Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007


Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

FOREWORD The handling, setting, and erection of materials and equipment is a hazardous occupation. Each operation presents its own peculiar problems and no two jobs are alike. With proper consideration taken, each job can be performed free of bodily harm to the worker and without damage to the equipment. This manual has been designed as a reference to assist in safely applying the basic rigging equipment used in construction work. The contents of this manual are minimum requirements. Check with local and country regulations for stricter requirements. The Hand Rigging Book contains recommendations for users to consider. The booklet is not legal advice and should not be relied upon solely in any given situation. DuPont makes no express or implied warranty or guarantee as to the information content of the Hand Rigging Book or that it contains all possible recommendations concerning safety, health or the environmental protection. DuPont assumes no liability or responsibility of any kind whatsoever resulting ­ from the use of any information contained in this booklet. This handbook is issued and maintained by Engineering’s Facilities Construction & Support organization.
Copyright© 2007 E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved. The DuPont Oval Logo and The miracles of science™ are registered trademarks or trademarks of DuPont or its affiliates. Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007



RIGGING TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.......................1 SECTIONS 1. Wire Rope...........................................................5 2. Wire Rope Sling Capacities. ..............................10 3. Wire Rope Clip Splice.......................................10 4. Use of Chain. .....................................................15 5. Synthetic Web and Round Slings......................16 6. Synthetic Fiber Rope.........................................17 7. Hooks, Shackles, Beam Clamps,Trolleys. .........23 8. Methods of Hanging Rigging.............................28 9. Chain Hoists......................................................29 10. Lever-Operated Hoists......................................31 11. Use of Jacks......................................................32 12. Use of Rollers....................................................33 13. Plate and General Purpose Grips.....................35 14. Eyebolts. ............................................................35 15. Mobile Cranes...................................................39 16. Rigging with Forklifts.........................................44 17. Handy Things to Know......................................45 18. Weights of Materials..........................................45 19. Safe Hitches and Knots . ..................................46 TABLES 1. Effect of Sling Angle.........................................9 2. Wire Rope Sling Capacities. ...........................10 3. Cable Clips.....................................................14 4. Synthetic Fiber Comparison Chart.................21 5. Properties of Fiber Rope................................22 6. Strength of Standard Hooks...........................25 7. Strength of Shackles......................................26 8. Swivel Eyebolts..............................................37 9. Type 2 Shouldered Forged Steel Eyebolts. .........................................................38 10. Crane Signals. ................................................42 FIGURES 1 Effect of Sling Angle Examples........................8 2 Joining Wire Ropes........................................12 3 Cable Clips.....................................................13 4 Proper Eyebolt Usage....................................36 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

RIGGING TERMS AND DEFINITIONS The following terms are commonly used in the subject of rigging. Each term is defined in brief to give correct usage and to clarify the meanings of the various terms. A-FRAME - A framework made in the form of an A, either from wood, metal tubing, or structural shapes, from which a load can be suspended. Anti-two-blocking Device - An attachment to a crane that prevents the load block or hook assembly from being drawn tightly to the boom point. BIGHT - A simple loop. A part of all knots. BIRD-CAGING - The twisting of fiber or wire rope in an isolated area in the opposite direction of the rope lay, causing it to take on the appearance of a bird cage. BLOCK AND TACKLE - Sometimes referred to as a rope fall and consisting of two single or multiple pulley blocks complete with load hooks and with rope reeved between to give a mechanical advantage in lifting. BOOM - The long, usually fabricated, part of a crane that makes it possible for the load sheaves to be maneuvered directly over the load to be lifted. CHAIN HOIST - A portable lifting device geared to give mechanical advantage for hand operation and using chain to transmit the load to the hoist. CHOKER - A hitch made using a sling in a manner so that the heavier the load, the tighter the sling will hold it. CLEVIS - A U-shaped or stirrup-shaped device used to connect two or more lifting members. This usually is referred to as a shackle. DEAD WEIGHT - The total weight of all the suspended rigging.

1 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007

animal. FIBER ROPE . GIRDER . LAY OF ROPE . FACTOR OF SAFETY . All rights reserved. KNOT . KINK .A beam arrangement suspended from overhead beams in two or more places from which single-point loading can be made.A permanent strength member in building construction from which rigging often is hung.A structural or fabricated member of considerable length or height used to provide a fixed stable point above the load from which a lift can be made. LIFE NET . EVENER . 2 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.A spring-type rope net used directly below an elevated work area to catch any worker who should lose his footing and fall.The making of a loop in the rope so small that it will destroy the lay of the rope.The factor by which ultimate strength is divided to determine working load limit. or synthetic fibers. du Pont de Nemours and Company.A term used to describe the forming (not twisting) of wires or fibers into strands and strands into rope. Rev 06/2007 .A fixed gage used to measure the allowable hook opening caused by excessively loading the hook. DRIFTING . DESIGN FACTOR . Used to distribute load over greater area of overhead structural member or members.The act of moving a suspended load in a horizontal direction using two or more pieces of hoisting equipment. HOOK GAGE . This is one cause of bird-caging and also weakens the strands of the rope.See Design Factor.DERRICK .A rope made from nonmetallic materials such as vegetable.The intertwining of the end of a rope with a portion of the same rope or another rope of the same size. I.

The total weight of all the suspended rigging. OUTRIGGER .Long pieces of hardwood about 7 or 8 inches in diameter (or long pieces of pipe) used to place under heavy pieces of equipment to facilitate rolling along flat surfaces. SHACKLE . Moused . All rights reserved. LINK .A piece of metal forged or formed to make an endless rod with half circle at each end and straight sides between. rope or cord to close the throat opening of a hook to prevent the sling or shackle from becoming detached.LIFT ANGLE .A high-strength fiber rope made from manila fibers obtained from the abaca or wild banana plant grown in the Philippines.The weight of the object to be lifted.A U-shaped or horseshoe-shaped piece of metal provided with a means for applying a bolt or pin through the ends and used to hold several lifting members together. MANILA ROPE . LOAD (LIVE) .Securing a wire. SKID .The threading of the rope between the blocks in rope blocks and falls. LOAD (DEAD) . ROLLERS . REEVING . du Pont de Nemours and Company. LOAD (TOTAL) . I.Normally a heavy timber used under heavy machinery or other equipment that is being moved on rollers. Rev 06/2007 .The sum of dead load plus live load.A part built or arranged to project beyond the natural outline of a piece of equipment to provide additional support in preventing the equipment from overturning.The angle between an imaginary line vertical to the load to be lifted and an imaginary line between the load and the hoist or fitting device. 3 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. sometimes called a clevis. strap.

THIMBLE .A socket attachment for the end of wire rope that employs the wedge principle to hold the rope in the socket. Usually consisting of a cable drum with a gasoline-engine drive or with a gear-reduction unit for hand operation. TURNBUCKLE . SOFTENER . du Pont de Nemours and Company.and left-hand threads at opposite ends and a common threaded centerpiece. SPLICE . or chain fitted at each end with an eye splice or some other special rope or chain fitting and used to tie on to the materials to be lifted. webbing.A metal-formed piece inserted in the eye of an eye splice to prevent the wear on the rope in the eye splice area. All rights reserved.The result of twisting or forming several fibers or wires together. WIRE ROPE CLIPS .Wood or other soft materials placed over the sharp edges of objects to be lifted to keep them from cutting or damaging the slings making the hitch. WEDGE SOCKETS (beckett) . STRAND . synthetic.SLING . WINCH .A power source for hoisting or moving. Rev 06/2007 .The method of permanently attaching two ends of rope together or joining one to the stranding portion of the rope to form an eye in the case of an eye splice. The strands then are formed in a twisted fashion to form a rope.A fitting used to tighten or loosen the stress on a rope by utilizing right.A length of wire rope.A mechanical means of temporarily joining two wire ropes together. WLL . I.Working Load Limit 4 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.

