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__ BX_≤ B{V Z°g{J©H$: A`_≤ bmoH$Ï`dhma:&' AmMm`© ÂhUVmV H$s. nwà À`mßMm d À`mß¿`m AÒdmÒœ`m{X Y_m©Mm ÂhUOoM naH$s` Y_m©Mm AmnÎ`m AmÀÂ`mda A‹`mg H$aVmo. "ho _mPo' Aem ‡H$maMm {_œ`mkmZ_ybH$ Ï`dhma bmoH$ Òdm^m{dH$ arVrZo H$aV Ambo AmhoV. gßH$În. gße` ho dmÒV{dH$ AßV:H$aUmMo Y_©. _r AmßYim. hr Or A{d⁄m dm AkmZ Amho Vo Xˇa Ïhmdo `mgmR>rM gd© doXm›VJ´Wß ‡d•Œm Pmbo AmhoV. "AmnU AmVm hr JmoÔ> H$Í$ `m' Ago AmnU ÂhUVmo VoÏhm "AmnU `m JmoÔ>rbm gwÈdmV H$Í$ `m' Agm "AmVm' `m e„XmMm Amaß^ Agm AW© hmoVmo VgoM "hr JmoÔ> Pmbr. _r gwßXa. ÂhUOo AmVm `m e„XmMm AmZßV`© Agm gw’m AW© hmoVmo. B¿N>m. _r Jmoam. ÂhUyZ AmMm`© ÂhUVmV H$s. qH$~h˛Zm Agm A‹`mg Ho$bm OmVmo ÂhUyZM bmoH$Ï`dhma Mmby amhVmV. `m MH´$mVyZ _w∫$s hdr Agob Va ho Oo AmÀ_{df`H$ AkmZ Amho Vo Xˇa Ïhm`bm hdo. VgoM Vmo Amaß^dmMH$ d AmZßV`©dmMH$hr. "_r _wH$m. `m A‹`mg {df`mda Oo H$mhr Amjon gß^dVmV. `m¿`m CbQ> AßV:H$aUm{XH$mßda À`m gd©gmjr AmÀÂ`mMm A‹`mg H$aVmo._r_mßgoV ÒnÔ> H$aUma AmhmoV Ago AmMm`m™Zr AmnÎ`m J´Wß m¿`m ‡ÒVmdZoV ÂhQ>bo Amho. _r H$mim.o Aem‡H$maMm hm A‹`mg ‡À`oH$m¿`m AZw^dmMm Amho. doXm‹``ZmZßVa H$_©H$mßS>m¿`m kmZmZßVa ~´˜{Okmgm gß^dV Zmhr `mMo {ddoMZ Ho$Î`mda ~´˜{Okmgondy u H$emMr Anojm Amho Vo AmMm`m™Zr ÒnÔ> Ho$bo Amho. _r Hw$Í$n' Aem‡H$mao _ZwÓ`Xohm¿`m Y_m™Mm AmÀÂ`mda A‹`mg H$aVmo. d nw›hm nw›hm X˛:I ^moJVmo. AmÀ_m `m gdm™nmgyZ A{b· Amho. AmVm hr JmoÔ> H$Í$ `m' Ago ÂhUVmo VoÏhm VoWo H´$_ A{^‡oV AgVmo. Am{U ZmZm B¿N>m nyU© H$Í$Z Ko `mgmR>r O›_-_•À`y¿`m MH´$mV AS>H$Vmo. À`mßMmhr _ZwÓ` AmÀÂ`mda Amamon H$aVmo. Ah_≤ BX_≤. Va Vmo na~´˜ÒdÍ$n Amho.o À`m_wio ho Xmo›hr e„X Òd^mdV:M _ßJbH$maH$ AmhoV Aem AWm©Mr Ò_•{V Amho.naÒna{damoYr JmoÔ>tMm EH$_oH$mßda Amamon gß^dV Zmhr. B¿N>m Pmbr H$s Vr dÒVy {_i{d `m¿`m H•$Vrbm ‡maß^ hmoVmo. Iao d ImoQ>o `mßMo ~o_mby_ {_lU H$Í$Z. {ZÌM`. nÀZr ÒdÒW Agbo ÂhUOo _ZwÓ` AmnU ÒdÒW AmhmoV Ago _mZVmo d Vo AÒdÒW Agbo H$s Vmo ÒdV:bm AÒdÒW _mZVmo. gwI-X˛:I. "AmÀ_m ÂhUOo _Z Amho'. A{ZÀ` H$m` `m{df`r {ddo H $. "ho _r'. dmÒV{dH$ ho Y_© earamMo AmhoV. VgoM Amaß^ hm AW© gw’m KoVm `oV Zmhr. À`m_wio AmMm`m™¿`m _Vo `oWo "AW' e„X AmZßV`©dmMH$ Amho. Aem‡H$mao _ZwÓ` AmnÎ`mhˇZ X˛gao Oo Ûr. ÒdV:Mm nwÃ. AmMm`© ÂhUVmV H$s. _J gyÃH$mamßZr `oWo "AW' hm e„X H$moUÀ`m AWm©Zo dmnabm Agmdm? AmMm`m™¿`m _Vo `oWo AW e„XmMm _ßJb `m AWm©Mm dmä`mV A›d` hmoV ZgÎ`m_wio _ßJb Agm AWm© KoVm `oV Zmhr. õH$ma¸mWe„X¸ ¤mdoVm° ~´˜U: nwam & H$ R>ß {^Œdm {d{Z`m©Vm° VÒ_mÀ_mL≤>J{bH$mdw^m° && õH$ma d AW ho XmoZ e„X ~´˜Xodm¿`m Hß$R>mVyZ ‡W_M ~mhoa nS>b. {H$Vr ‡H$mamßZr _ZwÓ` Aem ‡H$maMm A‹`mg H$aVmo Vohr AmMm`m™Zr ÒnÔ> Ho$bo Amho. gßÒH•$V_‹`o AW hm e„X _ßJbdmMH$ Amho. "_r b«>. _ZwÓ` gßgmamV JwVß V OmVmo. AmÀ_VŒd d OS>gÔ• >r `m XmoZhr JmoÔ>r nyUV© : {^fi AgVmZmhr Vmo ^oX AkmZmZo H$iyZ `oV Zmhr. J´Wß maß^r ^JdßVmMo _ßJbmMaU H$amdo Agm {eÔ>g‡ß Xm` Amho. ^mo∫$m gw’m Zmhr. _r ~marH$. "AÀ`›V{d{d∫$`mo: Y_©Y{_©Umo: {_œ`mkmZ{Z{_Œm: gÀ`mZ•Vo {_WwZrH•$À`. _r ~{ham' Aem Bß{–`mß¿`m Y_m©Mm _ZwÓ` AmÀÂ`mda Amamon H$aVmo. qH$dm "_Z ÂhUOo AmÀ_m Amho' ho ÂhUUo gß^dV Zmhr. AmÀ_m hm H$Vm© Zmhr. {ZÀ` H$m`. O›_-_•À`y ho gd© Y_© XohmMo AmhoV. "~´˜kmZm¿`m B¿N>Mo m Amaß^' Ago ÂhUUo `moΩ` Zmhr. AkmZmZo ^oX H$iyZ `oV ZgÎ`m_wio naÒnamßda naÒnamß¿`m ÒdÍ$nmMm d Y_m™Mm Amamon (A‹`mg) H$Í$Z. ho AmÀ_°ä`mMo kmZ bmoH$mßZm ‡m· Ïhmdo. "AW' hm e„X A›` AWu `moOZy `m e„Xm¿`m ldUmZo _ßJb ‡`moOZ {g’ hmoV. AmÀÂ`mda ~w’r dJ°aM | m Amamon Ho$Î`m_wio nwÈfmbm H$V©À• d ‡m· hmoVo d ~w’r dJ°ad| a AmÀÂ`mMm A‹`mg Ho$Î`m_wio M°V›` ‡m· hmoV. _J H$emZßVa ~´˜{Okmgm H$am`Mr Agm ‡ÌZ C^m amhVmo. Eo { hH$ d nmabm° { H$H$ ^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ 45 . AßVH$aUm¿`m Y_m™‡_mUoM AßV:H$aUmMm gw’m AmÀÂ`mda Amamon H$aVmo. H$maU B¿N>Mo m Amaß^ hmoV ZgyZ. EH$m JmoÔ>rZßVa X˛gar JmoÔ>.o nU gyÃmWm©V _mà _ßJb hm AW© KoVm `oV Zmhr. À`mßMho r À`mßZr IßS>Z Ho$bo Amho MVw:gyÃrVrb n{hbo gyà Amho "AWmVmo ~´˜{Okmgm &&1&& (AW AV: ~´˜{Okmgm) "AmVm ÂhUyZ ~´˜{Okmgm' Agm `m gyÃmMm AW© {XgyZ `oVmo. hr JmoÔ> AmnU `m ~´˜gyÃmdarb emaraH$. AmÀÂ`mMo ZmhrV. VoÏhm gyÃH$mamßZr "AW' hm e„X _ßJbmMaUmgmR>r dmnabm Amho H$s AmUIr X˛gË`m H$moUÀ`m hoVZy o dmnabm Agmdm À`mMr AmMm`m™Zr MMm© Ho$br Amho.

`oWo AmÀ_mZmÀ_{ddoH$. Ord.o À`m_wio gmYZMVwÔ>` hoM ~´˜{Okmgobm H$maUr^yV Amho Ago "AV:' e„XmZo gmß{JVbo Amho. Aem‡H$mao gyÃmVrb "AW' e„XmZo ~´˜{OkmgoMm A{YH$mar H$moU Vo gyÃH$mamßZr gwMdbo Amho. Or JmoÔ> Ï`dhmamV VrM na_mWm©V. H$maU nwT>¿`m gyÃmV "~´˜' ÂhUOo OJmMr CÀnŒmr ¡`mnmgyZ hmoVo Vo "~´˜' Ago gmß{JVbo Amho. ~m°’m_‹`o H$mhr j{UH$ {dkmZmbm AmÀ_m _mZVmV Va H$mhr ey›`mbmM ^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ . H$maU gm_m›` bmoH$ d Mmdm©H$ {dMmagaUrMo bmoH$ ÂhUVmV H$s Xoh hmM AmÀ_m Amho.o Ago AmMm`m™Zr ÒnÔ> Ho$bo Amho. Z eof'o `oWo ~´˜U: hr ~´˜Z≤ e„XmMr Or fr {d^∫$s Amho Vr H$_©~moYH$ Amho. gyÃmVrb X˛gË`m "AV:' `m e„XmZo da gmß{JVbobo gmYZMVwÔ>`M ~´˜{Okmgobm H$maUr^yV hmoV. H$maU na_mW© ho AZw^d `mMo emÛ Amho. gd©e∫$sZo `w∫$ Amho Ago doXdMZmßdÍ$Z H$iVo.\$b^moJmß{df`r {VaÒH$ma. "V⁄Woh H$_©{MV: bmoH$: jr`Vo Ed_≤ Ed A_wà nw `{MV: bmoH$: jr`Vo' Ago N>mXß moΩ` Cn{ZfXmV ÂhQ>bo Amho.eßH$m Aer Amho H$s ~´˜ ‡{g’ Amho H$s A‡{g’? ÂhUOoM kmV Amho H$s AkmV Amho? ‡ÌZ Agm CnpÒWV Ho$bm Amho H$s H$moUVohr CŒma {Xbo Var ~´˜{Okmgm H$a `mMo H$maU ahmV Zmhr. ~w’. d Or JmoÔ> AkmV AgVo {VMr B¿N>m H$aVmM `oV Zmhr. ZwgVrM ~´˜mMr _m{hVr H$Í$Z ø`m`Mr Zmhr Va À`mMm gmjmÀH$ma H$Í$Z ø`m`Mm Amho. "BhbmoH$s H$_m©Zo ‡m· Ho$bobo \$b Ogo j` nmdVo VgoM nabmoH$s nw `mZo gßnmXZ Ho$bobo \$bhr Zme nmdVo' Ago ÂhQ>bo Amho. eßH$m. _mPm hmV qH$dm _mPm _wbJm dJ°a. Eo{hH$ d nmabm°{H$H$ \$bm{df`r A{Z¿N>m. hr {V›hr _Vo doX~m¯ AmhoV. nU Varhr Vo OmUyZ Ko `mMr B¿N>m AgVo H$maU "AmÀ_m ÂhUOo ~´˜' ho ~´˜mMo gm_m›` ÒdÍ$n _mhrV Agbo Var À`m¿`m {deof ÒdÍ$nm{df`r _V^oX AmhoV. A‡{g’ Amho Ago ÂhUVm `oV Zmhr. {ZamH$ma dJ°ao _m{hVr H$iVo. JmS>r Mmb{d `mMm nadmZm ¡`mZo ‡m· Ho$bm Amho VmoM _ZwÓ` JmS>r Mmbd `mg nmà AgVmo.o AmMm`© ÂhUVmV H$s. CXm. À`m_wio ~´˜ ‡{g’ AmhoM. À`mAWu AmÀÂ`mIoarO gd© dÒVy A{ZÀ` AmhoV Agm {ZÌM` hmoVmo d À`m gd© dÒVy{df`r d°amΩ` ‡m· hmoV. ÂhUOo ~´˜kmZ hmoD$ eHo$b. ~´m˜U OmVrVrb EH$ _ZwÓ`. ZmVog~ß Yß ho f>rZo XmIdVmV. _mPo nwÒVH$. VgoM Vo {ZÀ`. H$maU ‡À`oH$mbm "_r Amho' Ago AmÀÂ`m¿`m ApÒVÀdmMo kmZ hmoVM AgVo. `mda AmMm`© CŒma XoVmV H$s ~´˜ ho ‡{g’M Amho. Ad`d-Ad`dr. Cn{ZfX≤ dmä`mßdÍ$Z ~´˜kmZ hmoV. ew’. `m H$maUmÒVd Ago AW© AmhoV. 12 dr nmg Pmbobm _wbJm _o{S>H$b [Hß$dm Bß{O{ZAaMr nXdr ‡m· H$Í$Z Ko `mg A{YH$mar R>aVmo. nwT>o AmMm`m™Zr EH$m eßH$o Mo IßS>Z H$Í$Z ho "{Okmgm ‡H$aU' gßndbo Amho. À`mMm Vgm ‡À`j AZw^d ø`mdm bmJVmo. H$mhr Bß{–`mßZm AmÀ_m _mZVmV Va H$mhr _Zmbm AmÀ_m _mZVmV. {Okmgm ho km = OmUUo `m YmVy¿`m B¿N>mW©H$mnmgyZ ~Zbobo Zm_ Amho. CXm. e_X_m{X gX≤JUw d _w_j w Àd ¡`m¿`mH$S>o Amho VmoM ~´˜{Okmgobm bm`H$ Amho. `mVrb ~´˜ `m e„XmMo AZoH$ AW© AmhoV. À`mMm AZw^d d°`{∫$H$ nmVirda À`m À`m Ï`∫$s¿`m A{YH$mamZwÍ$n H$_r-OmÒV `oUma Amho. "AV:' `m gßÒH•$V e„XmMm ÂhUyZ. ~´˜ hm gdm™Mm AmÀ_m AgÎ`m_wio À`mMo ApÒVÀdhr ‡{g’ Amho. `oWo "~´˜U: B{V H$_©{U f>r. H$maU Vo OmUyZ Ko `mMr B¿N>m hmoV. _w∫$. ÂhUOo `oWo "~´˜' hm e„X OmUUo `m e„XmMo H$_© Amho. gyÃmVrb {Vgam e„X Amho ~´˜{Okmgm. Ago AmMm`m™Zr ÒnÔ> Ho$bo Amho. H$m` OmUyZ ø`m`Mo Amho Va ~´˜ OmUyZ ø`m`Mo Amho. gd©k. doXmZo "A`_≤ AmÀ_m ~´˜' Ago ÂhQ>bo Amho.MVwÔ>`mZßVa ~´˜mMr {Okmgm H$amdr' Agm n{hÎ`m gyÃmMm AW© AmMm`m™Zr ÒnÔ> Ho$bm. (Practical) VoÏhm Cn{ZfXmVrb ~´˜m{df`r _m{hVr EoH$Î`mda ~´˜gmjmÀH$ma hm nwÈfmW© ‡m· H$amdm.gß~Y. `oWn`™V "gmYZ. Ï`dhmamVhr EImXr JmoÔ> ‡m· H$a `mg R>am{dH$ A{YH$mamMr Anojm AgVo. _mbH$-_mbH$s gß~ßY.o "gÀ`ß kmZ_Z›Vß ~´˜' Aer lwVr (doXdmä`) Amho. AmMm`© ÂhUVmV H$s darb H$moUÀ`mhr AWm©Zo ~´˜ e„X dmnabobm Zmhr. À`mMm AW© Amho OmU `mMr B¿N>m. ~´˜mMo kmZ doJio d gmjmÀH$ma doJim. À`m_wio gd© OJmMo H$maU AgUmao ~´˜M `oWo "~´˜' `m e„XmZo {dd{jV Amho. doX. ¡`m_wio AV: e„X gw’m `oWo hoV~w moYH$M Amho. ÂhUOoM Theory H$iVo. e_X_m{X gmYZmßMr ‡m·r d _mojmMr B¿N>m `m Mma JmoÔ>r ‡m· PmÎ`m AgVrb Va ~´˜{Okmgm H$amdr. kmV Amho CŒma {Xbo Va Or JmoÔ> kmV Amho {VMr B¿N>m H$a `mMo H$maU ahmV Zmhr. ~´˜Xod BÀ`mXr AZoH$ AW© AgVm hm e„X H$moUÀ`m AWm©Zo dmnabm Amho Agm ‡ÌZ {Z_m©U hmoVmo. X˛gam gy`© AWdm Mß– ZmhrM Va "_r Vmo n•œdrdÍ$Z nmhrZ' Aer B¿N>m H$aUo Ï`W©M AgVo. gßÒH•$V 46 dmä`aMZoV H$maH${d^∫$s®IoarO gd© e„XmßMr f>r {d^∫$s `moOVmV.o ÂhUOo ~´˜ {ZJwU© . `m ~´˜ gmjmÀH$mamZo gH$b gßgmamMo ~rO Or A{d⁄m (AkmZ) {VMm d {V¿`m_wio AZWm©Mm Zme hmoVmo. À`m_wio "~´˜{Okmgm' e„XmMm ~´˜ OmUyZ Ko `mMr B¿N>m Agm hmoVmo. "~´˜{Okmgm' hm ~´˜mMr B¿N>m Agm f>r VÀnwÈf g_mg hmoVmo.

