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CCTV System Components: • CCTV Basic Components • Camera and Lens • Transmission & Monitoring • Video Management • Digital Video Concept
How do we see things?
Light Sensor Light Source Foot Candle (Lux)
Light Source Measurement
• Sensitivity , measured in foot candles or lux indicates the minimum light level required to get an acceptable video picture. • Minimum scene illumination indicates the minimum light required at the scene to get an acceptable video picture.
for example by a 100W bulb. such as how much light is radiated. One candela of radiated light is approximately equal to the light radiated by a common candle. One lux is equal to one candela illuminating an object at a (point to point) distance of one meter. is termed luminous flux and luminous intensity.Illumination Illumination is not a measure of “light strength” strength” or “light power” power”. . The unit of luminous flux is the lumen and the unit of luminous intensity is the candela. The measure of “light power” power”.
Camera and Lens .
7V =100 IRE 0.The Light Sensor CCD = Charge Coupled Device The Chip is made up of “Light sensors” sensors” They react to the differences of light Intensity and cause the changes in voltage P HO T O S E NS O R V E RT ICA L S HIFT RE G IS T E R (P IX E L ) 0.3V =40 IRE 1 Vp-p=140 IRE O UT P UT A M P L IFIE R HO RIZO NT A L S HIFT RE G IS T E R INTERLINE TRANSFER SYSTEM .
Lower Production Costs. Robust physical Construction Condition: Sensitivity to light .CCD Chip LIGHT INPUT CCD SAMPLING ANALOG STORAGE REGISTER READOUT REGISTER OUTPUT AMP AN ALOG VID EO OUT DIG ITAL CLOCKING AND CONTROL Advantage: Small Size.
6 1/4” 2.7 Attention! Be careful which size lens is chosen for the camera.6 1/2” 4.The available CCD Chip in market The Size of the CCD Chip is in Inches Width to height ratio is 4:3 (16:9) 8.4mm 4.6mm 2/3” 6.8mm 6.8 1/3” 3. .8mm 3.
The light is gathered 100 % 75% CCD CAME RA HUMAN EYE 50% 25% 0% 400 BLUE 500 600 700 RED 800 900 WAVELENGTH (nm) GREEN YELLOW MERCU RY MULTIVAPOR SODIUM VAPOR UV FLUORESCENT (DAYLIGHT) TUNGSTEN LIGHT INFRARED B/W-Cameras collect the B/Wlight also the invisible light so called IR light Infra red spectrum Color Cameras work only with corrected illumination The best light is daylight Not only is the amount of light important but also the type of light The closer the light source is to actual sunlight. the better the picture quality will be REL A TI VE RE SPO NS E .
Why aren't color cameras as sensitive as BW cameras? Cameraelectronics Lens IR-Blocking filter CCD Chip Color filter IR-Light reduces the Quality of the Color signals and that is why it is filtered .
medium. IP cameras. that is why the measurement for CCD cell resolution is TV Line . do not use TV Line as measurement. The charge in each cell must be refreshed or it will become saturated and produce no picture. The refresh signal was sent line by line through transmission medium.3V =40 IRE 1 Vp-p=140 IRE As CCD receive light. instead they use Pixel. because they work in different way.CCD Refreshing Operations 0. Odd lines was refreshed refreshed first before the even lines. the more the signal line. TV Line measurement only applied to Analog camera. The process of refreshing is done line by line. .7V =100 IRE 0. The more the CCD cells. it builds up electric charge in each of its its cells. This method of refreshing is called Interlacing.
The CCTV lens has four basic functions: • • • • Lens Format Focal Length Control Iris Control BackBack -Focus Control .
526 mm C LENS: The one time industry standard lens with an imager focal point to flange surface distance of 17.526mm CS LENS: A smaller lens used with 1/2" and smaller cameras with an imager focal point to flange surface distance of 12. .497 mm Simply stated. CS-mount) Focal Point of CS Lens CS Lens XX C Lens Focal Point of C Lens Flange 12. the focal point of the lens is the point where the lens focuses.5mm.5 Surface mm 17. The camera's imager needs to be positioned at the focal point of the C or CS lens to produce a focused image. CS-Mount CS-Mount Lens Camera CCD-Chip Back Focus 12.Lens mounting setting (C-mount vs.
