,282-284, 322,

't7, 12$.1,22

416. 6tO Bak-khali Hiver, 4, 308 Bandar, 118, 6?8, 629 Bansktrali (u. 2.) 197, 210.432,
595

Al Masudi, 58
,Alla Khan, Alpha Chan, 114, 115. 220 .Alpha Husaini, ll4, 115, 6I2 Amnrannanikya (Tripura king), 200, 2o7, 234, 238, 239, 27 6 Arnirza Khan, 170 174'176, 1 79-1 83. 1 87n., 2A5, 2O7 209;217, 225, 226 Anaporan (Arakanese gdvernor of Chittagon g), 241,246, 247, 252'

Barbior (Father-t, 7, 335, 398, 489, 519, 609
Baibosa ( Duarte

de), 1 I 3, 348 Bardhamanapura, 43, 62-65 Barua. 20, 45. 505
Basharat Khan, 455

Ba-t6a phyu oi Kalima Shah (Arakanese king i, 150-15?, 154. 166, 189
Bawan,

giri Rauli

(Arlkancse

prlest), 509

[,

662 I A Fllstory ol Chittrgong
Bernier (Francois), 18, 285, 29O,

Chandranath (Chandrasekhar)"

300, 303, 305, 321, 322, 325, 327, 328, 330, 331, 334, 342, 343, 353, 360, 361, 354, 366, 367, 388,
617

26, 81, SO, 92, 98, 100n., 101, 273, 299, 485, 598,
625 Chandras, 65-69, 85, 86, 89,

90, s9, 293
Ghatteswari, 102, 464,490, 551 Chaturgrama, 15, 49
194,
561

Bihu (year ending festival),
560, Bijoymanikya ( TriPura king ),

I34, 193, 1 89, 190,

Cfrnuri Khan, 164, 166, 1711,73. 20t,208, 209,569, 59o
Chishtiya, 460

ts6-198, 298, 621 Boalkhali (u. z.) 211, 299
Bohmansiri. 294, 5Cg

City of Bengala (Cidade do Ben--

gala),

347'358
73,.

Buzurg Umed Khan ' Mughal faujdar), 369, 371-373, 375,
378-384, 389, 390, 393, 449, 452, 454

5, 76, 299 Damodara Deva, 13, 72, b09, 623
Gox's Bazar,

Caesar Frederick(o), 5, 197, 198,229, 457, 6l l, 614, 61 9, 624, 626, 633
Carualho (Ponuguesa Commandetl, 240-243, 253, 257, 313315

Danujamarddana Deva (Raja Gan€sh), 16, i8, 140-t42, 621 Daud Khan Karrani (sultan), 198-

200

De Barros lJoao), 3n., I 13,. 114, 121 ,125, 132, 1 33, 44
1

Chailyagrama, 14 Ghakaria,

4, 51.81,176,217,218,

157 , 158, 162, 1 63, 1 75, t76,. 208, 215. 218, 329, 345. 351, 353, 356.507, 611, 612, 626^

234,238,27 5,27 6,280,42 t, 6 30

630,

634

Chakma, 36, 45. 96,208,275. 287, 396, 504,507, 509,513 Chakrasala. 51, 79, 81, 254, 268, 276, 291 , 287,334, 34O, 416.422, 424 488. 491, 493, 522, 578n., 627, 628, ti30
Chrndilahgram,

.11,

18, 104

De Laval (Pyrard), 18, 24,113, 244. 248, 217,287, 326 334337, 342, 353, 482, 492, 525, 527, 537, 557, 607. 608, 615-61r, 622. 623 Dcvamanikya (TriPura king), 166, 168. 169, 1.73. 174" r83, 621

Index | 663

Dhanyamanikya (Tripura king) 102, 152, 157, 159, 166, 207, 276,?98, 621,625
Diang r Deang, triangt, Deogaon, Dovagram 3, 118,21O, 235; 240, 241, 244, 249, 255, 265,

153, 158, 161-165, 170,177179,182, 190, 191, 194, 198. 199, 201, 203, 207 208, 210, 219,22',t, 224, 225, 254,289, 349-352, 415, 4,87, 611, 633
GhiVasuddrn Azam Shah (sul-

i !
l.
L

2G7, 269, 273,274, 276, 288, 3O1,'rA2,305, 307, 309, 310,

ten) 16, 112, 138-140,
147, 149, 204, 211, 62't

142,

#
H ,i
,

314-317, 319, 329, 333-335, 337, ?40,347, 353-358, 399, 416, 432,486, 518-520, 522, 557, 574, 578n., 610, 628-630 Dilawar (rular of $zndwip),274, 275, ?,62, 363
Dohazari, 4, 23, 201, 411, 429, 432, 433, 449, 4.50 Fakhruddin Muberak Shah (sul.