AmÀ_m _mZVmV. Z°`m{`H$ d _r_mßgH$ ÂhUVmV H$s, Xohm{XH$mhˇ>Z
{^fi AgUmam AmÀ_m hm gßgmar, H$Vm© d ^mo∫$m Amho. Va H${nbmßMo
gmߪ`emÛ _mZUmao bmoH$ ÂhUVmV H$s AmÀ_m hm Ho$di ^mo∫$m
Amho, H$Vm© Zmhr. `moJr ÂhUVmV H$s, ^moäÀ`mhˇZ {Zamim, gd©k
d gd©e{∫$_mZ B©Ìda Amho Ago ÂhUVmV Va doXm›Vr ÂhUVmV
H$s, Vmo B©Ìda ÂhUOo ^moäÀ`m OrdmMo AmÀ_ÒdÍ$n Amho. Agm
"_Vm_VmßMm Jb~bm' Pmbobm Amho. nw›hm ‡À`oH$ OU ÒdV:¿`m
_V g_W©ZmW© doXmH$S>M
o ~moQ> XmIdVmo. Aem pÒWVrV EImXm
_ZwÓ` Oa {dMma Z H$aVm EIm⁄m njmMm ÒdrH$ma H$aob Va Vmo
_mojÍ$nr \$imbm _wH$o b. BVHo$M Zmhr Va AmÀÂ`mbm {dnarV
ÒdÍ$nmZo OmUÎ`mg ‡mUr gßgmaÍ$nr AßYHy$nmV nS>b
o . "A›Yß
V_: ‡{dep›V, Agy`m© Zm_ Vo bmoH$m...' BÀ`m{X lw{VdMZoM `mbm
‡_mU AmhoV. ÂhUyZ _ZwÓ`mbm _w∫$ Ïhmdo Ago dmQ>V Agob Va
À`mbm Iam AmÀ_m H$moU d À`mMo kmZ H$go hmoVo Vo g_Obo nm{hOo.
Ago gmßJZy AmMm`m™Zr "{Okmgm- A{YH$aU' gßndbo Amho.
n{hÎ`m gyÃmV ~´˜ OmUmdo Ago gmß{JVÎ`mda À`m ~´˜mMo
ÒdÍ$n H$go Agmdo Aer AmH$mßjm {Z_m©U hmoV.o ÂhUyZ ~´˜mMo
ÒdÍ$n gmßJUmao X˛gao gyà Amho, "O›_m⁄Ò` `V:' `m OJmMo
CÀnŒmr, pÒWVr d Zme ¡`m¿`mnmgyZ, ¡`m¿`m_wio d ¡`m_‹`o
hmoVmV Vo ~´˜ Ago `m gyÃmV ~´˜mMo ÒdÍ$n gmß{JVbo Amho, Ago
AmMm`m™Zr AmnÎ`m ^mÓ`mV ÒnÔ> Ho$bo Amho.
O›_m⁄Ò` `V: = O›_m{X + AÒ` + `V: Ago VrZ e„X
`m gyÃmV AmhoV. À`mV O›_m{X hm VX≤JUw gß{dkmZ ~h˛dr´ {h g_mg
Amho. {dJ´h Amho O›_ (CÀn{Œm:) Am{X: AÒ` B{V & O›_ ÂhUOo
CÀnŒmr ¡`m¿`m Am[X gwÈdmVrbm Amho Vmo O›_m{X. ÂhUyZ O›_m{X
e„XmZo CÀnŒmr, pÒWVr d Zme `m {V›htMm ~moY hmoVmo. `oWo O›_=
CÀnŒmrMm ‡W_ {ZX}e Ho$bm Vo dÒVwpÒWVrbm YÍ$ZM Amho. ‡W_
CÀnŒmr, _J pÒWVr d ZßVa Zme hm H´$_ gdm™¿`m AZw^dmMm Amho
d V°Œmar` Cn{ZfXmV gw’m AgoM ÂhQ>bo Amho H$s "`Vmo dm B_m{Z
^yVm{Z Om`›Vo'. CÀnŒmr, pÒWVr d Zme H$moUmMo Vo "AÒ`' `m
nXmZo gmß{JVbo Amho. AÒ` = ¯mMo. ¯mMo `m e„XmZo OJÍ$nr
dÒVyMm {ZX}e Ho$bm Amho. `V: hm e„X H$maU~moYH$ Amho. `V:=
¡`mnmgyZ. À`m_wio gyÃmMm AW© Agm hmoVmo (`V:) ¡`mnmgyZ
(AÒ`) OJmMr CÀnŒmr, ¡`m¿`m_wio pÒWVr d ¡`m_‹`o b` hmoVmo
Vo ~´˜ Amho.
~´˜{Okmgm H$amdr ÂhQ>Î`mda `m gyÃmV ~´˜mMo ÒdÍ$n
gmß{JVbo. `mÒH$mßZr Oo nXmWm©Mo O›_, ApÒVŒd, n[aUm_, d•’r,
Anj` d {dZme ho ghm {dH$ma gmß{JVbo À`mßMm AßV^m©d CÀnŒmr,

pÒWVr d b` {VKmVM hmoVmo ho ÒnÔ> Ho$Î`mZßVa AmMm`m™Zr gyÃmV
Oo OJmMo H$maU ~´˜ Amho Ago ÂhQ>bo Amho Vo H$moUÀ`m ‡_mUm¿`m
AmYmao ÂhQ>bo Amho À`mMr MMm© Ho$br Amho. AmMm`© ÂhUVmV
H$s, hr JmoÔ> `m gyÃmV AZw_mZmZo gmß{JVbr Zmhr Va gyÃH$mamßZr ho
bjU lwVrbm AZwgÍ$Z Ho$bo Amho. H$maU doXm›Vdmä`Í$nr nwÓno
EH$Ã Jw\ß $Uo hmM _wimV gyÃmßMm C‘oe Amho. V°{Œmar` Cn{ZfXmV
gmß{JVbo Amho H$s ^•JZßy m À`mßMo dS>rb dÈU `mßZr CnXoe Ho$bm
H$s ¡`m¿`mnmgyZ hr gd© ^yVo CÀnfi hmoVmV, ¡`m¿`m `moJmZo Vo
{OdßV amhVmV d {dZmeg_`r ¡`m¿`mV brZ hmoVmV Vo ~´˜.
À`mM Cn{ZfXmV nwT>o ÂhQ>bo Amho H$s AmZßXmnmgyZ hr gd© ^yVo
CÀnfi hmoVmV. CÀnfi Pmbobr ^yVo AmZßXmZoM {OdßV amhVmV d
‡b`g_`r AmZßXmV brZ hmoVmV. Aem‡H$mao ~´˜ ho e„X
‡_mUmZoM H$iVo. Vo Bß{–`‡À`j ZgÎ`m_wio AZw_mZmZohr H$iUma
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gyÃmdarb AmMm`m™¿`m ^mÓ`mMm Agm ^mdmW© Amho.
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emÛmßMo `mo{ZÀd ÂhUOo H$maUÀd AgÎ`m_wio Vo gd©k Amho.
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gyÃmV ~´˜mMo bjU gmß{JVbo H$s OmUm`Mo ~´˜ H$moUVo Va OJmMr
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AmYrM OmUV AgVmo d Vmo VgVem AmH$mamMo KQ> ~ZdVmo. MoVZ
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47

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{deofU `moObo Amho. gd©kH$În = Odi Odi gd©k. H$maU
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Vo AmMm`m™Zr {VgË`m gyÃmZo {g’ H$Í$Z XmIdbo.
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hmoVo.
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- gm°. _Zrfm ^mÒH$a A‰`ßH$a
"am_-OmZH$s'- ^moH$ao H$m∞bZr, MßXZdmS>r,
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w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$