1/2" Format Lens 1/2" imager Both imagers are filled with light 1/3" Format Lens 1/3" imager . (Lens Function 1) Each lens is formatted to a particular imager size (1/3”. 1/2”. 2/3”).Lens Format A lens is designed to fill an imager (CCD) with light.
This will NOT fill the imager with light. 1/2" Format Lens 1/3" imager 1/2" imager Both imagers are filled with light Do NOT use lens formats smaller than the cameras imager formats. 1/3" Format Lens Edges of image will be dark .Lens Format: Do and Don’t Always use a lens format equal to or greater than the camera imager format.no light 1/2" imager .
) (you will only see but not recognise a person or an object) .Focal Length: Surveillance Surveillance / Monitoring with an angle range of 1 to 8 mm (approx.
).Focal Length: Observation Observation with a range higher than 6 mm (approx. you can recognise a person person or an object) .
8 mm 6. provided that the same unit of measure is used throughout the formula.9 mm *Feet (FT) or meters(M) could be used in calculations.2 mm 8.6 mm 4.4 mm 3.Lens Basic Formula LENS FOCAL LENGTH (mm) IMAGER FORMAT DISTANCE IN FEET * FIELD of VIEW (mm) (Ft) * Distance (ft)* Lens (mm) = X Imager Format (mm) Field of View (ft)* 2/3" 1/2” 6. .4 mm 4.7 mm 1/4” 2.8 mm 1/3" 3.
7-75 mm 10-100 mm General rule: the smaller the focal length number.7 mm < 6 mm 4 mm 6 mm 8 mm 8 mm 12 mm 16 mm > 12 mm > 16 mm > 25 mm 5. the wider an area will be covered .Camera/Lens Field of View Common viewing angles and associated camera formats Horiz. general views Hallways. Wide Angle Wide angle Std. View 80 degrees 60 degrees 30 degrees 15 degrees Variable Reference Ex. wide viewing area Small lobbies.8 mm < 3. corridors Detailed. check outs Lobbies. View Telephoto Zoom Application Elevators. distant views 1/3 1/2" 2/3 < 2.8-58 mm 7.
About 30% .Focal Control Fixed Focal Length Lens Advantage Price (approx. etc.00 cheaper than Varifocal) Physical size is smaller Disadvantage Fixed focal length The planning is more difficult – not as flexible Use For projects like tunnel. €15. casino. Outside applications.
industries.Varifocal Length Lens Advantage Changes the angle every time. manual zoom Nearly a zoom lens. €15.00 than Fixed lenses) Physical size is bigger Not suited for all applications (zoom ratio) Focal Control Use For projects like shops. outside applications. etc. About 65% . but with a smaller zoom ratio Lower assembling costs Disadvantage More expensive (approx.
Zoom lens Advantage Changes the angle every time. € 250.00) Physical size is biggest Special applications needed Use Special projects Outside applications About 5% . usually motorized zoom ratio is high Focal Control Disadvantage Expensive (approx.
requiring camera to contain auto iris control circuitry. requiring connections to camera signal levels. Level is determined by the installer at setup. B) Manual Iris -Has an adjustable iris. or level controller. D) Auto-Iris -Has an adjustable iris. Level is determined by the operator. C) Motorized Iris -Has an adjustable iris. at the camera location. Automatic operation is maintained within the lens. E) Direct Drive Iris -Has an adjustable iris. Automatic operation is maintained within the camera. Level is determined by the video content. and can not adjust to varying lighting conditions. Level is determined by the video content.Iris Mechanisms A) No Iris -Has a non adjustable iris. "fixed" F-Stop. .
00) Physical size is bigger than manual iris Unsightly cable and connector Use All projects and applications About 75% .Iris Control Auto Iris (DC) Advantage Not an ideal position of the camera Strong back light Changing light conditions (dark – light) Connector is standardised Disadvantage More expensive (approx. €10.
