COMMERCIAL MEDIA VIEWING HABITS: DIGITAL NATIVES VS.

DIGITAL IMMIGRANTS

Brian J. King

A Thesis

Submitted to the Graduate College of Bowling Green State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTERS OF EDUCATION August 2009 Committee: Dr. Terry Herman, Advisor Dr. Paul Cesarini Dr. Gary Benjamin

ii

© 2008 - 2009 Brian J. King All Rights Reserved

iii ABSTRACT

Terry Herman, PhD, Advisor

Text of abstract

iv ENTER DEDICATION TEXT

v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Enter Acknowledgements text here.

vi TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................1
Background and Context of the Problem......................................................................................... ........1 Statement of the Problem................................................................................................ ........................3 Objectives of Study.............................................................................................................. ...................4 Hypothesis......................................................................................................................................... ......4 Significance of Study...................................................................................................... ........................5 Assumptions................................................................................................................................. ...........5 Limitations........................................................................................................................ ......................5 Definition of Terms.......................................................................................................... .......................6

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW.........................................................................................9
Introduction................................................................................................................................ .............9 Technological Advancements and Impact to Commercials .................................................................. ...9 Digital Immigrants vs. Digital Natives and Television Commercial Viewing Habits............................12 Literature Review Conclusions............................................................................................................. .15

CHAPTER III: METHOD.............................................................................................................17
Restatement of Problem............................................................................................. ...........................17 Research Design........................................................................................................................ ............17 Characteristics of Study Population................................................................................................... ....18 Data Collection Instrument .............................................................................................................. .....18 Protection of Human Subjects............................................................................................ ...................18 Timeline....................................................................................................................... .........................19 References................................................................................................................................ .............20

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Bulik, B. (2009, April 13). What'll be the breakout star that links TV to Net? Retrieved April 22, 2009, from Advertising Age Web site: http://adage.com/article?article_id=135949 ............................. ..........20

1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Background and Context of the Problem Rapid technological development and the immersion of technology into the lives of today’s consumers have created a digital divide between generations. Frand states “most students entering our colleges and universities today are younger than the microcomputer, are more comfortable working on a keyboard than writing in a spiral notebook, and are happier reading from a computer screen than from paper in hand” (Frand, 2000, p. 15). According to Prensky, this gap is created by the rapid distribution and ubiquity of digital technologies in the last decades of the 20th century (2001a). It is important to note that these technologies such as cable television, the Internet, laptop computers, and mobile devices were not always readily available for previous generations. Due to these technological advancements being ever-present in our lives, one may assume differences exist between those whom have grown up immersed in the technologies and those whom have not been born into this technological immersion. In “Digital Immigrants, Digital Natives,” Prensky (2001a) notes people that are currently in kindergarten through traditional college age have been immersed their entire lives using computers, playing video games, using digital music players, video cameras, cell phones, and the Internet. Today’s average college graduates have spent less than 5,000 hours of their lives reading, over 10,000 hours playing video games, and an incredible 20,000 hours viewing television within the first 20 years of their lives (Prensky, 2001a). These readily available technological advancements from a young age create different experiences, which lead to different brain structures than previous generations that did not have these technological advancements (Prensky, 2001a). Due to fundamental differences between generations as Prensky (2001a, 2001b) states

2 that those that are above 30 years old and not born into technological diffusion, a different classification for this group is necessary; after all Prensky mentions that non-digital natives do inherently process information differently then their parents and grandparents. In searching for a proper classification Prensky notes that some people refer to this generation as the net-gen or digital generation although Prensky classifies this generation as Digital Natives. “Our students are all ‘native speakers’ of the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet” (Prensky, 2001a, p. 1). Prensky classifies the remainder of the population as Digital Immigrants; those who were not born into the technology immersion but at some point may adopt some technologies into their lives. While Prensky discusses the topic of Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives as students, for the context of this study the researcher will refer to these groups as consumers; classified based on their age (under 30 and 30 years of age and over). These two different groups of consumers have various television commercial media viewing and use habits. The Digital Natives for instance have logged an incredible 20,000 hours of watching television within the first 20 years of their lives. How they are viewing television (either through the Internet or traditional television) as well as their viewing habits may be different then the Digital Immigrants. Advertisers producing commercials may find it advisable to address these groups and their unique media viewing habits. According to a 2008 United States based Mintel study, age influences respondents’ attitudes towards Internet advertising; respondents aged 18-24 are more likely than over-65s to ‘strongly agree’ with the statement ‘I use a pop-up blocker’ (Attitudes Towards Advertising and Media – US – April 2008). This finding from Mintel is important to advertisers trying to reach the Digital Natives whom appear to be more likely to circumvent viewing of a commercial through the use of a pop-up blocker if they are viewing their television on the Internet through a streaming service such as Hulu.com or