49

À`mV AYyZ_YyZ {eÓ`mMo H$mhr ‡ÌZ `oVmV Am{U JwÍ$Zo À`m ‡ÌZmßZm {Xbobr CŒmao `oVmV. {Vgar (kmZ^y{_H$m) hr VZw_mZgr (ho Zmd AgUmar) Amho. `oWo ^y{_H$m ÂhUOo _ZmMr {d{eÔ>> AdÒWm hm da gmß{JVbobm AW© bjmV Agmdm. ""Ord›_w∫$Ò` ^JdZ≤ AZw^Vy ¸ o bjU_≤& {dXoh_w∫$Ò` M _o H•$n`m ~´{y h VŒdV:&&'' (937) ""ho ^JdmZ≤ Jwamo. (~´˜mMm) AZw^d Am{U {dXoh_w∫$ `mßMo ÒdÍ$n _bm H•$n`m gmßJm' `m {dYmZmda CŒma XoVmZm _w_j w w ¡`m Q>flfl`mßVZy OmV OmV eodQ>r Ord›_w∫$ hmoVmo. nwT>o kmZ^y{_H$m `m e„XmEodOr JwÍ$ "kmZ^y_r' (˚cmoH$ 939). JwÍ$Zo dmnaboÎ`m `m e„XmßdÍ$Z EH$ bjmV `oVo H$s. EH$ hOma ghmeo ÌbmoH$ AgUmam À`mßMm gd© doXmßV-{g’mßV-gmagßJh´ Ago Zmd AgUmam EH$ J´Wß Amho. Am⁄ eßH$amMm`m™Zr AmnÎ`m Ho$dbm¤°VdoXmßV _ZmMo ÒnÔ>rH$aU H$a `mg H$mhr Cn{ZfXo. "pÒWVr' nmR>^oXmZo "JVr' (˚cmoH$ 948) Am{U "AdÒWm' (˚cmoH$ 958) Agohr e„X dmnaVmo.Amn{Œm Ago Zmd AgUmar) Amho. ^mfmßVa d ÒnÔ>rH$aU (1) d˙`o Vw‰`ß kmZ-^y{_H$m`m bjU_m{XV: & kmVo `pÒ_®ÒÀd`m gd™ kmVß Ò`mV≤ n•Ô>_⁄ `V≤ &&1&& (Aao [eÓ`m) AmVm (A⁄) _r Vwbm ‡W_nmgyZ (Am{XV:) kmZm¿`m ^y{_H$mßMo bjU / ÒdÍ$n gmßJZo . `m J´Wß mV Ho$dbm¤°V d doXmßVmMo {ddoMZ Odi-Odi gßnUy © PmÎ`mda. dm. À`mß¿`m ‡H$aU J´Wß mß_‹`o EH$m ÌbmoH$mnmgyZ EH$ hOma ÌbmoH$mßnj o m A{YH$ ÌbmoH$ AgUmao J´Wß AmhoV. Ago ÂhQ>bo Amho . À`mZßVa Agßg{∫$ ho Zmd AgUmar (nmMdr kmZ^y{_H$m) Amho. EH$. kmZm¿`m EHß$Xa gmV ^y{_H$m AmhoV. À`mZßVa eßH$amMm`© H´$_mZo ‡À`oH$ ^y{_Ho$Mo ÒdÍ$n gß{j·nUo gmßJVmV. VWm{n BVa _w_j w w bmoH$mßZm Cn`moJ Ïhmdm `m —Ô>rZo {eÓ` JwÍ$bm ÂhUVmo. ho bjmV Agmdo. "Xem' (˚cmoH$ 945).o eodQ>Mr kmZ-^y{_H$m hr Ord›_w∫$mMr pÒWVr AWdm AdÒWm Amho. AmVm `mnwT>rb ˚cmoH$ 2-3 _‹`o `m gmV ^y{_H$mßMo n[aJUZ Am{U À`mßMr Zmdo {Xbobr AmhoV.gd©dXo mßV{g’mßV gmagßJh´ kmZm¿`m gmV ^y{_H$m ‡m. S>m.A^mdZm Ago Zmd AgUmar) ghmdr (kmZ^y{_H$m) Amho. Am{U À`mßMo ÒnÔ>rH$aU {Xbo Amho. (2)-(3) kmZ-^y{_: ew^¿o N>m Ò`mV≤ ‡W_m g_wXr[aVm & [dMmaUm {¤Vr`m Vw V•Vr`m VZw_mZgr &&2&& gŒdmn{Œm¸VwWu Ò`mV≤ VVmo@gßg{∫$Zm{_H$m & nXmWm©^mdZmf>r g·_r Vw`J© m Ò_•Vm &&3&& ew^¿o N>m hr n{hbr kmZ^y_r & kmZ^y{_H$m Amho. _w~ß B© d {edmOr {d⁄mnrR>mV nXÏ`wŒma dJm©g gßÒH•$V d AY©_mJYr {df`mßMo A‹`mnZ. Vo Q>flno JwÍ$ H$WZ H$aVmo d À`mßZm Vmo kmZ^y{_H$m (˚cmoH$ 938) Ago ÂhUVmo. "^y{_H$m' (˚cmoH$ 946-948). kmZ^y{_H$m : gß{hVm.∞ Ho$. `m Ï`{V[a∫$ AZoH$ J´W ß ‡H$m{eV. Vo gd© Vwbm g_OyZ `oBb © (1). AmVm `mnwT>o `m kmZ^y{_H$m _mßS>Umao _yi ˚cmoH$.XmoZ Ago AZwH$´ _mßH$ {Xbo AmhoV. VgoM À`mgmR>r À`mßZr AZoH$ bhmZ_moR>o ‡H$aU J´Wß hr aMbo. (2) Mm°Wr (kmZ^y{_H$m) hr gŒdmn{Œm (= gŒd. (ZßVa) nXmWm©^mdZm (=nXmW©. Vgo H$aVmZm _yi J´Wß mVrb ˚cmoH$mßMo H´$_mßH$ Z XoVm. {eÓ` hm {ZÀ`mZßX AmÀ_ÒdÍ$n hmoVmo (˚cmoH$ 930) ÂhUOo Vmo Ord›_w∫$ hmoVmo Ago `m J´Wß mV gmß{JVbo Amho. {dMmaUm hr X˛ g ar (kmZ^y { _H$m) Amho . À`mß¿`m EHy$U J´Wß mßMr gߪ`m XmoZeon`™V Amho Ago ÂhUVmV. Am{U gmVdr ^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ 51 . ^JdX≤JrVm. gX≤JÍw $ß ¿`m H•$noZo Am{U {eÓ`m¿`m ‡`ÀZmZo {eÓ` ~´˜ÒdÍ$n hmoVmo. ~´˜gyÃ. À`mßMo AW©. Ord›_w∫$. ~´˜gyÃo Am{U ^JdX≤JrVm `mßda ^mÓ`o {b{hbr. AmnQ>o {edmOr {d⁄mnrR>mV E_≤{\$b d nrEMS>r gmR>r _mJ©Xe©H$. AmÀ_gmjmÀH$ma hmo `mnydu Am{U PmÎ`mZßVa _w_j w M y r Or _mZ{gH$ pÒWVr AWdm AdÒWm AgVo Vr kmZ^y{_H$m `m e„XmZo A{^‡oV hmoV. hm J´Wß EH$ ~´˜gmjmÀH$mar JwÍ$ Am{U EH$ _w_j w w {eÓ` `mß¿`m gßdmXm¿`m Mm°H$Q>rV ~g[dbobm Amho. Vo H$iyZ AmÎ`mda Vy Oo AmVm _bm {dMmabo Amhog. eßH$amMm`m™Mo J´W ß BÀ`m{X AZoH$ {df`mßda 50 {Z`VH$m{bH$mßVZ y boIZ. (˚cmoH$ 927). Cn{ZfXo.

^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ . gÇmZmßMr gßJVr.‡m·rMr B¿N>m hr H$Î`mUH$maH$ AgÎ`mZo Vr MmßJbr ew^ B¿N>m Amho. Vw`J© m ÂhUOo Vw`m© ÂhUOo Mm°Wr. emÛmMo A‹``Z gmoS>yZ Z XoU.A‰`mg Am{U d°amΩ`. À`mßMm CnXoe EoH$bm.nydH© $_≤ & gXmMma.Vw`J© m (ZmdmMr kmZ^y{_H$m) Amho.. VZw_mZgr ÂhUOo _ZmMr {df`mßnmgyZMr {Zd•{Œm. ‰`mg' Agm ¤ß¤ g_mg Amho. À`m_wio dmB©Q> {dMma Am{U AmMma Wmß~bo. VoÏhm AmVm _r À`mß¿`m ÂhU `mMm {dMma H$Í$Z AmÀ_kmZ {_idrZ. ~mH$s gd© A{ZÀ` Amho. gÇmZ. A‰`mg ÂhUOo EH$M JmoÔ> nwZ: nwZ: H$aUo. {dMmaUm ÂhUOo {dMma AWdm qMVZ. nXmWm©^mdZm ÂhUOo ~m¯ VgoM AmßVa {df`m{df`r {dMmamßMm AWdm ^mdZmßMm A^md. À`mbm {df`mßVZy namd•Œm H$Í$Z d°amΩ` H$m`_ {Q>H$dyZ Yamd`mg hdo. `m ‡À`oH$ ^y{_Ho$Mo Oo Vmß{ÃH$ AW© AmhoV.'' Aer B¿N>m hmoUo hrM ew^¿o N>m Amho.gÇmZ°: & d°amΩ`-nyd{© _¿N>{o V ew^¿o N>m Mmo¿`Vo ~wY:° &&4&& (AmÀ_kmZm¿`m gßX^m©V H$mhrhr Z H$aVm) _r ÒdÒW am{hbmo Amho (pÒWV). Agm AW© Ko `mV H$mhr Am°{MÀ` {XgV Zmhr.A‰`mg Agm AW© hmoBb © . `m ˚cmoH$mVrb "‡o˙`mo@hß emÛgÇmZ°:' ÂhUOo "emÛ Am{U gÇmZ' bmoH$ `mßMr —Ô>r _m¬`mda Amho. gŒdmn{Œm ÂhUOo _ZmV gŒd JwUmMm ‡H$f©.gßnH©$. gXmMmamH$S>o Pmbobr hr ‡d•{Œm ÂhUOoM {dMmaUm hmo`.d°amΩ`m‰`mg. ew^¿o N>m ÂhUOo MmßJbr B¿N>m. AmVm {VH$S>o bj Z XoUmam _mUyg ÂhUob ""_r _yI© _mUyg ÒdÒW H$m` ~gbmo Amho? À`mMo ÂhU `mMm _r {dMma H$amd`mg hdm. (VoÏhm _r H$m`) _yIM© Amho? emÛ Am{U gÇmZ `mß¿`m ¤mam _r (AmVm) {dMma H$amd`mg hdm. AmÀ_kmZ. À`mß¿`m ^moJmZo gVVMo gwI {_iUma Zmhr. gXmMma ÂhUOo MmßJbm AmMma hm AW© Va AmhoM. À`m_wio d°amΩ` `oVo. _J Agm AW© hmoBb © :emÛmMo A‹``Z. À`mßMm A‰`mg Ho$bm.gßnH©$. À`mgmR>r {ZÀ`m{ZÀ` dÒVw{ddoH$ Amho._Z ho MßMb Amho. gßjno mZo gmßJm`Mo PmÎ`mg "^moJ¿o N>m' gmoS>yZ "_moj¿o N>m' ~miJUo hr ew^¿o N>m Amho.. AmÀ_kmZ / ~´˜kmZ PmÎ`mg gXm AgUmam Agm AÀ`mZßX ‡m· hmoVmo. `m ˚cmo H $mV {ZX} { ebo Î `m kmZ^y { _H$mß ¿ `m ZmdmZo gd©gmYmaU ÒnÔ>rH$aU nwT>rb‡_mUo XoVm `oBb © .o gÇmZmß¿`m gßJVrV nwZ: nwZ: amhmUo. Ago gmß{JVbobo Amho (3). nwZ nwZ: H$aUo. emÛ d gmYwgVß gmßJVmV H$s gßgmamVrb X˛:ImVyZ gwQ>H$m Ïhmdr Ago dmQ>V Agob Va AmÀ_kmZ H$Í$Z ø`md`mg hdo. d°amΩ` Am{U A‰`mg `mß¿`mZßVa gXmMmamH$S>o Or ‡d•{Œm hmoVo {Vbm {dMmaUm Ago ÂhQ>bo OmVo. Xmo›hr {R>H$mUr H$_m™Mo \$i `m ÒdÍ$nmV ^moJ {_iVmV. d°amΩ`mMm A‰`mg ÂhUOo Ago:. "gXmZßX' XoUmao AmÀ_kmZ _r À`mß¿`mH$Sy>Z ‡m· H$Í$Z ø`md`mg hdo. Vo AYyZ_YyZ {df`mßH$S>o Ymdob. ho nQ>Î`mda À`m ^moJmß¿`m B¿N>Mo m A^md hmoVmo. hm {Z`_ bjmV KoVbm Va emÛm‰`mg. _mUgm¿`m Ï`mdhm[aH$ X°Z{ß XZ OrdZmV Zoh_r `oUmË`m OmJ•Vr. nU Vo gd© A{ZÀ` AmhoV. ¤ß¤ g_mgmMo AßVr AgUmam e„X À`m ¤ß¤ g_mgmV nydu AmboÎ`m ‡À`oH$ nXmbm OmoS>yZ ø`md`mMm AgVmo.o À`mZßVa gßV-gÇmZmßMr gßJVr Ho$br. "MßMbß {h _Z: H•$ÓU' (6-34). JrVm gmßJVo.{df`r Oo H$mhr gmßJVmV {VH$S>o _mUgmMo bj OmUma.gÇmZ. ÒdflZ Am{U gwf{w · `m VrZ AdÒWmß¿`m n{bH$S>o AgUmar Mm°Wr AdÒWm ÂhUOo Vw`m©. g{X¿N>m. `m gdm™Mm n[anmH$ ÂhUyZ _mUgmMr gXmMmamH$S>o ‡d•{Œm Pmbr. ÂhUyZ "‡W_ d°amΩ` hdo' (d°amΩ`-nydH© $) Ago `oWo ÂhQ>bo Amho. emÛmßMo A‹``Z Ho$bo. Agßg{∫$ ÂhUOo gßgJm©Mm / gßnH$m©Mm A^md. ho d°amΩ` ÂhUOo "Bh-A_wÃ\$i-^moJ-{damJ' Amho. d°amΩ`m{dZm nwT>o H$mhr hmoUma Zmhr. `m Vw`m© AdÒWoV ~´˜gmjmÀH$ma hmoVmo. {ZÀ` EH$ ~´˜ Amho. Vo AmVm H´$_mZo eßH$amMm`m™Zr `m nwT>rb ˚cmoH$mV gmß{JVbo AmhoV. (4) pÒWV: qH$ _yT> EdmpÒ_ ‡o˙`mo@hß emÛ.AmÀÂ`m. (‡o˙`) Aem‡H$mao d°amΩ`mZßVa `oUmar Or B¿N>m {Vbm ehmUo bmoH$ ew^¿o N>m ÂhUVmV (4). (5) emÛ. A_wà ÂhUOo nabmoH$. Bh ÂhUOo ho OJ. ho bjmV AmÎ`mda A{ZÀ` dÒVy{df`r B¿N>m ahmV Zmhr. hoM d°amΩ` Amho. `oWo "emÛ. Ago d°amΩ` Agob Va emÛ Am{U gmjmÀH$mar gmYwgVß ho {ZÀ` AgUmË`m ~´˜m{df`r. À`mgmR>r d°amΩ`mMm A‰`mg hdm. À`mIoarO "gV≤gmR>r AmMma' Agm gXmMmaMm {dJ´h Ho$bm Va "gV≤ AgUmË`m ~´˜mH$S>o nmoM `mgmR>r Omo AmMma AmdÌ`H$ Amho Vmo gXmMma' Agmhr AW© hmoBb © . (5) ‡W_ d°amΩ` Ambo hmoV. d°amΩ` ZgÎ`mg _mUyg ^moJmVM 52 JwVß Zy amhrb.‡d•{Œm`m© Mmo¿`Vo gm {dMmaUm &&5&& emÛ = (emÛmMo A‹``Z). Ï`mdhm[aH$ OrdZmVyZ nma_m{W©H$/ Am‹`mpÀ_H$ OrdZmH$S>o dimd`mMo AgÎ`mg ‡W_ {ZÀ` H$m` Amho Am{U A{ZÀ` H$m` Amho `mMm {dMma Ïhmd`mg hdm Am{U A{ZÀ` JmoÔ>t~‘b ZmdS> {Z_m©U Ïhmd`mg hdr.

