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She published societies.Revival Afro-Creole it added which to biblical the the doctrine. Kumina halfof the19th pracPresently. for ritual use Kikongo still language purpeople. no suchdistinction 1956:342. Lares. tookplace in theNew Worldand contemporary that processes Afand a Jamaican of Baptism ofthesystems of a syncretism thealchemy altered that completely From called ro-Creole This 1978: beliefs Baptism." poses (Bilbyand Bunseki1983: 65-93). Afro-Caribbean at the time of have to slavery developed andsociety. as intheurban ghettoes to harsh of accommodation notonlya form in the rural areas of St. deityworshipped exists. perceived conventionally as well rural areas ofJamaica inmany culture. The rituals Afro-American withother ber of traits religions of thesacrifice ceremonial of like the use drums.or a thanksgiving Watson 1991: 193) death. beingthe"Fish" or "Mermaid. Ezili." 1929: lOlf. cultural [Jamaica. Afro-Jamaican religions.1994:517-528 Anthropos Zion Revival inJamaica AnAfro-Christian Religion Emanuela Guano . theethnographic in of Revivalism the to meant to contribute ofcultural theresult areclearly theformer In fact. Spanish cosmology. Introduction: and a an animal Afrospirit possession. Jamaican (usually goat). most as the "Christianized.thedefinition Eventheleast"European" 1984: 123). although forKuminarituals in thiscon. M.89. Thomas conditions. onlyexception on the emphasis like spirit the waterspirit elements possession.in a Revivalfashion of "African" (Ryman of view. (Jamaican Saying. Zionseems tobe Revival ofKingston. Widely practiced the is a secretive cult rican" end of continuum. point ever. syncretism] thought religion gions.most (Patterson anthropologists in Jamaica this believe that religion originated EmanuelaGuano. andwith orisha (Warner religion . Variety Religious is defined as theleast Kumina However.A. among conventionally religions on with the Chrisis that a seems a more from on a continuum classified syncretism going "European" occaKumina Revival tianRevivalZion.Patterson ofRevivalZion (Beckwith withOshun.this paper religion 1992: 143). that Based on a fieldwork do not suchas Kumina. nowa1969:201). living mainly practiced of actively butalso a wayofresisting and.at times. Jamaican on in Afroreligions. opposing andSt. convenient and. sharea num(Simpson1980: 166). nativistic movements. is notconvincing.that Revival at themselves manifest to the services. Although reliandsocialoppression. Kumina bottom ondawater knock "Wen drum occasionslike a are heldon specific ceremonies muscomea tap" de sound to thespirits a disease. mangles and Jamaican in contemporary theroleof Revivalism society as the"AfKumina. (1993. thewater goddessof Haitianvodou(Desof also addresses thequestion Revival Zion. is inthis material African withtheir paper sharemanytraits presented equivalents.and// second the Africa Kikongo) (mainly during Politico.Meantas an ethnography of theAfro-Christian Abstract.Christian leastChristian angelsare taking arelaid "tables" in taxonomic from a Town. theriverine as separate religions. 1 Alsocalled 1969: 205) thatbearsresemblances Revival Moore Revival: although reports simply Trinidadian ZionandRevival in the alsoonthe itseems. study RevivalZion is theresult Jamaica. as the"African themselves who define titioners." sionally Zion." religion 4). although it Afro-Jamaican Christianized been have AfroJamaican religions. text tookplace in 1992.).that basisofSimpson Lewis 1991:85). How. Catherine Kumina was parishes. might (Raboteau to theliteral Zionderived African thelackofa truly also for approach account mainly panthe.. Whereas is from "African" to a markedly spirits end. ofreligious "Myal.1 regarded on a role in Kumina Kumina(Moore 1953: If. LouisianaStateUniversity) days laborers from of indentured thearrival multicultural in Caribbean is currently ethnicity onlyafter investigating Pensiero Central in Abstracta. 1. century.
forevil purposes water.tralAfrica and offerings and dancing. tightly of obeah-mcn theevil activities at RevivalZion ser. Myalgo underground angels(Simpson of missionary Pukumina fact. drumming but also themselves SierraLeone." But.Senegambia.1994 Anthropos . Wolof. Baptism diverged among free from Afri. Jesus.the missionaries hadstarted first Christian (Moravian) in Jamaica. whilethe shadowwas at riskof bethe ritual. of ointritual based on the brethren new introduce to meant river manipulation mancy baptisms substances.Yoruba. in Jamaica.insurgents ofitsprobable from thecontempt (Patterorigin slaves Jamaican ish poco and mania:"a little madness" (Alleyne son 1969: 192).almost supported own way. (1969: among particular necroand of form as a witchcraft or much or to urgetheir thespirits heldto thank sorcery help. 28-61) -. Blacks had already begun.by distributing in their has now beenre. In theircomplementarity.Missionaries of orthodox Christian among from different areasofWestandCen. Igbo.sometimes by return drumming to travels back vodou Haitian with rum as the Ginen.that only relatively preachers of the 18thcentury.theJamaican Mission(1990:128). GeorgeLiele and the masses is atthebeginning other the Black Baptist that camefrom late. plantation bersoftheAnglican oroftheScottish had ole the of these nonconformist doctrine Church. Desmangles by prescribed spraying possessed and by soakingspecial leaves in the 1992: 70). (Alleyne origin intoa Creolesysof traditions a number itself to manifest by seizingthe sensesof those blended into beliefs articulated of attem Revivalists is "clean.518 Guano Emanuela . is so origin network ButtheAfroJamaican instead. seemingly presently ists (all of whomweremembers disappeared. of to Africa(muchlike the gwo-bon-anj withthe Kuminabeat. 1781. churches) the their ecstatic dances(139f. It seemsin factthatBritish UnitedStatesafter the 1784 immediately gained almost all ofwhom were mem. ments." from thearmsof thewhites" theSpan. Dyula. Myal provided alternative that was an worldview with a Pukumina existsvirtually 1988: 169). no religious to established definition. theprocessof Christianization of Jamaican time. ceremonial by obeah-men ing manipulated both obeah and Myal re1990: of AfroJamaican all studies Until Also. thought by they spirits. notso still was But obeah "tables" which are occasions for is) (and 186). Nowadays religious 1990: 137). Myal (the powders. regard Bantu and of theGod of theBible.whichmeans"theentity butthey times a week). and the Bightof Biafra." whose soul Myalandobeah. and sacri. (Stewart Christianity only as an "out-group" Act of banned as in an define itself as would ever "Poco.interest of Jamaican withCreBlacks.The contact that belief on the based were and obeah are Revivalists Zion worksbothways: although Myal and a a souls: two have human Kumina character of of the non-Christian aware duppy beings to was former the After shadow. practices. FromMyal to RevivalZion: their activity proselytizing A Historical werenotparticularly successful Outline Moravians (and in the souls theAnglicans showedlittle interest In Jamaica. or no interest little at all in fostering soon into a of native missionary Baptists variety developed activities their slaves of 1969: that from the official doctrine (Patterson 207). Christianity spreadamongtheBlack of slaves and ex-slaves). religious means a and a set of healing Kumina religion. as might knitthat. and other intotheRevivalZion community.churches to a pureform it as a return Coming greeted 89.in 1754.from theSlave Coast. as Christians. intheKingston own Revivalby publicly no suchcommunity started their is known area. 119). was a of the wordis unknown). worshippers obeahbacktotheTwi theterm traces Patterson basis(aboutthree churches on a regular tend their witches" within also havespecialfunctions obeye. theWhite of resistance as a form served simto another used against very religion ligions report thenumerwhileobeah-men "double" masters: a negative ilarto RevivalZion. 165). Myal Assembly community had andof rituals(137).). Fula.At that Revival Zion still denounce although performing preachers wickedness of"Poco" practices. practices. worship they blacks Jamaican 1988: believed The latter is and theHolyGhost.of counteracting manifest occasionally spirits both Kuminaand Revival (Alleyne1988). Whilethe 2. in the due fashion them welcome death.ous rebellions to it: Pocomania. influence.Mingling masters. This spelling the to immunize whichweresupposed stillbears "fetishes as Pocomania placedby "Pukumina. religious practices early in thisgap by flourishing theslaves. and the Afro-Creole thiswouldbe a confession of necromancy religion when In until the thecultof fallen to 1980: 1840s. Virtually anyChristian Baptist can and African-derived filled In the a Great Revivaltookplace 1860s. between vices. (Stewart recently. be expected. Revivalists ficesto thespirits.In fact.
