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R

TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP THNH PH H CH MINH


VIN CNG NGH SINH HC V THC PHM

Bi Tiu Lun
Mn: Nng Sn

Tiu lun:

Tm Hiu V Cy
Tht Nt
Sinh vin thc hin
M s sinh vin
1. NGUYN HOI LAI
10048981
2. NGUYN DNG BO NGC
10050191
GVHD: NGUYN TH HONG YN

Thnh ph H Ch Minh, ngy 24, thng 1, nm 2013

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Bng phn cng


1. Nguyn Hoi Lai : ng dng ca tht nt trong thc phm
2. Nguyn Dng Bo Ngc: c im thc vt, m u, kt lun, tng hp

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.................................................................................................................................4
..................................................................................................4

I. M u. ............................................................................................... 4
II.

c im thc vt. .......................................................................... 5

1. Danh php khoa hc .......................................................................................5


2. c im thc vt. ..........................................................................................5
3. Phn b. ...........................................................................................................7
4. c im sinh trng .....................................................................................7
5. Thnh phn dinh dng. ...............................................................................7

III.

ng dng trong thc phm. ...................................................... 10

1. ng Tht Nt. ...........................................................................................10


2. Bnh l tht nt.............................................................................................13
3. Bnh b ng tht nt ...............................................................................14
4. Ru tht nt ................................................................................................15
5. Thch tht nt ...............................................................................................15

IV. Kt lun. ......................................................................................... 16

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I.

M U.
Tht nt l mt loi cy n tri nhit i c nhiu ng dng cao, v d
n ngi ta thng k tht nt c khong 800 cch s dng khc
nhau vo i sng. G tht nt en, cng, chc dng lm nh hoc lm
gia dng, l dng an thng, nn, d v lm giy r, l v cung cung
cp x thc vt rt chc dng lm hng ro, chiu, dy buc, bn
chi, l v bn gh, cy non c dng nh mt loi rau, tri th n
sng hay nu chn, nc c v thm ngon v du mt c ung ti hoc
thng lm ng. Cy tht nt c trng nhiu nc nhit i trn th
gii v l biu tng khng chnh thc ca Campuchia.
Vit Nam cy tht nt c trng nhiu cc tnh gip Cam, nhng
ngi Kinh v Khorme y nh no cng c vi chc cy tht nt v
u gn b vi ngh lm ng cc nhc, nguy him nhng vn cha
em li hiu qu kinh t cao do sn xut cn manh mng, th cng.
Trong phm vi bi tiu lun ny chng em vn cha khai thc ht c
c im v nhng ng dng c ch cy tht nt, chng em hi vng s c
nhng nghin cu su sc hn khai thc trit nhng li ch ca loi
cy ny.

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II.

C IM THC VT.
1. Danh Php Khoa Hc
- Tn gi tht nt trong ting Vit c ngun gc t ting Khmer th'not.
- Tn khoa hc Borassus, thuc h Cau (Arecaceae hay Palmae) gm 9
loi:
Borassus aethiopium, Mart.- tht nt chu Phi (vng nhit i chu
Phi), mt s tc gi cho l t ng ngha ca B. flabellifer.
Borassus deleb, Becc. - tht nt Sudan
Borassus dichotomus, White - ng n, ng Nam
Borassus flabellifer, L. - tht nt chu (min nam chu ) cn gi
n gin l tht nt (n , Sri Lanka, Thi Lan, Campuchia, Vit
Nam, Malaysia, New Guinea)
Borassus heineana, Becc. - tht nt New Guinea (New Guinea)
Borassus machadonis, Ridl. - tht nt M Lai
Borassus madagascariensis, Bojer. v Becc. - tht nt Madagascar
(Madagascar)
Borassus sambiranensis, Jum. & H.Perrier - tht nt Sambirano (bc
Madagascar)
Borassus secundiflorus, Hort. c H.Wendl. - khng r ni sinh sng
Borassus sundaica, Becc. - tht nt Sudan .
Trong loi ph bin Vit Nam v Chu l Borassus flabellifer.
2. c im Thc Vt.
- Cy n tnh, mc n, i hoc nhiu hn, thn cy thng ng, ha
g cng, cao 10-30m, ng knh t 60cm, trn thn c nhiu vng
do vt cung l li, gc hi phnh to.
- Cy trng bng ht, c tui th rt lu (vi chc n hn trm nm).