3 a desktop application such as Miro or Boxee. The same Mintel study found that “age plays a role in how respondents consume media; mainly over-65s [sic] are more likely than 18-24s to watch 10 or more hours of network or cable television” (Attitudes towards Advertising and Media, US, April 2008). Indicated by this data, Mintel found in a study conducted by Reuters in March 2008 “that nearly half of Americans are turning to the Internet to get their news, and that those aged 18-29 ‘get most of their information online’ compared to 35% of over 65s” (Attitudes towards Advertising and Media, US, April 2008). The Internet is not the only force altering the media habits of Digital Immigrants or Digital Natives. Their viewing habits of commercials or perhaps avoidance habits of commercials through other technological advancements such as the DVR, changing the channel, or muting the television or computer also represent issues that advertisers should consider in adjusting their strategies to reach these markets. “When it comes to skipping commercials, age has little influence on a respondent’s response; approximately 66% in each age group use a DVR for this purpose” (Attitudes towards Advertising and Media, US, April 2008, Usage of DVR). Statement of the Problem The problem of this study is to analyze the difference in media and viewing habits of Digital Natives versus Digital Immigrants. The study will include an analysis of viewing habits for Digital Natives (under 30 years of age) and Digital Immigrants (those 30 years of age and older) and how they respond to commercial television. Many options exist to consumers when viewing television and commercials; this study aims to assess the options that consumers have in media viewing mediums (Internet vs. traditional television broadcast) and specifically their viewing habits of commercials.

4 Objectives of Study The objectives of this study are to assess the commercial viewing habits of Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives, to identify trends between the two groups in relation to their commercial viewing habits and the tools and technologies they use or do not use to view televised media (specifically commercials—both traditional and online), and to what length the two consumer groups will go to in order to not be subverted to viewing television commercials as they are traditionally distributed. Circumvention methods used presently include TiVo, iTunes Store, DVR technologies, web-based viewing sites such as Hulu.com, desktop applications such as Boxee and Miro, and downloading through BitTorrent or other peer-to-peer distribution technology. For the purpose of this study the researcher has chosen not to evaluate those means of distribution that exclude commercials from the program, thus BitTorrent, iTunes Store purchases, and DVDs will not be analyzed, although it is important to note that these are current options for the consumer to choose as opposed to traditional television or Internet-based streaming television commercials. Hypothesis The researcher hypothesizes that Digital Natives will show a trend of viewing television commercials online through Hulu, Boxee, Miro, and others. According to Prensky (2001a, 2001b), Digital Natives are accustomed to using the Internet for their media viewing habits as they will tend to be online. The Digital Immigrants on the other hand will be more likely to view traditional television with different commercial viewing habits than their Digital Native counterparts. This is because “. . . like all immigrants, some better than others—to adapt to their environment, they always retain, to some degree, their ‘accent’ that is, their foot in the past” (Prensky, 2001a, p. 2).