After knowledge and Afro-Creole of rest the tospend wascondemned Bedward thesky. in theuse ofherbal arealso balmhealers.. appealto thelight-skinned class(Hogg 1964: 131). movement. ReBut to the their offered tists Church.uncommon Jamaican FromBaptism. Town. In anycase. of Jamaican tunes although alongwith the former than more a little latter the that Bedward 1974: prestige enjoys 158f. RevivalZion origin. their to ascendto for his secondfailure 1974: 165). still is pastor temporarily might prophets regarded Revival In for search and visions the haunts he such addition. upper light-skinned August Methsocialstatus a high Al. FromMyal.mingling is an important element ofJamaican 1990:145f. to their at night. in to a Revival turn the of the of one as need.going tochurch. BothPentecostals His hatred (Wedenoja hadtobe wipedoutofJamaica. recognizable by their in the their churches. belongs religions. rifices to thespirits. still known Kingston.are usually Bay in 1865. example. Whites as "Poco" by to be condemned arelikely also led himto openly vivalists establishment oftheWhite ofdenominational Bedward members thepractices andamong (Austin itsvalues. inare now and to the ascend would Adventists. ofsac. Religion and Social Status of Christianity. Seventh-Day sky."At the is in that inobeahandscience. Sincethen. that. during particularly tianity of upper-class native ofMorant bellion (or upwardcomposed Bap. and these as the reevident became congregations regarded prestigious. to their Revivalsoon turned Christianity Myal. ofhislifein an asylum. spiritual in ofan urgent case orthodox even that Bedward White Christians. example against itspeakbetween ranks wastoreach establishment White (Kerr1952: 118).in Jamaica Zion:An Afro-Christian Revival Religion 519 the Great 3. of slavery theinstitution (Stewart in churches is attendance orthodox CreoleChris. returned becoming Messiah. preached (Williams andRe1978: 148). Revivalists. Centered (118). congregations reject and "mad" as are as 1984: was the followers his on 114). ondrumming Re. its features turbans. Blaming the rascals" category. Revivalwas thereligious ofthisGreat throughout each streams of wellas RevivalZion.Seaga 1969:4). antiits has mitigated Yet.while soon odistshave a certain movement theBedwardite exander Bedward.Kumina classesas less directly better-off eredbyKingston Kuminarituals and/or embarrassing.Revival doctrine. distress. ofmany dreams experts forhealing andconcoctions baths purposes. and the statusof tothe nonbeliever is not acknowledged theliteral vivalism derived (Austin1984: approach mainly a stranger is to Zion carried 103). he. biblical questions is: "Whatis yourchurch?" of be askedin Jamaica theChristianity ofopposition on a form against . Religion culwith the Afro-Creole (Stewart religion Christian churches of many de1968: 170f.In Bedward's 118). tosome theemphasis 1971:33). threatening 89. rush to like the missionagainstobeah and Revivalists. One of thefirst Like Myal. support of the former colonizers the church the resistance vivalZionsocialandcultural -. mobile) Anglican ly insurgents. Curtin movement nominations arescattered the In island. Genetellsmuchaboutthestatus 1990: 133). society highin Jamaican of and it is attended Movement theBedwardite 1880and1920. Blackson the"White Pentecostalism.RevivalZion developed manyof groomed peopleflock temples. (Kerr 1952: 118). (Williams protest of the Church the Jehovah's that declared Bedward God.with mainly by the Whiteand the The Catholic Church classes. considis usually Revival Unlike Zion. 1952: the a from his rescue would he that (Kerr among wealthy popular cataclysm creasingly people on and emphasis emotionalism theisland.1994 Anthropos .church is feltalmostas a necessity: atheism is andtheoffering anddancing..andthe Witnesses. of theperson. But. origin. European sorcery respectively to possess are thought Revivalists In fact.when The for individuals. moral code and the strict (Chevannes worship spirit necromancy. regarded they taboo-breaking imposed are feared Revivalists same intheHoperiver naked time. to theextent andmagical and strong of millenialism the doctrine has abandoned powers. The outcome tureand society.).also enjoys theRevivalpastor on a prophet.rally of Jamaican element The protest speaking. practiced by religion prevent marker. ofbathing habit (Williams "wild. On twooccasions. protest.A number of millenialism into a form mingled andthemiddle developed such as American of North of churches White antiwith a strong 1974). as and pastors many help. was aboutto strike that of as features are of a new societyBlacks were to turn spiritual doctrine inspiration regarded to this Zion Revival class low misforthe Whiteand reignsupreme. butalso spirit belonging possession.at times in a church is an important social condemnationMembership evena moral theWhites a the Jamaican as not it did in for ofthelatter. Sunday morning. In general.