o {Vbm AgßgJ© ^y{_H$m Ago ÂhUVmV._Zm_‹`o gŒdJwU hm CÀH$f© nmdVmo Am{U ‡^mdr hmoVmo.10).{df`mß~‘bMr Amg∫$s/ ‡o_ H$_r H$_r hmoD$ bmJVo À`m AdÒWobm VZw_mZgr Ago Zmd {Xbo OmVo. Vmo ÂhUOo AgßgJ©. ag Am{U JßY `m {df`mßH$S>o Ymd KoV AgVmV. gŒd-Amn{Œm ÂhUOo gŒdJwUm¿`m CÀH$fm©Mr ‡m·r Amho.gŒd + Amn{Œm. aO Am{U V_ ho VrZ JwU AgVmVM.7. ^JdX≤JrVoZo ÂhQ>Î`m‡_mUo.M_ÀH$mam ‡mo∫$mgßg{∫$Zm{_H$m &&8&& (n{hÎ`m) Mma Xemß ¿ `m / AdÒWmß ¿ `m g_y h mMr A‰`mg`w∫$ pÒWa Xem ‡m· PmÎ`mda. `m gßKfm©V V_moJUw ‡^mdr Pmbm Va Vmo Amig. AmÀ_kmZm¿`m ‡m·rgmR>r {df`mßH$S>Mr IoM hr H$_r H$_r hmoUo AmdÌ`H$ Amho. 14. ÂhUOo À`m AdÒWm pÒWa PmboÎ`m AmhoV. "gß`V-Bß{–`Àd' ÂhUOo Bß{–`. À`mßMr ‡m·r. À`mßMo ^moJ.o Aem‡H$mao _Zm¿`m ¡`m AdÒWoV Bß{–`. gmh{OH$M aOmoJUw hm {df`mV Amg{∫$ {Z_m©U H$aUmam Amho. "gŒd' (JwUm) nmgyZ kmZ CÀnfi hmoVo (gŒdmV≤ gßOm`Vo kmZ_≤ & 14. {dMmaUm Am{U VZw_mZgr `mßMm CÀH$f© hmoVmo VoÏhm aO Am{U V_ `m XmoZ JwUmßZm Imbr Xm~yZ. gŒdmn{Œm hr ^y{_H$m ‡m· hmoV.\$bm Vw `m & Í$T>.{daVode © mV≤ & gŒdmÀ_{Z pÒWVoeXw Y ≤ o gŒdmn{ŒmÈXmˆVm &&7&& (da CÑo{IboÎ`m n{hÎ`m) VrZ ^y{_H$mß¿`m A‰`mgm_wio {MŒmm_‹`o Oo {df`mß{df`rMo (AW©) (—T> Ago) d°amΩ` ({da{V) {Z_m©U hmoVo.gŒd. À`m¿`m ‡^mdm_wio (demV≤) gŒd (JwUm)¿`m Am{Yä`mZo ^abobo _Z (AmÀ_{Z) ho ew’ Am{U pÒWa Pmbo AgVmZm.o doJ˘`m e„XmßV gmßJm`Mo PmÎ`mg._mohm° V_gmo ^dVmo@kmZ_od M & ^JdX≤JrVm. Bß{–`mß¿`m `m AmoT>rAßVr _Z ho gw’m Bß{–`mß¿`m ¤mam {df`mßH$S>o YmdVo.Ago ÂhUVmV. "l’mdmZ≤ b^Vo kmZß VÀna: gß`V|{–`:' (4. gdm™VZy A{b· hmo `mMr Am{U À`mV JwVß Zy Z ahm `mMr Or ^y{_H$m _ZmV `oV. aOmoJUw hm V•ÓUm.o Ago gmß{JVbo Jobo Amho (7).39). gŒdJwUmMm hm ‡H$f© _ZmV pÒWaVm nmdbm H$s À`mMm EH$ M_ÀH•${VnyU© n[aUm_ hmoVmo. (8) Xem-MVwÔ>`m‰`mgmX≤ AgßgJ©. ‡_mX BÀ`m{X {Z_m©U H$aVmo (‡_mX. gßJ `mßVZy {Z_m©U hmoVmo Am{U Vmo amJmÀ_H$ Amho (^JdX≤JrVm 14.{ÃV`m‰`mgmV≤ {MŒmo@W©.ew^¿o N>m‰`mq_{–`mW}fw a∫$Vm& `à gm VZwVm_o{V ‡mo¿`Vo VZw_mZgr &&6&& ¡`m AdÒWoV / ^y{_Ho$V (`Ã) {dMmaUm Am{U ew^¿o N>m `mß¿`m_wio Bß{–`mß¿`m {df`mß¿`m ~m~VrV AgUmar Amg{∫$ (a∫$Vm) H$_r H$_r hmoVo À`m ^y{_Ho$bm VZw_mZgr Ago ÂhQ>bo OmVo. VÀnydu n{hÎ`m Mma ^y{_H$mßMm A‰`mg Pmbm Amho. (6) {dMmaUm.17.1. (7) ^y{_H$m. Bß{–`gß`_m_wio Bß{–`mßMr {df`mßH$S>Mr _ZmMr AmoT> H$_r hmoV. (6) H$R> Cn{ZfXmZo (2. _J _Zm¿`m `m ~{h_wI © ‡d•ŒmrZo Ord hmhr ~m¯ {df`mßV Amg∫$ hmoD$Z amhVmo. gŒdJwU hm kmZmbm AZwH$y b Amho. VgoM {df`mg∫$ Am{U ^moJmg∫$ _mUgo BÀ`mXtMm gßgJ© / gßnH©$ ZH$mo Aer _ZmMr ^y{_H$m V`ma hmoV. (_ZmV) Í$T> PmboÎ`m ÂhUOo K≈>nUo ~gboÎ`m gŒdJwUmMm (OUy) M_ÀH$ma `m ÒdÍ$nmV AgßgJ© ho \$i XoUmar Or ^y{_H$m Vr Agßg{∫$ ZmdmMr ^y{_H$m hmo` Ago ÂhQ>bo OmVo.12). (8) Agßg{∫$ hr nmMdr ^y{_H$m Amho.gß`_ hm kmZmgmR>r AmdÌ`H$ Amho.d°amΩ`mZßVa emÛm‹``Z d gßVgßJ `m_wio gXmMmamH$S>o hmoUmar ‡d•{Œm ÂhUOoM {dMmaUm. Am{U À`mVM JwVß Zy amhmVmV. Mm°œ`m AdÒWoV _Zm_‹`o gŒdJwUmMm ‡H$f© Pmbm hmoVm. AmVm. gßgJ© ÂhUOo Amg[∫$ Agm AW© KoVbm Va H$moUÀ`mhr ‡H$maMr Amg{∫$ ZH$mo Aer _ZmMr YmaUm hmoV. ^JdX≤JrVoZo ÂhQ>Î`m‡_mUo `m OJmVrb ‡À`oH$ nXmWm©V/ ‡m `mV gŒd.o AgßgJ© ÂhUOo AZmg{∫$. VgoM 14. Òne©. Òne© BÀ`m{X {df`.40) ho JwU Zoh_rM EH$_oH$mßZm Xm~yZ Q>mHy$Z ÒdV: daMT> hmo `mMm ‡`ÀZ H$arV AgVmV (aOÒV_¸m{^^y` gŒdß ^d{V ^maV& aO: gŒdß V_¸°d V_:gŒdß aOÒVWm&& ^JdX≤JrVm. ^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ 53 .13). 14. ^JdX≤JrVo¿`m _Vo Va. (Z VXpÒV n•{WÏ`mß dm {X{d Xodfo w dm nwZ:& gŒdß ‡H•${VO°_∫©w $ß `Xo{^: Ò`mV≤ {Ã{^JwU© :° && 18. Í$n.17) _Zm_‹`o gŒdJwUmMm ‡H$f© Am{U ‡^md AgUmar hr Or _ZmMr {d{eÔ> AdÒWm/ ^y{_H$m {Vbm gŒdmn{Œm.À`mßMm ‡^md ZJ ` H$Í$Z.1) Ago gmß{JVbo Amho H$s Bß{–`ohr ~{h_wI © AmhoV (namß{M adm{Z Ï`V•UV≤ Òd`ß^:y &') gmh{OH$M _mUgmMr nmMhr kmZ|{–`o hr AmnmnÎ`m e„X. AgßgJ© ÂhUOo ~m¯ e„X. OoÏhm ew^¿o N>m.

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AmMm`m™Zr gß›`mgXrjm KoD$Z A¤°V {dMma g_OyZ KoVbm.
À`mZßVa H$merbm OmD$Z {dÌdZmWmßMo Xe©Z KoVbo. {h_mb` hm
_h{f© Ï`mgmßMm n[aga _mZbm OmV Ago. AmMm`m™Zr {h_mb`mMm
‡dmg gwÍ$ Ho$bm. VoWo doXÏ`mgmßMo ‡À`j Xe©Z Pmbo. ~´˜gyÃ,
JrVm Am{U Cn{ZfXo `m Ã`rda qMVZ Ho$bo. ZßVa Hw$_marb ^≈>

`mßMr ^oQ> Pmbr. À`mßMo {eÓ` _ßS>Z{_l ho d°{XH$ H$_©H$mßS>mMo _moR>o
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d°{XH$ Y_©gyÃmda MMm© Pmbr. À`mV AmMm`m™¿`m A¤°V
VŒdkmZm_wio _ßS>Z{_l ‡^m{dV Pmbo. A¤°V {dMma WmoS>ä`mV
g_OyZ KoVbm nm{hOo.
~´˜ ho EH$M Aß{V_ gÀ` Amho. OJm¿`m Í$nmZo À`m ~´˜mMm
^mg hmoV AgVmo. na_mWu Ï`∫$sZo gÀ` g_OyZ KoVbo nm{hOo.
gÀ` Am{U {_œ`m `mVrb ^oX OmUyZ KoVbm nm{hOo. CXmhaUmW©,
g_w–H$mR>r nS>bb
o m qenbm C›hmV M_H$Vmo. VoÏhm Vmo MmßXr¿`m
VwH$S>ÁmgmaIm dmQ>Vmo. Iao Va Vmo Ho$di qenbmM AgVmo. OJmMr
pÒWVr AerM Amho. gm_m›` _mUgmbm OJ ho gÀ` dmQ>V.o H$maU
Vo kmZ|{–`mß¿`m H$joV _moS>V.o _mUgmbm OJ {Xgy eH$bo ÂhUyZ
Vo gÀ` dmQ>V.o EH$Xm ~´˜ H$m` Amho `mMr AZw^Vy r Pmbr H$s _J
OJmMo Iao ÒdÍ$n ÒnÔ> hmoV.o WmoS>ä`mV, AmÀ_m hm ~´˜ ÒdÍ$n
Amho. AmÀ_m A_a Amho. earamMm Zme hmoVmo nU AmÀÂ`mMm
Zme hmoV Zmhr.
‡À`oH$ Ï`∫$sV A{dZmer AmÀ_m AgVmo. Vmo "_r' `m
e„XmVyZ Ï`∫$ hmoVmo. "_r' `m e„Xmda gdm™Mm {dÌdmg AgVmo.
"_r Zmhr' Ago H$moUrhr ÂhUUma Zmhr. "_r' ÂhUOo AmÀ_m Am{U
AmÀ_m ÂhUOo ~´˜. ÂhUyZ "Ahß ~´˜mpÒ_' Ago ÂhQ>bo Amho.
~´˜ ho {ZJwU© , {ZamH$ma Amho. gm_m›` _mUgo "_r' `m gßH$ÎnZoH$S>o
^m°{VH$ —Ô>rZo ~KVmV. "_r' ÂhUOo {d{e> earamMr, {d{eÔ>>
Zmd Agbobr Ï`∫$s hmo` Ago gm_m›`V: _mZbo OmVo. À`mMo
H$maU ÒWyb —Ô>rZo Ord Am{U eara Ago XmoZ ^mJ hmoVmV. gy˙_
—Ô>rZo _mà Ho$di OrdmbmM ApÒVÀd AgVo. Agm_m›` VŒdkmZr
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ÒdÍ$nmV AZw^d `mg {_iVo. AZßV ÂhUOo AVr Ï`m·. kmZ
ÂhUOo M°V›`. gÀ` ÂhUOo A~m{YV VŒd hmo`. `mdÍ$Z Ago
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eH$Vo. OJ ~Xby eH$Vo. nU gÀ` ÒdÍ$n AmÀ_m H$Yrhr ~XbV
Zmhr.
Aem‡H$ma¿`m A¤°V VŒdkmZm¿`m ‡gmam_wio eßH$amMm`©
`mßZr AZoH$ JmoÔ>r gm‹` Ho$Î`m AmhoV. AmÀÂ`m¿`m A_aÀdm¿`m
VŒdmkmZm_wio gZmVZ {dMma hm {dÌd [dMma R>aVmo. {dÌdmVrb
_mZdOmVrV Agߪ` ^oX Agbo Var À`mß¿`m KQ>H$mßMm AmÀ_m
_mà A^o⁄ Amho. À`m_wio `m VŒdkmZm_wio {dÌd-Hw$Qw>ß~ hr
gßH$ÎnZm gmH$mabr OmD$ eH$Vo. À`mVyZ {dÌd~ßYÀw dmMr H$ÎnZm
‡ÒWm{nV hmo `mMm _mJ© _moH$im hmoVmo.
{dÌd {Z_m©U H$go Pmbo hm ‡ÌZ _mZd OmVrg_moa AmOhr
C^m Amho. {dÌdmMr {Z{_©Vr ho AmOhr EH$ H$moS>o Amho. A¤°V
VŒdkmZmVyZ `m ‡ÌZmMo CŒma gmnS>V.o {dÌd ho ~´˜ÒdÍ$nmMm
Am^mg Amho. AmMm`© OJmMo Am^mg ÒdÍ$n qH$dm _m`m ÒdÍ$n
gmßJVmV, VoÏhm Vo OJmMo ApÒVÀd ZmH$maVmV Ago ZÏho. gm_m›`
_ZwÓ` Am{U nma_m{W©H$ _ZwÓ` `mV \$aH$ Amho. nma_m{W©H$ _ZwÓ`
hm AmÀ_qMVZmVyZ AmÀ_kmZr hmoVmo. AmÀ_kmZ hmoB©n`™V Vmo
OJmbm gÀ`M _mZVmo d ‡nßMmVrb Ï`dhma nyU© H$arV AgVmo.
AmMm`m™¿`m {dMmamV ‡nßM Am{U na_mW© `mßMm g_›d` gmYbm
Amho. g_W© am_XmgmßZr AmMm`m™¿`m nmdbmda nmD$b Q>mHy$Z
"‡nßM H$amdm ZoQ>H$m' Ago ÂhQ>bo Amho. g_Wm™¿`m dMZmVrb
"ZoQ>H$m' hm e„X AW©nUy © Amho. g_W© nwT>o ÂhUVmV H$s ZoQ>H$m
‡nßM Ho$Î`mZßVa {ddoH$nyU© na_mW© gmYmdm.
kmZ, ^∫$s Am{U H$_© ho na_mWm©Mo VrZ _mJ© AmhoV. À`mVrb
kmZ hm _mJ© H$R>rU Amho. A‹`mpÀ_H$ d•Œmr AgboÎ`m Wmoa
_mUgmbm B©Ìda {df`H$ kmZ ‡m· hmoVo. eßH$amMm`m™Zr kmZ
_mJm©Mm nwaÒH$ma Ho$bm Amho. AßV:e∫$sMm emoY bmJUo ÂhUOo
kmZ hmo`. na_oÌda AmÀ_m `m ÒdÍ$nmV _mUgmVM gm_mdbobm
Amho. gm_m›` bmoH$ _yVu ÒdÍ$n XodXodVmßMr nyOmAMm© H$aVmV.
AmMm`m™¿`m —Ô>rZo `m ^∫$sbm X˛Ê`_ ÒWmZ Amho. EH$m ~mOybm
B©Ìda ÂhUOo {XÏ` VoO Ago ÂhQ>bo OmVo Va X˛gË`m ~mOybm À`m¿`m
g_moa {\$H$Q> AgUmam {Xdm bmdbm OmVmo. EH$m ~mOybm na_oúa
gwJYß _` Amho Ago ÂhQ>bo OmVo. Va X˛gË`m ~mOybm À`m¿`m g_moa
gm_m›` CX~Œmr bmdbr OmVo. EH$m ~mOybm na_oúambm AZßV
ÂhUVmV Va X˛gË`m ~mOybm À`mbm ‡X{jUm KmbyZ _`m©{XV
H$aVmV. hm {damoYm^mg Amho. nU Vmo AW©nUy © Amho. gmH$ma d
gJw U na_o ú amMr {Z> m `w ∫ $ ^∫$sZo CnmgZm H$aVmZm
AmÀ_ÒdÍ$nm¿`m {ZJwU© d {ZamH$ma na_oÌdamMo Xe©Z hmo `mMr
eä`Vm ZmH$maVm `oV Zmhr.
106