The frequency of inspection is determined by the amount of use of the rope.The weak points in the rope or the points where the greatest stress occurs should be inspected with great care. 1.2.2 Wire rope having been stored three months or longer should be completely inspected for damage and corrosion just prior to installation.5 All wire rope should be inspected before each use and should be inspected periodically according to specifications. 1. 1. Measure some of these shiny spots.2 Procedure . All rights reserved. and untwisting are the results.1 Inspection for handling damage should be made of the exposed turns of coils and reels when wire rope is received from the supplier. kinked. the periodic inspection may require written documentation. If it appears that the outer wires have been reduced in diameter by one-fourth. 5 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.1. 1. Rev 06/2007 . kinks.1 WIRE ROPE INSPECTION 1.1.2 IN-USE INSPECTION 1. twists. examine the rope for worn spots and broken wires. 1.1.Wire rope should be inspected at frequent intervals and frayed. Worn spots will show up as shiny flattened spots on the wires.1. 1. In general. du Pont de Nemours and Company.1.1 Frequency . These conditions are especially likely to occur when rope is first unwound from the reel. worn.2.3 Many wire ropes are permanently damaged by improper handling and use.1. or corroded rope replaced. WIRE ROPE 1. the worn spot is unsafe.4 A permanent bend from pulling out a kink seriously damages the rope. I.

3. or corrosive material should be avoided.2 Exposure of wire rope to dirt. 1. water. There may be several points in the rope where broken wires occur. 1. 1. If several wires are broken next to each other. All rights reserved. in a straight line. When a kink has occurred. the reel should be reeled or unreeled slowly. When reels are not available it should be stored in coils and hung on a broad support to prevent concentration of the load of the coil on just a small area or a few wire strands.2. I. 1. Consider the rope unsafe if three broken wires are found in one strand of 6 x 7 rope or six broken wires are found in one strand of 6 x 19 rope. grit.1 Leather-palm gloves must be used at all times when handling wire rope.3. Inspect each point to determine whether it is a single broken wire or several.3. Rev 06/2007 . 1.5 Wire rope should be stored on reels whenever possible.3.3. 1.3 HANDLING 1.3 Extreme precautions must be taken to avoid kinking wire rope. 6 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.4 When coiling or uncoiling wire rope.3 Never allow wire rope to operate without lubrication. du Pont de Nemours and Company. keeping the wire rope taut and free of kinks or large loops that could form kinks. unequal load distribution at this point will make the rope unsafe. the wire rope or the damaged section of the wire rope must be removed from service.

2 After installing new wire rope on a crane or other hoisting equipment. 1.4 USE 1. 1.1.8 When using basket hitches. To calculate the total stress implied to the sling by the angle and load.4. 1.4.6 The listed safe load in Table 2 should never be exceeded unless the sling has a manufacturer’s tag attached and that tag indicates a higher capacity rating. 1.4. care should be taken to avoid damage to the sling. 1. I.4.4. care should be taken that slings do not slip on the object being lifted.4. 1. the equipment should be operated for about an hour at no load to ensure that it will accommodate itself to the sheaves and drums before the heavy strain is applied. the actual load on the sling parts increases as illustrated in Figure 1. Rev 06/2007 .4. All rights reserved.1 Sudden stresses in wire rope should be avoided. basket and choker hitches.5 When applying a choker hitch on an object to be hoisted. multiply the actual vertical load by the load angle factor listed in Table 1.4 Loose ends of wire rope must always be seized to prevent untwisting of wires and strands. 7 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. Traveling over rough area with an automotive crane with load suspended or quick acceleration in lifting may cause stresses above the breaking strength of the wire rope.3 Avoid crushing forces on wire rope at all times to avoid damage to cores and hidden wires.4. Use softeners to safely handle objects with sharp corners or edges.7 When lifting at an angle such as with bridle slings. 1. du Pont de Nemours and Company.

However. 1. at no time should the horizontal angle be less than 30 degrees. As the angle from the horizontal decreases. FIGURE 1 Effect of Sling Angle Examples Sling Load x Load Angle Factor = Implied Load 90 degree angle: 500 lbs x 1. For angles of less than 30 degrees from the horizontal. Notice that the capacity decreases more rapidly as the horizontal sling angle decreases. Table 1 shows what happens to the vertical lifting capacity of a sling with a working load limit of 1000 pounds as the angle from the horizontal decreases from 90 degrees (a vertical lift) to 30 degrees (the minimum allowed horizontal sling).10 Combined reductions must be considered when using a bridle sling configuration that incorporates a choker hitch connected to the load being lifted.4. One reduction will be required for the horizontal sling angle and an additional for the choker hitch.154 = 577 lbs 45 degree angle: 500 lbs x 1. 1. Avoid using choked bridle slings at less than a 60-degree angle from the horizontal. so does the capacity as compared to a vertical pull.0 = 1000 lbs 8 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. It is best to use bridle slings with horizontal angles above 45 degrees from the horizontal.9 Effect of Sling Angle. the horizontal forces are actually greater than the vertical lifting force. It is for this reason that the horizontal angle should never be less than 30 degrees. Rev 06/2007 .0 = 500 lbs 60 degree angle: 500 lbs x 1.4. All rights reserved. du Pont de Nemours and Company.414 = 707 lbs 30 degree angle: 500 lbs x 2. I.

6% 1.000 lbs 100. 940 lbs 94. shackles.000 lbs. I.035 70 1.000 lbs. du Pont de Nemours and Company. 760 lbs 76. TABLE 1 Effect of Sling Angle Sling Angle from Working Load Capacity as a Load Angle Horizontal Limit (WLL) Capacity % of WLL Factor 90 1.414 40 1.000 lbs.9% 1.e.3% 1.154 55 1.064 65 1. 1. All rights reserved. if necessary. 985 lbs 98.6% 1.6% 1.555 35 1.305 45 1. slings. eyebolts.6% 1.220 50 1.103 60 1.7% 1.000 lbs.4% 1.5% 1. 9 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.000 lbs. hoists. Rigging equipment and hardware must be resized or increased.000 lbs. 819 lbs 81. to accommodate this extra loading.0% 1. 996 lbs 99.0% 1.743 30 1. 966 lbs 96.000 lbs. 643 lbs 64.003 80 1. 866 lbs 86.0% 2.015 75 1.000 lbs. the implied stresses to all involved equipment (i.000 lbs. 707 lbs 70.000 Do not use slings at less than a 30-degree angle Caution Normal Operating Range It is important to remember as angles from the horizontal decrease. Rev 06/2007 . 906 lbs 90. 574 lbs 57. 500 lbs 50. beam clamps) increase.000 lbs. DO NOT assume the equipment component safety factors will accommodate angle-induced overloads.6% 1.000 85 1.000 lbs.000 lbs.000 lbs.