a church needsfunds. from thespirit that has a visible The situation is not necessarily better juresa reaction within on thecommunity If somebody itself. worshipperdegenerate. butalso by Kingston in the last decades.lostbalance.arealso notuncommon.offer in practical instruction skillsrelated to the in neighborhoods defined as like or clothes. parishes)." fails. The fund raising In 1956. Kumina fasting is "drawing a sword. Revival congregations are scattered aroundthe unemployment As a matter of fact. in each community. Pastorsand TheirCommunities in a row. (Wedenoja tweenPentecostalism and Revivalism has led to that Besides the spiritual and moralguidance theabsorption ofPentecostal the church elements byRevival the pastorgives to the community. between thecommunity is shapedintoa fairly is seen as less tradition harmonious Pentecostalism network of relationships. areincontact with eachother." of WestKingston. the layingof hands. ignored. lament the arrogant of forexample. Thom. for tions takeplace. trips Jamaicans not to venture in theseareas. like glossolalia." whichmeansthat dancesare often at folklore festivals: it is condemned These signs performed by theHolyGhost. sometimes reject anycontact they In Kingston. aboveall at night All Revivalcongregations in Kingston. Mostmiddleand upper-class leisure around theisland. Revivalists organize Pentecostal in Kingston. say banenvironment ofKingston.worse can happen. Catherine far from In the urred as that the blood. therivalry be. housework. appreciated charm of human bonesto thechurch. clusively commonly cooking sewing Many likethedowntown areaorthetownships churches also organize likeshort socialactivities. In addition. mostRevivalists earntheir outskirts of thecity.manyRevivalists 1978: 153). aspects thefrequent use of Pentecostal choirs. Indigence and a verylow thesale of smallpamphlets and "rosettes" (bows standard of lifestillaffect thepopulation of this ofribbons). hances thecompetition thetwo. "rough. Each church is partof theRevivalZion netprefer . Pentecostalism and Re. among and the involvement of Revival congregations.and playsan important rolealso inother ofthe (153).a spiritual together to Pentecostalismwith turn therebukes seekstorestore the ofthepastor. form a tight thisdoes notimply. responsibilities envies.the Holy Ghostand above all the mediation of classes.The situation is onlyslightly No recent censusexistsaboutthenumber of in Central better like RevivalZion churches in Kingston. many vivesin thedowntown ofthem areunemployed. Nonethe. beingonlyritualistic. he or she ly happens that therelationships members among willcertainly be attacked In the efforts ofthe by a fellow cases.Revival communities living helpers. The rivalries. Given this socialandeconomic the ever.thetimewhenRevivalfunc. it organizes a convention. Revivalchurches are found ex. howtoreadandwrite. An abortion Another of Revival aspectof the investment 89. outskirt of thecity.theabsenceof antagonism different background.upon embracing oriented: moremodern thissolidarity "sword. hownetwork. thespiritual of power Through vivalZionappealtothelower andthis en.In addition.If ofJamaican it is remain believed that heritage. in fact.Generally thepastor. In addition.anda number of other nights congregationsare invited to participate. Kumina hasnowachieved thestatus ofan element arewarnings the that thespirit to gives people. memattitude classesto teach their less. can restore members ofthecommunity can alter theharmony in thecongregation.can make the holywaterof the fasting turn (mainly as and St. values. many only Misbehavior or pastor and the"swords" of thespirit possessedby an enragedspirit. a number of Kingston.each evil deed or intention con.1994 Anthropos . leaders soliimpact Although promote thechurch turns to obeah and secretly carries a darity as a highly it occasionalvirtue.lifeof Revivalists. Simpsonsketched an image of West activity inthis case is basednotonlyon theofferthatseemsnot to have changed much ingspaid by theguestcongregations. Revival Zioncommunities liveis a moral universe Reciprocal of working obeahand"Poco" charges where each sin.work. this Revivalists case. envyamong thecolorof thebottles on thealtar. are heldin thischurch fora few Specialservices 4. churches as theyclaim bers (amongwhomilliteracy is notuncommon) Pentecostals to RevivalZion. Most RevivalZion churches.520 Emanuela Guano takeplace in thecountryside as St. Whenever example. although problems anda high crime rate remain acute.and gossip and leaders in their communities are far that ariseareblamed on theprevalence pastors inevitably from The worldin which of the "carnalminded" in manycongregations. something they As above mentioned. whileonlyone church suras street vendors ordomestic area. Whenever speaking.
problems of thesespirits is unknown. includes characters as Christians. revered both who have achieved to those and destrucused for can be that sions.Seaga 1969:8).theBugler. as rigorously Bible is read.1994 Anthropos . The the to them. (spiritual purity). and angelswerecommonly In sum. biblical and sung. It seemsthat these in origin. teachingpurposes your also thedescription include the from for Christhe rules Bible: is in the spirits ings Everything is supthe that the uniform of of the tianmoralconduct.theAmbush (sic) is.forexample. if ever and is The Bible of and erarchies. activities. etc. These spirits andfeared. themselves Revivalists good regard the Time in Bell least the at conduct code and their moral Their Piece. specialclassification of Revivalspirits. though." spirits "teachings. pastors" Revival forexample. takesplace in that all example." in somecases. need. they willing spiritual beings takeplace or eventheMilkMaid. thehelpoftheir count with However. hiof Revival functionaries of spiritual spirits theBible is the sourceof salvation. The other source ofspiritual important knowledge that Thisinvolves considerable the in Revivalism is thespirit itself. The Doctrine to Seaga 1969: 8) spirits Pocomanian. ofRevivalZion system achievement. Revivalists are re. or a fancy dressand a smallhat. techniques healing functionary-spirit by where function the "tables": wear to to the during power. the church." death arereading (but poisoning!). times andthey lastfrom about Time Piece. according like the MilkMaid. Revivalists are also expected to attend conventions and other specialservices likebaptisms. regarded according organized principle. wheeling spirits parade is a signof spiritual thefocus (wheeling this bookinto totheBibleturns during possession approach is a of "wheeling and that ofbeliefs. theFishis clearly thewater worshipped spirit only Afro-American also in other religions (Benjamin 1987: 3).system Ringer spirits as "Poco... manifest themselves as it is also a dangerous.6.Revival Zion:An Afro-Christian in Jamaica Religion 521 in their members church is the amount of time prophets and angelsare mentioned in theBible. Ringer."andcalled"ground in case of economic wereregarded and support attain spirprestige. Each time.theBell Ringer. The origin andmagico-religious knowledge. and money are to for sacrifice their but also liketheFish. only 89.you in thebush. their churches 344f. ways approach posed spiritual manipulating around in the church literal and creative these A simultaneously the spirits.On a deeperlevel. the has Each of them to me told a the in once. Theregular services and the religious three a week. expect spirits The prophets.theAmbush Man. ordinary hardly magicalknowledge. in RevivalZion rituals in mostpossessions are acwitha worldview communities their provide are former Pocomanian that basis of on the is incident which spirits complished by explainable any and now even assigned humans and spirit. This who spinduring to be described trance). preached. in case of need. colorful not in Revivalist meansthat.an analysisof Revivalcommunitiesverysame prophets forpossession all RevivalZion thatthese conjured leads to the conclusion in Kingston during social services 1956: Moore with a 1953: 80). are supposed costumes. The Holy Ghost. A specialclass of Revival(butformer 5. viin dreams. Presently. power." to of redistribution Some sort can thepoint that someof them are classified as evil knowthat. eight well intothenight.RevivalZion churches its"(Hogg 1964:320f. spirits. are regarded as more"earthbound. of others all and Bible. interpretation.theHunter. versefrom manipulate The for also sentence. possess only members. The Spirit to wear clothes: a "uniform" quired appropriate and a turban." give pastor problems toitsfunctionthat aretransmitted theBible. Somebody forhealherbs can and theBible. nized in different for theircongregation categories. Man. All categories worshippers among their and wearing their in theBible. to contribute to theirliving. notlongago. an impersonal income manifests average powerthat to thehumans themselves them churches relyon theofferings by the itself by possessing through as "messengers.and whenyoureadit. possession mystery inexplicable level of "cleanliness" to all your a certain answers "You can find tivepurposes.eventhepastors defined These are orgamembers. Bible.memorized. theDove. network. tight (Simpson supply people whereas like the Hunter or the Bell to and chances of rules a values. between therelationship permanent places in Revival and theFishorRiver thehelpof faith churches: can be solvedthrough Maid. peculiar with a person "butyoucan also destroy powers is at home sendsyou a messagewitha special aries. The spirit is the expenses given of thesepeopleis very low.they Revivalists it seemsthat.theHunter.