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- L mc cch, xp xon c, tp trung ngn, thng 20 30 l xe


rng, cung di, c gai, hnh chn vt, ng knh 1 1.5m x thnh
nhiu thy thun di, rng khong 3cm , c gai nh. Cung l non c
gc cung phnh rng thnh b m ly thn, g cung l gi hnh tam
gic rng, ha g cng, di 60 120 cm, mp c gai th.
- Cy n tnh, khc gc, cm hoa mc trong tn l, cung ngn hn
chiu di ca l. Hoa c v hoa ci c hnh dng khc nhau:
+ Cm hoa c ln , di n 2m, khong 8 nhnh hoa, mi nhnh
mang 3 chm hoa di 30 45cm, mi chm khong 30 hoa c 3 l
i, 3 cnh ri xp lp, 6 nh ngn, 2 bao phn.
+ Cm hoa ci khng phn nhnh, c cc l bc bao ph, gc to v
cng hn hoa c. Hoa ci c i v trng ri, bu hnh cu, 3 nhy
cong, to hn hoa c.
- Qu hnh cu vi 3 hch, ht thun chia lm 3 chy nh, ng
knh 15 20 cm, nng 1,5 3kg, v mu xanh khi cn non, khi gi
mu tm sm hay en, ni nh mu trng t 3 6 mi, ging ci da,
thm v ngt du.
Hoa tht nt (li mo)

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Tri tht nt

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Qu hch vi 3 mi.

L tht nt

3. Phn B.
- Vit Nam cy tht nt phn b cc tnh ng v ty nam b gip
Campuchia t Ty Ninh ti King Giang. Nhng tnh trng nhiu tht
nt l An Giang, Kin Giang, ng Thp, Ty Ninh v Long An.
- Trn th gii: l loi cy nhit i, c ngun gc chu Phi nh
Ethiopia, Niger, Nigeria, min bc Togo, Senegal, min nam chu
v New Guinea. c trng nhiu nht n , Myanmar v
Campuchia.
4. c im Sinh Trng
- Tht nt sng ch yu nhng ni c kh hu nhit i, gi ma, ma
kh ko di. Cy a sang v chu c kh hn.
- Thch hp vi nhiu loi t khc nhau nhng c bit l t ct pha,
a hnh bng phng hay dc nh.
- Khong nhit chu c kh rng (khong 0 450C), tt nht
khong 230C.
- Tht nt ra hoa hng nm, th phn nh cn trng hay gi. Ht rt d
ny mm khi tip xc vi t m.
- Tui ra hoa ca tht nt ph thuc vo cao phn b. cao
ngang mt bin cy ra hoa sm hn ni cao hn. Cy khong 20
nm tui tr i s cho thu hoch, tui th cy cao hn trm nm.
5. Thnh Phn Dinh Dng.
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- Nha cy tht nt cha acid succinic; qu tht nt c polysaccharid.


+ Acid Succinic l 1 acid hu c c s dng trong ngnh
cng nghip thc phm v nc gii kht, ch yu l mt cht iu
chnh axit, l thnh phn chnh ca thuc gii ru RU-21.N gip
c th o thi v chuyn ha ru thnh cacbonic v nc, trnh
qu trnh chuyn ha thnh andehit gy say ru.
- Tht qu cha cc cht ng flabeliferin I v II. V ng c th loi b
do tc dng ca naringinase.
+ Naringinase l 1 enzynme c s dng trong sn xut nc
p bi ph v naringin to v ng trong bi.
- Dch cung cm hoa cha 17-20% cht kh, trong 1 lt dch vi pH
6.7-6.9(7.5), thng cha protein v amino acid (360mg N), 13-18%
sucrose, 110mg P, 1900mg K, 60mg Ca, 30mg Mg, 3.9IU Vitamin B
v 132mg Vitamin C.
-

Trong 1lt dch cng cha 4,5g cht tro.

- Mt qu ti c th nng n 2.790g. Trong cc thu bao hoa nng


175g (6.3%), v qu ngoi 120g (4.3%), khi si v qu gia 66g
(2.4%), phn ci n c 1.425g (51.0%) v 3 ht 1.004g (36%). Ht
gm v 394g, ni nh 609g v phi nng 1g.
Cy tht nt c rt nhiu ng dng khc nhau ty vo b phn cy.
Mt hoa lm ng, ln men lm ru
L dng giy vit, an thng, nn
Thn lm nh, vt dng, th cng m ngh
Dch v ci qu c th n c v ch bin thnh nhiu mn ngon,
thc ung
Ngoi ra cn c tc dng cha nhiu loi bnh nh:
- ng tht nt: ngoi gi tr thc phm, ng tht nt cn l mt
v thuc gii c trong trng hp ng c sn, m tin.
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- Cung cm hoa: c dng lm thuc cha st v li tiu. Ct


cung cm hoa (vi hoa) thnh tng ming mng, ly 100g, un si
vi 600ml nc trong 15 pht, chia lm nhiu ln ung trong ngy.
- Nc chy ra t vi hoa: Sng sm, ct vi hoa ly nc chy ra
ung lm thuc nhun trng.
- R tht nt: Sc ung lm thuc li tiu. Liu dng mi ngy 50
60g.
- Tht nt non: Sc ung lm thuc li tiu nh r Tht nt, ng
thi cn l v thuc cha vng da, l.
Bn gh lm t g tht nt

Tranh ghp t l tht nt

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III.