WIRE ROPE CLIP SPLICE 3.5 1 1/8 10.56 0.9 13.0 12.2 0.3 “U”-bolt clips must be placed on the rope with the “U” bolts bearing upon the short or “dead” end of the rope (Table 3).9 4. Properly made.0 7.0 9.7 8. Rev 06/2007 .0 8.8 3.5 1.2 1.8 5.0 15.3 6.2 Do not use clips made of malleable iron material. 3.1 The number of clips and spacing required per diameter of rope used is given in Table 3.0 1¼ 12.6 4.5 6.5 6.2 24. Make sure the saddle grooves on the clips match the lay of the rope.4 1.1 5.4 17. tons (2000 lbs) of 6x19 and 6x37 IPS IWRC Wire Rope 2 leg basket or bridle hitch Sling 60o Angle 45o Angle 30o Angle Choke Diameter Straight Both Legs from from from Hitch (inches) Pull Vertical Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal ¼ 0.79 0. 3.4 3.97 0.93 2.0 17.6 1 8.9 3.9 7/8 6.7 2.65 1.9 4.3 3.7 1.0 11. I.7 1. All rights reserved.0 21.87 0.0 18.2 0.7 5/8 3.42 1.0 IPS – Improved Plow Steel Grade Wire Rope IWRC – Independent Wire Rope Core Straight Pull Choke Hitch Basket Hitch Bridle Hitch 3.0 12.4 2.8 21.4 ¾ 4.5 4. du Pont de Nemours and Company.S.2 9/16 2.6 4.1 1.87 3/8 1.2.2 7/16 1.8 1. a “U”-bolt clip eye splice develops 80% of the strength of the rope.56 5/16 0.1 0.0 10.5 2.4 Twin base clips have corrugated jaws on both parts and can be installed without regard as to which 10 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.4 6. WIRE ROPE SLING CAPACITIES TABLE 2 Working Load Limit in U. 3.9 2.0 9.8 3.6 9.8 3.7 ½ 2.0 15.1 2.9 2.4 2.

I. The wire rope clip torque value shall be checked on a regular basis. do not knit. 3. Next. have dead flexibility. Look for any possible damage to the rope. the clip farthest from the eye should be applied first about four inches back from the end of the dead rope and tightened evenly. Chains withstand rough handling. After approximately one hour of service recheck torque settings on clips again.6 When making a lapped splice to a stay rope. USE OF CHAIN 4. du Pont de Nemours and Company.installed. and 11 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. Wire rope on the other hand.7 After assembly. chains do not. 3. twin base clips will develop 90% of the strength of the rope and cause very little deformation to the wire rope. All rights reserved.” 3. 4. Rev 06/2007 . 3. all of which must fail before the rope breaks. 4. apply a twin-base clip about four inches from each dead end and tighten evenly.8 After using clips on a wire rope. Space all intermediate clips evenly and finger tighten. the rope shall be loaded to the expected working load and the clips re-torqued to the manufacturer’s recommended setting.2 There are certain jobs for which chain is better suited than wire rope. 3. is frequently composed of 114 wires. 3.9 Always apply clips with the U-bolt on the dead end and the saddle of the clip on the live end of the wire rope.1 For general construction rigging never use a chain when it is possible to use wire rope. apply the clip close to the toe of the thimble and finger tighten. “Never saddle a dead horse. special inspection of the wire rope in the area where the clips are removed should be made.10 Never use clips to form sling eyes used for overhead lifting. Torque all clips evenly to the manufacturer’s recommended setting. The failure of a single link of a chain can result in a serious accident.5 When forming an eye with a thimble. are easily stored. Wire rope gives you reserve strength and a chance to notice a hazard.

du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007 RIGHT . I.Figure 2 Joining Wire Ropes WRONG 12 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.

Incorrect ALL OTHER CLIPS . Rev 06/2007 . du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved.Figure 3 . Incorrect APPLY SECOND CLIP .nearest loop as possible–U-Bolt over dead end–turn on nuts firm but DO NOT TIGHTEN.Cable Clips Right and Wrong Ways of Using Cable Clips Proper Method of Installing Cable Clips STEP 1 U-Bolt of all clips on dead end of rope. STEP 5 Apply tension Recheck nut torque after rope has been in operation. I. STEP 2 Do not stagger clips. Correct APPLY FIRST CLIP . 13 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.one base width from dead end of wire rope–U-Bolt over dead end–live end rests in clip saddle. STEP 3 U-Bolt of all clips on live end of rope. Tighten nuts evenly to recommended torque.Space equally between first two. STEP 4 Apply tension Double Saddle Clips (Flat Grip Clips) Apply tension and tighten all nuts to recommended torque.

Rev 06/2007 1 5 5 37 26 .5 15 30 45 65 95 130 225 225 Twin-Base U-Bolt Twin-Base U-Bolt 1/8 N/A 2 N/A 3 1/4 3/16 2 2 4 3 3/4 1/4 2 2 4 4 3/4 5/16 2 2 5 5 1/4 TABLE 3 CABLE CLIPS 3/8 2 2 5 1/2 6 1/2 1/2 3 3 11 11 1/2 5/8 3 3 13 1/2 12 3/4 3 4 16 18 7/8 3 4 26 19 14 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. du Pont de Nemours and Company.Wire Rope Diameter (inches) 1 3/8 1 5/8 2 2 3/8 2 3/4 3 1/4 3 1/2 4 4 3/8 4 3/4 7 3/8 5 3/8 7 4 1/4 4 1/8 3 3/4 3 3/4 4 1/8 4 1/4 4 5/8 4 3/4 5 3/8 3 3 2 3/4 2 3/4 2 1/8 2 1/8 N/A 2 N/A 30 30 30 45 65 130 225 225 225 Number of Clips Turn Back past Thimble Appx. All rights reserved.5 7. spacing Required Torque Minimum (foot pounds) distance .between clips (inches) dead end U-Bolt Twin-Base U-Bolt to first clip Twin-Base (inches) 4. I.

3.1 Use only alloy steel chain.2 Chains must be inspected by the user before each use and by a designated person.5 Store chains where they will not be damaged or corroded.3.3.10 Never use the tip of chain hooks to carry a load. 4. du Pont de Nemours and Company.4 Avoid impact loading. twisting. 15 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. 4. They are much more resistant to abrasion and corrosion than wire rope and are particularly well suited as slings for lifting rough loads such as heavy castings which would quickly weaken or destroy wire rope slings due to the sharp bends over the edges of the castings. I. 4. 4. 4. and never exceed its rated working load limits as specified by the manufacturer and indicated on the required attached information tag. 4.3. elongation of the links.9 Avoid crossing. 4.3.8 Never hammer a chain to straighten the links or to force the links into position. making a written record of the inspection.11 Never re-weld alloy steel chain links.3. 4.3.7 Never use a chain when the links are locked. or a tendency for the links to bind on each other.3 Know the weight of all loads to avoid accidental overloads.3 CARE AND USE 4.when used as slings. 4. stretched.3. They must be replaced by the manufacturer. or knotting a chain. 4. 4. or without free movement.3. kinking. grip the load well.3.3. A light coating of oil should be placed on chains before storage.6 Never shorten a chain by twisting or knotting it or with nuts and bolts. Grade 8 or Grade 10. All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007 . at intervals not to exceed 12 months. Stretching can be distinguished by small cracks in the links.