AmMm`m™Zr ^∫$s_mJ© ZmH$mabm Zmhr. `mMm ‡À`` À`mß¿`m
CŒmwJß ‡{V^o¿`m H$mÏ`aMZoVZy `oVmo. {d{dY Xod-XodVmßMr ÒVwVr
Agbobr AmMm`m™Mr H$mÏ`aMZm AmOhr bmoH${‡` Amho.
na_oúamdarb {ZVmßV ^∫$sgmR>r H$mÏ` ho EH$ CßMrMo AW©nUy ©
_m‹`_ Amho. ÂhUyZM kmZXod, VwH$mam_, am_Xmg BÀ`mXr gßVmßZr
H$mÏ`mVyZ Am‹`mÀ_mMm ‡gma Ho$bm. H$mÏ`m_wio H$mhr ‡_mUmV
{MŒmmMr EH$mJ´Vm hmo `mg _XV hmoVo. ^∫$s_mJm©bm {MŒmmMr
EH$mJ´Vm AmdÌ`H$ AgVo. ‡mnß{MH$ _mUgm¿`m ~m~VrV {MŒmmMr
EH$mJ´Vm hr EH$ g_Ò`m R>aVo. EH$m ~mOybm bj na_oúamda AgVo
Va X˛gË`m ~mOybm bj ‡mnß{MH$ JmoÔ>rV AgVo. ^∫$s hr EH$
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ÂhUOo AßVkm©Z hmo`.
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ghOJÀ`m AmH$bZ hmoV Zmhr. _mà JyT> JmoÔ>tZm AmH$ma {Xbm
H$s gm_m›` _mUgmßZm À`mßMo AmH$bZ hmoD$ eH$Vo. CXmhaUmW©,
na~´˜ hr JyT> H$ÎnZm AZmH$bZr` Amho. nU gJwU, gmH$ma
nmßS>w aJß ghOnUo bjmV `oD$ eH$Vmo. gJwU gmH$mamMr ^∫$s
Ho$Î`mZßVa H$mhr gßV _hmÀÂ`mßZm {ZJwU© {ZamH$mamMr ‡MrVr Ambr
Amho. {ZJwU© {ZamH$ma ~´˜ ÒdÍ$nmMr AZw^Vy r `oD$ eH$Vo. ¡`m
gßV _hmÀÂ`mßZm ~´˜ ÒdÍ$nmMr AZw^yVr Pmbr Aemß¿`m
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H$mona{ZH$g BÀ`mXr d°km{ZH$mßZr n•œdr gy`m©^modVr {\$aVo Agm
emoY bmdbm. kmZoÌdamßZr kmZoÌdar¿`m Mm°œ`m A‹`m`mVrb EH$m
AmodrV Ago ÂhQ>bo Amho H$s, n•œdr gy`m©^modVr {\$aVo. gy`©
n•œdr^modVr {\$aVmo hm ^mg hmoV AgVmo. J∞{b{bAmo d H$mona{ZH$g
`mß¿`mda AmnU Ogm {dÌdmg R>do Vmo VgmM {dÌdmg kmZXodmßda
R>do mdm bmJob. eßH$amMm`m™¿`m "~´˜ gÀ`ß OJp›_œ`m' `mda
XoIrb {dÌdmg R>do mdm bmJob. l’m Am{U ~w’r `m Xmo›hr JmoÔ>tZm
_mZdr OrdZmV _hŒdmMo ÒWmZ Amho.
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"aoUHw $m' H$mßMZJßJm gmogm`Q>r, Hw$_ma nmH©$ Odi,
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XodVmßMo JwU{deof qH$dm H$m`©{deof `mßMo dU©Z H$Í$Z À`mßMr
_hmÀ_Vm dU©Z H$aUo d À`m XodVmßZm eaU OmD$Z gd© gßH$Q>mnß mgyZ
_w∫$ H$a `mgmR>r À`mßMr ‡mW©Zm H$aUo hr XmoZ d°{eÔ>Áo Odinmg
gd©M ÒVmoÃmßV {XgyZ `oVmV.
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À`mVÎ`m À`mV F$ΩdoX ho gdm©V ‡mMrZ gm{hÀ`. F$ΩdoX ÂhUOo
XodVmÒVwVrMo gßH$bZ Amho. À`m H$mimnmgyZ AmVmn`™V
gßÒH•$V_‹`o eoH$S>mo ÒVmoÃo a{Mbr Jobr AmhoV. À`mV {dÓUy d À`mMo
Xhm AdVma, {ed, JUoe, Xodr `mß¿`m ÒVmoÃmßZm ‡_wI ÒWmZ Amho.
`m ÒVmoÃmßV X°dV _{hÂ`mMo dU©Z AmhoM, nU À`m ~amo~a ^∫$mMr
eaUmJVr, _w_j
w m, X°›`, BÀ`m{X ^mdmßMo AmH$f©H$ dU©Z Amho.
`m gd© ÒVmoÃmßZr ^∫$s¿`m ‡gmamg d ‡Mmamg IynM _XV Ho$br
Amho. ÒVmoÃmßMr ^mfmhr bm{bÀ`nyU© d _Ywa AgVo d À`m_‹`o
EH$ ‡H$maMr gßJrVmÀ_H$ b` AgVo. À`m_wio OdiOdi gd©
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EH$ Abm°{H$H$ _mZ{gH$ AmZßXmMm bm^ H$Í$Z XoV AgVmV.
gßÒH•$V¿`m Aem {dnwb ÒVmoÃmV gm¢X`©bharMo ÒWmZ \$maM CÉ
H$moQ>tMo Amho.
gm¢X`©bhar ho EH$ eß^a ÌbmoH$mßMo ÒVmoà AgyZ À`mV XodrMo
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eßH$amMm`m™Zr ho ÒVmoà {b{hbo Amho ho _V AmVm gd©_m›` Pmbo
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d e{∫$`w∫$ Amho, Agm gd© Xodr^∫$mßMm {dÌdmg Amho. `m
ÒVmoÃmMo XmoZ Aße qH$dm ^mJ AmhoV. E∏o$Mmirg ÌbmoH$mß¿`m
X˛gË`m ^mJmg gm¢X`©bhar ÂhQ>bo OmVo. n{hÎ`m AßemßV
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qH$dm e{∫$g߇Xm`mg AZgwÍ$Z Amho. gm¢X`© bharV {V¿`m {XÏ`
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_ßÃ, fQ≤>MH´$^oXZ d Hw$ß S>{bZr `mßZm \$ma _hŒd Amho. qH$~h˛Zm
F$ΩdoXH$mbrZ _ßÃmßMm A{^Zd AdVma ÂhUOo _ßÃemÛmßVrb
~rOmja`w∫$ _ßà hmoV Ago ÂhUVm `oBb
© . Xodr hr e{∫$Í$n Amho,
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Ago VßÃemÛmMo ÂhUUo Amho. À`m Xodr¿`m CnmgZoV _ßÃmoÉmaU
qH$dm _ßÃmMo nwaÌMaU hm EH$ \$maM n[aUm_H$mar _mJ© Amho Ago
g_Obo OmVo. _ßÃemÛm¿`m AZoH$ J´ßWmV Xodr nyOm{dYr,
_ß Ã _{h_m, ~rOmjamß M o ahÒ`, fQ> M H´ $ ‡YmZ earamMo
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{g’mßV Amho. `m gdm™Mo {dÒVmanyd©H$ {ddoMZ {Za{Zam˘`m
VßÃJ´ßWmV Ambo Amho. nU VßÃemÛ, _ßÃemÛ, `moJemÛ,
e{∫${g’mßV XodrMo earagm°>d `m gdm™Mo EH$ gwXß a g_›d`mÀ_H$
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VßÃgmJamda e„Xgm¢X`m©Mo VaßJ CÀnfi hmoV AgÎ`mMr dmMH$mßZm
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bmJy nS>V.o
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lr AaqdXmßMo `m gß~Yß mVrb EH$ {dYmZ _hŒdmMo Amho. _amR>r boI ‡H$m{eV. H$m_ Am{U _moj `m nwÈfmW© MVwÔ>`m¿`m Í$nmVrb A‰`wX`. VmÀn`©.À`mda Ï`mª`mZo d Ï`mª`mZ_mbm. ^maVr` VŒdkmZ d {deofV: gßV dmL≤>_`m¿`m A‰`mgmMr AmdS>. ‡À`oH$ nwÈfmWm©Mr _r_mßgm H$a `mgmR>r ÒdVßà emÛ ^maVr` {dMmadßVmßZr {Z_m©U Ho$bo Amho. À`mbmM {Z:lo`g ÂhUVmV. _mUyg hm amÃß{Xdg gwImgmR>rM Vi_iV d YS>nS>V AgVmo.o `mCbQ> _moj ÂhUOo emÌdV Am{U X˛:Iboe a{hV AmZßX! À`mVM g_mYmZ d emßVr bm^Vo. P. ""¤o{d⁄o do{XVÏ`o-namM°dmnamM & AW nam ``m VX≤ Ajaß A{YJÂ`Vo &'' Ago _wSß >H$mon{ZfXmV gmß{JVbo Amho. nrEM≤. naßVw AkmZm_wio _mUyg gwImgmR>r Bß{–`mYrZ hmoD$Z X˛:Im¿`mM dmQ>Zo o OmVmo. Va ""Edß doXmMo _yigyà & gdm©{YH$ma°H$ n{dà & lrH•$ÓU| JrVmemÛ & ‡JQ> Ho$b| &&'' (18.o Z_ÒVÒ_° ^JdVo eßH$amMm`©Í${nUo & `oZ doXm›V{d⁄o`_wXY ≤ V• m doXgmJamV≤ && ({d⁄ma `) 1) d°{XH$ dmL≤>_`mMm Aß{V_ ^mJ `m AWm©Zo Cn{ZfXmßZm doXm›V Ago ÂhQ>bo OmVo. Y_©. hr Oar doXm›VXe©ZmMr ‡ÒWmZÃ`r Agbr Var doXm›VXe©Z ho gßnUy © d°{XH$ VŒdkmZmMo n[aUV ÒdÍ$n AgÎ`mZo {Vbm ^maVr` {hßX-ˇ VŒdkmZmMr ‡ÒWmZÃ`r _mZUo AZw{MV hmoUma Zmhr. AW©. doXm›VXe©ZmMo VrZ AmYma^yV J´Wß ÂhUyZ Cn{ZfXo.‡m·Ï` _mZbm Amho. MmßJXod nmg>r.S>r. Am{U _wª` ÂhUOo H$m_Zm qH$dm dmgZm `mßMr nyUn© Uo V•·r H$YrM hmoV Zmhr.eßH$amMm`m™Mm ^{∫$`moJ S>m. gmYw-gßV Am{U AmMm`m©Xr Wmoa VŒdqMVH$mßZr Ho$di ^maVr`mßZmM ZÏho Va _mZd_mÃmbm. ~´˜gyà Am{U ^JdX≤JrVm `mßZm ‡ÒWmZÃ`r Ago ÂhQ>bo OmVo. Ago kmZoúa ÂhUVmV. AWm©V. nU Vo gmonm{YH$. À`m_wio dmQ>Ámbm eodQ>r X˛:IM `oV. kmZXod {dMmaXe©Z. Cn{ZfXmß_Yrb VÀdqMVZ ho _w∫$ Amho. B©úa `m e„XmßZr doXm›VmV g{ÉXmZßXÒdÍ$n Aja VŒdmMmM [ZX}e ^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ 113 . H$m_ Am{U _moj `m Mmahr nwÈfmWm™Mm ÒdrH$ma Ho$bobm Agbm Var _moj hmM na_ nwÈfmW©. À`mV _mojemÛmbm lo>Àd ‡m· hmoUo gmh{OH$ Amho. JrVm hr "g_ÒVdoXmW©gmagßJ´h^yV' Amho Ago eßH$amMm`© ÒdV: gmßJVmV. namdbß~r Am{U Zm{edßV Amho. À`mMr VH©$ew’ ‡Umbr ÒdÍ$nmV _mßS>Ur H$Í$Z "doXm›VXe©Z' {Z{_© `mMo lo` ^JdmZ Ï`mgmß¿`m "~´˜gyÃmß'Zm ⁄mdo bmJVo. BßJO ´ r ^mfmßVa d Q>rnm.E. ÂhUZy M Vo AmÀ_{dúmgmZo ÂhUy eH$bo H$s. AmXe© Aem Ï`{∫$JV d gm_m{OH$ OrdZmMm _mJ© XmIdy Z {Xbm. _mà Vmo {df`gwImbmM gd©Òd _mZyZ MmbVmo. Cn{ZfXmV {Vbm nam{d⁄m d A›` gd© {d⁄mßZm Anam{d⁄m ÂhQ>bo Amho.""EV‘oe‡gyVÒ` gH$memV≤ AJ´O›_Z: & Òdß Òdß M[aÃß {ejoaZ≤ n•{WÏ`mß gd© _mZdm: &&'' 2) ^maVr` OrdZXe©ZmV Oar Y_©. AW©." (The Philosophy of the Upanisahads. nwUo {d⁄mnrR>.1426). AZoH$ BßJO ´ r.{Z:lo`g {g’rgmR>r gd© —Ô>rZo AZwH$y b Aer {VMr OS>UKS>U gZmVZ d°{XH$ Y_m©Zgw ma H$Í$Z Society.∞ eßH$a am. ViK≈>r E_. ‡H$m{eV nwÒVHo$. A›` VrZ nwÈfmWm™Mm gß~ßY "A‰`wX`' `m ^m°{VH$ gwI ÒdÍ$n OrdZ-‹`o`mer Amho.S>r.1) F${f-_wZr. `m Am°n{Zf{XH$ VŒdkmZm¿`m nm`mdaM ^maVr` gßÒH•$VrMr C^maUr PmÎ`mMo {XgyZ `oVo.. The concept of Moral Obligation dJ°a. naßVw À`mhrnojm _hŒdmMr JmoÔ> ÂhUOo gZmVZ d°{XH$ Y_m©bm A{Y>mZ^yV AgboÎ`m d°{XH$ VŒdkmZmMr n[aUVr Am°n{ZfX Xe©ZmV hmoD$Z VŒdqMVZmMo {eIa (AßV) À`mV JmR>bo AgÎ`mZo "doXm›V' hr gßkm À`mß¿`m ~m~VrV {deofÀdo gmW© R>aVo. VŒdkmZmMo {Zd•Œm ‡m‹`mnH$. _mà ho VH©$‡YmZ VŒdkmZ gd©gm_m›` bmoH$mß¿`m AmH$bZm¿`m Amdmä`mV `mdo Am{U Vo À`mß¿`m OrdZmMo A{Y>mZ Ïhmdo `m—Ô>rZo EH$m g_J´ OrdZ—Ô>r¿`m Í$nmV doXm›VmMr _mßS>Ur Ho$br Amho Vr lr_X≤ ^JdX≤JrVoV.gmR>rAZoH$ {d⁄mœ`m™Zm _mJ©Xe©Z. legislation and hr gßÒH•$Vr nwÈfmW© ‡YmZ Amho.lr. Iao Va gdm™Zm AgmM AmZßX hdm AgVmo. OrdZmMo na_-lo>. Vo Ago. `m emÌdV AmZßX ÒdÍ$n _mojmbmM "A_•V' hr Am°n{ZfX gßkm Amho. nrEM. À`mbmM A‹`mÀ_emÛ qH$dm A‹`mÀ_{d⁄m ÂhQ>bo OmVo. ~´˜. AmÀ_m. À`mn°H$s "AW©' Am{U "Y_©' ho nwÈfmW© gmYZÍ$n AmhoV Va "H$m_' (B¿N>mnyVuMo gwI) hm gm‹` Amho."The Philosophy of the Upanisads is the basis of all Indian religion and morals and to a cosiderable extent of Hindu politics. {Zanoj d {ZIi gwI ho _mojmMo ÒdÍ$n AgÎ`mZo À`mbm na_ nwÈfmW© ÂhQ>bo Amho.