5 Significance of Study Current research shows DVR usage rates and endeavors to assess why the DVR is used, although there are no studies that assess Digital Immigrants versus Digital Natives and to what extent these groups will engage in activity to avoid a traditional television commercial viewing. The only research in this topic shows consumer response mainly to what kinds of systems are already implemented and how they co-exist with market forces such as DVR technologies versus commercial viewing. The current state of research in this field reveals a high degree of conflicting research. Evaluating the commercial viewing habits of Digital Immigrants versus Digital Natives and their commercial viewing habits could have major implications and benefits for the market, academic research, and for the consumer. Assumptions The following assumptions are inherent to this study: 1. All data collected from Mintel includes only respondents aged 18 and older which includes both Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants age ranges. The survey instrument will collect data from Bowling Green State University undergraduate and graduate students as well as faculty and sort them into the Digital Immigrant or Digital Native grouping. Limitations For the purpose of this study the researcher will limit the population that is sampled to Bowling Green State University undergraduate and graduate students and faculty. Due to the rapidly developing literature focused on this topic, the literature review will be limited to research and articles conducted prior to May 2009. For the purpose of this study the researcher has chosen not to evaluate means of distribution that exclude commercials from the program,

6 thus BitTorrent and other peer-to-peer technologies, iTunes Store purchases, and DVDs will not be analyzed. However, it is important to note that these are current options for the consumer to choose as opposed to traditional television or Internet-based streaming television commercials. Definition of Terms The following terms and acronyms are operationally defined below for this study: 1. Digital Immigrants – Those above the age of 30, not born into widespread technological immersion (Prensky, 2001a). 2. Digital Natives – Those under the age of 30 born into technology (Prensky, 2001a). 3. To watch or view a commercial is operationally defined in this study to be engaged in the advertisement through either hearing or vision. a. This excludes any sort of circumvention mechanisms or strategies (DVR fast forward, change the channel, close the browser window, mute the television). 4. Traditional Commercial – For simplicity this term is operationally defined as an advertisement shown in between a segment of traditional television viewed on a television. a. This does not include brief promotions shown at the beginning of a television program promoting what is to be shown after the current program or a promotion for an upcoming televised event or program. 5. Online commercial – This term is operationally defined as an advertisement shown in between a segment of television viewed online through a web browser or desktop application. These advertisements are similar to traditional

7 commercials although they are generally much shorter and less frequent. a. This does not include any browser-based banner advertisements, simply the advertisements that are displayed between the viewing of a television program viewed on the Internet through a web browser or desktop based application. b. This excludes any sort of circumvention mechanisms or strategies (DVR fast forward, change the channel, close the browser window, muting the television). 6. Advertisement – Operationally defined as a commercial (either online or traditional television-based unless otherwise noted). 7. DVR – “A digital video recorder (DVR) or personal video recorder (PVR) is a device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive or other memory medium within a device” (Digital video recorder, 2009). 8. VCR – “The videocassette recorder (or VCR, more commonly known in the UK and Ireland as the video recorder), is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable videotape cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. Most VCRs have their own tuner (for direct TV reception) and a programmable timer (for unattended recording of a certain channel at a particular time)” (Videocassette recorder, 2009). 9. CD/DVD Burner – “In computing, an optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading and writing data. Some drives can only read from

8 discs, but commonly drives are both readers and recorders. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. Compact discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives” (Optical disc drive, 2009, para. 1). 10. TiVo – “TiVo [sic] is the pioneer of the digital video recorder (DVR). TiVo was introduced in the United States, and is now available in Canada, Mexico, Australia, and Taiwan. [sic] TiVo DVRs provide an electronic television programming schedule, and provide features such as Season Pass recordings (which ensure subscribers never miss an episode of their favorite shows) and WishList searches (which allow the user to find and record shows that match their interests by title, actor, director, category or keyword). TiVo also provides a range of features when the TiVo DVR is connected to a home network, including movie and TV show downloads, advanced search, personal photo viewing, music offerings, and online scheduling” (TiVo, 2009, para. 1).