8 f/1.Lens Aperture F-Stop LIGHT TRANSMISSION BY LENS decrease increase f/300* f/64* f/5.0 f/0.high (example: f/1.8 (Typical f-Stop values) -The larger the number.6 f/4 f/2. -Lenses are typically rated in an f/stop range. resulting in a change in light to the imager.4 f/1. -*Higher f/stop values utilize spot filters to operate in brighter light conditions. the smaller the opening. low .4-f/300) .
4 EveningAperture Fully OPEN .Depth of Field Change with aperture change f 300 DaylightSmall Aperture opening f 1.
Aspherical Technology An aspherical lens focuses the light passing through its centre and the light passing through its edges on a single point. sharply focused images. and the effective useful relative lens aperture is thereby increased by up to 2 aperture steps. This results in crisp. Compensation for Spherical Aberration Image Place Spherical lens Image Plane Aspherical Lens .
IR corrected lenses Visible Light and Infra Red light do not focus at the same point on CCD because of the difference of the wavelength. Standard Lens used under IR light conditions with Day/Night camera: Visible Light Focal Plane IR Light Focal Plane Day & Night Lens used under IR light conditions with Day/Night camera: IR Light IR Light Visible Light Visible Light Result: Blurry Image Result: Sharp Image .
IR corrected Lens Day & Night Lens Day time Night time Standard Lens .The Difference between Standard Lens vs.
Back Light Compensation 5. . Wide Dynamic Range 6. Automatic Gain Control 3. Auto White Balance 4.Knowing your camera Electronic Shutter 2. Lens Mounting Set 1.
Slow shutter speed Fast shutter speed . Automatic Shutter operation should not be used in conjunction with AutoAuto-Iris lenses. This allows manual iris lenses to be used in varying light conditions. The electronic shutter allows the camera to sample this light at faster rates providing a stop action effect while viewing moving objects. The faster the shutter rate will lower amount of light charge. Automatic Shutter operations allow the camera to automatically change the shutter rate in proportion to the amount of light seen by the imager.Electronic Shutter Operations Under normal operations the camera/imager samples light and produces an image 60 times a second (50 times for PAL/CCIR). effectively reducing the light level output of the camera.
. This will also increase the signal noise levels and could be considered objectionable. 0.3V =40 IRE 1 Vp-p=140 IRE Camera circuitry used to increase the sensitivity of the camera allowing it to produce an image in low levels of illumination. When “ON ON” ” AGC will provide an image in reduce light levels. The Higher the db the more sensitive to low light.7V =100 IRE 0.Automatic Gain Control (AGC) AGC regulates the Voltage Level (For lower light conditions you can raise the db level. AGC can be switched off increasing the signalsignal-to to-noise ratio but in turn reducing the sensitivity at low light levels.
MANUAL Manual R and B adjustment possible. This mode perform more faster action than ATW mode without operating range.000。K) AWB(AWC) The auto white balance function is provided with an orange-cyan axis offset adjustment and 64 segment photometric area designation.800。K ~ 8.Auto White Balance ATW Automatic Tracing White Balance Auto white balance function follows the change of light from the object. This mode is used for manual adjustment of white balance. ( Operating Range 2. This mode is the feedback system that automatically aligns the white balance. .
Back Light Compensation (BLC)
When the field of view contains a large brightly lit background and a smaller dimly lit foreground object the normal response of the camera/lens camera/lens is to reduce the light level across both areas. This would cause the smaller foreground area to be dark and undefinable. With backlight compensation “ON ON” ” camera circuitry will automatically adjust the cameras shutter operation within the foreground area to provide a usable picture in both areas.
Back light compensation OFF
Back light compensation ON
Wide Dynamic Range
Usage of latest DSP technology ( SONY SS2SS2WD) improved extended dynamic feature provides optimum picture information where standard cameras come up with overover - and/or underexposed picture areas
Can you tell the difference? Back Light Compensation Normal Mode
Video Transmission Maximum Transmission Distance: Coaxial : 500 m Twisted pair : 1500 m Fiber Optic m : 20000 .