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After a long stint in the software Industry he is now into soft skills training for Corporates. and that Mandana.D. if defeated. Bharati now interposed and said to Sankara: "I am the other half of Mandana. interposed and pacified Mandana Misra. in Electrical Engineering from IIT Mumbai.Sankara plunged into the water and felt that a crocodile was dragging him by the foot.Kerala. would become a Sannyasin and receive the robe of a Sannyasin from the hands of his own wife. Durvasa committed a small mistake. Govinda asked Sankara to go to Kashi. Sankara learnt all the philosophical tenets from his Guru-Govindapada. Swami Govinda taught him the philosophy of Advaita which he himself had learnt from his Guru-Gaudapada Acharya. Sankara was born in very poor family in the year 788 A. Mandana agreed.Tech. Bharati did not sit and listen to their controversy. Sankara objected to have controversy with a woman. one each over the shoulders of each of the disputants.One day. the Goddess of Learning. Sankara took Apath-sannyasa (the adoption of Sannyasa when death is near) at once. Let us have a controversy". An ugly conversation was started when the Brahmins. Bharati passed from one Shastra to another. Bharati who was the wife of Mandana Misra and who possessed scholarly erudition was appointed as the umpire. Hence Saraswati had to take birth as Bharati. She threw two garlands. Give me your permission now. You have defeated only one half of Mandana. Immediately Mandana Misra became very furious. would become a householder and marry. She decided to defeat him by means of the science of Kama Shastra. Sanakara met Swami Govindpada Acharya in a hermitage in Badrikashram (Badrinath) in the Himalayas and he prostrated at the teacher's feet. Certified Leadership Trainer and a post Graduate in Hindi from Wardha University.Once the sage Durvasa chanted the Vedas before Brahma and his wife in a big assembly. Sankara had the greatest esteem for his Guru Govindapada and his Param Guru or the teacher's teacher. He again repeated his promise to his mother. if defeated. Bharati was an Avatara of Saraswati.Unlike the other Avtaras where Lord Vishnu was incarnated with arms to establish Dharma Sankara was incarnated into the world to re-establish the glory of Sanatana Dharma.He then proceeded to find out a Guru with a view to get himself formally initiated into the sacred order of Sannyasa. Sankara then agreed and this controversy also went on uninterruptedly for seventeen days.who were present there for dinner. Bharati quoted instances wherein there had been controversies with women. The garland of Mandana Misra began to fade first. The crocodile let him go unharmed. Having initiated him and invested him with the robe of a Sannyasin. and said: "He whose garland begins to fade first should consider himself defeated." She left the place and began attending to her household duties. Gaudapada. Diploma in Management from XLRI Jamshedpur. Sankara and his mother went to take bath in the river. The current article is his humble tribute to the great modern day revivalist of the Sanatana Dharma Sri Adi Sankaracharya. I am lost. Sankara asked Bharati to give him an interval of one ^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ 135 . Mandana was brought up in the Karma Mimamsa faith and so he had intense hatred for the Sannyasins. At last she found out that she could not defeat Sankara. Sankara proceeded to Kashi where he wrote all his famous commentaries on the Brahma Sutras. six miles to the east of Alwaye. He was performing a Sraaddha ceremony when Sankara somehow dropped down there. Let me take a Apath-sannyasa". The controversy began in right earnest and continued for days without any interruption. Sankara came out of the water as a nominal Sannyasin. the Upanishads and the Gita and successfully met all the criticisms levelled against them. He then began to propagate his philosophy. It was agreed beforehand that Sankara.A Tribute to Sankaracharya A Modernday Revivalist Shri. Then Sankara challenged Mandana to a religious controversy.Mandana Misra accepted his defeat and offered to become a Sannyasin and follow Sankara.Saraswati laughed at it. Shanker Ramanathan B. 1973. Mandana Misra was the chief Pandit of the court of Mahishmati. Sankaracharya was born at a time when the Hindu religion was under decline due to the rise of various other religions in India. in a village named Kaladi.The controversy went on for seventeen days.He left her under the care of his relatives and gave away his little property to them. Let me have the satisfaction of dying as a sannyasin. Let me die peacefully as a sannyasin. Durvasa became enraged and gave a curse that she would take birth in the world.He shouted out to his mother at the top of his voice: "O dear mother! A crocodile is dragging me down. The mother immediately allowed him to take Sannyasa.

There was a shower of rain immediately and that extinguished the flames. Padmapada. He separated his astral body from his physical body by means of his Yogic powers and left his physical body in the hole of a big tree and asked his disciples to take care of his physical body. The Self is on the right hand. It is usually said. the Upanishads and the Gita. the repetition of these Sanskrit Sutras will not save you". Aparoksha Anubhuti. Mandana Misra gave all his property as a gift to Sri Sankara and Mandana was made to distribute it to the poor and the deserving. Sankara was very much struck by the intelligent query of the Chandala.worship Govinda. The soul of Sankara just then entered his own body. melody and thought and are to this day sung with reverence. The Bhashya on the Brahma Sutras is called Sareerik Bhasya. Sankara was acquiring all the experience of love with his queens. He thought within himself. He then entered into the dead body of Raja Amaruka which was about to be cremated.. Sankara went to Kashi. Then Sankara returned to the residence of Mandana Misra. By that time the messengers of the queen had found out the physical body and had just begun to set fire to it. She agreed. for gaining practical knowledge. The Self is within. How can this be consistent with your teaching of Advaitism? Is Advaita only a theory?".".Sankara prayed to Lord Hari to help him. They thought that if they did so. in order to teach the uselessness of such studies in the matter of the liberation of the soul.O fool! When you are about to die.Sankara wrote commentaries on the Brahma Sutras. Sureswara Acharya was the first Sannyasin who took charge of the Sringeri Mutt.worship Govinda. of those queens. Dukrin karane. Satyam-Jnanam-Anantam-Anandam are not seperate attributes. In the midst. which unfolds and strengthens devotion.month for his preparation to hold controversy with her in the science of Kama Shastra. the famous Bhaja Govindam song. Once some mischief-mongers offered meat and liquor to Sankara. He resumed the old controversy and answered all the questions raised by Bharati satisfactorily. Bharati also accompanied Sankara to Sringeri and there she is worshipped even today. Sankara's supreme Brahman is Nirguna (without the Gunas). Sankara's Philosophy :. the Self is before and the Self is behind. the Self is without. with different qualities and thought. Some Anecdotes :Sankara was going along the street one day with his pupils to take bath in the Ganges when he met a Chandala who was also passing along the street with his dogs by his side. He is above all needs and desires. Padmapada was a worshipper of Lord Narasimha. The meaning of the song is: "Worship Govinda. They form the very essence of Brahman. He was repeating again and again "Dukrin karane. Sankara heard it and was struck by the preserverance of the boy. and Akarta (non-agent)." This Atman is self-evident. They immediately proceeded to the city and had an interview with the Raja. go to his works such as Viveka Chudamani. In Kashi. Every Sloka ends thus: "He who learnt to look on the phenomena in the light of Advaita is my true Guru. Therefore. "For learning logic and metaphysics. the devoted disciple of Sankara came. It is not possible to deny this Atman. Nirvisesha (without attributes). the Self is on the left.. The disciples of Sankara shouted and asked the Chandala to clear off the road. because description implies distinction. go to Sankara's commentaries. This Atman or Self is not established by proofs of the existence of the self. Sankara wrote commentaries on Sanat Sujatiya and Sahasranama Adhyaya. Lord Narasimha entered the body of Padmapada and killed the Kapalika. The meat turned into apples and the liquor into milk. Sankara initiated him into the holy order of Sannyasa and gave him the name of 'Sureswara Acharya'.Sankara consented and asked the Kapalika to take his head when he was alone and absorbed in meditation. They sang a few philosophical songs which at once revived the memory of Sankara. They realised that a soul of great Mahatma had entered the body of their Raja. a student was cramming the Sutras in Sanskrit grammar.. A Kapalika came to Sankara and begged for his head as a gift. who touched those items with his right hand. The ministers and queens soon found out that the revived Raja was a different person. the new Raja might remain with them for a long time. Drik-Drishya Viveka and Upadesa Sahasri". He immediately sang a small poem.The disciples immediately repaired to the place where the physical body of Sankara was kept hidden. The objective world-the world of names ^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ . the Self is above and the Self is below". be he a Chandala or be he a Brahmin". Atma-Anatma Viveka. Sankara entirely forgot all about his promises to his disciples about his going back to them. They heard about the miraculous resurrection of Raja Amaruka. The Kapalika was just aiming with a big sword to sever the head of Sankara. The Chandala asked Sankara: " O. The Raja rose up and all the people rejoiced at the astounding incident.Maya is very powerful. He composed then and there five Slokas called the 'Manisha Panchaka'. venerable Guru! You are a preacher of Advaita Vedanta and yet you make a great difference between man and man. messengers were sent out to search for a human body hidden somewhere in lonely forests and caves and to burn it when found. caught hold of the arm of the Kapalika and killed him with his knife. Nirakar (formless). "Lord Siva has assumed this form 136 just to teach me a lesson". The disciples began to search for him. Brahman cannot be distinguished from any other than He. Sankara says. for it is the very essence of he who denies it. Brahman cannot be described. The Atman is the basis of all kinds of knowledge. Sankara wrote innumerable original works in verses which are matchless in sweetness. Ananda Lahari. He then became a disciple of Sankara. Atma Bodha.