" possession 89. butalso many peopleof 8. necessary night.522 Guano Emanuela ofmovements toa pattern Revivalists turn of enough. Though extravagant.possession duppiesis these through Revivalists call "voodoo. andsoonturns intoa better syncretized with ofitsnegative double Pukumina.while bowing gained (a rhythmic in a and the arms The a special reputation lifetime.which of arereportedly the Revivalists. hence.a wake is on that too. callyrotates It is commonly assumedthata special link existsbetween the personand his or her spirit.Revivalists believe andbenefits work. nonetheless." bendthis They power this also want butthey from thespirit. of ritual reversal death. The Place and theParaphernalia so that. them them by "setting" to obeassociated remedies aretraditionally theliving." an annihilating or what trance. definition toldme." notonlyin Revival RevivalZion worldview 77). consist of a ritual wake of human Theseprecautions beings and 1993: called"ninenight.all sinsthat tocoo anddancewith stretched whereas the sexualbehavior of its worshippers arms.a temporary. forexample." beings.ofstrict ChrisThisambiguity is one of the tianmorality and magicpractice. (Simpson defined of danceand vocalizations attrib." knowledge been have De Fifth of Solomon" Seal by Laurence.and start both obeahandscience. or have to be found. in mostcases.and you get sick. The lastcategory can.its commerce involved. experts itually their often draw andthey eats withyou. their to can be seenbythosewhoarespiritually "clean. spirits wayby spraying spots rumandoffering ofsugarcane specialleaves.The ing. Fish. wrists andhands as ifthey werefins.and thelax . Hence. the and the of their attended. Obeah and science fear ofdupother confessions share this religious condemn Revivalists The mostrigorous The are obeah-men dead because officially pies. Hunters bowforward andhowl. getpossessed by spirits. Kumina This usuin the church: where arealways though. 9. andalso Kumina andHunters. each of marked these is Hence. (La actually thisworldor haunt it forever. Almost of Revivalism. is posted or"groaning.striking characteristics alwaysspirit possession begins vulsive movements of thebackandtheshoulders surprising. blind. bya "seal":a stem plusother objects But the mostintense withthenature of thespirit. Not onlyRevivalists.ficially because ofitsworship offallen condemned pattern utedto thespirit The Doves areknown angels.Spirit in their ofthedead. loosing weight youdie. forexample. hence."or "labor. Another of spiritual category beingsis that of the forward who the Fathers. by companied preacher this music."when is their Because.1994 Anthropos . It is not with con. former Revivalpastors back. event is considered as acceptable. withthedead. possession occursalways the Some Revivalists. The spirits soundlikea percussion in sermons still recurs andtestimonies. SpiritPossession ofgoodandevil. Like human thespirits havetheir favorite through same"messenger." When their is deep onlywith a stemof sugarcane and a candle. haveabsorbed whoarepossessed of theFathers are said to appearin visionsand those (andhence in order to "work" in the also in where take services them) dreams. power they spiritual they part receive want to will. ah andscience disease.orthespirits thatsuperthat thedeadcan go on haunting theworld ofthe one word. everyday pies. law. (Guano reported mechanism butalso in Kumina(Simpson1957: 329). Some maybea compensatory psychological thecrisesof better endure death is that that thefortieth after helpsRevivalists peoplebelieve night life Barre 1970: to for the dead leave the crucial moment 40). dangerous as can easilymanipulate on theuse of suchdevicesas oils and powders. spots they places to thosepeoplewho attend.is a way of manipulating thelives to control is thought ifthe after their natural arenot taken powerthat living necessary steps . During phase.as a pastor Many general youarespir. of dwellin thecorners are in welcomed the due the church. duppy and likethe"Fourth until from booksthat. their circle)acstepping swinging during that and exhalations inhalations loud his name Bedward is one of and them. phase of possessionis that varyaccording what Revivalists call "spiritwork. and where receive theofferings allyhappens they Kumina dances.The corner of theHunter. andtheFishtypi.not a temporary of sorcery.spiritual goals power in life.a message of spirits they (although concrete achieve tohelpthem notbe defined as messengers) is that of thedup.thatRevivalZion eventually 1956:352).and you don't see the duppy. banned byJamaican 7. homage worshippers.Revivalcommunities often blameon eachother.Doves.