9 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The purpose of this literature review is multi-faceted; each particular section has a particular purpose dedicated to the literature currently available. First, it examines the current technological advancements in television (specifically commercials) distribution, viewing, and now circumventing. Second, it provides an evaluation of the differences in viewing habits for television and commercials specifically between Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants. Third, the literature review provides analysis and insight to marketers to more effectively target and engage consumers through television commercial distribution. Technological Advancements and Impact to Commercials Technological advancements such as the invention of the VCR, CD and DVD burners, the Internet, and DVRs all have had dramatic impacts to the market. These technological advancements have altered media viewing habits and have troubled advertisers trying to reach and engage their target market. According to a 2004 Mintel USA based study, “Concerns over skipping advertisements were raised with the emergence of the VCR, and the industry may see changes in advertising with the proliferation of DVRs that are more consequential than the impact of the VCR. DVRs are more user-friendly than VCRs and have enormous capacity” (Digital Video Recorders, US, September 2004, Advertising & Promotion). In addition to DVRs, other forces such as the Internet have altered the media habits of consumers. Websites such as Hulu.com and desktop applications such as Boxee and Miro have full length television episodes available free of charge on demand with short advertisement clips shown during the broadcast. According to Bulik of Advertising Age, “Now, thanks to a confluence of factors—ubiquitous broadband, changing viewer habits, and cheaper tech parts—

10 Internet TV is on the verge of a breakout” (Bulik, 2009). According to a 2007 USA Mintel study, “86% of the sample stated that watching TV shows on demand was a key reason why they wanted to purchase a DVR” (Online and Downloadable Video, US, October 2007). This statistic regarding why the consumer owns or plans to purchase a DVR still forecasts that consumers’ media habits are altering and converging towards online viewing of television programs on demand utilizing a DVR service or streaming service such as Hulu. Additionally the Mintel study shown below (Table 1) is significant because it conflicts with the Mintel report Attitudes Towards Advertising and Media – US – April 2008 findings regarding DVRs and why they are used. “A study released by Mediamark Research reports DVR users are more affluent and consume more media” (Pavlik, 2008, p. 42). Base: 1460 Internet users (18+) who own or plan to purchase DVR Total % Watch TV shows when I want Skip commercials Watch TV shows repeatedly 86 43 24

Other 5 Table 1. Online and Downloadable Video - US - 2007 – Mintel. Pavlik (2008) states that DVR users are more affluent and consume more media; while affluence is not an aspect of the study, the media consumption and viewing habits are. Mintel reports in a 2006 study based on 2,000 adults aged 18+ the following data: All % 18-24 % 25-34 % 35-44 % 45-54 % 55-64 % 65+ % 31

Yes 37 34 37 37 40 38 Table 2. Media Centers and Set-top Boxes - US - September 2006 – Mintel.

“Age plays a role in the ownership of a DVR in that over-65s are significantly less likely than

11 their younger counterparts to own such a device. This is not entirely surprising, as older respondents may be somewhat uncomfortable, perhaps even intimidated, with new technologies and be content with using technologies with which they are familiar, such as a VCR” (Media Centers and Set-Top Boxes, US, September 2006). This conclusion from Mintel agrees with Prensky who states “The ‘digital immigrant accent’ can be seen in such things as turning to the Internet for information second rather than first, or in reading the manual for a program rather than assuming the program itself will teach us how to use it” (Prensky, 2001a, p. 2). The technological advancement of the DVR allows for time-shifted television viewing which allows consumers to watch not only what they want, but also when they want. Mintel found in their Online and Downloadable Video 2007 USA study that for 86% of their respondents that own or plan on purchasing a DVR, this is the most reported reason for having or planning to purchase a DVR (Online and Downloadable Video – US – 2007). Along with this time shifted viewing also comes easier circumvention of commercial viewing through fastforwarding through the recorded television, thus allowing the consumer to circumvent the commercials if they opt to do so. With the Mintel report findings from online and downloadable video, it is not surprising to find this time-shift in viewing habits (Online and Downloadable Video – US – October 2007). In a 2006 Mintel report entitled “Media Centers and Set-Top Boxes,” a survey of 731 adults aged 18+ who live in a household that owns a DVR showed the following statistics in time-shifted viewing habits: Base: 731 adults aged 18+ whose household owns a DVR or PVR All % 0-6 hours 7-13 48 24 18-24 % 50 23 25-34 % 35 34 35-44 % 49 26 45-54 % 51 21 55-64 % 55 19 65+ % 53 20