1.1 Synthetic slings offer numerous advantages: conformity to regular shapes. and size suitable for service with the chain used.12 Inspect each link regularly for wear. Rev 06/2007 . Their capacity will be completely destroyed if they are. splices or stitching. du Pont de Nemours and Company. and will not harm the surface being lifted.2 Each synthetic sling shall be marked.1. lightweight. nicks. and shearing. 5. 4.1. 16 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. sprays.15 Make sure that alloy steel chains are never annealed or heat treated. grade. All rights reserved. minimized twisting during lifting.13 Make sure the chain is of the correct size and grade for the load. Do not use any synthetic sling that is not so identified. localized bending. Synthetic Web and Round Slings 5. sprays.5 The working temperature range for nylon and polyester synthetic slings is -20°F to +180°F (-30°C – 82°C). won’t rust. or liquids of caustics are present. 5. coded or tagged to show the rated capacities for each type of hitch and type of synthetic material or it shall not be used.3.3. mists.1. preclude hand cuts and bumps from swinging. 5. 5.3. 5. or liquids of acids are present. 4. non-sparking.1. mists. 5. resist crushing.4 Synthetic slings manufactured with polyester material shall not be used where fumes.14 Make sure all attachments and fittings are of a type. 4. Wear pads and sling covers should be used to help protect the sling from sharp corners and abrasive surfaces.3 Synthetic slings manufactured with nylon material shall not be used where fumes.6 Avoid choking or hooking directly on the identification tag. not affected by moisture. I. gouges.1. 4. stretch.

du Pont de Nemours and Company. these threads are not to be used as the sole means for reason to remove a sling from service. In most situations. All rights reserved. cuts. Synthetic Fiber Rope Synthetic fiber rope should only be used for rigging when other applications as hoists and slings are im­practical or undesirable for a particular job.2. tears. visibility of the warning thread indicates the sling is severely past the removal from service point.3. Natural or 17 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. I. Rev 06/2007 .5.1 Synthetic fiber web slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present: • Missing or illegible capacity tag • Chemical burns • Holes. snags or punctures • Excessive abrasive wear • Melting or charring of any part of the sling • Knots • Broken or worn stitching • Damaged end fittings • Diminished tattle tale visibility or broken fiber optic (if so equipped) • Any condition which causes doubt as to the strength of the sling 6. cuts.) 5.1 Synthetic round slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present: • Missing or illegible capacity tag • Visible inner cover or yarn • Chemical burns • Holes. snags or punctures • Excessive abrasive wear • Melting or charring of any part of the sling • Knots • Broken or worn stitching • Damaged end fittings • Any condition which causes doubt as to the strength of the sling (While many manufacturers incorporate the use of a red warning thread in the fabrication of web slings. tears.

Do not use polyester rope in the presence of caustics. polyester and polypropylene. If approximately 5% of the fibers are broken.2 The fiber rope naturally will become dirty from use.plant fiber (manila) rope should not be used for rigging or hoisting applications. it does degrade in sunlight and its strength is less than polyester or nylon of comparable size. 18 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. 6.2 Synthetic fiber rope suitable for rigging applications includes nylon. du Pont de Nemours and Company.4 Polyester rope has good resistance to abrasion and has application where minimum stretch is desired. 6.5 Polypropylene rope is the lightest and lowest in cost of all synthetic fiber ropes. I. 6. inspect for excess dirt and grit penetrating between the fibers making up the strands. Broken fibers are an indication of excessive abrasion or overloading. the rope should be condemned for hoisting. rough rope with excellent resistance to abrasion and will absorb greater shock loads than any other synthetic fiber rope. If excessive to the point that it will cause internal wear in the strands.1 If using a synthetic fiber rope for rigging. Rev 06/2007 .6. alkalis.6. 6. a minimum safety factor of 5 must be used to determine the working load limit of the rope. 6.1 Look and feel for broken fibers or other signs of abuse of the rope. grease and other chemical. has minimum stretch and excellent shock resistance. While polypropylene is generally not affected by moisture. however. the rope should be condemned.3 Nylon rope is a strong. 6. However. All rights reserved.6 INSPECTION 6. oil. 6. acids. It is flexible. nylon has a greater percentage of stretch than polyester or polypropylene ropes. Do not use nylon rope in the presence of acids.

there are indications of chemical or dirt penetration and rope should be condemned.7 If possible to open up a strand. the following inspection inside the strands can be made: -  Pull on several fibers near the center of the strand. If they come out in short pieces. Inspect for the following: - If excessive broken fibers are found.6.6 Open up the strands of the rope by twisting it in the opposite direction of the lay.5 Inspect outside of rope for evidence of exposure to heat. Rev 06/2007 . there has been severe internal wear and rope should be condemned. chemicals.6. 6.6. - Pull out some long fibers from the center of the strand and check for strength. the rope has been overloaded and should be condemned. This is a definite indication that rope has been overloaded. This will cause uneven distribution of the load on the strands and early rope failure.4 Check the rope for strands unlaying.3 Inspect for excessive oil on the surface of the rope. or excessively moist atmosphere.6. du Pont de Nemours and Company. I. This is an indication of excess loading and the rope should be condemned. If discolored or dirty. Do not open to the extent of kinking the fibers or damaging the rope lay. If the strands 19 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. - Interior of the rope should be as bright as the original new rope. 6. 6. the rope should be condemned. 6.6. or the presence of a spiral appearance. If present. acid. 6. All rights reserved. high stranding. Synthetic fiber rope should be condemned if it is not resistant to the above exposures. - Inspect for the presence of a powder-like sawdust.

AND STORAGE 6. Abrasion to the outside of the rope will occur immediately and the picking up of gritty particles will cause later internal abrasion.2 As the rope comes out of the coil. or chemical fumes unless the specific rope has properties to resist that atmosphere. The use of padding or softeners is recommended.7. du Pont de Nemours and Company.break easily.7. USE. 6. 6. 6.3 Before cutting a fiber rope.7. The coil can be laid flat and the rope uncoiled by pulling the loose end away from the coil to obtain the desired length. Rev 06/2007 . the uncoiling of rope should start with the loose end inside the coil. I. 6. it should unwind in a counterclockwise direction and may form loops.6 Do not use fiber rope in an atmosphere of acids.7 HANDLING. Wet or frozen rope should not be placed against steam pipes for thawing or drying.7.7. whipping should be applied on both sides of the intended cut to prevent unlay of the strands or upsetting of the fibers in the strands. 6. 6. These loops should be removed carefully to avoid damaging kinks in the rope. 20 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.7 Do not bend or flex frozen fiber rope.1 In general.7. chemicals. the rope probably has been chemically attacked and should be condemned. All rights reserved.5 Avoid wrapping fiber rope around sharp edges or corners.7. 6.4 Do not drag rope over dirty or gritty surfaces. - A condemned rope should be cut into short pieces and scrapped.

Rev 06/2007 .7.7.10 Do not expose synthetic fiber rope to temperatures outside of –20°F to 180°F (-30°C – 82°C). 6.11 Never use rope that shows signs of cutting. All rights reserved.12 Keep rope ends seized. Fair P . Preferred storage is hanging loosely on large-diameter pegs. well-ventilated area. therefore. between 40-60 percent humidity and out of direct sunlight. du Pont de Nemours and Company.7. KEY – E . 6.70°F (10C – 22°C). TABLE 4 SYNTHETIC FIBER COMPARISON CHART RESISTANCE TO* Abrasion Wet Dry Acid Alka Water Heat Rot MATERIAL Nylon E VG P E E G E ® Dacron VG G VG F E VG E Polypropylene VG G E E E G E *Most chemical solutions and solvents affect rope to varying degrees. 6.7. care should be taken to prevent contact with them. 6. Good F . it should be dried before storing. 6. Very Good G . Poor 21 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. I.9 If rope has become damp or wet in use. Excellent VG . or breaking.8 Synthetic fiber rope should be stored in a clean. in temperatures between 50°F. unraveling.7.

