2001 APCO/NENA State Training Conference

January 19, 2001

An Antenna is :
An effective interface between the radio and free space:
Free space
Radio

Antenna

For Terrestrial Communications, antennas must be directional:

Radio

Terrestrial Microwave Antennas for Point-To-Point Communication • Terrestrial microwave antennas generate a beam of RF signal to communicate between two locations. such as buildings. • Obstructions. different types can be utilized. • Point-To-Point communication depends upon a clear line of sight between two microwave antennas. • Depending upon the location. usage and frequency. • We will address the basic characteristics of these various types… . trees or terrain interfere with the signal.

Electrical Performance Parameters Gain Cross-Polar Discrimination (XPD) Radiation Pattern Envelope Interport Isolation (IPI) Front to Back Ratio (F/B) Return Loss (VSWR) .

Parabolic Antenna Directive Gain Ga (dBi) = 10 log10 h [ 4 p Aa / l2 ] Where: Ga = Antenna Directive Gain (Catalog spec) h = Aperture Efficiency (50-55%) Aa = Antenna Aperture Area l = Wavelength (speed of light / frequency) .

6 40.6 47.5m) 37 43.4 51.7 NA NA 10 ft (3.6 37.6 34.1 50.6 35.8m) 29.1 44.2m) 25.5 29.4m) 31.3 51 NA NA NA 12 ft (3.Typical Parabolic Antenna Gain in dBi Antenna Diameter 2 ft (0.1 6 ft (1.5 39.6 46.9 NA 8 ft (2.4 49.9 52.6 46.6 41.6 49.1 44.5 31.1 41.1 4 ft (1.5 25.1 49.1 51.2 49.3 37 38.4 45.1 43.6 NA NA NA 15 ft (4.6 40.6 48.4 43.1 37.0m) 33.1 46.5 43.6 41.8 NA NA NA NA 2 GHz 4 GHz 6 GHz 8 GHz 11 GHz 15 GHz 18 GHz 22 GHz 38 GHz Frequency .7m) 35.1 31.1 43.6m) 19.1 38.1 35.1 45.5 48.9 46.

Radiation Pattern Concept Antenna Under Test Antenna Test Range Source Antenna .

Radiation Pattern about Bore sight .

Cut Through Radiation Pattern at Boresight .

Front to Back Ratio • Ratio of the signal level at beam peak to that directed behind the antenna • Considered in intra-system interference calculation (hop overreach) • Expressed in dB .

Co-Polarization and Cross-Polarization • Co-Polarization – Where Transmit & Receive Antennas have the Same Polarization – Either Horizontal or Vertical (HH or VV) – In your System. – In your System. The Unwanted Signal X-polarized patttern Azimuth Angle . The Wanted Signal Relative Power Co-polarized antenna pattern XPD • Cross-Polarization – Where Transmit & Receive Antennas have Different Polarizations – Either HV or VH.

Inter-port Isolation (IPI) Feed Horn • • • Leakage of Signal Between Antenna Ports Internal Noise Expressed in dB Towards Reflector Transmit Signal Leakage Signal .

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) Incident Signal Reflected Signal VSWR = 1 + (Reflection Coefficient) 1 .13) Reflection Coefficient : 9.1% (0.038) Reflection Coefficient : 2.06 Reflection Coefficient : 13% (0.(Reflection Coefficient) • • • • • VSWR : 1.30 VSWR : 1.047) Reflection Coefficient : 3.029) .9% (0.08 VSWR : 1.8% (0.10 VSWR : 1.091) Reflection Coefficient : 4.20 VSWR : 1.7% (0.

029) VSWR : 1.06 .30 VSWR : 1.7% (0.8dB RL : 26.Return Loss The Amount of Energy Lost due to Reflected (Returned) Signal RL = -20 x log (Reflection Coefficient) • • • • • RL : 17.4dB RL : 30.1% (0.8% (0.091) Reflection : 4.047) Reflection : 3.9% (0.7dB Reflection : 13% (0.7dB RL : 28.10 VSWR : 1.20 VSWR : 1.08 VSWR : 1.038) Reflection : 2.13) Reflection : 9.8dB RL : 20.

Basic Antenna Types Standard Parabolic Antenna Focal Plane Antenna Shielded Antenna GRIDPAK® Antenna .

7GHz • Shipped in Flat. Lightweight Package .GRIDPAK® Antenna • Grid Reflector • Low Wind load • Single Polarized • Below 2.

Standard Parabolic Antenna • Basic Antenna • Comprised of – Reflector – Feed Assembly – Mount .

Focal Plane Antenna • Deeper Reflector • Edge Geometry • Improved F/B Ratio • Slightly Lower Gain .

Shielded Antenna • Absorber-Lined Shield • Improved Feed System • Planar Radome • Improved RPE .

Antenna Efficiency Well-designed antennas have efficiency ratings of 45 .65% Efficiency Factor Affected By : • Feed Illumination • Aperture Blockage • Reflector Surface Tolerance Efficiency can never be 100% .

Antenna f/D Ratio f f D f/D = 0.333 D f/D = 0.250 Standard & Shielded Antennas Focal Plane Antennas .

Unwanted Signals Scattering Spillover Diffraction .

Front to Back Ratio Direction of Signal Direction of Signal Direction of Signal Standard Parabolic Antenna Focal Plane Antenna Shielded Antenna .

25 0.49 0.25 0.84 Beamwidth in Degrees .12 Frequency 2 GHz 6 GHz 8 GHz 11 GHz 14 GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz 38 GHz 35 11.5 1.63 0.5 0.3 m 0.4 m 4.18 3.26 0.19 1.2 0.2 m 8.5 m 2.38 0.36 5 3.38 3.18 2.89 3 1.8 m 5.3 0.39 0.Parabolic Reflector Beamwidth 3dB Diameter 0.33 0.84 0.5 1.38 1.17 0.46 1 0.58 0.94 1.31 2.15 4.52 0.7 m 2.67 8.83 4.97 0.41 0.92 1.83 1.46 1 0.78 0.46 1.5 5.88 0.64 0.59 1.71 0.23 3m 3.83 0.94 1.65 0.75 2.8 0.76 0.95 0.92 2.51 0.33 0.42 0.32 0.75 6.52 0.6 m 17.

Degrees from Main Lobe .Radiation Pattern Envelope 0 10 dB down from Main Lobe 20 30 Antenna Directivity 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 5 10 15 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Azimuth .

Snow and Dirt .Radomes • Reduce Windloading on Tower • Protection Against Ice.

Other Antenna Options High XPD antennas Dual beam antennas Dual band antennas Low profile antennas Integrated antennas .

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