12 hours 14-20 hours 13 13 7 18 9 11 7 11 10 14 4 8 8

21+ hours 8

Not sure 7 7 4 8 6 8 11 Table 3. Media Centers and Set-Top Boxes - US - September 2006 - Mintel. “Across all age groups the propensity is to watch up to 6 hours of recorded/time-shifted TV per week with every age group, except those aged 25-34, including approximately 50% of their respondents falling into this category of usage per week. Those respondents aged 25-34 are more likely to watch 7 or more hours of recorded/time-shifted TV per week than any other age group” (Media Centers and Set-Top Boxes – US – September 2006 – The Consumer). These findings regarding time shifted media viewing do not state that the consumer altered their viewing habits to specifically circumvent commercial viewing; although it is important to note that Mintel found that 43% of consumers that own or plan to own a DVR wish to use it to circumvent commercial viewing (Online and Downloadable Video – US – October 2007). According to Bulik of Advertising Age, discussing what will breakout the TV to the Internet, “This time, though, consumer demand could reach the tipping point. Some 2.5 million households would be willing to pay $100 more for a web-connected TV, according to a recent Parks Associates’ study” (Bulik, 2009). This finding from Bulik illustrates the trend of television moving online and consumers’ media viewing habits are thus altered due to the technological advancements and the opportunities they create. Digital Immigrants vs. Digital Natives and Television Commercial Viewing Habits As Prensky (2001a, 2001b), Frand (2000), and others have found, there are major differences between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives in terms of how they obtain, process, and utilize information. Advertisers should also shift their strategies to target these two groups and how they market their particular product or service to them. According to a 2008 United

13 States study conducted by Mintel, “gender and age play a role in what types of media respondents consume and in what quantities” (Attitudes towards Advertising and Media, US, April 2008, Usage of Media). While gender and age play a role in the type of media and the quantity of media consumed, the desire to circumvent a commercial is unaffected according to Mintel. “When it comes to skipping commercials, age has little influence on a respondent’s response; approximately 66% in each age group use a DVR for this purpose” (Attitudes towards Advertising and Media – US – April 2008 – Usage of DVR). Massive DVR adoption with both Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to circumvent the viewing of commercials should provide an analysis of why these advertisements are being circumvented and how to best reach these DVR users. Graham (2009) in Why TV Lost claims convergence between the television and the Internet created four forces that impacted these changes. The first force that Graham discusses is that the Internet is an open platform. “Anyone can build whatever they want on it, and the market picks the winners. So innovation happens at hacker speeds instead of big company speeds” (Graham, 2009). Graham’s point regarding the rate of innovation is particularly important regarding the Digital Native group (under 30 years of age) as Prensky (2001a) notes Digital Natives move at “twitch speed”.“They are used to the instantaneity of hypertext, downloaded music, phones in their pockets, a library on their laptops, beamed messages, and instant messaging” (Prensky, 2001a, p. 3). Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants both have television and commercial viewing or circumventing habits that will be evaluated in the survey instrument; one important note regarding the Digital Native group is the rate of information they consume and number of tasks they process in parallel. According to an Advertising Age report on Digital Natives. “... navigating electronic programming guides, performing music downloads, and burning CDs is second nature to them. So it’s not surprising

14 that 75% of 1,219 Gen Y participants in a recent survey said they multi-task while watching TV” (Elkin & Kerwin, 2003). The results do not state specifically that Digital Natives circumvent commercials by viewing television programs and commercials online; nor does it state that Digital Immigrants are less likely to view television programs and commercials online. According to a 2006 Mintel USA based study on Media Centers and Set-top Boxes, they found that “Younger respondents are significantly more likely than older respondents to stream video and audio content [sic]. In fact, 14% of respondents aged 18-24 and 11% of respondents aged 2534 take advantage of this functionality, compared to 4% of respondents aged 55-64 and 6% of over-65s” (Media Centers and Set-Top Boxes – US – September 2006 – The Consumer). Base: 2,000 adults aged 18+ (Streaming of video and audio content, by age, July 2006) All % 18-24 % 25-34 % 35-44 % 45-54 % 55-64 % 65+ % 6

Yes 8 14 11 5 10 4 Table 4. Media Centers and Set-Top Boxes - US - September 2006 – Mintel.