8 7.065 .650 10.200 15.1.910 9.2 933 .017 536 .1.269 .4 23.1.530 863 .565 Size Nylon Diameter Circumference (inches) (inches) 1/2 11/2 9/16 13/4 Minimum Break Strength Weight (lbs) (lbs/100 ft) 5.5 1. All rights reserved.240 1.9 743 .955 12.825 Working Load Range (lbs) Design Factor 5 to 12 424 .6 5.2.3 1.4.440 .7 6.780 14.3 1.728 3 /4 21/4 12.4 14.280 19.230 19.918 465 .0 Working Load Range (lbs) Design Factor 5 to 12 473 .0 Working Load Range (lbs) Design Factor 5 to 12 315 . .775 30.835 .116 638 .456 1 3 22.9 7.780 4.1.435 9.TABLE 5 PROPERTIES OF FIBER ROPE Polyester Minimum Break Strength Weight (lbs) (llbs/100 ft) 5.756 383 .1.1.070 1. Rev 06/2007 Figures above are safety factors of minimum 5 to 1.0 652 .2.2 10.2 18.3.446 22 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.2.580 7.134 600 .556 7 /8 23/4 17.287 Minimum Break Strength (lbs) 3. du Pont de Nemours and Company.3.069 .565 5.1.4 17.440 5 /8 2 8.350 12.200 8.670 6.045 1.3.085 7.825 11.3 7.590 Polypropylene Weight (lbs/100 ft) 4.648 . I.

1. (Consider strength of flange of beam). du Pont de Nemours and Company.1 BASIC RULES 7.7 Get approval before applying a beam clamp to any structural member to assure that structural member will support the load being raised. See Table 7.1 Only ONE eye in a hook.9 Check to make sure clamp fits beam and is adequate to support load to be handled.always in the center.11 The use of beam clamps is not recommended when angle lifts are to be made.1.8 Use only approved type beam clamps for lifting any load.10 Beam clamps should be securely fastened to the beam.2 Pin of shackle should be placed in hook with the eyes of chokers bearing on the shank. 7. The 23 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.1. SHACKLES. 7. 7. or fracture.1.5 Hooks must be replaced when inspection shows spread. 7. 7. Rev 06/2007 .1. 7.1. AND TROLLEYS 7. distortion. wear.1.6 Never place a load on the point of a hook .7. I. 7. Use a shackle to hold two or more eyes. BEAM CLAMPS. All rights reserved. HOOKS.1.3 All hooks should either bear a safety latch or be moused. No welded rings or field-fabricated lifting devices are to be used.4 Never overload a hook beyond its rated capacity.1. 7.1. 7. 7.1.

.1. 7.1. 7.1. du Pont de Nemours and Company.15 Rebar shall not be used as a lifting device. making it possible to exceed design capabilities. Rigging using hooks with no safety latches that incorporate mousing should be avoided. as substitutes for beam clamps. 7. I. etc. checking bolts or locking devices for ease of operation. design calculations for beam clamp capacity are made for straight lifts. and beam size are clearly marked on the clamp. Lifting at an angle places the beam flange under multiple stresses and the beam clamp under point loading. tongs. making sure that identification numbers. 24 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. For those hooks where safety latches are not possible.16 Installation of trolleys on monorails should be performed by trained personnel only. inspecting welds for cracks. pipe clamps. Rev 06/2007 . where possible.14 Beam clamps should be visually inspected before each use by checking hooks. locking pins.1. mousing must be applied to close the throat opening.12 Never use plate grips. girder hooks. and lifting eyes for distortion or other defects. All rights reserved. 7. shall be equipped with a safety latch. 7.13 All hooks. capacity.1.

I. Rev 06/2007 . du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved. Tempered Design Factor = 5 EYE HOOK Working Load Limit Tons 3 /4 1 1 1/2 2 3 5 7 1/2 10 15 20 24 32 SHANK HOOK SWIVEL HOOK Throat Opening A Inches 5 /16 1 1/32 1 1/16 1 7/32 1 1/2 1 7/8 2 1/4 2 1/2 3 3/8 4 4 3/4 5 3/4 Eye Size B 1 15/32 1 3/4 2 1/32 2 13/32 2 15/16 3 13/16 4 11/16 5 3/8 6 5/8 7 9 5/16 10 3/4 Shank Size C /32 21/32 23 /32 7 /8 1 5/32 1 13/32 1 11/32 1 27/32 2 1/4 2 3/4 3 1/2 4 1/8 19 Swivel Thickness D 3 /8 1/2 5 /8 5 /8 3 /4 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 1/2 – – 25 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.TABLE 6 STRENGTH OF STANDARD HOOKS Carbon Steel – Forged. Quenched.

If the width between eyes (C) exceeds +1/16”. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Rev 06/2007 .TABLE 7 STRENGTH OF SHACKLES Screw Pin. Round Pin. Safety – Forged. the shackle has been overstrained and must not be used. I. Working load limit must be permanently shown on each shackle. 26 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. of Pin B Inches 5/16 /8 7/16 1/2 5/8 3 /4 7 /8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 2 2 1/4 2 3/4 3 Working Load Limit Tons 1 /2 3/4 1 1 1/2 2 3 1/4 4 3/4 6 1/2 8 1/2 9 1/2 12 13 1/2 17 25 35 50 Inside Width C Inches /32 /32 21 /32 23 /32 13/16 1 1/16 1 1/4 1 7/16 1 11/16 1 13/16 2 1/32 2 1/4 2 3/8 2 7/8 3 1/4 4 1/8 15 17 Size of shackle identified by diameter of shank. All rights reserved. and Tempered Alloy Steel Pins Design Factor = 6 SCREW PIN Size of Shank A Inches 1/4 5/16 3 /8 7/16 1 /2 5 /8 3 /4 7 /8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/2 ROUND PIN Diam. All shackle pins must be straight. Quenches.

Good Practice 27 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. Poor Practice Pack the pin with washers to centralize the shackle.) Washers Hook Never allow shackle to be pulled at an angle – the legs will open up.TABLE 7 (Cont’d. All rights reserved. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Rev 06/2007 .

Rev 06/2007 .3 Lashing consists of a straight piece of wire rope wrapped around the overhead beam or strength member from which the rigging can be fastened. All rights reserved. 8.3. 8. 8. I. For beam clamps and their use in hanging rigging.2. 28 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. 8. 8. du Pont de Nemours and Company. However. METHODS OF HANGING RIGGING The method of hanging rigging depends largely upon the job to be done. 8. it is imperative that the overhead structures be checked to make certain they will withstand the stresses of the load to be lifted.2 If multiple points or eyes are used to support the rigging.1 The number of wraps around the beam is determined by the load to be lifted and the diameter of the wire rope. When starting the job. The wire rope ends are secured by cable clamps. It is important to check all phases of the job and all the potential possibilities of job deviations that may affect the rigging components. providing the single wrap is of sufficient strength to support the load.8. 8. they must first be gathered in a shackle.1 When slings are used they must be protected from sharp edges on the support member with the use of softeners. a shackle should be placed through the middle wrap only. the affected area should be roped off and identified as an overhead work area.2 To ensure maximum resistance to slippage when the load is lifted at an angle.1 Beam clamps are the preferred method for hanging rigging overhead.3.2 Slings are sometimes used to hang rigging and wire rope slings should be given preference for this application. The cable clamps used should be selected and used in accordance with Table 3. see Section 7. Before hanging any rigging. a minimum number of three wraps are usually needed to prevent slipping.2.

