Woven fabric defects Broken end: Yarn broken in a warp direction in woven fabric.

Broken pick: Yarn broken in a weft direction in woven fabric. Burl mark: A slub or knot being removed with a burling tool in a fabric. Coarse end/pick: A yarn having a large diameter than normal to the fabric. Colour fly yarn: Waster fibers of different color are woven into the fabric as contamination. Double end: Two ends wrongly weaved as one. Double pick: Two picks wrongly placed in a single shed. End out: A missing warp yarn. Hole: Any broken yarns to form a hole. Jerk in: An extra weft yarn jerked by the shuttle into the fabric along with a correct pick of weft yarn. Knot: Two or more ends of yarn tied together. Loom Bar: A change in shade across the full width of a fabric. Mispick: Missing a weft yarn. Reed mark: A defect resulting from a bent reed wire, characterized by a fine-lined thin place in the warp directions. Reed streak: A warp-wise streak caused by a damaged reed in weaving. Shade bar: A change in shade with in a short duration across the width of the fabric. Slub: A short abnormal thick place in a yarn. Soiled filling: A weft yarn soled by dirt or grease. Stop mark: Inconsistent of yarn tension while a loom is stopped. Thick place: Where the place of weft yarn greater in diameter than normal to the fabric. Thin place: Where the place of weft yarn is smaller in diameter than normal to the fabric. Tight end: A warp yarn in an abnormal restriction than the adjacent normal yarns.

Knitted fabric defects Barre: A noticeable stripes in the direction of the weft-wise. Some of the causes are uneven yarn and uneven tension. Birdseye: An unintentional tucked stitches which appear occasionally on the knitted fabric. Coarse yarn: A yarn having a large diameter than that normal to the fabric. Dropped stitches: When a stitch failing to form because of malfunctioning needle. Fine yarn: A yarn having a smaller diameter than normal to the fabric. Misdraw (colour): In warp knits, the colored yarns are wrongly drawn through the guide bars which causes the appearance of the fabric different from the designated pattern. Missing yarns: A yarn is missing or broken which the machine continuing to run. Needle line: Wales are distorted caused by a bent needle. Press-off: A condition in which a knitted fabric fails to knot and as a result, either the fabric falls off the needle or the design of the fabric is completely destroyed. Run: A vertical line of unformed stitches caused by damaged needle. Tucking defect: One or more unwanted tuck stitches appear on the knitted fabric which are occurred due to the malfunctioning needle or jack.

WOVEN FABRIC DEFECTS Defect
Bull Mark

Explanation
When a slub or extra piece of yarn is woven into the fabric. This is often removed by a "burling tool". This will usually leave an open place in the fabric.

Severity
Major

Drawbacks

Caused by excessive loom tension gradually applied by some abnormal Major restriction. When the restriction is removed, the excess slack is woven into the fabric. Ends are usually broken.

Dropped Pick Caused by the filling Insertion mechanism on a shuttleless loom not holding the filling yarn, causing the filling to be woven without tension. End Out FLY Caused by yarn breaking and loom continuing to run. The defect will appear as a thin line. Usually caused by the spinning process, small fibers spun into the yarn of another stock. Often caused by lack of precaution to prevent contamination. Harness Breakdown Jerk-in Caused by the harness straps breaking on a conventional loom. There will be definite pattern change in the weave. Caused by an extra piece of filling being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvedge.

Major Major Minor, but in severe cases Major Major Major or Minor depending how close the patterns are cut to the selvedge Minor, but in severe cases Major Major Major Major

Knots Mixed Ends (Yarn) Mixed Filling Open Reed

Caused by tying spools of yarn together Yarn of a different fiber blend used on the warp frame, resulting in a streak in the fabric. Caused by bobbin of lightweight yarn or different fiber blend used in filling. Will appear as a distinct shade change. Results from a bent reed wire causing warp ends to be held apart, exposing the filling yarn. Will be conspicuous on fabrics that use different colored yarns on warp and shuttle

Slub

Usually caused by an extra piece of the yarn that is woven into the fabric. It can also be caused by fly waste being spun in yarn in the spinning process Caused by a number of ruptured warp or filling yarns or on package dyed yarn. Dirty, oily looking spots on the warp or filling yarns or on package dyed yarn.

Major or Minor

Smash Soiled Filling/End Stop Mark Thin Place

Major Major

When the loom is stopped, the yarn elongates under tension, when loom Major or Minor starts again, the slack is woven into the fabric Often caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to run until the operator notices the problem Major

KNITTED FABRIC DEFECTS Defect
Barre Birdseye

Explanation
Occurs in circular knit. Caused by mixing yarn on feed into machine. Fabric will appear to have horizontal streaks

Severity
Major

Caused by unintentional tucking from malfunctioning needle. Usually two Major or Minor depending on small distorted stitches, side by side severity Major Major

Broken Color Usually caused by color yarn out of place on frame. Pattern Drop Stitches Results from malfunctioning needle or jack. Will appear as holes, or missing stitches. End out Hole

Occurs in warp knit. Results from knitting machine continuing to run with Major missing end. Caused by broken needle. machine continuing to run. Major

Missing Yarn Occurs in circular knit. Caused by one end of yarn missing from feed and Major Mixed Yarn Occurs in Warp knit. Results from wrong fiber yarn ( or wrong size yarn) Major or Minor placed on warp. Fabric could appear as thick end or different color if fibers have different affinity for dye. Needle Line Press-off Caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches. Usually vertical line. Results when all or some of the needles on circular knitting fail to function and the fabric either falls off the machine or design is completely disrupted or destroyed. Runner Usually caused by broken needle. Will appear as vertical line. (most machines have a stopping device to stop machine when a needle breaks) Slub Straying End Usually caused by a thick or heavy place in yarn, or by lint getting onto yarn feeds Warp knit. Caused when an end of yarn breaks and the loose end strays Major and is knit irregularly into another area Major or Minor Major Major Major

INTRODUCTION Interlock fabric is double knit fabric produced by formation and interlinking of loops by the action of two knitting needles namely cylinder needle and dial needle. Interlock fabric is manufactured on interlock knitting machines of various diameter and gauges depending upon the requirement of final products to be made from the fabric. Interlock fabric and plain knitted fabric can be distinguished by way it looks on the reverse side and GSM of knitted fabric. MANUFACTURING Generally, this fabric is manufactured by using combed cotton yar n and texturised filament yarn. In case of cotton fabric, 30-50s is combed yarn is used and in case of synthetic fabric 801 6 0 d e n i e r f i l ame n t y a r n i s u s e d . Interlock fabric is mainly manufactured on 18-30 gauge machine. USES Interlock knitted fabric is used for making undergarments, sports wear, children wear, babies outerwears etc.