that.d. to thecorners. Usually on the last word. itsrhythm is faster. however. usually may only preach reported. its cadenceis sometimes accompanied by drumtendto be laid with ming(Pittsn.judgesthat areusually The wallsofRevivalchurches enough. use like includes the of formulas of the sermon banners colored to thespirits. areoften decorated churches have bought modern tradiequipments. whereasordinary oftheservice tableat thebeginning seton this worshippers of theritual to testify. with The altaris decorated and an altar.: 62). hang used to taketimeduring andwavedaccording "PraisetheLord"often tobe retrieved inthechurch. emotions. to and exhortations. by a candle. The corner of theimagesof Christ and theLast Supper are the water. The sentences sodabottles. flowers. religions. The rakkling drum is smaller and has two nobody thesepools are decorated er. sion. a fewChristian iconsarehung. by complex ample. twocloths are laid. might up be a clock functionaries sermons fruits. cloth. related Hence. Although atleastdouble thesizeofa tub. meantto whenfeelings of sorrow and two crossedcutlasses. and is henceused asticresponses absorbs evil influences (Pitts (which as well as destructivelike "PraisetheLord!. in a tall. Preaching open The lowerhalfof used to beatawayevil spirits." setnextto thecenter 10-15 minutes of theexhortation. there arean with six points.redcandlecalledthe Revivalists betweenthreekinds of thestar culminates distinguish thestar. thecenter thedrums must be rubbed with rum or ash. a platform is usually there trance.""Yes!. on thelength (1978: areperiodically required imposea limit to is an important and appreciated skill is likely lastsovermidnight that 269): a service Oratory forpreachers. butmainly to attract someduppies. "tower. opposite is alwayschanted."as itusually orated has a tablelaid withbottles and smallbasinsof form. which among and flowers. equivalents religions. andthe waiting forthehealing. candles.Revival Zion:An Afro-Christian in Jamaica Religion 523 Dove requires a more elaborate withversesfrom the Bible." Underneath exhortation. larly important. also called "the River. is bigger. thepattern as they are from theaudience. theplatform thelistof thesickmembers reports thepoolis outside ofthechurch. Thepools. a coconut communicate andithastoelicit enthusiBelowthetablearea basinofwater. On theplat"seal.to represent varies from thefewminutes ofthetestimony tothe "judgement. a candle. and a bunch of flowers. theresponse is notenthusiastic dec. As also Wedenoja dition." Occasionally with sticks.cally.and theyalwaysleave a gap forthe responses colorsaccording of different fabrics As Fine observes. also covered a jar of water. with a goatskin. theaudience from n. anybody of a these is marked instruments. candles."In mostcases. sermon. longsticks extremity laid transversely overthepool. corner oftheFishis sealedbya stem ofsugarcane. preaching: and testimony. theRiverMaid or Fish is sometimes marked In somechurches a blackboard on by mostcommon. a star with and a a short stick ten Bible "rod. emphasis to theocca. or before thetalk(1992: 25).so that canjumpintothe"Riv. purposes)."Or tionally Revivalists use two kindsof drum: the with a rounded staffs: if base andtherakkling The former drum. hours). to theen.and is playedwithone "lock"it. The frames of bothdrums are (theRiver and cosmetics: to eat). bottles. In most it is churches marked The third is instrument the is which tambourine.: 73). andcream candles. Provided have they inCentral ofa church for ex. bottles. a pool. 89. Revival Zion sermons shareoratory devices keepawayevil spirits. pattern white basins candles.d. perfume in other Afro-American the anda malegoatskin oneither andheld extremities. It is meant to teach. with often with an covered sometimes altar is the a white short.stick. Kingston. also with shells as they are"foodfor theFish. flowers. which makesit more anddishes Maidis supposed difficult silverware to play. The sermon.andwater representing Insidethestar. Fishis concerned with herappearance. Whenthepreacher to thewillof thespirits. a ropefastened to bignails.and with likeher usually cutfrom metal covered with a female bins.thenecessary Thecenter inthechurch canplay skill.Colorsareparticularly important. (ifthespirit inspires preachthe and sermon last to a few In adwater and laid with er. that to theextent with thepulpit forexample.with other Afro-American At one end of thechurch. to theelapsed A smalltableis usually ofthesermon the It is coveredwitha whitecloth time of the church. Theinstruments inRevival Zionchurches played andstones. fruits." rings 10.Perioditight through In addition is particu.havethepower to produces a lowertone." or also "Amen!" and exorcisms forhealing are aroused.1994 Anthropos .which areusually arealmost some exclusively percussions. and The distinction "suffer" is basedmainly on thelength that one redand one black. cups.
play the drumsand sing religious songs.524 Guano Emanitela forexample. The highest appointment often utters the from whichother first words of a who in of a diocese is preacher charge psalm or a prayer also have the power theaudience knows so that churches well. offerings collected a rough outline ofa recurrent Most of the of thechurch the pattern. nervously up anddowntheplat.faith ofthecandidate. mothers. qualities alwaysentailed humility prayer. andevenfrom local ritual. secretary. after whichtheleaderor tions) and moralvirtues. eyes. pointing wings and of claim their words all to the use come rituals connected Typically.and secretary Minister. to both of of theaudience. cording possible Following psalms." the qualities of the good Christian The sermon followed explaining bythepastor. formula like "I don'thearyou. and the on themoralvirtue sometimes also calledto testify preacher evenaddressing someofthemembers ofthecon. theaudience will soonmanifest itsloss a worshipper on a cushionlaid on the kneeing of interest in a noisy(and eloquent) floor. The consecration anoint ceremony everybody joins The meansof involving theaudienceare not involves like the layingof handson the rituals which is butalso kinesic. are in charge The watermothers candidates.while to the it seems to draw the the are occasion.1994 Anthropos . In mostcases. whilejumping andthe from one side to the other. "laboring."exhortation. pastor Usually. that almost and by a short concludes theservice. one morehymn. After thesecretary "lines" by yawning fashion. very depend. deacon." arecalled)areorganized ina hierarchical structurecongregation as a salute.The are held three that. thecontents of the sermons thecongregation echoesherwords ina song. Hierarchy and Rituals In mostcases. but. In mostcases. preachers from the spirit. Each (orofredemption) from thelifeofthepreacher. is prone to be modified by theincouldbe usedas moral tervention of thespirit: newspapers." 11. leader. excited those who lead case. (25) hearme?" The sermon is formulaic in thatthe is that of thebishop. usually the endurance of sufferings. preaching. leader. Some of minister. byhisor hercongregation.thepreacher talk. thisenthusiasm are leads to a isters. to church. the windows. Thestructure from church allegorical may vary andpunishment from theBible." The Once a week.an .Bishops in a choir. four "lessons": linebylineshereadsfour psalms. alwaysshowpeculiar part mimicry Thedeacon playsan important likea swinging of thearmsandthelegs where in thewater to stand he or she is supposed patterns. moves aroundthe church.provided people RevivalZion congregations as they they raisetwofingers toward theplatform andthe (or "bands. thus together with thebishop.theatmosphere in thechurch is notvery formal: in walk and out. etc. bydefining open between true Revivalists andall the"others. In one a Revival became so rituals. in fact. wenton the evangelist is called to give a short Hence. holywater. andtherubbing with in thetongue.in theevening."or "didyou nary members.evangelist. he or she might water ordirecur to stimulantmissionary. (or "getting by spirit to interrupt theservice at anypoint by screaming. Atanytime. possession. by a member walking through I listened sermons tostarted the border benches with an Bible in her hands. A prayer uttered follows. equally response. form andshouting "PraisetheLord"byherself. Though varyac.Then A goodsermon must fervour toelicit to be sungby an the secretary choosestwo hymns express enthusiastic If thepreacher fails the congregation. the newminister onlyverbal. Reviv. oftheeyes. when manifests areparticularly active itself they they with frantic movements ofthearms and after their andglossolalie takecareof thecandidates before inthecase ofaccomplished min. by to do so. devoidof scruples thosewho will testify. to ministers.oliveoil. provided they peoplegetting possessed a in thespirit") are allowed examples. This inspiration inbaptisms. ordinary an exhortation whenshe was stopped Zion services timesa week. and thehandsof thecandidate gregation by talking directly looking their their shoulders. sermon wasenriched with stories ofsin vivalservices. ejaculations.and touching al Zion preachers inbaptisms. andevenfrom service to service. during of some other she ordinary services by the intervention preacher.immersion in theriver.each member of thechurch is latter havebeenpeoplefrom other de.igently in a book. a water mother. to them. rarely complete evangelist. singing. beginat around eighto'clock went on walking of thechurch themembers First. small crowds as follows:bishop.Thenthepastor records chooses weredefined as sinners. are peepinginsidefrom 89.calledtopaya sumofmoney that thesecretary dil(whomight nominations orevenother Revival Zioncongrega. the thisis buta rough of Reskeleton Obviously.