200 m : Maximum Distance.Coaxial Cable Characteristics Pure copper center conductor Copper braid with at least 95% coverage Stranded where excessive cable movement • For optimum coax operation ALWAYS use a coax with a pure copper center conductor with at least a 95% copper shield. RG 59 RG 6 RG 11 : Maximum Distance. 350 m : Maximum Distance. 500 m .
simple handling PointPoint -to to-point connection No maintenance required No active amplifier required Disadvantages: Large space required due to wide diameter of cable Signal interference from electroelectro-magnetic sources Limited range: up to 200 m depending on cable specification Lightning protection expensive Separate cable required for control .When to use Coaxial cable Advantages: Low cost Simple to cable.
Video Signal Termination COAX 75 Ohm Termination Correct Good Termination .
Video Signal Termination with Multiple ends OR INPUT COAX 75 Ohm Termination OUTPUT Correct Good Termination Video Distribution Amp .
but reflect off the input and cause a ghosting effect on the first monitor. INCORRECT .Video Signal – No Termination PHILIPS Lack of termination causes the video to not terminate at the last monitor. (NC) COAX 75 Ohm Termination The unterminated signal may overdrive the monitor and wash-out the picture and/or cause distortion.
Video Signal – Double Termination PHILIPS Double termination weakens the signal. If the signal strength is low. the monitor could lose the sync signal required to lock onto the picture. due to long cable runs (etc. 75 Ohm Terminations COAX INCORRECT .). This will result in a faded picture. causing the picture to vertically roll.
Twisted Cable Transmission 1 pair of Twisted cable Transmitter 1 pair of Twisted cable Receiver .
When to use Twisted pair cable Advantages: Range up to 1500 m More resistant to Electromagnetic interference compared to Coaxial Coaxial Uses existing cable infrastructure Small space required due to narrow diameter of cable CostCost -effective for medium distances Control data can be transmitted on the same line Disadvantages: Active elements (transmitter and receiver required) Maintenance required (temperature(temperature-dependent) .
for example the Lift shaft. Transmitter . Active Twisted pair converter: Use power. Maximum transmission is 1500 m Commonly used for its longer range transmission and Electromagnetic Electromagnetic interference function.2 types of Twisted Pair Converters Passive Twisted pair converter: Use no power. Maximum transmission is 300 m Commonly used in short distance but high Electromagnetic interference interference environment.
2 5 A5 0 / 6 0 HZ OU TPU T: G AC 2 0 A VC.8 C D IN PU T: 2 3 0 VAC ..R M.2 3 0 2 GF 5 4 0 8 .Fiber Optic Transmission 12 VDC SI EM EN S POWER GRD 4 + 12 VDC 3 VIDEO IN 2 VIDEO GRD 1 4 3 2 1 Fiber Optic 1 CT F .3 A O P WE R CARR I ER O P WE R SI EM EN S SIEMENS .5 0 / 6 0 HZ .R M 2 GF 5 4 0 7 .8 C A CT F 2 1 4 1 .
Secure against tapping Low pallet and fire load (weight) No maintenance required Multiple transmission of signals possible Disadvantages: Higher cost (material and handling) Active elements (transmitter and receiver required) Significant effort and expense involved with changes in camera location Special installation training required .When to use Fiber Optic Advantages: Range up to 69 km Immune to Electromagnetic interference.
2 model of Fiber Optic Transmission Multi mode Fiber Optic transmission model: Maximum transmission is 4000 m The Fiber is more expensive while the Converter is cheaper compared to Single mode Multimode 62.5/125 micron 50/125 micron Singlemode 9/125 micron Single mode Fiber Optic transmission model: Maximum transmission is 60000 m The Fiber is cheaper while the converter is more expensive compared to Multi mode .
TCP/IP Transmission (LAN/WAN/Web) Decoder Controller IP-Network Encoder Camera .
When to use TCP/IP transmission Advantages: Uses existing network structures and hardware No range limit within the network Internet integration possible Disadvantages: Hardware cost Bandwidth restriction for image transmission speed Bandwidth restriction for image transmission quality .