As Prensky (2001a, 2001b) and Frand (2000) have stated that the Digital Natives are born into ubiquitous technological immersion, Mintel additionally asserts that these statistics regarding streaming of audio and video content are not surprising. “These responses come as no surprise, in that younger respondents have grown up with computers, VCRs, portable music players, and other such multimedia devices. As a consequence, they are more likely to be comfortable and familiar with the technology, and more eager than older respondents to use it to the fullest in their homes” (Media Centers and Set-Top Boxes, US, September 2006, The Consumer). A 2009 study conducted by the Leichtman research group on online video usage found that “While weekly online TV show viewers spend twice as much time online per day as the average adult,

15 they are also more likely than average to subscribe to a premium service, have digital cable, use on-Demand, have an HDTV, and subscribe to a bundle of services from a single provider” (Leichtman, 2009). This data collected by the Leichtman Research Group shows a growth in online media viewing habits although no strong data to support cutting of traditional television viewing. Additionally, the same Leichtman research group study found that “8% of adults who watch video online strongly agree that they now watch TV less often, while 75% strongly disagree whereas 18% of teens who watch video online strongly agree that they now watch TV less often, while 61% strongly disagree” (Leichtman, 2009). Literature Review Conclusions The current state of research on Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives and their media habits (Internet versus traditional television) as well as their viewing habits of commercials is in need of further investigation. Prensky (2001a, 2001b) and Frand (2000) mainly discuss the implications of Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants and the differences that exist between the generations in the scope of education and learning. This scope needs to be broadened and encompass more than just the field of education and learning. Data regarding media habits and viewing habits of these Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants has differing data sets about DVR usage; even Mintel has reports with differing statistics regarding commercial viewing habits and DVR usage. Additionally data from companies such as Hulu.com needs to be available for academic use; although the researcher hopes that the data that will be collected in this study will provide a more informed and streamlined set of findings regarding Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants and their media and viewing habits.

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17 CHAPTER III: METHOD This chapter includes a restatement of the problem, research design, characteristics of the sample population for the research study, how the data will be collected and verified, and lastly, a review and approval of the human studies research board and the protection of the participants in this study. Restatement of Problem The problem of this study is to analyze the difference in media and viewing habits of Digital Natives versus Digital Immigrants. The study will include an analysis of viewing habits for Digital Natives (under 30 years of age) and Digital Immigrants (those 30 years of age and older) and how they respond to commercial television. Many options exist to consumers when viewing television and commercials; this study aims to assess the options that consumers have in media viewing mediums (Internet vs. traditional television broadcast) and specifically their viewing habits of commercials. Research Design The research design of this study will utilize descriptive statistics collected through the use of a researcher created survey instrument. A survey will be distributed online to Digital Natives and to Digital Immigrants of the Bowling Green State University faculty, staff, and students using a quantitative descriptive statistical analysis. The survey will feature a Likert-style scale that will measure how the two groups, Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants, differ in their commercial viewing habits, and what technologies and methods are being used to view, ignore, or otherwise circumvent commercials (media habits). The survey will include questions to determine which group the respondent belong to (Digital Immigrant or Digital Native) and then analyze to what level each technology option, (or simply the walking away, muting,