NG DNG TRONG THC PHM.


1. ng Tht Nt.

ng dng thc phm quan trng nht ca tht nt l ng c lm


t mt hoa tht nt.
Bng hm lng dinh dng trong ng tht nt

Cy Tht Nt

Protein

1.04%

Cht bo

0.19%

Sucrose

76.86%

Glucose

1.66%

Cht khong tng s

3.15%

Canxi

0.861%

Phtpho

0.052%

Fe

11.01mg/100g

Cu

0.767mg/100g

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Qui trnh lm ng tht nt:

Ly nc

Nu ng

Kt tinh

Thnh phm
- Ly nc: ly nc tht nt ngi ta cht mt thn tre gi tht di
v thng, mi nhnh cha khong 1 gang tay ri ct c nh vo thn
cy tht nt lm thang leo, cy cao th ni nhiu on thang tre cho
ti ngn. Khi li mo di ra l lc ct mch ly nc. ly
c nhiu nc, trc khi ct mch ngi ta dng kp l 2 ming tre
ct dnh mt u kp t trong li mo kp ra, tc b lp v
ngoi. Ct khong 7 ngy th ct mch cch cht bng chng 2cm,
nc mt r xung v c hng vo ng tre hoc chai nha c treo
ngay bn di. Hng ngy ngi ta ly nc 2 ln vo bui sang v
chiu ti. Nc tht nt phhair c nu thnh ng tronmg vng
24h v lu hn s b ln men do vi sinh vt c sn trong nc.
hn ch s ln men ngi ta cho vi ming v cy sn vo thng cha
nc tht nt ( sn: mt loi cy nh cy sao c nhiu vng
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bin gii Ty Nam nc ta), tuy nhin b nhiu s b ng. Ly nc


l giai on nguy him nht do vic tro ln cy tht nt cao bng
nhng thn tre, tre c th b mc v gy nguy him tnh mng cho
ngi ly nc.
- Nu ng: mi h gia nh u c th nu ng th cng bng
cch p l t c ng khi thot ln tri, nhin liu t l tru hoc
ci kh. u tin ngi ta lc tap cht ca nc tht nt sau khi thu
v, cho dch lc v cho ln hoc thau ln v bt u nu. Sau khi
nu c c ngi ta lm ngui nhanh bng cch dng v (hoc que)
ln khuy (nh ng) tng ta nhit. Qu trnh nu ng kt
thc c nhn bit bng cch mc ng xung nu thy nc
ko thnh dy dnh lin l c, nu nu qu lu ng s b chy
kht.
- Kt tinh: thao tc nh ng gip tang tc kt tinh thnh ht
ng, ng ngui ngi ta ng vo khun nh nh hnh cho
ng, vi gi ng s cng li thnh khi, tho khi ng ra v
dng l tht nt gi li ta thu c ng thnh phm.
Li ch ca ng tht nt:
- ng tht nt c mu trng xanh l loi ngon nht, c lu,
ng mu vng nu l ng c, mau chy, khng c lu.
- V ng tht nt ngt thanh v bo, rt thm ngon
- Li ch sc khe :
o thi cht c
ng tht nt c tc dng nh mt cht ty ra c kh nng l
sch h h hp , phi, d dy v ng rut. N c kh nng
loi b cc cht c hi, gip c th tng cng h min dch.
Tiu ha tt

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Theo nghin cu, ng tht nt l mt loi thuc tuyt vi


gip tiu ha d dng do n c th chuyn cc enzym tiu ha
thnh axit acetic, ngn nga tnh trng y hi v to bn.
Cung cp cc dng cht: ng tht nt l mt ngun dinh
dng phong ph cho s pht trin ca c th bao gm cc
cht nh st, magie, phot pho, kali, vitamin
Ngoi cc cng dng c bn trn, ng tht nt cn c rt
nhiu li ch khc nh: iu tr nh ho khan, cm lnh thng
thng v bnh hen suyn,gip th gin c bp, dy thn kinh
v mch mu, gim au u, mt mi v cng thng, chng oxy
ha v bo v cc t bo ca c th, lm sch mu, iu ha
chc nng ca gan v kim sot huyt p.
2. Bnh L Tht Nt

Bnh tht nt c lm t nc tht nt, tri tht nt gi hi xung,


ly ci ch ra ly bt ha vi go Nng Nhen - loi go c chng ch
canh tc c vng By Ni.
lm bnh, ngi ta ly go xay thnh bt, mt m cho ln men,
hoc go xay xong, em phi kh v ct trong vng mt nm, mi
cho th bnh khng mm nho v ngon gin.