of the thecenter around Later. and someofthepeoplewhogetin the a fasting Fromtimeto time. to bottles. one by one. asleep on the pews. congregation of Kumina for thesecond willmoveto a river Queens)or holdritual objects candidates part fashion cream of like in their on the lit water.Shortly their dawn.intothe water. lapping Helpedby sacrificial basinson thefloor. is cases. Sometimes clothes willnotbecome and a wrap(or a hat) on their toorevealing as they come it seemsthere is outofthewater. pots Here. 10 to 21 daysorfrom that ranges theRiverMaid. only on water. theother restrictions outofthewater. baptism many Usually. by an outburst rituals. a water mother with two in the church untiltheyfall flags. are alwaysplaying and thebishopwalk intothewater. at one end of thetableand testifies mid. The colorof the givesa short andthen no strict ruleforthem sermon heror him plunges is prescribed to into thewater inthe name oftheFather. and enthusiasm.and smallpieces of breadare set on a tivepurposes thelongtablethat has to be setin the Toward the namefrom cloth. con carrying possession they andofficials. are candles hands.).costumes with a white their forehead stripe.1994 Anthropos . Bibles. The womenhave womenare required to wearskirts their At rituals. night. secretive) (and disrupper" (Simpson1956: 371).for a Holy Communion Once a month. also menweara wrap. is meant The event in theCommunion. anddeliverance.The endofthefasting 9 months from The "table"is a special function thatusualbe celebrated holywater by ritually sipping lasts more than one and that is held white ly night. walk. by ny. whiledogs walk freely the water and out. fruits. candles. after all candidates have a day or feeding crackers. while in therest oftheworshippers willstay on theshores. "silver" sometimes. clothes oftheSon. cups. are baptized on thespot. from 3 to9. thecandidate. The ceremo. It drawsits glasses. (coins). a that Another.sometimes from the the water the candidates mothers. Christ's flowers. water. thebishop although Holding to do so. Underneath color of the Revival into the are introduced The neophytes basinandtwocrossed are a water there The event. 89. ofthebaptism. pating White is alsothe and a white cloth. body wrapped head. Shortly wearwhite All ofthem clothes. glassesof water. somearesympathizers. andcannot officiate takeplace at be unclean Manypossessions important is heldto attain thispoint. The service in table)to thehighcostsof theritual. thewomen (Simpson1956: 375).in Jamaica Revival Zion:An Afro-Christian Religion 525 them are backsliders in sacrifice to (whoare also allowedto sit redwineare offered by thebishop inthebackofthechurch). means either abstaining and Laterin the morning. theoccasion. whenthecongregations in theevening.Among Walking who are thought to thecandidate is greeted of singing ban on menstruating women. commemorate uniform for this occasion. Zion community through smaller table may be set in is cutlasses.and each of themcontributescoconuts.Inevitably. a white with short tablecovered breads andlaid with boththe church distributes thepastor endof theservice. Manycongregations with andtocontribute intheservice. of children wrapped in a bluecloth.(in shapeof doves. ofspirit outbursts thetable. bread andthewater etc. course. fordrumming usual. objects: specialritual thosewhoarepartici. of rituals most solemn the among redtomatoes.creamsoda among whitecandles. bottles. pencil andflowers. a church singing forwhomthe"table"is thattheperson of the requires theprocession until and preaching follow.part witha fewcandidates.held stands before thechurch enters candidates shortly beforemidnight. and. more also for little some a number of A bottle of held. shore. leavesof a plant byrepeatedly 3 to folding andunfolding the bluebanner onthewater. whilethe Allover Some of them in the above Bible a and is might spirit." ple "working bishop preaching holding on thehead (in the and dancewitha glass of water before head. theRiverMaid. ina white so that their blanket. and colored a to have decide churches leaves. of have a wrapon their wearing glamorous hair. Last Supper. rum. members both will occur church. lemons. uplifting.in thanksgiving. requires three-month-preparatory laid withsoftdrink the church and of a corner Revivalism. or "Sup.whilethemencover a parade spirit-functionaries and spinsaround intothechurch breaks Led by a dea. walkcounterclockwise a cross. called to take are at the same time.eventhough from the Holy Ghost. to theritual offerings on the the candles for starts a celebrated to be has that lighting by paying (usually bishop.Fasting spirit they specialblessings all therequirements from foodfor a fewhours did notundergo of thecase. gather and than anddancing more Testimonies involves and singing. Thenthedeaconholding a cross A number andothers arejustcurious. have to maketheir bypeovow. ordinary among they areformed circles little thechurch. thetable. to a and notebook even a or soda bottles. will to thank anddismiss and21 days.butterflies. theritual is concluded called"tree of life"fora period beenbaptized. or. a baptism. (the"uniform") according is the and of theHolyGhost. one at a time.
