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Tim Williams Elmac Services
This presentation discusses the nature of conducted interference with particular respect to the requirements of present-day commercial test standards. Equivalent circuits are presented and analysed so that the principle modes and routes of coupling can be understood in the general case. These principles can then be applied to a particular design in order to diagnose and fix interference coupling problems.
CISPR 22. for instance. and whether it is coupled via the mains port or via signal ports. The vast majority of CISPR.and IEC-based EMC test standards require testing of all phenomena on the mains port. many require immunity testing on signal ports and more tests are being proposed. 2 . now requires conducted RF emissions testing on telecommunications ports.Conducted coupling Mains Port Signal Ports Conducted RF emissions Conducted RF immunity Conducted transient immunity Mandatory Occasional Usual Usual Mandatory Usual 2 Conducted interference can be classified according to whether it is incoming or outgoing.
3 .Mains emissions: equivalent circuit EUT VDM L LISN N VCM E 3 The basic equivalent circuit for conducted emissions testing on the mains port is shown here. and between neutral and earth. and in the other case between both live and neutral with respect to earth. The connection to the mains is made via a length of cable which should also be included in the model for best accuracy. If the apparatus is Safety Class II there is no earth wire. generalised here as appearing in one case between live and neutral. but common mode signals can still return via the stray capacitance to the ground plane. The mains connection is represented by the AMN/LISN giving a defined RF impedance between live and earth. The EUT contains both differential and common mode sources. but is not included in this discussion.
4 . will also appear in differential mode. Diode noise. the high di/dt through this capacitor will generate voltages at the harmonics of the switching frequency across its equivalent series impedance. In circuits with switch-mode power supplies or other power switching circuits the RF emissions are dominated by interference developed across the DC link to the switching devices. if it is significant. Although there will normally be a reservoir capacitor.Differential mode sources EUT L ZDM VDM N Differential mode source voltage and impedance Typical source: switching current develops voltage across SMPS DC link 4 Differential mode sources appear between live and neutral connections without reference to the earth connection.
5 . The coupling is dominated by the interwinding capacitance of the isolating transformer and the stray capacitances of noise sources. A well-shielded enclosure will minimise "leakage" of this capacitive coupling and hence reduced conducted emissions. both in the power supply (e. These capacitances are referred to earth. it is usual for common mode coupling to be capacitive.g.Common mode sources EUT Circuit PS VCM Common mode source voltage and impedance Typical sources: SMPS dV/dt and circuit noise via stray capacitance 5 Common mode sources are more complex. either directly or via the enclosure if this is conductive. Since the mains input is normally isolated from earth. Other impedances may appear in the coupling path: for instance the leakage inductance of the isolating transformer is in series with its interwinding capacitance and may give a series resonant peak in the MHz range. from heatsinks) and the operating circuit. The common mode voltage appears between both live and neutral with respect to earth.
The AMN/LISN 50µH VDM = VN . but each can be obtained by summing or differencing the two lines. 6 . Its characteristics are defined in CISPR 16-1. This reference is connected to the earth reference plane of the test setup.VL Mains supply to EUT 50Ω VN VL 5Ω VCM = VN + VL 6 The Line Impedance Stabilising Network (LISN) forms part of the overall equivalent circuit for testing. Voltages are measured across each line with respect to the earth reference and the higher voltage gives the test result. This test does not measure either common or differential mode directly. which requires an impedance of 50Ω in parallel with 50µH + 5Ω between each phase (live and neutral) and the earth reference point.
LCM).The mains filter 2 x CY LCM CX CX filters differential mode CY. 7 . Normally. capacitors should face the higher impedance and inductors should face the lower impedance. in order to take advantage of its leakage inductance. the Y-capacitors will face the equipment in order to provide a capacitive divider with the common mode source capacitance. it should be installed in the correct sense. Although a mains filter does not have an "input" or "output". The X-capacitor will be more effective on the mains side of the choke. In general. The typical mains filter includes components to filter both differential mode (CX) and common mode (CY. LCM filter common mode 7 Application of a mains filter is usual in most cases of mains conducted interference.
In all the relevant tests. Filtering all connections to the enclosure to ensure the current bypasses the circuit will provide the optimum solution.Mains immunity: equivalent circuit Coupling/decoupling network circuit EUT external connections injected interference 8 A similar equivalent circuit can be devised for analysing mains-borne conducted immunity. live. Testing of the earth line is the major difference between these tests and the emissions tests. and/or it may return via external connections which are coupled to earth. 8 . neutral and earth. thereby affecting operation. The return path for the interference current may include stray capacitance to the test earth reference plane. Here it generates differential voltages across stray impedances at critical circuit nodes. Common mode coupling is the principle path. The interwinding capacitance of the isolating transformer passes the interference into the operating circuit. the interference is injected via a coupling/decoupling network (CDN) into all three of the mains lines.
The CDN does not have a well-defined source impedance. 9 .Transient coupling (IEC 61000-4-4) Fast transient bursts 9 Fast transient burst testing couples the transients into each mains line capacitively via a CDN. the burst generator is specified to be approximately 50Ω. The burst generator is referenced to the earth plane.
Modulated RF then appears at all conductors of the mains cable with this source impedance. 10 . All lines are tested simultaneously. and returns by stray capacitance to the earth plane and by any external connections. but the CDN is specified differently. which in this test are required to have a stabilised 150Ω impedance to the earth plane.RF coupling (IEC 61000-4-6) Rtot = 100Ω Modulated RF ZS = 50Ω 10 Conducted RF injection via a CDN on the mains port is very similar to fast transients. The source impedance at the EUT port of the CDN is specified as 150Ω with respect to the earth reference plane. The RF current flows through the EUT via both the power supply and the enclosure (if this is earthed).
possibly mediated by the enclosure if this is conductive. The noise sources may be modelled as the contribution of all circuit noise referred between the port connection and the earth reference by stray capacitance.Signal port conducted emissions Circuit PS VN ICM EUT mains connection RF current measurement impedance stabilisation 11 Conducted emissions tests at the signal ports are likely to be increasingly required in the future. 11 . into a cable whose common mode impedance is stabilised. either at the port or along the cable. The actual desired signal carried by the port will also contribute if its bandwidth is within the test spectrum and there is conversion of differential mode signal to common mode. but all of these measure the common mode current or voltage being emitted from each port. Various test methods may be applied.
differences in internal stray impedances will convert this to differential interfering voltages at critical circuit nodes. Good PCB layout will minimise this conversion and hence improve the inherent circuit immunity. Although the interference is applied in common mode at the port. 12 . Either continuous RF or transients may be involved.Signal port conducted immunity capacitive clamp Circuit PS CDN Fast transient bursts EUT RF 12 Immunity of signal ports is a frequent requirement of many test standards. Further protection is provided by common mode filtering at each interface to divert the interference currents away from the circuit and into the chassis. In either case common mode coupling is the norm. The currents then return to the earth reference either directly (if a direct connection exists) or via stray capacitance from the chassis.
Summary • interference may be conducted into or out of apparatus. West Sussex.co. Tim Williams is with: Elmac Services. PO Box 111. on • either or both of the mains supply and signal ports 13 Conducted interference is dealt with by filtering all appropriate interfaces and by proper shielding. in • differential or common mode.uk 13 . PO19 5ZS Tel 01243 533361 Fax 01243 790535 http://www. Understanding the equivalent circuits for each coupling case allows the correct implementation of these measures.elmac. as • continuous RF or transients. Chichester.
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