Shanker Ramanathan 9. Pune-411016 With Best Compliments from M/S SWATI ENTERPRISES D.The Atman alone has real existence. ASSOCIATES SAYALI SALES CORPORATION Mr.39 B. Adinath Society. Cum Chairman) M. Ph. Pune 411009.and forms -has no independent existence. Hare Krishna Mandir Road. used physical forces because the obstacles to Dharma in those days arose from the physical obstructions and molestations of the Asuras (demons). The menace to Dharma in the kaliyuga (age of destruction) arose from obstacles that were more internal than external. a practical philosopher. The seeds of Adharma (unrighteousness) were then working in the minds of almost everyone. Hence the evil had to be combated purely by the weapon of knowledge and self-purification. Just as the snake is superimposed on the the rope. B. The weapon he used was pure knowledge and spirituality. an infallible logician. The loftiness. within a very short time. If you get a knowledge of the rope . if you get a knowledge of Brahman. the illusion of the body and the world will vanish. a dynamic personality and a stupendous moral and spiritual force. the impartiality with which he deals with various questions. this world and this body are superimposed on Brahman or the Supreme Self. The previous Avataras. his clarity of expression make us revere the philosopher more and more. Still. this world is unreal. Ulhas Dongare (M. we have a very high reverence. 65019468/69. Sankara was the exponent of the Advaita philosophy. The forces opposed to Vedic religion were more numerous and powerful at the time of Sankara than they are today. 24225445. more mental than physical.net ^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ 137 . Pune-Satara Road. : 98220 49325 Work & Office : S. Ambika Apartments. Sankara is the foremost among the master-minds and the giant souls which India has produced. Jeevo Brahmaiva Na Aparah Brahman alone is real. Telefax : 24226221 E-mail : sayalise@vsnl. The world is only Vyavaharika or phenomenal. His grasping and elucidating powers knew no bounds. Jnani and Bhakta. The existence of Vedic Dharma in India today is due to Sankara. calmness and firmness of his mind. the jiva is identical with Brahman. There is not one branch of knowledge which Sankara has left unexplored and which has not received the touch. His teachings can be summed up in the following words: Brahma Satyam Jagat Mithya. His teachings will continue to live as long as the sun shines. Sankara overpowered them all and restored the Vedic Dharma and Advaita Vedanta to its pristine purity in the land. D. single-handed. Parvati Industrial Estate. polish and finish of his superhuman intellect. Sankara preached Vivarta Vada. like Rama and Krishna. For Sankara and his works. Opp. Sankara was a giant metaphysician. Even so. the illusion of the snake will vanish. He was a fully developed Yogi. He was the expounder of the Advaita philosophy.

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{Xder _ßS>Z{_l {ZÈŒma Pmbo. À`mßMr _mbm gwH$br. gaÒdVr Vo
nmhˇZ AmMm`m™Zm ÂhUmbr, "nÀZr hr nVrMr AYm™{JZr AgVo.
_mPo nVr AOyZ nyU©V: nam{OV Pmbo ZmhrV. _mPm nam^d
Ho$Î`m{edm` _mPo nVr nyUV© : nam^yV Pmbo, Ago VwÂhmbm _mZVm
`oUma Zmhr. Vw_¿`mer emÛmW© H$a `mMr _mPr B¿N>m Amho.'
AmMm`© {V¿`mer dmXmbm V`ma Pmbo. nU {VZß À`mßZm ~w’ÁmM
H$m_emÛmVbo ‡ÌZ {dMmabo. AmMm`m™Zr _wXV _mJyZ KoVbr.
XaÂ`mZ À`mßZr EH$m _•V amOm¿`m earamV ‡doe H$Í$Z H$m_H$boMo
gßnyU© kmZ {_i{dbo d H$m_emÛmdarb J´ßW {b{hbm. EH$m
_{h›`mZßVa AmMm`m™Zr `moJ~bmZo nw›hm AmnÎ`m XohmV ‡doe
H$Í$Z gaÒdVrnwT>o J´Wß R>do bm d AmnÎ`m gJ˘`m ‡ÌZmßMr CŒmao
`mV AmhoV, Ago gmß{JVbo. gaÒdVrZo AmMm`m™Mm {dO` _m›`
Ho$bm. _ßS>Z{_l AmMm`m™Mo {eÓ` Pmbo. _ßS>Z{_lmßZr _m{hÓ_Vr
ZJarVrb gdm™Zm nmMmaU Ho$bo d AmnÎ`m KamVrb ‡À`oH$ dÒVy

À`mßZm KoD$Z Om`bm gmßJZy gdm™H$Sy>Z gd© gßnŒmr bwQ>dZy Q>mH$br
Am{U gdm™g_j AmMm`m™H$Sy>Z MVwWm©l_ ÒdrH$mabm. AmMm`©
À`mßZm ÂhUmbo, ""gwaúo amMm`©' hm `moJn≈> _r Vwbm XoV Amho.
emÌdV gwImMr ‡m·r AmVm Vwbm Xˇa am{hbobr Zmhr.''
gaÒdVrZo _ßS>ZmßMm d gdm™Mm AIoaMm {Zamon KoVbm Am{U
VwJß ^–o¿`m {demb ‡dmhmV CS>r KoVbr. {V¿`m XohmMr H•$ÓUdUu`
{eim Pmbr. AmMm`m™Zr À`m {eboda lr`ßà H$moadyZ KoVbo. Am{U
Vrda emaXmÂ~oMr ‡mU‡{V>m Ho$br. {V¿`mM ZmdmZß e•Jß ao rbm
emaXmnrR>mMr ÒWmnZm H$Í$Z `m nrR>mdaMm n{hbm AmMm`© ÂhUyZ
gwaoúamMm`m™Mr Zo_UyH$ Ho$br. gwaoúamMm`m™Zr Z°ÓH$Â`©{g{’,
~´˜{g{’, Cn{ZfX^mÓ` dm{V©H$o d nßMrH$aUQ>rH$m Am{U A›`
H$mhr J´Wß {b{hbo. {d¤ŒmoZo d ‡{g’rZo ho eßH$amMm`m™Mo gdm™V
lo> {eÓ` hmoV.o AmMm`© H$mßMrbm gd©kmZ nrR>mda AmÍ$T> hmoVmZm
ho {VWo CnpÒWV hmoV.o
***
VrW©`mÃm H$arV AmMm`© lrdÑr `oWo Ambo. {VWo ‡ª`mV
_r_mßgH$ ‡^mH$a amhmV hmoV.o À`mßZm n•œdrYa ZmdmMm _wbJm hmoVm.
Voam dfm™Mm Pmbm Var Vmo H$mhrM ~mobV Zgo. AmMm`m™Mr ª`mVr
EoHy$Z ‡^mH$a À`mß¿`m Xe©Zmg Jobm d À`mZo n•œdrYambm
AmMm`m™¿`m MaUr An©U Ho$bo. d Amnbr Ï`Wmhr gmß{JVbr.
n•œdrYamZo AmMm`m™Zm gmÔ>mJß Z_ÒH$ma KmVbm. AmMm`m™Zr À`mbm
{dMmabo,
""H$ÒÀdß {eemo, H$Ò`, Hw$Vmo{g J›Vm?
{H$ß Zm_ Vo, Àdß Hw$V AmJVmo{g?
EV›_`mo∫$ß dX Mm^©H$Àdß
_À‡rV`o ‡r{V{ddY©Zmo@{g &&''
""dÀgm, Vy H$moU Amhog? H$moUmMm Amhog? H$moR>o OmV
Amhog? VwPo Zmd H$m`? Vy H$moR>yZ Ambmg? `m _m¬`m ‡ÌZmßMr
CŒmao Xo. Vwbm nmhˇZ _bm gßVmof dmQ>Vmo. Vy gßVmof dmT>{dUmam
Amhog.'' AmMm`m™Zr Ago {dMmaVmM n•œdrYa ~moby bmJbm, Vo
˚cmoH$~’M! Vmo ÂhUmbm,
""Zmhß _ZwÓ`mo, Z M Xod`jm° &
Z ~´m˜Uj{Ã`d°Ì`ey–m: &
Z ~´˜Mmar Z J•hr dZÒWmo &
{^jwZ© Mmhß {ZO~moYÍ$n: &&'
""_r _ZwÓ` Zmhr, Xod qH$dm `j Zmhr. _r ~´m˜U, j{Ã`,
d°Ì` dm ey– Zmhr. _r ~´˜Mmar, J•hÒWml_r, dmZ‡ÒWr dm gß›`mgr
Zmhr. _r Ho$di AmÀ_~moYÍ$n Amho.''

^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ
w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$

147

gbJ ~mam ˚cmoH$mß_‹`o À`mZo Amnbß {ZOÒdÍ$n dU©Z Ho$bß.
AmMm`© CX≤>Jmabo, "Aao, `mbm Va VihmVmdarb Amd˘`m‡_mUo
AmÀ_kmZ Pmbß Amho. hm hÒVm_bH$ Amho.' Am{U n•œdrYamMm
hÒVm_bH$' Pmbm. À`mMo Vo ~mam ˚cmoH$ "hÒVm_bH$ÒVmoÃ' ÂhUyZ
‡{g’ AmhoV. ÒdV: AmMm`m™Zr À`mda Q>rH$m {b{hbr Amho.
AmMm`m™Zm ‡^mH$amßZr nwà An©U Ho$bm AgÎ`mZo Vo À`mbm gmo~V
ZoD$ bmJbo; nU n•œdrYamMr AmB© emoH$ H$Í$ bmJbr. AmMm`m™Zr
{VMo gmßÀdZ H$aVmZm ÂhQ>b,o "nydÒ© _•Vr OmJ•V H$Í$Z nmhm. hm
_wbJm XmoZ dfm™Mm AgVmZm À`mbm KoD$Z VwÂhr EHo$ {Xder
ÒZmZmbm `_wZdo a Jobm hmoVm. VoWo `_wZm{H$Zmar EH$ `moJr ‹`mZÒW
~gbo hmoV.o VwÂhr À`m _wbmbm À`m¿`m g_rn R>do Zy bj R>do m`bm
gmßJZy ÒZmZmbm Jobm. nU _yb ZXr‡dmhmH$S>o Jobo d ‡dmhmV
nSy>Z JV‡mU Pmbo. VwÂhr ÒZmZ AmQ>mno Zy nwÃmMm emoY KoVmM Vo
_•V PmÎ`mMo {XgyZ Ambo. Vmo _•VXoh KoD$Z VwÂhr À`m `moΩ`mnwT>o
Q>mhmo \$moS>bm. Vw_¿`m hß~aS>ÁmZo Vmo –dbm. `moJ~bmZo À`mZo
Amnbm Xoh gmoS>yZ À`m _•V ~mbH$m¿`m earamV ‡doe Ho$bm. _yb
{OdßV Pmbo, ÂhUyZ VwÂhr AmZßXmZo Kar naVbmV. nU À`m¿`m
XohmV {g’ nwÈf {d⁄_mZ AgÎ`m_wio _wbJm gßgma ‡nßMm~‘b
H$mhrhr ~mobZo m. Vmo _wH$m OS>_Vr Amho, Ago VwÂhmbm dmQ>b.o
nU Vmo nyU© kmZr Amho. _mà VwÂhr À`mbm ‡nßMmV JwVß dy eH$Uma
Zmhr. VwÂhmbm bdH$aM EH$ gwnÃw hmoBb
© . `mbm AmÂhr ZoVmo.''
Voam dfm™¿`m hÒVm_bH$mbm AmMm`m™Zr gß›`mgXrjm {Xbr. AmVm
Vo "hÒVm_bH$mMm`©' Pmbo. ¤maHo$bm _R> ÒWmnyZ À`mßZm {VWbo
‡_wI AmMm`© Zo_bo.
***
Ho$di godZo o JwÍ$ß Zm ‡gfi H$Í$Z KoUmam eßH$amMm`m™Mm EH$
{eÓ` hmoVm, {Jar! À`mMo Iao Zmd H$bmZmW. hm H$mer¿`m
{dúZmWm‹d[aZ≤ ~´m˜UmMm nwÃ. ~w’rZo gm_m›` nU _ZmZo {Z_©i.
AmMm`m™da namH$moQ>rMr ^∫$s. EH${Z>nUo À`mßMr godm H$arV Ago.
AÀ`ßV {dZ_´. Vmo nd©VmgmaIm CßM hmoVm. ÂhUyZ À`mbm "{Jar'
ÂhUV. Am{U gJioM À`mbm {Jar ÂhUy bmJbo. AmMm`m™Mm nmR>
Vmo EH$mJ´{MŒmmZo l’mnydH© $ EoH$V Ago.
EHo$ {Xder gH$mir AmMm`m™Mm nmR> gwÍ$ Ïhm`Mm hmoVm.
{Jar AmMm`m™¿`m N>mQ>Ám Yw `mgmR>r ZXrda Jobm hmoVm. À`mbm
WmoS>m Cera bmJbm. AmMm`© À`mMr dmQ> nmhmV hmoV.o nŸnmX
AmMm`m™Zm ÂhUmbo, "AmnU {JarMr H$m dmQ> nmhmV AmhmV? Vmo
Agbm H$m` {Z Zgbm H$m`? AmnU nmR> gwÍ$ H$amdm.'
nŸnmXm_Yrb gy˙_ AhßH$mamH$S>o AmMm`m™Mo ~marH$ bj Job.o
148