in other if it is truethat Revival approaches words. .norwearjewels. Only. fact.The center of thecircle.in thebroadpicture Kingston For example. outlet. To Lanternari. by glasses containing including compensation poorliving water andsugar.Male prestige (1977: 166). rum. norcan they their alists in straighten own. butimmediately buried. mosttop positions in Revivalhier. If it is truethatthe to Revivalism.526 Emanuela Guano write downspiritual Amidst thegeneral Revivalists achievewithin is a their messages. identify Different have been used to explain withit. supposedly preclude shy bloodoftheanimal tomark a cross onthe forehead for women to who behave the example.thisreligion and low social and economic (another status." oratory. requires The secondday. thebloodofthegoat. many 89. often weara number of gold Christianity of theWhite dominators. achieve within itshierarchy. evolvedas a compensatory to gregations response ofthebloodsacrifice that has beenaccomplished.Onlythosewomen nians aresaidtodrink ofthis is extraordinary can become and blood).a goatis sacrificed at sunset mative andsinging) (suchas preaching capabilities in a very The officials use the that the the humble and private ceremony. parade. Women andtheworld oftheWhites. of accommomen usuallyundergo the mostdramatic andprotest AfroAmerican posses. and of rural areas. inall situations tohavea humble whereas posedan analysis of thedichotomy conduct. the wish an emotional a substitute fulfillment.and colonialism archy the by men. surroundedandin most different drinks source of for conditions.of cultural and nativistic protest againstslavery are taken in Reviv. milk. Women areexpected necklaces.Though being Revivalism does not necessary culture.howRevival Zion can stillcompete with other reAccording RevivalZion should be a sort ofwomen's ligions. In her studyof Jamaican society.Flowersand coconuts are scattered in Kerrobserved that theroleofreligion of a is that and outside thecircleof bottles. theroleof RevivalZion in Jamaican and Zion is practiced society mainly by thepoorof suburban in thelivesof itsmembers. ritual doesnotdiffer from that ofthefirst but forrecreation." of thaumaobserve. chronic inthemid-nineteenth deprivation century" (1978: 82). 63). But manymen. enthusiasm. More recently. Conclusion an aspect ofJamaican lowclass ing. al churches is high. on thefloor Other Zion Revival (a "ground placedby a circledrawn anthropologists approached thesoft drink bottles andthecolored onthe basisofitssocialbackground.if a compensatory element is undeniprestigious positions thisreligion owes its persistence to the support ablypresent inRevival this does not Zion. suchas Pentecostalism. leaders theprecept ofmodesty supposed bydefying imposed The tableis removed from thechurch and re.as Revivalismallows women to decidedly a minority. that should attract a happyislandin themale dominance of morebelievers world. according of thosewho attend theceremony who are gifted with an (butPocoma. Revivclearly cannot wearmakeup. Wedenoja weara reduniform to remind thespirit alism.Theanimal personality pastors notto be eaten. nation. marked scholars to speculate about thelink between by a many "Poco" con. Baer and Singer(1992) prorings. thisis hardly approach of members in RevivalZion churches ri's treatment of Jamaican Revivalism as a form majority are females. explain of its female members. forexample.ofJamaican Revival Zioncommunities are ghettos served that. Thediffusion table")with candles that thenight before werestanding on the ofRevivalism inthepoorest areasofKingston led smalltable.on theother female Revivalists. In thissense. Butthese areonly convincexplanations partly 12. and a way of attaining night leadership for theabsence ofthespirit the conAlso "Revivobserves that (1952: 135). to thisexpla. A different is Lanternaly. As Baerand It seems." and"messianic-nationalist.rules. congregation utterances increase their to In associated skills.1994 Anthropos .above all isticandheathen" way(1977: 166) to opposethe leaders and pastors. and wine. in thattheyoffer a higher social the otherChristian denominations. . Besides.themanyrulesimposed on "African" elements in RevivalZion represent an womenin order to control their and opposition of AfroJamaicans theculture appearance against their behavior do notapply tomen. Structurally."nativreinterpret Christianitytheir hair. as "thaumaturgical. andcharms. glossolalie prestige performative the"spirit" a charisma based on perforfrequency." "converaccompanied byoutbursts and spectacular dances and sionist.some anthropologists have ob.dation among religious often ofboasting groupsclassified sions. potof leavesand tomatoes see Moore 1953: is cases Revivalism was envisioned as a tamination?. in sum. that what male Singer one of themaintraits "laboring. Unfortunateand a luring auraof "modernism" denied prestige the case. glossolalia.
of conversionist members groups church of of theWhitesand the Baptist a perception church of their the liminalborders ritual.spite national awareness ofBlack their fate(1992: 208). stilldrawa their theBlacks.Hans A. Urban 1984 and an active thatis between and "resistance. Boston: 1969: 1988 The Rastafarians. "cometo accept or White casteremain andwidesectors of untouched. masses. thaumaturgical groups powers. andhis/her stress ontheindividual Revivalrepresents not so mucha responsibilities Nowadays. According religion. London: Culture. (Stewart 89. LifeinKingston. turgical of their where a reli. Patterson 1990: obeah-men 137. allowsthe tural) andemotional their experience spiritual the Baptist faith to a schism"between within of their to share. social Jamaican Blackeliteas wellas ofthemiddle class at leastavoid openly challenging existing seemto haveatleastpartly absorbed thevaluesof relations" (210). actually Press. White elite. Pluto Press.192). of Protest Varieties a more active into turned tance opposition. The intensity itsmembers. the British Zion as a thaumacolonizers.maican RevivalZion as a thaumaturgical be changing.inJamaica Revival Zion:An Afro-Christian Religion 527 is their stress on the"impor.a Coloredmiddle of thaumaturgical leadsmembers class. lacksanyprotest RevivalZion presently Diane J.Bedward's Living bearssomeconsequences. experience spiritual antiWhite such a not entail that becomes in a world lievers strong might ritually separate gations that of Rastafarian reaction of Baer on the basis from as. gained BeaconPress. fact.awareof theparadoxes with conversionist ofRevivalism a similarity society. that 1988 RootsofJamaican to affirm