Ghiyaeuddro Mahmud Snah rsul-

tant, 156, 162,169, 17O,176178, 180, 182, 187n ,219-223, 227, 229, 332, 3J6, 590, 613

Gonzales lSebasriao), Z4O-249. 251-253, 315, 317 _320, 340
Govindamanrkya lTrrpura krng).

273, 299,

5SB

tan) 124, 126-130, 13S, 137, 203,458, 459, 588, 609, 610
Farhad Khan, 4S4

Guerreiro lFarherr 24.0.249, 277, 280, 282, 285, 2e1, 313.315,

Fate Khan (ruler of Sandwip', 244,245,317 Fathebad, 19, 164

333, 353, 634 Guru Nanak, 602 Halda River, 4. 211 Harikela, 62-65, 69, 72, 7g Hathazari 1u. z. 421, S8g, SgO
Husain Muhammad Khan 555,556

Fathya-i-ibbriya, see Shihabuddin Tolish Fatikchhari (u.2.1, 2, 297, 298, 336,421, 610
Fedie Husain Khan, 426,4O5,456 Feni River, 1,2, '11,29, 172, 173,

Husain Shah lsuhan), 154-158, 160, 1 6 1. 1 63-167,17 1,172,174. 175, 204, 207 , 209, 569

257, 263,'J61,372, 373, 383, 'i93, 410, 418, 431,442, 474, 475, 578, 579

lbn Batruta. 16, 122, 126-129. 129. 132,1?4,136 353 459,6r g lbn Khu.oadbah, 17,58, 120.121
lbrahim Khan Fath.i-Jcng 1Mu ghal subah dat), 262-264,366

Firuz Shah (sultan), 169 Gaud (Gaur), 27,132, 147,149,

lslam Khan Mughal eubahdar), 247, 248, 256. 272

r,

.lafar Khan,454 Jalaluddin Muhammad

Shah

(suhan 16, 140-143,
-, 147-149, 204, 397, 43r
Jesuits, 515-518
621

145.

MahapinnYagyaw ('lrakanesa governor ol Chittagong,, 239, 240, 27s
Mahaaingh lnaib), 397, 4O7.438;

I
\

Jan Bakhsh KhaniChakma chisf;,

45A,452, 456, 597, 626

1

Maha

taing (T) sandaya (Arakancsa king), lll,289
16,

I

Jom lcultivation), 603,
475

604

Malrendra Dsva,

140-'142,621

Kadal Khan Ghazi, 1O2, 461-465,

tulaheshkhali qu. z,)

5.421

Kantideva, 43, 61, 62 KarnaPhuli Ri'.'or, 2. :-1,11,17. 31, 36, 49, tZE, 176, 2o7 " 2\o, 211, 2*a5, ?8?, 283, 305. 3?7. 352, 354, 375 378,'3110, 38l, 384, 4'0:r,, 44?, 482. 507, 547. 6t1,628. 629,6:4. Kavindra Paremeswat. 'l 1. 153. 164., 567-56e Khuda Bakhsh Knrrn, 1Og, i6G, 170, 114 176, 179, 182, 183, 205 207-210,217, 2rB, 220,

Mahi:awor (Mahi As:war1, 114, '125, 401-4e5
Murnerak Khan,
f,Ianei(
191

192. 195

fi:i

or n/I.ng", frai ?-lO,

)-1) Fdani R*rn, 455 Marrrique (Father. Sebaatian), O 29, 97, 241n., 248, Z:DO, 254, 25s, 262, 266 267, 269. 270, 2.76-279, 2'81, 285-287, 292,