I.3 Rope wrapped around the beam or strength member must be protected from sharp corners by the use of softeners.4 Use of Eveners: In cases where the overhead structure will not withstand point loading. or where two overhead strength members must be spanned to place the rigging directly over the object to be lifted.2 When an evener is used to span two or more overhead strength members. All rights reserved. Chain hoists should be marked with capacity in tons.8.2 The term “heavy-duty” chain hoists refers to the job it is capable of performing and not the abuse it will stand. 8. 9. eveners should be used. du Pont de Nemours and Company. 8. 9. it should be lashed to the strength member in two or more places. 9.1 Be certain that the attachment and the supporting structure will safely carry the load. 8.3. 9. 8.1. the evener should be lashed to all strength members.4.2 Chain hoists must be equipped with an automatic load brake to prevent the load from dropping. 29 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. in the same manner as it would be hung from the strength member.1 When an evener is used to distribute the load on the beam.4. Use correct size hoists for the weight to be lifted. Rev 06/2007 .4.1.3 The rigging should be hung from the evener only.3. CHAIN HOISTS 9.1 The spur gear chain hoist is the most efficient of all chain hoists.4 Severe angle lifts may require that additional wraps of lashing be used. 8.

The angle of lift should not exceed 30° with the vertical.10 Chain hoists are designed so that one person can operate the hand chain to lift the full capacity load for the chain hoist. 9.5 Do not leave a load hanging on a chain hoist unattended. use extreme care in operation of the hand chain so that it is pulled in line with the sheave.8 Do not load the point of the chain hoist lifting hook. use larger chain hoist. 9.3 Chain hoists must have an overload limiting device or be used under strict administrative controls. hand or foot.13. 9.13 Inspection 9. 9. This is one of the few permissible chain hoist angle lifts.4 A chain hoist should never be used beyond its rated capacity.7 Do not wrap the load chain around the load to be lifted.12 When drifting loads using two or more chain hoists. 9. Make sure the load is bottomed in the hook.e.6 Do not stand below or have any parts of the body. below a load suspended on a chain hoist. Never use a chain hoist for a horizontal pull as design chain-sprocket engagement is not obtained.9 If more than one lifting cable is to be handled by one chain hoist. All rights reserved. Lever hoists or come-alongs should be used for these conditions. If not. I. 9.. use a shackle to join the lifting cables before placing them in the chain hoist lifting hook.1 All chain hoists should be inspected visually before making any lift. 9. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Safety latch or mouse all hooks. Visual inspection 30 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. 9. 9. Rev 06/2007 . i.11 Avoid making angle lifts with a chain hoist wherever possible.9. 9.

Do not oil load brake surfaces. Rev 06/2007 . keep hoist chain straight. All rights reserved.1 10. Check pitch of chain against the original pitch as recorded in inches of length per twenty links of chain.7 Never let the hoist chain gouge the side of the frame.3 Check load chain at inter-link points for signs of wear. Handle carefully.13. 9. 10. If the hook opening is greater than indicated in Table 6. 9. don’t throw or drop hoists. If the pitch shows an increase of 3% elongation due to either stretch or wear or a combination of both. du Pont de Nemours and Company.13. Don’t use hoist chain as sling or choker. I. 9. and (3) check housing and sheaves for any signs of damage from abusive treatment.13.5 10. Don’t overload.3 10.13. (2) check chain for wear or damage.5 Lubricate the load chain as often as use warrants.2 10. Don’t use cheaters on hoist handle. Load hook properly and inspect for open hooks. 10. it should be replaced.4 For hand chain hoists that have multiple parts of load chain reeved through a load block.2 Check top and bottom hooks. 31 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.should include (1) check hooks for any irregularities.4 10. always check to ensure that the block is not capsized causing a dangerous “twist” in the load chain.6 Rig carefully. Never try to straighten a bent hook. keep aligned with the work. LEVER-OPERATED HOISTS 10. stay within rated limit. 9. it must be replaced.

11 Link chain lever hoists may be used safely to lift or pull a load or to stretch cable or wire at any angle or in any position. Never jack against rollers.10 Inspect periodically for defects with a visual inspection prior to each use.14 If more than one cable or chain is to be handled by one hook.16 The use of roller chain hoists is not permitted.10. Never leave a jack under a load without having the load blocked up.17 The use of wire rope lever hoists incorporating a simple ratchet and pawl is not permitted for lifting. USE OF JACKS 11.2 When jacking. and strains. 10. 11.3 Care must be exercised to ensure that jacks are properly positioned and the load raised uniformly to reduce tendency of the load to shift unexpectedly. always follow with chocks as a precaution against the jack kicking.12 A lever-operated hoist under strain should not be left unattended for any lengthy period of time. 10. 11. 10. 32 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. 10. 10.1 Jacking metal against metal is not permitted – use wood softeners.13 Always stand clear of load being lifted or away from the path of a load being pulled. du Pont de Nemours and Company. 10.8 Bending hoist chain under load could cause serious damage or breakage. All rights reserved. falls. 11. use a shackle to join the cables or chains and place the shackle in the hook. Rev 06/2007 . 10. 10.15 Lever-operated hoists must have an overload limiting device or overload warning device. 10.9 Set your footing before using a hoist to avoid slips. I.

12. it is desirable to obtain matched jacks for uniform lifting.9 When using jacks in a horizontal position to move an object. du Pont de Nemours and Company.5 Jacks should be used in such a position that the direction of force is perpendicular to the base and the surface of the load to be moved.3 Loads must be properly chocked when they are to be left on rollers. 12. 12. Never place jack directly on the ground. 11.10 When using more than one ratchet-type jack for lifting.5 Material or load to be moved must be firmly bolted or lashed to the skid to prevent any shifting 33 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. Rev 06/2007 . 11.1 Rollers should not be used metal-to-metal – provide softeners. I.4 Use wood softeners under rollers when on smooth hard surfaces. 12.8 If a load is to be raised in its entirety by several jacks. All rights reserved.11. always make sure that the base is placed firmly and evenly on a good solid footing. USE OF ROLLERS 12. 11.6 Never exceed the capacity of the lift distance of the jack.7 Do not use extensions to the handles furnished with the jacks. 11.2 Avoid pinch hazards – keep fingers and feet clear of rollers. 11.4 When using jacks. the jacks should be lashed or blocked. 12. it should be braced laterally by struts to prevent all the jacks from upsetting in unison. 11.

34 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. 12. Rev 06/2007 . come-along (tug-all). All rights reserved.on the skid while it is being moved. and be spaced so that one roller is located forward of the load center of gravity and one roller located after the load center of gravity. jack.6 Force to move the load along the rollers or dollies should be applied to the skid and not the load itself. lever bar. du Pont de Nemours and Company. 12. the rollers should be moved accordingly.13 The forward end of the skid beams shall be tapered on the bottom to more easily start on the roller. restrainer lines should be used. or a maul. 12. 12.10 Force to move a skid on rollers should be applied in the direction of movement as near as practical.14 The surface on which the load is to be moved should be smooth and level as far as practical.7 Force to move the skid may be applied by a winch. 12.9 The load will be moved on rollers in a direction perpendicular to the center line of the rollers.11 To change direction of movement of the skid. timber tracks should be provided with staggered joints. I. they should be selected of sufficient capacity so that each dolly will take equal weight of the total load. When moving skid on rollers over a dirt base. 12. 12. Never drag a load over the rollers.8 When using dollies. 12. To change the direction of movement. 12. or manually with the use of lever bars. the rollers may be moved by holding one end securely with a lever bar and moving the other end in the desired direction using jacks. Long skids will require additional rollers. securely fastened to both the load and the skid or dolly.12 A minimum of three rollers must be under the skid at all times. On loads moving down a slope.