MPEGMPEG -1 MPEGMPEG -2 MPEGMPEG -4 . Wavelet MJPEG Motion transmission formats : Lower security.Typical format used in TCP/IP transmission Picture transmission formats: Higher Security. smaller bandwidth required. larger bandwidth required.
What we are going to do with them? .Video Management We have got the image captured and safely transmitted to our Control Room.
The Video management must allow the guards to view as many cameras as possible possible with as few monitors as possible within the least investment as possible. When viewing camera every operator must pick one function by sacrificing sacrificing another: 1. To view all cameras at the same time with less clear image 3. To view one camera at a time in cycles with clearer image 2.Video Management System Based on the principle of Cost Saving and Efficiency. . To record all cameras and view all later with clearer image.
Video Switcher 1 2 3 4 Video Switcher allows the operator to view one camera at one time time in cycles with full image .
Multiplexer 1 n n 16 Multiplexer allows the operator to view all cameras at the same time with compressed image .
but it is programmable and and the size is usually bigger.Matrix 1 n n 16 Matrix is the same with Video Switcher. .
To save cost on recording media. A VCR is connected to a multiplexer or video video switcher to view later. . the recording recording is usually set to Time lapse motion.Time Lapse VCR 1 n n 16 For recording purpose.
.DVR LAN / WAN ISDN ADSL Alarm button DVR Screen The advancement of Digital Technology creates a new equipment which combined all the functions of multiplexer. video switcher. and VCR in a single system called Digital Video Recorder (DVR).
NVR Video Encoder Video Encoder Video Encoder Video Encoder Video Encoder NVR NVR NVR Video Decoder NVR Video Decoder Video Encoder TCP/IP The integration of security system with the Information Technology Technology (IT) start a new generation of DVR called Network Video Recorder (NVR). NVR possesses possesses all DVR capabilities plus the advantage of integration into IT advance advance advantages. NVR system transmit the Video signal in full TCP/IP. .
6. Ultrak. Resolution vs. Basic data communication: Dry contact. 8. Inside your Server: Bandwidth and Bottleneck. Integrated Security concept. frame rate. RS485. TTY. RS232. PelcoPelco-P. MJPEG. VCL. 2. ips Digital Video formats: Wavelet. Protocols: PelcoPelco-D. Panasonic. Router. RS422. CIF vs. 9. WAN. TCP/IP. TCP/IP access through: LAN. 5. TCP/IP basic hardware: Switch.IV. 4. . Internet. Gateway. Digital Video Concept 1. MPEG. 7. TCP/IP. Integrated Security in application. 3.
in order that both of us to understand each other. . When an electronic machine need to communicate with another machine. The way to access the communication medium. This rule is called Protocol. both of the machines machines need to agree to use the same rule of communication.Protocol When we need to talk to another people. etc. The format of the data used in the communication. mach ine. both of us need to agree to use the same language which both of us can understand. in order for the data do not get lost in the way. The Protocol can consist of: The level of voltage and current used.
1. all 7 protocol ‘MUST BE THE SAME’. Duplex. 7 levels of protocol are defined. Token ring Logical Link Control : Odd/even parity. CRC check Network protocol : IP (Internet Protocol) Transport protocol : TCP (Transport Control Protocol) Session protocol : Simplex. 5. 2. 4. ftp In order so that 2 machine can communicate. Half Duplex Presentation protocol : Firewall Application protocol : email. 6. which are divided into: Medium Access Control : Ethernet.Protocol There are many Protocols created. RS485. . www. RJ45 Datalink protocol. based on the standard made by International Standard Organization (ISO). they are: Physical protocol : RS232. RS422. 3. 7.
and GND. TX. device.Physical Protocol: RS-232 TX RX GND TX RX GND RS-232 is a Physical Protocol. 2 devices connected with RSRS-232 must have common ground. The opposite also the same. RSRSRS -232 communicate in full Duplex. In the wiring the TX in one device goes to the RX of the other device. The basic connection consists of 3 wirings. RX. Maximum distance of transmission is 12 m. .