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Ly bt trn vi cm tht nt (la loi tht nt c cm dy) v nc


tht nt ri gi trong tm l chui theo hnh ch nht, xong em hp.
Chng ting ng h l xong
M gi l ra, bnh tht nt c mu vng sp trng rt bt mt. Ngi
ta cn lm bnh theo cch khc: Tri tht nt gi ch vo r ly bt,
trn vi go, cht da no ri gi trong tm l chui (hoc l da, l
tht nt) em hp.
3. Bnh B ng Tht Nt

Thnh phn: Bt nng, trng, nc, bt ni, nc ct da, ng tht


nt, nc ct l da
Cch lm: Nc ct da + ng nu cho tan, u ngui.
Trng b ra chng 15 pht cho lnh bt , sau cho vo hn hp
nc da ng , quy cho tan sau bt nng, bt ni, vanilla,
vi git l da, vo quy cho u tht u ,bt khng cn dn cc ,
xong lc qua ci ry khong 3, 4 ln, trong lc thoa du vo
khun, xong cho vo l nng vn 400oC cho khun thit nng ,
khong 5 pht, li khun ra, hn hp bt vo , lc cng qua
ci ry , cho khun nng khong 45 pht nhit 350oC, cm ci
tm m vo gia bnh, rt ra, tm khng dnh bt, tc l bnh chn.

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4. Ru Tht Nt
Nc tht nt sau khi thu hoch khng nu thnh ng lu s b
ln men chua v phi em nu ng km cht lng. Ngi ta cn
cho nc tht nt ln men to ra loi ru tht nt hay loi thc ung
c tn ru arac, ch gy say nh, c v thanh v ko gy au u
5. Thch Tht Nt
Nc tht nt ly xung cn trng lng em lc sch, x l bi
ri em nu si trong vng 50 pht mi cho nhng ph liu cn thit
vo nh ta nu rau cu vy. Sau un si tr li mi ra thng,
ngui ri vo khun, y kn cc khun bng loi giy thng
thng hay giy bo, trong thi gian 10 ngy, dung dch c c thnh
thch, em x chua v ngm trong thng nc l 3 ngy, ri a thch
tht nt vo my ct thnh tng vin vung nh, cng on sau cng
l em xp v keo nha cng vi nc ng v hng liu c
trng ca tht nt c chit xut t tinh cht ca tri tht nt chn.
y l yu t quyt nh ca sn phm thch tht nt gy cho ngi
tiu dng thch th.
Thch tht nt l sn phm va l, va quen, cht lng hn hn
thch da, to cm gic ngc nhin v thch th cho ngi tiu dng,
mi v c trng hp dn, dai dai, gin gin, va bo, va ngt lm
mt du, thm m v nh lu.
Ngoi ra cn c ci tht nt sy, n ti, ch tht nt, nc tht nt
gii kht..v nhiu ng dng khc.

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IV.

KT LUN.
Tht nt l mt loi cy cng nghip nhit i c nhiu ng dng, l mt
loi cy em li li ch kinh t cao. Tuy nhin Vit Nam loi cy ny
vn cha c ch pht trin, nhng mt hng em li gi tr kinh t
ca tht nt nh ng tht nt, thch tht nt, ci tht nt sy, ru tht
nt. hu ht ch c sn xut th cng, ch c vi c s sn xut vi
qui m cha ln. Cn nghin cu pht trin cy tht nt em li li
ch phc v li cho nhng ngi nng dn trng tht nt.

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Ti liu tham kho:

http://tailieu.vn/xem-tai-lieu/thot-not.444749.html

http://vanhoalichsuangiang.blogspot.com/2012/03/huong-vi-uong-thot-

not.html
- http://www.fao.org/ag/aga/AGAP/FRG/ECONF95/HTML/TODDY.HTM
- http://caythuocquy.info.vn/Cay-thu%E1%BB%91c-%E2%80%93V%E1%BB%8B-thu%E1%BB%91c/thot-not-216.html
- http://ducdenthui.multiply.com/journal/item/646?&show_interstitial=1&u=
%2Fjournal%2Fitem
- http://www.hangquan.org/threads/9278-Banh-bo-duong-thot-not?p=8052

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