14. To avoid angular pulls use spreaders or devices which provide vertical or straight pulls. Note: Angular pulls on eyebolts should be avoided.15 Before moving a load on skids. or dollies. rollers. Consider hardness and surface of material to be lifted to assure proper gripping and bite of gripper. PLATE AND GENERAL PURPOSE GRIPS When handling flat stock such as plate. All rights reserved. grooves. Rev 06/2007 . Inspect before each use for wear and proper capacity.12. All eyebolts must have 90 percent of threads engaged and must fit tightly into holes. I. Before using eyebolts inspect for burrs. utilize only positive self-clamping and locking devices that must be intentionally unlocked. Use tag line on load and never expose any part of body under the load. or defects on the eyebolt and mating part which could affect safety. EYEBOLTS Misuse of eyebolts causes injuries and damage to equipment due to angular pulls on eyebolts. Use proper grip for use such as horizontal versus vertical lifts. the user must verify with the manufacturer’s information that this type pull is allowed and abide by the manufacturer’s recommended safe working load for the angle at which the load is applied. 13. du Pont de Nemours and Company. 35 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. Not all manufacturers allow angle loading of their equipment. the load should be thoroughly checked for stability with respect to the center of gravity of the load on its supports. If an angular pull is to be applied to an eyebolt. Seat all eyebolts firmly and squarely against mating parts. Only swivel or shouldered eyebolts may be used for rigging purposes. Avoid painting or coating of eyebolts used for lifting because they hide defects or damage. do not use unshouldered eyebolts. Eyebolt shank length must not be altered without Engineering approval.

I. Rev 06/2007 Nut must be tightened Ensure that tapped hole is deep enough . du Pont de Nemours and Company.FIGURE 4 PROPER EYEBOLT USAGE Plane of eyebolt Angular Pulls Not Recommended PLANE OF EYEBOLT ILLUSTRATED Straight Pulls Recommended Spreader Beam Recommended Pack with washers to ensure that shoulder is firmly in contact with surface Shoulder must be in full contact with surface 36 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. All rights reserved.

Forces increase with load angle and the swivel eyebolt must be sized to equal the load in the attached sling or hardware. Rev 06/2007 . A chart for rated load and thread size for swivel eyebolts is also shown below.500 /2 .000 /8 . Always use a proper torque wrench and follow manufacturer’s recommended torque values when installing swivel eyebolts.000 /8 .18 3 1. The drawing below shows a swivel eyebolt. and their ratings are usually good for any load angle.000 /4 . Swivel Eyebolts (Swivel Hoist Rings) Rated Load Thread Size (lbs) 5 800 /16 .10 Torque (ft-lbs) 7 12 28 60 100 Swivel eyebolts are available in metric thread classes.TABLE 8 SWIVEL EYEBOLTS Swivel eyebolts are designed for angular loading. All rights reserved.11 3 5.13 5 4. I.16 1 2. du Pont de Nemours and Company. 37 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.

11 or 0.69 1. du Pont de Nemours and Company. lb.50 2.12 1 1/4 1.12 1.3125 .06 1.47 0.62 1.25 1.81 0.25 2.19 1.56 1.91 1.38 2.50 1 3/4 1.50 1.75 7/8 0.250 .12 1.59 0.7 or 1.75 2 2.62 3/4 0.44 H Thread Size UNC-2A 1 /4 .50 Wx Working Load Limit.6 or 1.8 or 1.14 1 /2 .50 9 /16 0.56 2.375 .18 3 /8 .16 or 0. I.69 0.81 0.06 2.50 3.25 0.75 3.12 or 0.75 2.12 C Eye ID 0.9 1 .14 or 0.000 . 0.50 1.41 0.125 .13 9 /16 .44 1 /2 0.09 B Shank Length 1.84 2.12 3.78 0.56 1.7 1 1/2 .31 1.13 or 0.25 5 /16 0.81 1.38 0.4 1/2 or 2.625 .53 0.56 5/8 0.16 7 /16 .38 7/16 0.19 1.10 or 0.10 7 /8 .7 or 1.00 1.50 0.6 1 3/4 .88 3.75 1.59 1.88 2.44 1.250 .5 or 1.00 1.94 2.7 1 1/4 .88 0.00 3.56 0.25 1 1/2 1.44 1.88 1 1.94 0.19 1.62 0.4375 .34 1. at 0° 400 800 1400 2000 2600 3000 4000 6000 6600 8000 10000 15000 18 000 22000 26000 (All dimensions in inches) 38 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.06 1.750 .75 1.62 1.25 1.12 2.00 2. All rights reserved.06 3.20 or 0.31 0.69 1.44 2.25 2.31 3/8 0.5625 .75 1.44 0.38 1.000 .50 1.500 .12 1.875 .94 1.66 0.00 1 1/8 1.06 1.75 0.9 or 0.12 2.TABLE 9 TYPE 2 SHOULDERED FORGED STEEL EYEBOLTS Nominal Size 1/4 0.75 3.38 1.00 4.11 3 /4 .500 .25 1.62 3.12 5 /8 .00 2.5 2 .62 2.00 A Shank Dia.8 1 1/8 .18 or 0.12 1.00 3.20 5 /16 .28 0. Rev 06/2007 .00 1.31 1.750 .4.34 0.88 4.

2.1 Safety Responsibility: It is the responsibility of site management to ensure that this equipment is in serviceable condition and competently operated so as to afford safe operation at all times.1 Always work crane on firm level ground or cribbing. is shared with the craft working same. OPERATION AND USE OF CRANES 15.1. Mobile cranes used to lift personnel must be equipped with an anti-two-blocking device that renders the crane’s controls inoperable when the device is activated. Responsibility for safety in the USE of this equipment.2. 15. 2. 15.2. 39 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. du Pont de Nemours and Company. 15. All rights reserved.2 Set all outriggers on truck cranes. The work is at all times properly supervised.3 Outrigger pads should be used for all lifts and must be used for all critical lifts. Safe methods and procedures are observed in their work at all times.15. A qualified signalman is provided.5 Mobile crane equipment should be equipped with anti-two-blocking devices. Mobile Cranes 15. It will be the working craft’s responsibility to ensure that: 1.2 Rules for Safe Crane Use   15. I.4 Provide barricades and warning signs to prevent exposure of passersbys to the hazards of crane work. 15. Rev 06/2007 . however. 15.

15.8 Before lifting. Do not rely on onboard load indicating or limiting devices to provide this critical data as they are a backup tool only. Rev 06/2007 .2.2. 15. verify no one is in a position to be struck or crushed by the motion of the load as it is picked.2. du Pont de Nemours and Company. 15. Always lift with a balanced and stable load.7 Check hoist brakes before making a heavy lift by picking load and checking it close to the ground. 15.13 Keep hands out of pinch points when holding hook or slings while slack is being taken up. 15. 15.10 The capacity of the crane varies with the boom radius. All rights reserved.2.6 Check all operating controls and safety devices for proper operation and functionability. Check the boom charts in crane cab for correct boom radius and measure if in doubt. I.2.12 Check all loads for proper rigging and hitching before they are raised. (Boom radius is measured from crane center pin to center of load being lifted). 15. 15.2. Never exceed limits in the load chart and lifting notes.14 Signals a)  Only authorized personnel are to act as crane signalers b)  Make sure operator and signalers understand the signals used c)  Only one person is to give signals to the opera- 40 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.9 Know the weight of the load to be lifted.2.11 Keep the boom directly over the load when making a lift. Do not side load or allow boom to lean on or strike against other objects.2.2. 15.