TXTX-B. The opposite also the same. and RXRX-B. TXTX-A. . RXRX-A.Physical Protocol: RS-422 TX-A TX-B RX-A RX-B TX-A TX-B RX-A RX-B RS-422 is a Physical Protocol. RSRSRS -422 communicate in Full Duplex 2 devices communicate with RSRS-422 do not need to have common ground. In the wiring the TXTX-A and TXTX-B in one device goes to the RXRX-A and RXRX-B of the other device. The basic connection consists of 4 wirings. Maximum distance of transmission is 1200 m.
In the wiring the A goes to A and B goes to B on the other device device and so on. At last and the beginning the devices must be terminated with resistors 120 ohm. The basic connection consists of 2 wirings. .Physical Protocol: RS-485 A Termination 120 ohm B B A Termination 120 ohm RS-485 is a Physical Protocol. Maximum distance of transmission is 1200 m. A and B. RSRSRS -485 communicate in Half Duplex 2 devices communicate with RSRS-485 do not need to have common ground. It is possible to connect many devices with a single RSRS-485.
PTZ control high level protocols Every brand produce usually produce their own High Level Protocols Protocols to control the PTZ driver. . Protocol. These are several most common high level protocol we usually found found in market are: PelcoPelco -D PelcoPelco -P Panasonic VCL Sensormatic Diamond / KD6 Vicon JVC Typically all PTZ protocols use RS485 as their Physical Protocol.
. MJPEG consists on captured captured picture compressed frame by frame into JPEG format. MPEG basic principle is to compare 2 compressed compressed image and transmit the difference only. MPEG MJPEG Similar to a digital still picture camera. Each individual picture picture is a compressed picture and all have guaranteed image quality. MPEG Simply described.MJPEG vs. Using the first picture as reference ref erence frame and only sending the part of the following images that is differ from the reference picture.
Higher storage requirement at frame rate > 5 fps. Less cost spent on the encoding and decoding equipments. LessLess -computation computation-intensive. 2. Image quality remains constant regardless of image complexity. Disadvantages: 1. Guaranteed image quality. 2. equipments. Clear on each individual images. . Higher bandwidth consumption at frame rate > 5fps. If bandwidth is reduced. Many channels can be decoded and shown simultanously on a PC monitor. Faster and simpler to perform content searches and do image manipulation. image quality is maintained at the cost of frame rate.MJPEG Advantages: 1.
Lower reliability video. Designed for realreal-time viewing. Requires more costly PC and equipments for encoding and decoding. Higher latency. Lower bandwidth and storage consumption at > 5 fps. Constant frame rate. Good for surveillance. Higher cost. 2. . Licensing restriction. frame rate is maintained at the cost of image quality. Potential lagging problem when viewing live video video and PTZ control. lost. If bandwidth goes down below a certain threshold. but not good for recording and video analysis. all video is lost. No free viewers. Disadvantages: 1. Real time frame rate can be maintained If bandwidth is reduced. What you see is not always what you get. Fewer channels can be displayed simultanously in a monitor. 2. Complex compression. not good for recording.MPEG Advantages: 1.
Resolution metric for Digital System .CIF .
and MPEGMPEG-4 AVC.5 Mbit/sec at CIF Frame rate is locked at 25 frame per second (PAL). Frame rate is locked at 25 frame per second (PAL) MPEG-4 (2000) MPEGMulti method of compressions. far. The best quality picture so far. . MPEGMPEG -4 SP.MPEG Video Compression MPEG-1 (1993): MPEGAveragely 1. MPEG-2 (1994): MPEGLarger and higher quality picture. Variable frame rate possible. MPEGMPEG-4 ASP.
org/wi ki/Verlustbehaftete_D atenkompression . Singular standard Video standard newest Video standard 64 Kbit/Pic 20 Kbit/Pic 10 Kbit/Pic http://de.wi kipedi a.Single Picture-Compression – is already included in today's Video Standards The advancement of picture compression.
. High Bandwidth is available. 2. Choose MPEGMPEG-4 if: Frame rate is more important than picture quality.What Format should I choose? 1. Frame rate >10 frame per second is required. Frame rate <5 frame per second is acceptable. Bandwidth is not guaranteed (Shared Network). Choose MJPEG if: Picture quality is more important than Frame rate.
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