18 changing channel option) is utilized by the population studied. The survey will also include questions to reveal the importance or unimportance of commercial television viewing and to what extent groups of the study’s population do or do not use methods of circumventing the viewing of commercials. According to Fraenkel and Wallen in How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education, 2nd Edition, “Quantitative data are obtained when the variable being studied is measured along a scale that indicates ‘how much’ of the variable is present” (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1993, p. 127). Characteristics of Study Population The study population is split into two groups, Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants. According to Prensky (2001a, 2001b), Digital Natives are people that were raised surrounded by ubiquitous technologies and digital media. As a result, their brains are wired differently than Digital Immigrants and other previous generations. Digital Immigrants, according to Prensky, are those that are not born natively using ubiquitous and constantly available on-demand technologies (2001a, 2001b). For example, a Digital Immigrant would generally rather print out a document to edit it as opposed to editing it online (Prensky, 2001a, p. 4). Data Collection Instrument The data will be will be collected through the use of a researcher created survey instrument and delivered through Survey Monkey or phpSurvey. After the data is collected it will be analyzed through the use of descriptive quantitative statistical analysis. The survey will be anonymous and will utilize screening questions to determine to which group, Digital Natives or Digital Immigrants, the participant belongs. Protection of Human Subjects The proper certification and procedure based on the rules set forth by the Human Subjects

19 Review Board (HSRB) at Bowling Green State University will be completed and compiled for this study. The certification document can be found as part of the appendices following Chapter V. Timeline Table 5 shown below is the tentative timeline for the research study to be completed. Date 16 April 2009 10 May 2009 Task Thesis Proposal Defense Survey instrument developed, tested, approved for HSRB approval, and disseminated through Bowling Green State University undergraduate & graduate listprocs and to Bowling Green State University faculty listprocs. May 2009 May – June 2009 Data collection from survey instrument and analysis of data collection. Analysis of survey instrument data collected and analyzed is completed; write chapters 4 & 5 of thesis document for defense to take place pre-22 Pre 22 June 2009
Table 5 - Timeline

June 2009. Completed Thesis Defense

20 References Attitudes Towards Advertising and Media - US - April 2008 - Market Research Report. (n.d.). .Mintel. Retrieved March 2, 2009, from http://0academic.mintel.com.maurice.bgsu.edu/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/ display/id=301431. Bulik, B. (2009, April 13). What'll be the breakout star that links TV to Net? Retrieved April 22, 2009, from Advertising Age Web site: http://adage.com/article?article_id=135949 Digital video recorder. (2009, April 1). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 2, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Digital_video_recorder&oldid=281136737 Digital Video Recorders - US - September 2004 - Advertising & Promotion. (n.d.). . Mintel. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from http://0academic.mintel.com.maurice.bgsu.edu/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/ display/id=112809/display/id=112809/display/id=123735. Elkin, T., & Kerwin, A. (2003, April 28). Study: GenY is key to convergence. Advertising Age, 74(17), 61-61. Retrieved March 25, 2009, from Business Source Complete database. Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (1993). How to design and evaluate research in education (2nd Ed.).New York: McGraw-Hill. Frand, J. (2000). The information-age mindset: Changes in students and implications for higher education. EDUCAUSE Review, September-October, 15-24. Graham, P. (March 2009). Why TV Lost. Retrieved March 3, 2009, from Why TV Lost Web site: http://paulgraham.com/convergence.html Leichtman Research Group. (2009, February 23). Video usage continues to grow. Retrieved

21 April 22, 2009 from http://wwwleichtmanresearch.com/press/022309release.html Media Centers and Set-top Boxes - US - September 2006 - Market Research Report. (n.d.). Mintel. Retrieved March 2, 2009, from http://0academic.mintel.com.maurice.bgsu.edu/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/ display/id=165017. Online and Downloadable Video - US - October 2007 - Market Research Report. (n.d.). . Mintel. Retrieved March 2, 2009, from http://0academic.mintel.com.maurice.bgsu.edu/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/ display/id=301421/display/id=252331. Optical disc drive. (2009, April 2). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 2, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Optical_disc_drive&oldid=281186440 Pavlik, J. (2008). Media in the Digital Age. New York: Columbia University Press. Prensky, M. (2001a, September/October). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1-6. Prensky, M. (2001b, November/December). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, Part 2: Do they Really Think Differently? On the Horizon, 9(6), 1-6. TiVo. (2009, March 31). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 2, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=TiVo&oldid=280810867 Videocassette recorder. (2009, March 23). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 2, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Videocassette_recorder&oldid=279083856

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