307-310. 322-375,'i27-329, 3'34, 337-340, 353, 416 484,

225,627,
Kirata i-desa),

6sO
41

, 44,51

,

509, 510, 514. ro18-520, 522, 523, 530,r., 540. 541,543. 54.5, 556, 557.585,627-629.632,633

Kokr (-la,rd), 10, 50, 52, 53, 83,

84,87,95,104
Kynsa l(iiY*uttg, 2n , 3, 36 Lakirrrai, 436'4;8, 448 Mrgadheswan, 484, 4$0, 5;1. 556. 563, 564 lVlagh.36, 38. 43, 45,276, 285, , 286, 294-296, 504, 506, 507,

f{ianucci (tiicsiao) 285. 291,
300. 303, 305, 323, 328. 334, 342,343,353, -166, 367, 388
Matamuhuri River, 4, 36, 307 Mong l(hamaung or Hueain Shah (Arakanese king), 260'254, .259, 245
Meng Phalaung or Sikandar Shah (Arakanaee king), 233,234,237.

'

510,

546

,,-

.

Mahamuni, S2, 8i,,.96, 9.7,56!

239,275,280,

311

lndex | 665

Meng Radzagyi or Shlim Shah I (Arakanesa king), 239, 241n., 248-250,278, 282312 Meng Tsa ni (Arakaneso kingr,
271

Noabad, 427, 429, 436, 43g, 441, 447
Eogazil, t7 O, 1 7 4,17 B -180, t g2. 187,189, 225, 226 Nurullah Khan, 449, 455 Nusiat Shah (sultan), 156, I63, 164,167.169, 45g, 4gg. 5gg
Panchalaish (u.

Meng Tsau mwun (Arakanese king), l4S. t48, 2g6,289 Men kha ri or Ali Khan (Araka_ nese king) 147, 149, 150, 152 Mln Bin (Meng tsang) or $ultan (Arakanese klng), 193, 194, Igg-190, 193, 196, 233,2g3 Mir Afzal (Mughal faujdar\, 436 Mir Hadi. 444, 456 Mir Saiai (u. z;1, 22, 2g4,ggg, 476, 487, 590
Mirza Nathan, Soe Baharistan-i-

z.),

464

Pandir Vihar,92,l 03,I OS-lO7,6Ot;

Parasal Khan, 154,1 SS.iSg.t64,

166, t 71-173, 204, 208, 2og,
567-569 Patenga, 2SE, 269, 30I Pati k era. Pateikkaya,T O,7 2,7 g,7 g

Patiya, 78, 79, 97, 2O1, 211, 296, 421. 591.
Phora (Arakanese deity), 96, 97

ghaibi Mrohaung, 17, 192 Muhammad Khan Sur (Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah Ghazi), 11, 177, tt92-194, 1 96. 289 Muhammad yasin, 45S, 5gg

Pir Brdar or Badai Shah, 13,

t5, 17. 283,289, 303. 46I,463469,48?.510, 565, 588

Pomaja (Arakenese governoi of

Muhit, See Sidi Ali
Muzallar Khan, 4S5 Naf (Na8l) River, 1, 305n., 309 Narapadigyi, 271

Chelebi

Ramu), 266, Z7g Poito Grande, 19, 333,397,g45,

356,

6

12, 613,

622

4, 29.

49.

Pundarik Vidyanidhi, 499-500, 502, 627
Oalandariya, 460
Oaeim Khan (Mughal eubahdar),

Maeiruddin Mahmud Shah (sul. tan), l4g, [50

Natha, Nathiem, 5gg, 625
Nizampur,

g2-gi,

101,

26t, 294,360 Outubdla (u. z.l, 5, 1gg, 4Zt
286-259,

Bahanratullah Khan (faujdar),
6, 421.

,.
a.