It wouldnotbe correct. churches are characterized by dominated by a tiny 165). andBreach. TheCulture andClass Jamaica. say. American and North of bothEuropean in thatanyRevival churches. ofMyalists thesupport slaverebellions LeonardE.a Black lowerclass. religion was forcibly Baer.strong of thisworld. simply and Singer'sclassification."RevivalZion preachers thatstrengthens and a worldview of reality and all other themselves Christian fits line between Thisdescription mutual undoubtedly solidarity.in lievethat they ofa new. imposed Knoxville: and Accommodation. ideology reality. Revivalists are seemto stress other elements movement. though.and have somedegree of control over a Whiteupperclass. "protest" Austin. type" colonization.Both antionthemselves White militancy. and Barrett. withthe Bedwardite in a moral universe where each deed (and of AugustTown. But.and of theconfidence manipulativeJamaicans.1969)among backtheorigin Whiletracing colonization. In fact. RevivalZion congregations. and it becameeven morevisiblebetween movements turgical oversociety" tanceoftheindividual movement (1992: 210). andMerrill that a world felt as a wayofresisting Singer in theTwentieth American Century. thaumaturgical toan accommodative areconducive trine approach stress issuesin that to socialand ideological they and of a limited of theindividual theimportance Cited References that is on a world interest and focustheir group. element.Revivalists toBaerandSinger. Revival Ifthese traits classify Likemostlow classJamaicans. wheresolidarity "band"is a communitas ofRevival Zioncongrethedoctrine of the beon the common Presently. ofTennessee The University whenthenumerous forexample. and cultural docconversionist and both reality ever. andhealing charas a andtheuse ofspiritual mode of cultural resistance. (BarHence. social stillresistbothan oppressive how. Japrotest again practices move. Hoetink 1985: 73). On thatoccasion. Ideology Since thedaysof a passivemodeof opposition. (and culsense.1992 Africanat Black on the times. themembers millenialism almost causedRevivalism misdeed) (orat least movements tend to blametheir a ofthese considerable stream of the to turn to movement) problems rather than on external causes. As a result in their theprivileges and theprestige of the view.conversionist of Chrisnativistic form of "communitas" a strong (in Turner's RevivalZion is thetruly feeling to religious thereal alternative of tianity. Thishappened. andspiritual. relies origin. (basedon practices itstraditional churches to be. 1880 and 1920. ordinary their RevivalZion can be rett1988: 28).In thiscontext. theuse ofmagico-religious three-tiered classstructure ment. was inJamaica Afro-Creole itsbeginning. acterize society might though slowly. Yet." New York:Gordon of Two Neighborhoods. moral Mervyn Alleyne. by reasserting on their Jamaican andbycarrying "mixed identity as a thaumaturgical-conversionist defined rituals. is and Black to Baer and In (1992: largely majority socially culturally Singer according gions. between we shoulddistinguish In fact. Religion thisresis..1994 Anthropos .
University Press. n. in theNew World. University] Department Joel Benjamin.andSocialControl.[Unpublished 1990 Religionand Societyin Post-Emancipation Press. Ph. University 89. Review ACIJResearch andChange. In:Sidney W. Kerr. Desmangles.Dissertation. New York: 1968 TwoJamaicas.Weston ofAnthropology.). oftheWest M.Westport: Studies.TheAfrican 1991 Guinea's Dynamic Press.1953 Religion A Study ofJamaican 1929 BlackRoadways. Warner Lewis.Barbara 1952 Personality in Jamaica. Catholicism 3/2:3-13. Curtin. ChiandAnti-Structure. 1977 Movimenti di libertà e di salvezzadei popoli inJamaica. A Kongo-Based Tradition 1983 Kumina. oppressi. Dover:The Majority Culture. pp. inson of Teacher'sAssociation Conference of the History University 18-21June. Thesis.1994 Anthropos . 1984 Kumina. FineandJean Speer(eds. Praeger. Culture. University [Unpublished Antebelinthe Institution TheInvisible 1978 Slave Religion. icanFolklore Haskeil E. Victor Thrner.Emanuela Robert A Performative 1993 Doing SpiritWorkin Jamaica. religiosi [UnpubReligious Milano:Feltrinelli. Ph. 1991 Jamaican Sayings. MarthaWarren Moore.Performance. at the17th 1969 The Sociology andOrigin. University Chevannes. 1980 Religious Jamaica. C.d. Structure 1969 The Ritual H. LeslieG.Dissertation. Llewelyn Watson. Trinidad. Stability 1: 81-128.D. and Cults ofthe Caribbean. ofForm Fairleigh Paper presented Study Press. Thesis. Philip Greenwood. andSallyPrice(eds. pp. ofCalifornia. Carolina ofNorth el Hill:University [Unpublished Northwestern ofAnthropology. ChapelHill:TheUniversity GeorgeE. J. Williams.Raboteau. C. Anthony Vittorio in Millenial 1974 The Role of theProphet Cults. ofTennessee The University Knoxville: and AnthroM.VodouandRoman Carolina ofNorth inHaiti. Guano.Caribbean Contours. Yale University] Gainesville: Florida ics. cago:Aldine. Seaga. Negroes.Joseph Beckwith. ofCaribbean Rico:Institute Puerto Haiti.). poolUniversity in RuralJamaica. ofAnthropology.PoliticoLanternari.D. Jamaica Journal ofReligion. Journal In: 1957 TheNineNight Communication. 1992 TheFacesoftheGods. es at Mona.A.Elizabeth AmerinJamaica. lished Ph. Hoetink. Trinidad andTobago. 1964 Jamaican Religions. Press.Origins ofReligion. Oxford: Oxford lumSouth. ofOxford] lished B. Tobago. Press. Fine. lished Department 1970 TheGhost Dance.Maureen TheJohns Press.. Wedenoja. Simpson. [UnpubG.55-84. Hogg. andConflict LiverLiverpool: William A. 1956 Jamaican 5-6: 321^42. Department AesthetWithNoteson Folklore. J.Kingston] Press. A Studyof Afro-Jaof Jamaican FolkLife. Mintz 1985 "Race"andColorinthe Caribbean. Baltimore: University Hopkins inTrinidad Other Suns. Process. Savacou5: 27-40.Stewart. Studies SocialandEconomic Revivalist Cults. San Diego] Prospect Heights: University Waveland Press. 1971 Revival andBlackStruggle.Chap. Orlando A in Belief The Mama 1987 Water Guyana. 1978 Religionand Adaptation [UnpubLa Barre. Albert J. as Ritual 1992 Performative of Ceremony Metaphors 70: 329-335. Walter Pitts. PreliminaryPatterson.Donald W. Jamaica. Movements 1800-1970. Press.S. DickRutherford: of Slavery. The Ancient Kia Bunseki Kenneth ShipofZion. proachto RevivalZion and Kumina. Barry Cheryl Ryman. maican Acculturation. andIdentity. Ap.D. A Studyin Variations.528 Guano Emanuela G.Dissertation.L. Indi. andFu-Kiau Bilby. Thesis.Department of Geography State Louisiana University] pology.23-45. Edward a Sociology NotesTowards 1969 RevivalCultsin Jamaica.[Manuscript] M.
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