Vo ÒV„Y Pmbo. BVä`mV Imß⁄mda N>mQ>ÁmßMo {nio Q>mHy$Z {Jar
`oVmZm {Xgbm. AmMm`m™Zr {Jarda H•$nm—Ô>r Q>mHy$Z Mmgwfr XrjoZo
À`mbm kmZr Ho$bo. Vmo AmÎ`mda Vo ÂhUmbo, ""{Jar, AmOMm nmR>
VyM gmßJ.'' {JarZo AmMm`m™Zm ‡{UnmV Ho$bm. "JwÈAmkm ‡_mU'
_mZyZ JwÈÒVwVrna EH$m_mJyZ EH$ AmR> ÌbmoH$, Vohr aMZobm AdKS>
Aem VmoQ>H$ d•ŒmmVbo EH$X_ aMyZ ÂhUy bmJbm.
""{d{XVm{IbemÛgwYmObYo
_{hVmon{ZfV≤>H${WVmW© {ZYo &
ˆX`o H$b`o {d_bß MaUß
^d eßH$a Xo{eH$ _o eaU_≤ &&'
`m JwÈÒVwVrVrb JyT> aMZm, ‡gfi ^mfme°br d A‹`mpÀ_H$
Ame` nmhˇZ gJio M{H$V Pmbo. À`m {XderMm nmR> À`mZoM
gmß{JVbm. Vmohr VmoQ>H$ d•ŒmmV! AmMm`© CÀÒ\y$V©nUo CX≤Jmabo,
""dm! dm! VmoQ>H$mMm`©'' Am{U VoÏhmnmgyZ {Jar "VmoQ>H$mMm`©'
ÂhUyZ {dª`mV Pmbo. À`mßZr {Xbobm nmR> AmOhr "Cn{ZfX≤
gmagßJh´ ' ÂhUyZ ‡{g’ Amho. nŸnmXmßZr AmMm`m™Zm XßS>dV KmbyZ
{Jarbm AmqbJZ {Xbo. AmMm`m™Zr nwT>o {Jarbm MVwWm©l_mMr Xrjm
{Xbr d ¡`mo{V_©R>mda ‡_wI AmMm`© ÂhUyZ Zo_bo. VmoQ>H$mMm`m™Zr
"VmoQ>H$-Ï`mª`m', "VmoQ>H$-ÌbmoH$', "lw{Vgma g_w’aU' B. J´Wß
{b{hbo.
***
Am⁄ eß H $amMm`m™ M o nŸnmXmMm`© , gw a o ú amMm`© ,
hÒVm_bH$mMm`©, VmoQ>H$mMm`© `mß¿`m{edm` {MÀgwI, {MX≤{dbmg,
ew’H$s{V©, úoV~´˜nmX, {dúJwU, kmZHß$X, g{_Ànm{U, {dÓUwJ·w ,
^mZw_arM, H•$ÓUXe©Z, ~w{’d•’r, {d[a®{MnmX, ew’mZßX hohr ‡_wI
{eÓ` hmoV.o nU n≈>{eÓ` n{hbo Mma hmoV,o ¡`mßZm AmMm`m™Zr
nrR>m{YnVr Zo_bo. d°{XH$ Y_m©Mr ‹dOm OJ^a \$S>H${dUmË`m
gß›`mgr- g߇Xm`mMr gßKQ>Zm ^maVdfm©V C^r H$aVmZm Am⁄
eßH$amMm`m™Mr ^y{_H$m H$m` hmoVr, À`mßZr AmnÎ`m {eÓ`mßZm VoÏhm
H$m` gmß{JVbo, Vo nmhˇ `m. AmMm`© ÂhUmbo,
""¡`m {damQ>e∫$s¿`m B¿N>Zo gw ma `m XohmZo O›_ KoVbm d
H$m`© Ho$bo, {VMrM B¿N>m VwÂhmbm ‡oaUm XoBb
© . g߇Xm`m{edm`
H$moUÀ`mhr {d⁄obm dm gmYZobm ÒWm`rÍ$n ‡m· hmoV Zmhr. doXm›V
gmYZoMm AmXe© gJ˘`m OJmMo gßnUy © H$Î`mU H$aUmam AmXe©
Amho. Vmo `m OJmV gw‡{V{>V H$a `mgmR>r d bmoH$mß¿`m _ZmV
ÈO{d `mgmR>r VwÂhr gß›`mgrgßK ÒWmnZ H$am. ^maVm¿`m Mma
{XemßZm Mma _R> ÒWmnZ Pmbo nm{hOoV. nŸnmX, gwaoúa,
hÒVm_bH$ d VmoQ>H$ ho _mPo Mma ‡_wI{eÓ` `m Mma _R>mMß o ‡W_

^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ
w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$

_R>mYre hmoVrb. _mPo BVa {eÓ` À`mßMo ghH$mar ÂhUyZ H$m`©
H$aVrb. Vw_Mr {eÓ`naßnam [Z_m©U hmoBb
© . Vr AmnmnÎ`m JwÍ$¿`m
Aml`mZo d À`mß¿`m {Z`ßÃUmImbr amhrb. X{jUoV l•Jß ao r_R>
ÒWmnZ Pmbm Amho. À`mMo AmMm`© gwaúo a hmoVrb. npÌM_obm
¤maH$mYm_ Amho. VoWrb _R>mMo ‡W_ AmMm`© hÒVm_bH$ hmoVrb.
nydH} $S>o nwarYm_r Omo _R> ÒWmnZ hmoBb
© , À`mMo ‡W_ AmMm`© nŸnmX
hmoVrb d CŒmaogmR>r ¡`mo{VYm©_mV EH$m _R>mMr ÒWmnZm H$am. À`mMo
AmMm`©nX VmoQ>H$mßZm Xo `mV `mdo.
""VrW© d Aml_ g߇Xm` ¤maH$m_R>m¿`m AmYrZ amhVrb.
dZ d Aa `g߇Xm` nwarYm_ `oWrb JmodY©Z _R>m¿`m AZwemgZmV
dmJVrb. {Jar nd©V d gmJa g߇Xm` ¡`mo{V_©R>m¿`m AZwkVo amhˇZ
H$m`© H$aVrb. gaÒdVr, ^maVr, nwar g߇Xm` l•ßJoar _R>m¿`m
Ï`dÒWoZgw ma dmJVrb. gß›`memßMo ho Xhm g߇Xm` AemarVrZo `m
Mma _R>m¿ß `m AmYrZ amhˇZ AmnmnÎ`m _R>m¿ß `m {Z`_mßZgw ma dmJyZ
d À`mß¿`m AmXoemßMo nmbZ H$Í$Z Y_m©Zw>mZ d ‡MmaH$m`©
Mmb{dVrb.
""`m Mma _R>m¿ß `m AmYmao Mma doXmßMrhr {d^mJUr H$er
amhrb, Vo gmßJVmo. ¤maH$m_R>mV gm_doXmMo, JmodY©Z _R>mV
F$ΩdoXmMo, ¡`mo{V_©R>mV AWd©doXmMo d l•ßJoar_R>mV `Owd}XmMo
‡mYm›` amhrb. VX≤Zgw ma ho Mma _R> H´$_e: "VŒd_{g', "‡kmZß
~´˜', "A`_mÀ_m ~´˜', "Ahß ~´˜mpÒ_' `m _hmdmä`mßZm
AmYma^yV _mZyZ AmnmnÎ`m gmYZm Mmb{dVrb.''
(AmMm`©‡{UV _R>mÂZm`, eofmÂZm` d _hmZwemgZ `m
J´Wß m¿`m eofmßemdÍ$Z.)
AmMm`© eßH$amßMo _R> AZwemgZ ~’ hmoV.o À`m À`m _R>mVß
À`m À`m doXmMo A‹``Z H$aUo, À`m À`m _hmdmä`mMo qMVZ H$aUo,
Y_©ajU H$aUo, bmoH$mßZm CnXoe H$Í$Z À`mß¿`mV JwUmoÀH$fm©{df`r,
Zr{V{df`r ‡r{V {Z_m©U H$aUo, À`mß¿`mH$Sy>Z À`mßZm {‡` AgUmË`m
XodVoMr CnmgZm H$Í$Z KoU,o `moJm‰`mgmbm `moΩ` Vr {Xem XmI{dUo,
‡dMZo, ^mÓ`o, gßdmX B. ¤mam bmoH$mßMo g_mYmZ H$aUo- hr
_R>dm{g`mßMr {ZÀ`H$_} Va hmoVrM; nU AmnÎ`m AmMaUmZo,
Mm[aÕ`mZo bmoH$mßZm gX≤dV©ZmMm ‹`mg KoD$Z gX≤dV©Z H$amdo, ZrVrMr
hÀ`m H$Í$ Z`o ÂhUyZ _R>dm{g`mßZr AmnÎ`m AmXe© OrdZmV
{Vi_mÃhr CUrd R>do y Z`o, Aer AmMm`m™Mr ‡Ia Amkm hmoVr.
AmMm`m™¿`m _mJ©Xe©ZmZwgma "gmYmaU' gßdÀgamV _mK
ewäb g·_rbm ¤maH$mnrR>mMr ÒWmnZm Pmbr. hÒVm_bH$mMm`©
n{hbo A{YnVr. "amjg' gßdÀgamV nm°f ew’ nm°{U©_obm
¡`mo{V_©R>mMr {h_mb`mV ÒWmnZm Pmbr. VmoQ>H$mMm`© n{hbo

A{YnVr. "Zb' gßdÀgamV d°emI ew’ Xe_rbm OJfimWnwarbm
JmodY©Z_R>mMr ÒWmnZm Pmbr. nŸnmXmMm`© n{hbo A{YnVr.
"qnJb' gßdÀgamV nm°f nm°{U©_b
o m e•Jß ao r _R>mMr ÒWmnZm Pmbr.
gwaúo amMm`© n{hbo _R>m{YnVr. Am{U "{g’mWu' gßdÀgamV d°emI
nm°{U©_b
o m H$mßMrbm H$m_H$moQ>r nrR>mMr ÒWmnZm Pmbr. {VMo n{hbo
AmMm`© ÒdV: Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© hmoV.o
AmMm`m™Mo Mma CŒm_ {eÓ` nwT>o, CŒm_ AmMm`© Pmbo.
AmMm`© "OJX≤JÈw ' hmo `mV `m Mma {eÓ`moŒm_mßMm _mobmMm dmQ>m
Amho. EH$Xm VrW©`mÃoMr AZwkm _mJUmË`m nŸnmXmbm AmMm`m™Zr
Omo CnXoe Ho$bm, VmoM JmoS> Kmg AmnUhr AßVr godZ H$È`m.
AmMm`© ÂhUmbo, ""dÀgm, JwÈgmhM`© hrM Iar VrW©`mÃm Amho.
JwÈMaUm_•V hoM Iao VrWm}XH$ Amho. JwÍ$ß ¿`m R>m`r BÔ> X°dV nmhUo
hoM Iao XodXe©Z Amho. JwÍ$ß Odi amhˇZ À`mßMr godm H$aUo ÂhUOo
gd©VrW©gdo mM Amho!''
gm°. gwZßXm AmZßX em{iJ´m_
"{dúZmWÒ_•{V' ‚b∞Q> 3, XŒmdmS>r nmobrg Mm°H$s
g_moarb boZ, nwUo 30.
\$moZ. 24334750
With Best Wishes
to Kalyani issue on Adya Shankarcharya
from

M/s Amolakchand
Kapurchand Khater
Promoters & Builders

60, Ruturaj Society, Pune-Satara
Road, Pune 411037.
M. 92255 00121

^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ
w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$

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the embodiment of compassion to humanity.‡H$aU Bhagawat Geeta introduction he says- VÃodß g{V Y_m©Y_m}nM`m{XÔ>m{ZÔ>O›_X˛:Im{X‡m{·bjU: gßgmamo@ZwnaVmo ^d{VVV: gßgma~rO^yVm° emoH$_mohm° & V`mo¸ AmÀ_kmZmV Zm›`V: {Zd•{Œm: B{V VX˛n{X{Xjw: gd©bmoH$mZwJ´hmZ≤ {Z{_ŒmrH•$À` Amh ^JdmZ≤ dmgwXod:Aemo¿`mZ≤ && BÀ`m{X. J´Wß . He emphasized and made it explicitly clear that MOKSHA can be gained only through ATMA JNANA.product SADHANAS. Bhagawat Geeta and Brahma Sutras. {MŒmÒ` ew’`o H$_© Z dÒVynb„Y`o & dÒVw{g{’{d©MmaoU Z qH${MV≤ H$_©H$mo{Q>{^: && ({ddoH$MyS>m_Ur) Hence he is said as H$ÈUmb`ß. At the world level. He helped the entire humanity (laymen) by his work of STOTRAS/ Prayers on all dieties. OM TATSAT SWAMI SATSWARUPANANDA SARASWATI ^JdV≤ ny¡`nmX OJX≤JÈ w Am⁄ eßH$amMm`© {deofmßH$ 165 . Not a philosopher as people say.teacher. Then are they to be totally Rejected? No. They should be practiced with the changed attitude of DEVOTION to ISWARA.(‡ÒWmZÃ`r) Becasue of this he was referred as ^mÓ`H$ma. He is an Acharya. Hence he often says kmZmXod Vw H°$dÎ`ß. He also helped all Vedantic students by his indepedent works . He was not a mere logician or _m`mdmXr. AJNANA. as people say. But for him. which is acknowledged by one and all Vedantic Scholars.His great and popular statement. he says AkmZ.e. Why? because they are all in the field of the cause of SAMSARA i. He taught by this way of studying and also teaching (^mÓ`) on Upanishada. which will help in preparing the ANTHAKARANA for ATMA JNANAM- A{damo{YV`m H$_© Z A{d⁄mß {d{ZdV©`Vo & {d⁄m@{d⁄mß {Zh›À`od VoZ {V{_a gßJdV≤ && (AmÀ_~moY) Since AkmZ gives rise to emoH$. and never through other Sadhana's. AJNANA being similar to darkness. enjoyer and sufferer and that is my reality.The greatness of Sankaracharya SWAMI SATSWARUPANANDA SARASWATI ""lw{VÒ_•{VnwamUmZmß Amb`ß H$ÈUmb`ß Z_m{_ ^JdÀnmXß eßH$aß bmoH$eßH$a_≤ && Poojya Sankara Charya is the greatest of teachers in the field of Advaita Vedanta. How or why does AJNANA give rise to gßgma if anyone asks. In ÌbmoH$mY}Z ‡d˙`m{_ `X˛∫$ß J´›WH$mo{Q>{^: & ~´˜ gÀ`ß OJp›_œ`m Ordmo ~´˜d° Zm@na: && As long as one has opposite vision to what is stated above we will have unbroken/ repeated SAMSARA. the VISION OF VEDANTA would have remained ever in the wilderness of confusion. That is great disre- spect people show to him. Born and liable to death and inbetween that I am doer. His style through his commentaries was unique and simple to understand but had its own depth. can not be dispelled by its own by.causes mistaken notions about oneself as well as the world. they think that the world is real gÀ`ß and its causes Sukham and dukham. At one's own level one thinks and mistakes that I am Body. this product of AkmZ can be removed only through kmZ he says. But he says that our Vedanta says.

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