21 1,260,2g4,41

413, 495

666 I A Histoiy ot Chirtagong
Rahma, Rahrni, Ruhmi, 15, 16,

624. 626
Sankha River,4, 36, 305, 390,
410,418,43
1,

57,59,76.77,111,
Rajbansis, 503, 504

122

442,449, 45

1,

46 g

Ralph Fitch, 239, 294.299,278, 338, 341, 353, 632
Ramu lRam^),

4.16, 49,76,77, 81, 150. 188, 190, 192,207,

Sarbuland Khan 449, 455 Satkania (u. z.), 2,201,296,297, 3A5,421, 473, 628 Shrh Bayezid Bostami, 471, 473 482, 588 Shah Ghaiibullah, 473.475
Sl'rah Madar, 471
Shah Mohsen Auliya, 469. 565, 589

233 235. 239, 2a9, 266, 269, 27 2, 275, 276. 278, 279. 283, 287.305, 308. 389, 390,421. 513 630.632
Ramyabhurni, Ramma. Bamyaka, 7, 10 Rangunia (u. z.), 296, 396, 421,

Shah Pir or Shah Pari, 473 Shah Shuja ,273, 291,300-306, 310, 331, 360. 480, 573,577 Shaiota Khan, 274, 324.360-369 381, 386, 387, 391,393, 400-

430,431,546
Rashid Khan, 454 Rasti Khan (Majlis i-AIa), tst155, t58, !64, 171,173,176, 204, 207 209, 589
Rauzan

402 592,

610
I

!u.2.1,211, 299,

421.

464, 4gg
Reza Khan, 409, 456
Ruknuddin Barbak Shah (sultan) 151, 207, 589

Shamsuddin llyas Shah (sultan) 126, 129,130, 137. 139

I
rf

$hatijam, 15, 16,18,1 12,117,133
Shattari, 460, 473,474 Sheikh Farid, 470, 471 Sher Jabbar Khan(Chakma chief)

f

4n., 36 Sadkawan, 18, 726-128, 132,134-136,619 Sahela, 533, 577 583
Sabak Khyoung, Sandwip, 5,

131,

396, 397n.,

431

l
,
I

Sher Khan tShah), 156 17C,171 177 - 180 184,187,223,225 -227
Sheimast Khan (Chakma fchief ),

Samandar, 17,1 9 58,1 11,120-123

47, 48,121,122,198, 212,229, 240-247, 251-253, 274, 276. 311-320, 362, 363, 3e8,393, 4rJ7, 517,606, 618,

396, 430, 431 Shihabuddin Talish, also Fathya
i - i bbr

iya, 1 1, 12, 7 5,126,127, 132n., 135, 262, 264, 277,

lndex | 667

8, 280, 282-284, 303. 322. s24, 328, 330, 331, 335.359391,415n., 450, 459 465. 506, 51C, 512, 565, 588, 609, 617, 621,628,635,636
27

Thuratan, 67, 74, 124, 146, 147 Tilopa ltilayoei) 91, 103, 105
Tsanda Thudhamma

or

Chandra

Sudharma (Arakanesc king), 271, 272,292

Sidi Ali Chelebi also Muhit,9, 15, 18, 112,232. 6',19 Sikandar Shah (sultan) 138, 139 Sinabadi (Arakaneoe governor of
Ch

itta gon g ),240,241,246,266n.

Kiang, 16-18, 613 Tsel ta gaung, 17, 67 Tsu la taing TsandayalArakanese king), 17, 67, 68
Tsa Udayamanikya (Tripura king), 198,

ti

Sitakunda, 2,22, 45,50,51, 100, 10 1 n., 2O9,258n.,284,299,485, 487, 553, 56 1,597.599,625,626

200

Ukhiya (u. z.),421
Van
Li

Srikar Nandi, 11, 164, 57O Sulaiman Karrani (sultan) 197, 202, 595
Taranath (Lama), 7,10,52 -56, 66, 71,82-85, 87, 90,91o., 93,94,

nechoten, 24, 232,326,337,

341,513,514, 634, 635 Vansittrrt, 407, 4Og
Vcrelst, 4O7, 4O9, 418, 431, 444, 445, 447, 617, 623

99,109,123, 143, 144, 504, 508, 633 Teknaf (u. 2.) 1, 421
Thado Mintar (Arakanese king), 271, 272 Thiri Thudhamma or Solim Shah ll (Arakanese king), 265,270, 271,295,391,573

Wali Beg Khan, 440, 455, 456,
595

Yakub Khan, 455 Yom (shifting cultivation\, 36,37 Yusuf Shah (sultan), 151,152,
590

Zulqadr Khan (faujdar), 396, 430, 456, 611

Corrigendunl
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