15. 15. 15. 15.19 No maintenance or repair is to be permitted while a load is suspended. du Pont de Nemours and Company. • The load exceeds 75 percent of the manufactur- 41 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.2.2.15 Keep the load and all parts of the crane 15 feet (4.3  Some crane lifts are referred to as “critical” and involve exposure to additional hazards from the surroundings. All rights reserved.57m) from all electric lines. ∑ 15. he is to stop the crane and contact the supervisor immediately.2.16 Crane workers are to stay out from under boom whenever possible.18 Riding the hook or load is forbidden. Never hoist or swing loads over other workers. 15. Rev 06/2007 .tor at any time 15. These will always require additional and/or higher level of management reviews and permits before proceeding.3.1 A crane lift shall be considered a “critical lift” when any one of the following conditions exists: • The lift involves the use of a crane-suspended work platform or handling personnel by any means (such as a fall protection anchor point). 15.2. I.17 Use sufficient tag lines of adequate size and length on all loads.2.20 In cases where the operator is not satisfied the job is being performed safely.2. 15.21 The operator is not to leave the controls while a load is suspended.2. • Working with any part of a crane or load closer than 15 feet (5 meters) to an overhead electric line or critical industrial operating process. Make certain there are no knots in the tag line that could get caught or tangle during load movement.

I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Rev 06/2007 .TABLE 10 CRANE SIGNALS 42 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. All rights reserved.

) 43 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. Rev 06/2007 . I. All rights reserved. du Pont de Nemours and Company.TABLE 10 (Cont’d.

er’s recommended crane capacity. etc.5 Forklift rigging that involves the suspension of loads from forks or attachments effectively turns 44 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. du Pont de Nemours and Company.3 Modifications and the use of free rigging or attachments will affect the capacity and safe operation of the forklift. • The lift requires deviation from the manufacturer’s recommendations. 16. or attach loads. 16. I.1 Free rigging is the direct attachment to or placement of rigging equipment (slings. Written approval must be obtained from the manufacturer authorizing use and providing capacity. Caution shall be exercised when handling off-center loads.2 Attachments (jibs. Rev 06/2007 .2 All critical lifts require a critical lift form be completed (see PH84 for form) and may require a close proximity permit. Rigging with Forklifts Forklifts are designed specifically to avoid the need for co-worker assistance in front. 16. to steady. • The load must be lifted by more than one crane. 16. engage. rings. including but not limited to:  - Using a boom configuration unlike that on the boom makeup chart • - Moving a crane with a longer boom than recommended • - Exceeding the capacities or restrictions shown on the load chart 15. shackles. This type of lift does not use an approved lifting attachment and is not recommended. etc.) must be securely attached to the tines or mast of the forklift.3. as shown on the load charts for the configuration to be used.4 Only stable or safely arranged loads should be handled. All rights reserved. poles.) onto the tines of a forklift for a below-the-tines lift. 16. Any need for others to assist a forklift in handling or attaching a load greatly increases hazards. 16.

3.• The lift requires deviation from the manufacturer’s recommendations.) onto the tines of a forklift for a below-the-tines lift and does not use an approved lifting attachment.Exceeding the capacities or restrictions shown on the load chart 15. engage. The documentation shall include the capacity and weight of the attachment as well as the resulting net capacity of the forklift. Rev 06/2007 . poles.worker assistance in front. to steady.1 Free rigging is the direct attachment to or placement of rigging equipment (slings. RIGGING WITH FORKLIFTS Forklifts are designed specifically to avoid the need for co. All rights reserved. limitations of use and additional hazards the attachment creates. Any need for others to assist a forklift in handling or attaching a load greatly increases exposure to hazards. or attach loads. load handling characteristics and dynamics.Moving a crane with a longer boom than recommended . du Pont de Nemours and Company. 16. how to safely connect and disconnect the attachment from the forklift.) must be securely attached to the tines or mast of the forklift. The use of forklift attachments require specific skills that include.Using a boom configuration unlike that on the boom makeup chart .3 Attachments (jibs. I. Prior to initial use.5 Forklift rigging that involves the suspension of loads from attachments effectively turns the forklift into a crane. with all the additional requirements listed in Section 15 to be considered. 16. Free rigging shall not be used to support loads from a forklift. etc. 16. but not limited to. Caution shall be exercised when handling off-center loads. etc.2 All critical lifts require a critical lift form be completed (see PH84 for form) and may require a close proximity permit. 16. stability and safe operation of the forklift. The use of any attachment must be approved in writing by the forklift manufacturer. 16. 16. load capacity changes. Consult DuMES for assistance in situations where the forklift manufacturer’s approval to use a particular attachment can not be obtained. training is required for the operator and any assistant on each specific forklift/attachment combination. including but not limited to: . rings. 44 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E.2 Modifications to a forklift by the use of attachments will affect the capacity.4 Only stable or safely arranged loads should be handled. shackles.

du Pont de Nemours and Company. The diameter of a circle. In board measure. multiply cube of the diameter by .. 17.5 (8. 1” thick) 63 62. Rev 06/2007 . yd.) 95 (2565 lbs. HANDY THINGS TO KNOW TO FIND.1416 (approx.) 45 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. multiply the base by 1/2 the perpendicular height.) 490 (40.7854.5236. multiply the square of the diameter by . WEIGHTS OF MATERIAL MATERIAL Brick (common) Concrete Crushed Rock Lumber Mortar Sand Steel Tar/Roofing Water APPROX. all boards are assumed to be 1-inch thick. A gallon of water weighs 81/2 lbs. I. 18. Ft. Area of a lineal foot multiplied by length in feet will give the surface contents in square feet.. A cubic foot of water contains 71/2 gals.) 32 (10 lbs. WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT – LBS.3 lbs./Gal. per cu. The volume of a sphere. multiply the diameter by 3.the forklift into a crane.8 lbs. 120 (about 3 tons per 1000) 150 (4050 lbs. per cu. 1728 cubic inches and weighs 621/2 lbs. 31/7). • • • • • • • • • The circumference of a circle. A gallon of water contains 231 cubic inches. multiply the circumference by .31831. All rights reserved. yd. The area of a triangle. with all the additional requirements as listed in Section 15 to be considered./2” x 4” x 8’-0”) 100 120 (3240 lbs. yd. per cu.. The area of a circle./Sq.

Safe Hitches and Knots SQUARE KNOT A safe means of fastening together the ends of two ropes of the same diameter. knots reduce the capacity of the rope by as much as 50%. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Rev 06/2007 . CLOVE HITCH Step 1 Step 2 ROUND TURN & TWO HALF HITCHES For fastening a scaffold line to a supporting beam. I. All rights reserved.19. BOWLINE A loop which will not slip or draw tight. 46 Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. RUNNING BOWLINE Remember.

du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved.Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. I. Rev 06/2007 .

I. 6/07 .Rigging Book Copyright © 2007 E. du Pont de Nemours and Company. All rights reserved. Rev 06/2007 EN-3964 Rev.

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